A BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS
TYPE-NAMES OF THE PEOPLE
Here, it is submitted, is direct positive evidence of a remote prehistoric time as interesting to us as deciphering the cuneiform or hieroglyphic inscriptions or exploring Palestine. Speculative dreaming over a far-off past which never had a present has nothing to do with these facts of language; these names applied to things, places, persons; this total system of mythology. The present writer did not begin as one of those poor pitiable 'Celtomaniacs' who had been poring till purblind over their reliquary remains of a past which they could not prove, still holding fast to their faith in the preciousness of what they clasped in their hands or enclosed in their heart of hearts, and who, when they shyly showed their treasure in the light of the present, were told their diamonds were but charcoal, and the look of faith and wonder in whose yearning, dreamy eyes was met with scorn or the simper of superior knowledge, until they felt the increasing light of today did but serve to make their folly all the more definite. Such a one was Myfyr Morganwy, who lately died as Arch-Druid of Wales. He was certainly in possession of the ancient cult more or less, which has never been altogether extinct in the country. He adored the sun-god Hu as his saviour, and assembled the brethren at the time of the winter solstice to celebrate the coming of his Christ to bruise the serpent of Annwn, that seed time and harvest might not fail. He maintained to the last that Jesus was Hu, and the Christian system a corruption of bardism. Not as one of these did the present writer begin, and not as with them is the matter going to end.
We shall now turn with increased interest to the Roman and Bardic reports concerning the learning of Britain. Those stern Roman eyes hard as granite, out of which the British battle-onset had so often struck the fire-flashes, like the granite broken all a-sparkle, have in [p.445] them an arresting lingering look almost of wonder as the writers turn to speak of the barbarians into whose faces they had peered so often under the battle-shield, and whose souls they had never penetrated; whose past history they had never fathomed up to the time of leaving the island in a last retreat.
'The Gauls,' says Pomponius Mela, 'have a species of eloquence peculiar to themselves, and the Druids are its teachers. These profess to know the size and form of the earth, and the universe, the motions of the heavens and of the stars, and the intentions of the immortal gods. They take the young nobles of their tribe under their tuition, and teach them many things in secret. Their studies last a long time, as much as twenty years, in caves, or the depths of the forests. One of their tenets which has transpired is the immortality of the soul and the existence of a future state; which inspires them with much additional courage in war. As a result of this doctrine, they burn and bury with their dead all those things which were adapted for them when living. In former times they carried their accounts with them to the grave, and their claims for debts; some of them would even burn themselves on the same funeral pyre with their friends, that they might be with them in a future life.'
'Bardism,' say the Barddas, 'originated in the Isle of Britain. No other country ever obtained a proper comprehension of Bardism. Three nations corrupted what they had learned of the Bardism of the isle of Britain, blending it with heterogeneous principles, by which means they lost it: the Irish; the Kymry of Armorica, and the Germans.' Beyond the Barddas are the Druids. 'This institution,' says Caesar, 'is thought to have originated in Britain, and to have been thence introduced into Gaul; and even now those who wish to become more accurately acquainted with it generally repair thither for the sake of learning it.'
It is not necessary to notice the customary explanations of ancient names as Roman or Norse, because, if the present reading of facts be true, they are to a great extent superseded. Our land was mapped out and named and trodden all over ages before the Romans and Norsemen came, and their bloody hoofs did but little to obliterate the deeper footprints of the earlier men of a peaceful invasion.
It is beginning to be felt more and more that the effects of military conquests on the life of the land have been vastly exaggerated. Such conquest does not sink very deep; although it makes a great show on the surface, it melts into the earth like a snowfall and passes away. The re-conquest by the conquered begins at once. This is especially illustrated by the conquests of the Turk. It was so more or less with the Romans in Britain. No such Romanization occurred as that which is advocated by one class of writers, except in the codification of the laws. No tabula rasa was ever made by the Romans, or [p.446] they would have remained; nor by the Norsemen, for they were incorporated and absorbed. Both fertilized the race that fed on them and flourished.
Arnold of Rugby gave utterance to a false cry in English literature on the subject of Celt and Saxon; he was unwearying in his glorification of the Saxon and depreciation of the Celt. This cry was lustily echoed by his followers, and has often been re-echoed by the present writer in the most frequently demanded of all his lectures, one on the Old Sea-Kings. That cry has been a common bond even between the historians Froude and Freeman. Nevertheless we have been falsely infected with a shallow enthusiasm respecting the Saxon element, and were almost entirely ignorant of what might be signified by the words 'Celtic' and 'Cymric.'
The Cymry and the Celtae clung to the soil which their names had covered on the surface, and their roots had ramified below. The race was as ineffaceable as the names. The conquerors brought a fresh infusion of life and a wash of new words and later letter-sounds, but the older elements remained. Men might come and men might go, the race went on for ever. The Loegrians of England coalesced with the Saxons from the Humber to the Thames, and must have mainly supplied them with wives, as mothers of the amalgam.
Of course the present mode of diagnosis does not enable us to get beyond the namers, or to distinguish between the cave-men of the Palaeolithic tribes and the men of the river-drift. These have to be left in the lump as the Cymry, the race of Kâm or Khebma, the ancient genetrix of the north first named in Ethiopia. If there had been a pre-lingual race that crawled out over Europe from the warm African birthplace, language could not tell us. At present, however, there is no reason to suppose there was. The cavemen answer to the Kafruti, whose representatives in Herodotus are the Ethiopian troglodytes.
The kep (kef) in Egyptian is the concealed place or place for concealment, the Kafruti of Africa were cavemen, and language reproduces in the Isles the kep, coff, or cave, whether as the womb of the mother or the earth, which was primally personified in Africa by the Kheb-Ma or Mother Kheb, the hippopotamus. And on the other line the Khebm abrades into the Kam type, as in the cwm, coomb, quim, camster, or Camelot. The men of the Neolithic age as stone-polishers can be identified with the karti (Eg.) or Celtae also the men of the Hut-circles, Weems, Picts-houses and holes in the ground, the karti, are doubly identified, because karti (Eg.) means holes underground as well as other forms of the kar, caer, or circle, including the dual Wales and Corn-Wales.
Their representatives are still extant in the interior of Africa, where Stanley found them living in the subterranean habitations of Southern [p.447] Unyoro, described by him as 'deep pits with small circular mouths, which proved on examination to lead to several passages from the mouth of the pit to more roomy excavations like so many apartments.' The nearest approach to a Hottentot village is still to be found in a group of beehive houses in the shealing of the Garry of Aird Mhor, Uig, Lewis.
The Egyptian kar is a hole underground, the ku. The hole becomes a cell, and the cell a shrine, in the kher, that is, the kha-ru or uterine outlet. With the r suffixed, this makes the word kherp, a first formation which on one line is the crib, on another the grave. The entrance and circle of the Cair at Clava constitute the womb-shape, and clava represents the kherp, that is, the kha-ru or feminine cell, which becomes the grave, or, in another type of the abode, the crib.
The karti, or men of the huts and holes, are known to have been spinners and potters, weavers and corn-men. A spindle-whorl, fragments of pottery, and a weaving-comb have been found among their relics. Dr. Blackmore discovered the cast of a grain of wheat in the clay which had formed a part of the cover of one of their pits. Also, two concave stones for crushing corn and making meal have been found.
The earliest beings who issued forth from the dark land with Egypt for the mest-ru (mitzr), the outlet from the birthplace, were doubtless black and pigmean people. They left their nearest likeness with the Akka and the Bushmen, and these have their fellows, more or less, in the little black or very dark people of various lands. They are extant in the short-statured type of the north. The anthropologists bear witness to the primary pigmean people of the Isles who preceded the Celtae. The name of the Cymry testifies to the black complexion. Also the Irish preserve two appellations which have been traced back from territorial to tribal names; one of these is the Corca Duibne, the other the Corca Oidche. Both were black people at first; the one dates from darkness, the other from night. So, in the African Mandingo, dibi is the dark; tobon, in Manchu Tartar, and tufan, in Arabic, signify the dark night. Not only does duibne denote black, it also identifies the Typhonians, the children of Tef, goddess of the Great Bear, and the celestial black country of Kush, whose star is yet extant by name as Dubhe in that constellation. Also, as the first goddess of the north was followed by Uati, so the Oidche or night people seem to echo her name; uat being a modified form of Khebt, and the Corca Oidche are the people of night.
In Scottish folklore the Picts (Pechs) are the little men, on their [p.448] way to become pixies or wee-folk altogether. This tends to connect them with the small dark people of the Palaeolithic age. Here language may have preserved an ethnical note, for the name supplies a type used for things minified and small as in the pixy and pigmy; Pigwiggin the Dwarf, and the Pykle or Pightle, the small enclosure.
The seven holes underground (karti), or seven caves; seven provinces, or seven nights, or seven stars, may not be of much avail ethnologically or topographically, but they have their measurable value in the astronomical allegory, as will be seen when all is put together again, and then we shall find that the heavens are a mirror to the prehistoric past of men.
The British beginning was pre-solar and pre-lunar. It was the Sabean beginning on the night side, and the dating from the dark, the mythical abyss common to the oldest races in the world. Caesar says: 'All the Gauls assert that they are descended from the god Dis, and affirm that this tradition has been handed down by the Druids. For that reason they compute the divisions of every season, not by the number of days, but of nights; they keep birthdays and the beginnings of months and years in such an order that the day follows the night.' The British in like manner kept the same reckoning, according to the first form of time in the Jewish Genesis. They reckoned by star-time and dated from the darkness. They were the children of Seb, who in the older and dual form is Sebt, and in the oldest Khebt. In the hieroglyphics the star, as Sef (Seb), is the sign of yesterday and the morrow, the star of the evening and the morning that constituted the first time. They were Sabeans by birth.
Hence their claim to be the children of Dis. The Latin Dis is the Egyptian Tes. The meaning of wealth, as that which is derived from the depths of the earth, will not help us. But the Tes is the Hades, the depth, the abyss itself. This is the British dyved (tepht) of the seven regions. In the Druidic mythology there are seven provinces of Dyved called the patrimony of Pwyll over which Seithwedd Saidi was the king. Seithwedd implies septiform, and these seven provinces are synonymous with the seven caves of the Mexicans, Quiches, and other American races, from whence the migration started in the dawn of creation.
Latterly we hear a good deal of the Eusks or Euskarians, a black-haired pre-Celtic race, short of stature, supposed to have left remains in the Basque, the Laps, and among the earliest people Wales and Ireland. The Basque call themselves the Euscaldunac. The Eusk name, whatever its origin, is perpetuated on all the waters of Europe, and this in all its forms is traceable to Egyptian.
Sekh or uskh is an Egyptian name for water. Uskh and sekh interchange, and the uskh-ti or sekh-ti are the mariners of Egypt. The sekht is a barque of the gods, very archaic, as it represents the [p.449] lotus, one of the earliest arks of the waters; the still earlier one being the Irish orc, the uterus. The uskh was a large broad boat of burthen, on which the Egyptians moved their armies by water. Uskh also means to range out far and wide. Thus we have the water and the bark, the mariners and the voyagers, all named in Egyptian; also the uskh people who went out on the uskh, in the uskh, rowed by the uskh, in the uskh range as far as the migration extended.
In Cormac's Glossary the ancient form of the name 'Scot' is Scuit, and signifies the wandering. Sailors are the wanderers of the waters. In Egyptian khet means to navigate. With the s, the causative prefix to verbs, we have the word skhet, the vessel, ark, or boat. The skute is an English name for a wherry, and the scuit, or the wanderer, or sailor, corresponds to the Egyptian sekht, the mariner. The word Scot, therefore, may render the uskht, as the wanderer of the waters, as well as being the name of sekht, who was the ark personified, the primitive bearer of gods and men. Us (Eg.) has the same meaning of a large, extensive range. Ukha is a name of the bark, and means to seek and follow. These are variants of uskh, and will therefore include the Ugrian name, the Eskimo, the Ostiak, Uzbek, Osage, Oscan, and others, according to the ethnological data. If to this name we add the masculine article (Eg.), p, p-uskh yields the uskh, or Basque. Also, just as uskh and sekh interchange in Egyptian, so another name of the Basque people is Sikani. And if the Egyptian feminine article be added to uskh or sekh, we have the tosk, and the tshek, the native name of the Bohemian tongue, whilst the Oscan becomes Tuscan.
The cangia is a native name of an Egyptian vessel. And the Cangiani once inhabited the promontory on the Minevian shore opposite Mona. Menevia or menapia denotes a primal place of anchorage, and here the Cangiani name preserves that of the Egyptian vessel, the cangia, Chinese junk, as the oldest form of the kennu or canoe, also surviving in the segon (s-khen) of Segontium, near Carnarvon, the chief city of the Cangiani.
The Finns call themselves the Quains. In the hieroglyphics the khent sign also reads fent, and the khennu or khenit are the navigators, sailors, pilots; the men who paddle a canoe. Khen means to navigate, transport, convey by water. The khenit are equivalent to our khenti of Kent, who were called the Cymri. The khen as seafarers may also have had an especial territory (tir) in Cantyre, as well as in Kent and Segont.
Phanes is said to have been found as the supreme divinity of the Finns. If so, this suggests the derivation of their name from the same original as that of Pan and Fion, or the Fenians. That [p.450] original, according to the present reading, being An, the Egyptian Anup or Sut-Anubis, god of the Dog-star, our Baal. An, aan, and khan (as in the cynocephalus) are interchangeable; also the ben and the fenek are types of the dog-headed divinity, and fan or fion, Pan or Phanes, are forms of the same name. The Finns also worshipped the Great Bear as a goddess named Otava, tef being the Egyptian Typhon represented by the Great Bear. They have the great hill Kipumaki answering to the mount of the north, the khep of khebt. On its summit was the large flat stone of Kêd, surrounded by other large stones; in the middle one there were nine holes for the burial of diseases. The goddess who collected the diseases and cooked them did so in a vessel corresponding to the pair or cauldron of Kêd. Her name of kivutar seems to be a developed form of kheft.
The goddess of healing is named Suonetar, and the invocations addressed to her are called the runas of Svntv, i.e., of regeneration. San (Eg.) means to charm, heal, restore, and save.
The Finns belong to the so-called Chudic or Shudic races, and the name identifies them with Sut of the Dog-star, the son of the typhonian genetrix and first form of the male god in heaven. In Egyptian the name of Sut, Suti, Sebti, is a deposit from kheft, the name of the north and its goddess. The Shudic races ale also those who went northward, but Shudic is secondary to the Khafetic or Japhetic name, and if the modification had taken place before the migration occurred, then the people so named would be secondary also, following the Khafetic or Cymric race. Still, the modification of Kheft into Clod or Shud may have been wrought out in Europe and the race may belong to the original people of the north.
The early inhabitants called Britain the Island of Beli, that is Baal, who, as Sutekh, the child Sut, is identifiable with the Saturn of Plutarch, who was bound in one of the British Isles. The people of the star-god Beli are one in mythology with the Finns of Phanes, Fenek, An, or Anup. The Chronicles of Eri assert that long before the Celts left Spain, the god 'Baal had sent the blessed stone Liafail' to their ancestors with the instruction as to its proper use. This points to the Celtae coming by land from Egypt to Spain, and thence to Ireland, and at the same time distinguishes between the Celtae of Celtibenia and the earlier Cymry. According to the present view, Baal is Bar, the son of Typhon, or Sut-Anubis, who took shape in these islands as the Sabean Arthur, son of the Great Bear. The stone is the seven-stone of the Druids, the stone of the seven stars. One of the stones, the syth-stone, bears the name of Sut, i.e., the Sabean Baal.
There was a people known to the geographer Ptolemy whom he calls the Epidii. He mentions the island of Epidium, lying between [p.451] Scotland and Ireland, and designates the Mull of Cantyre Epidion Akron. The Epidii may very well represent the Khefti. Also, in Egyptian, Kheft passed into the later Buto (Uati), and the isles of Bute may also represent the modified form of Kheft. They are seven in number, and as Hepta is seven in Greek, and hept in Egyptian, it seems probable that the seven isles of Bute were the Epidium of Ptolemy, and the Epidii an extant relic of the Khefti, named after the goddess of the North and the seven stars of her constellation.
A circular enclosure at Dunagoil, in the island of Bute, is called the Devil's Cauldron, in which rites of penance were performed. One part of the purgatorial pains consisted of sleeplessness; the penitents being threatened by the priests with eternal punishment if any one of them went to sleep. To prevent somnolency, they were provided with sharp instruments for the watchful to keep the unwary awake. Also in the burial-ground of the church the sexes were not allowed to mingle, but were interred apart until after the time of the Reformation. These facts show the Devil's Cauldron belonged to the goddess Kêd, and that her rites survived to a late period. Her cauldron had to be watched for a year and a day under the strict injunction that the boiling was uninterrupted for a moment. The penitents were keeping Keridwen's watch, and the dividing of the cauldron in two halves was also imitated in the separation of the sexes in burial.
Kheft (Eg.) came to signify the devil in Egypt, and here the cauldron of Kêd had become the devil's.
The Epidii are in the next stage of naming to the Japhetic race, descending from Kheft or Kêd. The same name apparently enters into that of the Menapii, a people of Ireland also mentioned by Ptolemy. Dublin is supposed to be on the site of the ancient Menapia. Pliny likewise designates the island of Mona or Man by the name of Menapia, by mistake apparently, as Menapia was the name of the mainland-point of the promontory of Segont. Also Menevia is the old name of St. David's. Apia and Evia are modifications of Khefi or Kêd. The old genetrix as Teb seems to have retained that form of her name in Dublin. In Egyptian men signifies to warp to shore, arrive, and anchor; it also names the harbour. Api (Eg.) means the first, chief, ancestral. So derived, Menapia or Menavia names the place of the first arrival, anchorage, and harbour, on whichever coast it may be found, and the Menapii would be the primordial inhabitants, whether in Wales, Ireland, or elsewhere.
The tradition of the Bards, now to be listened to with more respect, is that the first colonies came forth seeking a place where they could live in peace, and that they fled from a land which they could not possess without warfare and persecution, whereas they desired to do justly and dwell at peace amongst themselves. So they came across [p.452] the 'hazy sea,' from Defrobani. Defrobani agrees with Taprobane, a name of Ceylon. Did they mean they came across the hazy sea from Ceylon?
Here we have to distinguish between the celestial and geographical naming. Tep is a particular point of all commencement in the mythological astronomy, the beginning of movement in a circle, the starting-point. Ru is the outlet, gate, mouth. Tepru means oral commencement. Tepru is also a name of Tabor, a mount of the birthplace. Ben is the supreme height, the roof. Tep-ru-bani was an initial point in the solar circle, without going back for the moment to the earlier circle of Tep, the Great Bear.
The old writers, in their stories of voyages and the strange creatures to be met with in the East, often speak of the mermaid; a being half fish, half woman, that was to be met with off the coast of Taprobane. The Mermaid of the zodiac is the original of this, and is still to be found in the north-east or Taprobane, the sign of the Fishes, the lofty outlet or bekh of the beginning. That is the celestial Taprobane, which may have various geographical applications. It happens that we have another name of Ceylon amongst us. The island is likewise known as Serendib. Serendib is the place where the Hindus locate paradise, the place of beginning. Hence Adam's peak is found in the island. When Adam was cast out of Paradise, say the legends, both Jewish and Arabic, he fell and found footing on the island of Serendib; Eve on Djidda.
Adam is Atum (Eg.), who was the lord of this place and point of commencement in An (the fish) or Serendib. In the Samaritan version of the Pentateuch the name of Serendib (בידנרס) replaces that of Ararat. These can be identified as one according to the mythos. The teb or tep is the point of commencement in the circle for Noah or for Adam, and it is the Tap in Taprobane, the Def in Defrobani, the Teve in Teve-Lanka, another name of Ceylon, and the Dib in Serendib. Tep (Eg.) denotes the upper heaven, the top, and the tepht is the lower. The ser or tser was the rock of the horizon; another name for the Tep Hill. This rock, the Ser-en-Tep, was at the initial point, where the solar ark rested in the birthplace of the beginning. From this exalted height we must descend to note a most trivial application of the word and signification of Ser-en-Tep or Serendib. It is a well-known threat, the meaning of which is entirely unknown, for our peasantry to promise a boy a 'Serendible good drubbing,' and this, which has been perverted at times into a 'seven-devil good drubbing,' is supposed to attain the highest point in thrashing. This is Serendib in England. It is also hieroglyphical. One ideograph of ser is the arm with the sceptre of rule grasped in the hand (Â), typical of the arm of the Lord (Osiris), put forth in the person of Horus, the [p.453] Messiah son, at 'Ser-en-Tep,' each time the sun crossed the equinox of spring. The lifted arm and the topmost point are to be realized in our 'serendible good drubbing.' This descent of the mythical imagery to such common use serves as a kind of gauge for the length of time demanded for its transformation.
The ser or typical rock of Egypt, and of the Hebrew writings, whence came the living stream, was likewise the place where precious metals were found, and the word 'ser' is determined by the tam, that is, gold sceptre; ser signifying things of a golden hue, and this ser, the typical rock of old, still survives with us by name. The tzer becomes the rock, 'sela,' for the first time in the Hebrew writings, and in the lead mining districts of Cumberland the beds of rock which contain the ore are called 'sills.' The sil proves that we had the ser rock of the beginning.
Taprobani or Defrobani may have also been a type-name of Egypt. There was, according to the poet Dionysius, a Taprobane situated in the Erythrean, that is, the Red Sea. Tep was a city consecrated to Buto (still earlier Tep), goddess of the north. Tep-ru-Benn identifies the point of commencement in the land of the pyramid and palm, if it was meant for Hay. They say they came across the 'hazy sea' from the land of Hay. Hay in Welsh and kheb in Egyptian is the name of corn: khebu a crop of corn; and they were led forth from the land of corn by Hu, the god of corn. Kheb is the name of Lower Egypt, and Kep of the inundation. Hence we may infer that Defrobani and Hay, if geographical localities, were names of Egypt. Atum (Adam) of the peak in Taprobane or Serendib was the great god of On or An (Heliopolis) in Lower Egypt, and Irish legends assert that the migration proceeded from Anald, or An, the old.
A people deriving from Taprobane claim to come from the first and loftiest point of commencement. In the celestial allegory this means the circle of Tep or Khep, the Great Bear. If topographical, it is neither Taprobane of Ceylon nor the Red Sea, any more than the heights (ben) of Dover. They would claim to derive from the high lands in the country of Kam and Kush.
The divine names belonging to the myths are easily traced and identified in almost any language or land. But the names which have become ethnological and topographical for us are now more difficult to determine. Emigrants from Africa would not forthwith become Cymry and Celt, Gadhael and Pict. The nearest to an ethnological link between Egypt and the isles appears in the name of the Cymry preserved by the Welsh. Kam is a name of Egypt and of the black or dark people. A relic of the 'darkness' of Kam may be traced in the meaning of 'Gammy' which the tramps apply to their argot as the dark language, or lingo used for keeping dark. The sons of Kam were doubtless very dark when first they came.
Martin, in his itinerary through the Western Islands of Scotland, says the inhabitants of the island of Skye were at that time for the most part black. Doubtless that is over-coloured, but all who have travelled in the isles and in the remotest parts of Wales and Ireland have met with the old dark type, which has been greatly modified by admixture, but is not yet extinct.
On the Egyptian monuments the dark people are commonly called the 'evil race of Kush,' but when the Ethiopian element dominates, the dark people retort by calling the light complexions the pale degraded race of Arvad. And, in the ancient poem called Gwawd Lludd y Mawr the detestation of the dark race for the light breaks out in a similar manner.
'The Kymry, flying in equal pace with ruin, are launching their wooden steeds (ships, the 'Horses of Tree') upon the waters. The North has been poisoned by depredatory rovers of pale disgusting hue and hateful form, of the race of Adam the Ancient, whom the flight of ravens has thrice compelled to change their abode and leave the exalted society of Seithin.' Here it is claimed for the Cymry that they belong to the dark race, the pre- or ante-Adamic race; the children of Sut, the Druidic Saturn. It is the conflict of the dark and light races, such as is said to be found in the cuneiform legends of creation. The meaning can only be measured by the mythos which will show that Adam the ancient is the red man, so to say, versus the sons of Kam; and whereas the lighter complexions, and later Solarites, the world over, prided themselves on being the children of Cymry date from the dark, and prefer it to the hue of the white men who come to proclaim that they belong to the fallen race of Adam. This preference was expressed long after the Roman period of occupation.
Indeed, it would seem that in the England of our day either the growth of beard is visibly changing the face of the people or else the ruddy, fair-haired, light-complexioned Norsemen, who once came to the surface in these islands and floated for some centuries as the crown and flower of our race, are being gradually absorbed by the primeval dark type just as the foam of a troubled sea flashes white awhile and then merges once more in the dark depths; as if the more ancient hue had included theirs for colouring-matter and still asserted its supremacy.
Kam is a typical name for Egypt, and in the hieroglyphics 'ruui' means islands. The Kam-ruut might thus be Egyptians of the isles. But we can do better than this on behalf of the Cymry. And first of the word itself. We are told nowadays by the Latinizers of language that the Cymry are the Cimbri and Cambroges. Why not Comrogues? This can certainly be honestly derived from 'Taffy was a Welshman, Taffy was a thief,' ergo the Cymry were [p.455] the Comrogues or Combrogues, whose language, we may infer, is the Combrogue!
Zeuss gives the oldest recorded form of the word as that in the Codex Legum Venedotianus, where it appears as Cymry, plural—ruui (Eg.) is plural for the isles—Cymru, for the country, and Cymraeg, for the language. Cymry corresponds to the Kimmerians of the isles, the north, and the darkness, or the black skin, the Κιμμέριο, Kimmerii, of which the ground form is said to be Kymr. But there is another possible reading, according to which the Cymry need not have named themselves from Kam or Egypt. Gomer (רמג) is the discoverer of the isles as the first. The Welsh philologists understand the word cym to mean the first. The Scottish kimmer, a young girl, is a first form, and chimp (Dorset) means a young shoot. Kimr, in Celtic, denotes the first in might, as the warrior, and the word appears to enter into the name of the Druidic god known among the Gauls as Camulus. This agrees with kem (Eg.), to discover; kem, an instant, first in time; khem, the shrine of the first Horus; kham, matter, body; kam, the black; all forms of the first. Moreover, the Egyptians came in the course of time to call the barbarians the ignorant, the savages, the aborigines, kam-ruti, and these preceded the cultivated Rut of Kam, or Egypt. Kam or kem (Eg.) means to discover; rui (Eg.) denotes the isles; and the Kem-rui would be the discoverers of the isles. Here we might utilize the typical Gomer. Gomer, in the book of the generations of Noah was the son of Japhet, whom we identify with kheft, the north, and the first of those amongst whom the isles were divided in their lands. So far, so good but we have further to find the meeting-point of the Cymry and the Cabiri. According to Stephanus of Byzantium, the Cimbri or Cimmerii were called Abroi. Ap (ab) is the first, the ancestral, head, and with the rui (Eg.) for the isles, the Ab-rui are the first islanders. Abrui is an abraded Kabrui, and Kabrui (Eg.) means the island-born. The Hebrew word gevi (יוג), rendered gentiles, relates Gomer to the ancient mother Khef and to the north, and the children of Khef were the sailors, the Cabiri, the later Abroi, hence their oneness with the discoverers of the isles, the Cymry. Abarts, the Hyperborean mentioned by Herodotus, was the hero of a story that the writer declined to relate as belonging to the Hypernotians, or one of those tales which are told only to the marines. Abaris was said to have carried an arrow round the earth without eating anything. Abaris personifies the Abaroi or Cabiri, the sailors, and his arrow may have been the mariner's compass. The story was probably told of the Cabiri, who sailed round the world by the aid of the arrow that pointed north. In Egypt only can we find the starting-point of both the Cymry and Cabiri as one people.
The ancient genetrix of the human race in Africa is named Khebma, as before explained, and this word modifies into Kheb and Kam, as names of Northern Egypt. The ari (Eg.) are the children, sons (a plural of ar, the son), companions who take one form as the seven Cabiri, answering to the seven sons of Mitzraim, i.e., Kheb or Kam, originally Khebma, the place or the mother, Kheb. The letter y in Cymry is not a primate; it represents the f, as guilty is the earlier guiltif; so that the original form of the word is Cfm-ry, and cfm corresponds to the Hebrew םוח, which we find at last in khevma or khebma, the hippopotamus and the type of the land of Kam, the typhonian genetrix, whose children are the Camari or the Cabiri. They are the ari, or children of Kam, the black Arians. The earliest records of the past were entrusted by the primitive people to the keeping of the heavens, and it is there they have yet to be deciphered and read in the primal hieroglyphics. The Kamani or Cabiri in India, Wales, or Scotland, are the children (ari) of Kam, Kfm, or Khebm, the old hippopotamus goddess of the north pole, who bore the Cabiric seven. These, wherever found, date from the first formation. If the y at the end of the word implies the k, then we have the an in an earlier form as the rekh (Eg.) or race instead of sons, and the Cymraig are the race of Kani, Kvm, or Khebm, the hippopotamus-goddess, the typical abode of birth, still extant in the cwm. The Laps, who call themselves the Sabme, are the same people by name, as the ethnologists are now beginning to suspect them to be by race. In Egyptian the ruti are the race or rekh, and, as we have seen, Khem-ruti is the Egyptian type-name for the uncivilized and savage race.
These then are the representatives of the earliest ruti of Africa, the Kafruti, Kamruti, Kvm-ruti, or Khebm-ruti, who went out to become the Sabme-ruti of Lapland, and the Kamruti, Kamari, Kamrekh, or Cymraig, or Cymry of Wales.
The traditions of the British bards may be precipitated into some form of solid fact when we can once evaporize the mythic matter which held them in solution. These tell us that the colonizers came across the 'hazy sea,' considered to have been appropriately named, from the land of Hay. Hay in the old Welsh, as in Irish, would be Ham. Ham is modified from Kam. In Egyptian we have the origin of this permutation of m and v, and there it is m and b, as in num and nub, these permutations are made visible in the hieroglyphics by which more than one phonetic value is obtained from a reduced ideograph. If we take the permutation of the v in Hay with b, this gives us the land of Hab.
A modified form of kheb is found in the name of a land that lay below the second cataract, called the land of Heb. 'I entered the land of Heb,' says Su-Hathor, 'visited its water places and opened its harbours.' This was in the time of the Second [p.457] Amenemhat, Twelfth Dynasty. That may have been the Welsh 'Land of Hay,' with the name so ancient as to have then become thus modified from Kheb!
The land of Hay we know as Kab, and it has been shown how the two names of Kam and Kab are interchangeable on account of an original name khebm or kvm (םוח) Welsh cwm. We can illustrate the modification in Welsh by the name of the Gipsy. There is no need to assume that the name of Gipsy is a corruption of Egyptian. Further research will teach philologists that language never has been tampered with in the past as it is in the present. Kheb is the hieroglyphic form of Egypt. Si is a son or child. Khebsi, the child or descendant of Kheb, Kab, Kab-t, Egypt, is our Gipsy. And in Welsh the kab has not only been modified into Hay, it has lost the h in af or Aiftess, a female Gipsy, whilst keeping the meaning, and Egypt is known as Yr Aipht.
We begin with kab, the inundation, that which is poured out on the ground. Kheb is to be laid low, be low; kheb is Lower Egypt. Khept is to be extended on the ground, to crawl, sit, or be prostrate on the ground. Kaf and hef also signify the same thing, to squat or crawl. Hef is the name of things that go, squat, or crawl on the ground, as the viper, snake, caterpillar, worm, and a squatting woman. Af is the sun in the lower hemisphere, the squatter and crawler. See how this survives in English. The eft crawls on the ground. The havel is the slough of a snake, cast on the ground. The hoof and hoff (hock) are parts next the ground. Ivy or alehoof creeps on the ground. Haver is the part of the barn-door close to the earth, whilst the hovel squats near to the ground, and in Welsh the Gipsy is still the Hay or Af, as the squatter on the ground; this proves how closely language has likewise kept to the rootage in the primary stratum. Aftess or Aiphtess is in Welsh the female Gipsy—t being the sign of the feminine gender in Egyptian—whilst in the Scotch name for Gipsy the earlier 'hfa' has modified into 'faa.'
The Gipsy, as the child of Kheb, is named from Lower Egypt, and from the hippopotamus goddess who became the British Kêd, the mother of the Ketti. We are only using the Gipsy name, however, as a camera obscura in which we can see the backward past. Kheft is modified on the one hand into Aft and on the other into Kêd, from which it is proposed to derive various names of the people of Britain. Whatsoever after-applications the names derived from Kêd may have, the Khefti or Japheti are the people of the north, the hinder-part of the whole circle. These are named from the north and the goddess of the North, who was Kheft, or Aft, Welsh Aipht. The original name is extant among the Finns in their goddess Kivutar, whilst the accent on the e in the name of the British genetrix Kêd denotes the missing consonant.
Javan was one of the sons of Japhet, and the earlier name of the Akhaioi who became Hellenized, is Achivi; also Koivy is a name of the Hellenistic languages. These, too, were the sons of Kheft, the genetrix, and mother of the gevi or gentiles. In the modified form we have the khuti, the chudic or tschudic races in general, who were the first to cross Europe, the quarter of Kheft or Japhet. These issued forth as the Khefti or Gevim of Genesis. The Gutium of the Assyrian astrological tablets, who are synonymous with the Gevim, must have belonged by name to the Khefti or Kheftim, whence the Gutim. In the modified form of the name we have the Ketti, Coti, Catini, Gadeni, Cotani, Catieuchlani, and others. With these must be classed the name of the Goth.
This secondary stage of the name corresponds to that of Gwydion, the British Mercury, Sut-Anubis, the son of the mother Kheft or Kêd, as if these were the children. The first of the sons of Kheft were the Cymry (Gomer) of the isles. In Nennius the descendants of Gomer (or the Cymry) are the Galli, and he derives the Scythi and Gothi from Magog, the second son of Gomer, as the Cymry in the second degree. Kheft then, modified into Khêd, gives us a type-name for the Ketti of these isles. Khêd, the mother, is for ever identified with the ark of the waters represented by the revolving Bear. The seven stars of that constellation are the seven Cabiri, the primordial navigators. The people who came into the isles could only come as navigators in post-geological time. These named in Egyptian are the Ketti. Khet means to navigate, sail, go by water, or with the current towards the north. Thus the ketti are the sailors, the sons of Kheft, goddess of the north and the Great Bear, the mother Kêd. The isles must have been discovered by the Cymry, and these therefore were the kheti of the north, the chudic people in general, an early branch of whom came into Britain.
We are told by the Barddas that one of the three mighty labours of the island of Britain was lifting the stone of Ketti. This was in building the circles or arks of Kêd, which again relates them to the Ketti as the builders. Callimachus, identifies the Celtae as the Keaton.
The Atti-Cotti are mentioned by Ammianus. Jerome also speaks of the Atti-Cottos. Concerning two ancient Celtic tribes, the Scoti and Atticoti, he says: 'The nation of the Scoti have no wives (each man for himself), but, like cattle, they wanton with any woman as their desires may prompt. I, as a young man, have seen the Atticoti eating human flesh.'
Atai (Eg.) is the chief, superior, noble. The 'Ara-Cotii, famed for linen gear,' are celebrated among the first great founders of the world who ploughed their pathways through the seas in the dim [p.459] starlight of the past, called the 'distributors of men and countries when there arose the great diversity.' The kheti, in Egyptian, are also the weavers, from khet, the loom, and to weave. Thus the coti may be the sailors, builders, and weavers, under the one name derived from Kheft.
Moreover, Kep or Kef, the goddess of the Great Bear, the ark of the seven Cabiri, survives in the kef, the cabin, skip, skiff, and ship, each a name of the water-vessel called after the water-horse. The coti or ketti, then, we identify with the Abroi or Cabari, the sailors, and both with the discoverers of the isles, the Cymry. Their fame as weavers agrees with khet (Eg.), net, or woof, the later form of knitting being to weave.
Kêd or kud abrades into hud. In Egyptian khep is mystery. Khept was the goddess of mystery, or the mysteries. Cibddar, in Welsh, is the mystic, or son of mystery; and the land of Hûd is a name of Dyved. The cell of Kêd is found under the flat stone of Echemaint; and this cell under the flat stone is called elsewhere Carchar Hûd, the prison of Hûd, the mystery. Carchar, the plural of car, is karti (Eg.), a name of prisons, the kars, below. The cell of Kêd and Hûd identifies Hûd as the modified form of Kêd or Kûd, and Hûd, the mystery, is the equivalent of kep (kheft), the mystery, in Egyptian, and the kars of Hûd in the mysteries correspond to the kars of Dyved in Wales, called the land of Hûd. Hûd as a name of Kêd gives us the feminine Egyptian form of Hu, and we recover the genetrix and her son in Hu and Hûd. Hudol, in Cornish, is a magician, as the son of Hûd. Now, another Welsh name for the Gipsies is 'Tula Abram Hood'; that is, the people of Abram Hood. In Egyptian tula (tum) means a whole people, a community. In Ab-ram we have another form of kab, hab, af, hef, the word for squatting on the ground. Rem, in Egyptian or English, is to rise up and remove. Af-rem is squat and go, as is the Gipsy fashion.
Another reading is possible however without going to this root. The Gipsies call themselves the Roma, their language the Romany, and in Egyptian, rema is the express name for the natives of a country, and a people who called themselves Rema in Egyptian would mean natives of Egypt. If for ap we read kab, then Tula-Kab-Rem-Hut is the hut people who were natives of Egypt. The Gipsy name of Hood, again preserves that derived from Kêd, in the form of hud. Hu was the son of Kêd, and the people of Hu are the Hut or Hood, the children of Kêd. So Kheft became Uati in Egypt. The son Hut (Eg.) is corn, or the seed of Kêd (compare the kid), and the priests of Kêd were called Hodigion, bearers of ears of corn. Hod is corn in Welsh, and hut in the hieroglyphics.
A still more curious connecting-link in relation to the word 'hut' is supplied by the statement of the Lee tribe of Gipsies, who told [p.460] Borrow that their name in Egypt signified an onion. In this count they had identified it with the Leek, which modified into Leigh, at lastly Lee. Now in Egyptian the onion is 'hut,' and they were the 'Tula-aph-remhut,' who were the Hut by name, which, as the Lees said rightly, is the Egyptian name of the onion. Hut, the onion, also means the hot; rekh (Eg.), the equivalent of Lee, signifies heat, and Leek modifies into Lee. Moreover, the onion is worn in the hat by the Welsh, and the Egyptian hut is both onion and hat.
This forms a further link in the chain which connects the Gipsies, Egyptians and the primitive people of our islands, by name.
The Hodigion were an order of priests. The magic wand of Mathonwy, which grew on the bank of the River of Ghosts, was called the Hudlath by Taliesin. This was the staff of the Druidic priests, also named the Hud-wydd. Wydd is wood cut from the tree of life, the Egyptian and English ash. The hut staff is a mace in the hieroglyphics, and the determinative of the onion; it is apparently headed with an onion. This sign would therefore be equivalented by the onion worn on the head, in the hat, of the hut.
From time immemorial there has been a Gipsy encampment near Kelso, at a place called Yetholni, where the Gipsy king Lee died a few years ago. This was the holm, the land deposited at the confluence of two waters, the location of the Hut. Yeth and Heth permute in the names of the Cwn Annwt, or hell-hounds.
The gevi, or gentiles; of Genesis are the heathen, and the hut give us the name of the Huthen, or Hethen, the worshippers of Hu and the children of Kêd, who were our ancestors.
We have now got the khut, coti, or ketti, in the modified form of the Hut or Huti. Meantime this had occurred. The beginning was with the Great Mother, who bore her Sabean son as Khut (or Sut, the Dog-star); in later ages she bore the solar child, whose name is Hu. Kêd and Hu are the Great Bear and Sun. The moon was also adopted as a type of the genetrix. Huti (Eg.) is the sun and moon joined together in the hut or winged disk. Thus Kêd and Arthur, or in Egypt Sut-Typhon, were first—as will be demonstrated; the moon was second, and the sun was last. Now with the Hut and Huti we have the blending of lunar and solar astronomical mythology, and the modification of Khuti into Huti is the replica of the Ketti people becoming the Hut.
When we first hear of Somerset, a tribe of the Hedui are dwelling in the east of the shire. This word has the Egyptian terminal 'ui,' which also means the proper, good, genuine. The hedui are the proper or true hed, i.e., Hud or Hut. They are also the people of the upper half of the circle, the south-eastern part. Hut (Eg.) is the name of this upper region, and of the white crown. Hutui is the upper and right-hand half of the whole.
Hut is white and light. On the western side are the Cimbri or Cymry; they are on the dark side of the circle, and kam (Eg.) means black; the west is the Ament. The Hedui thus claim to belong to the primitive people who derived from Kêd, Kheft, or Japhet. In either sense the nomenclature is Egyptian.
The Hedui of England became the Gaulish Aedui and the Irish Aedh. This is traceable. The Gaulish Druids looked to England as the chief seat of their religion. Both Hedui and Aedh meet in one divine name—and these divine names are alone primordial—that of the god Hu, whose title, as the son of Kêd, was Aeddon, the British Adonis. The priest of Aeddon was named after him as the Aedd.
'I have been Aedd,' says Taliesin, describing the transformation of the deity from one character to the other, as it was represented in the mysteries. At (Eg.) is the lad, and in our English, 'Jack's the lad,' the meaning is enshrined. Jack (Kak) was the god in the dark, Hu in the light, and Taliesin, having just passed through the change, says, 'I am now Taliesin,' or the radiant one, i.e., Hu.
The origin of the Aedui and Hedui and their relation to the sun-god, who, as the child, was the still earlier Sabean fire-god, are shown by the word aedha, Greek aithos, Latin aedes, and its connection with warmth, fire, or light; also with the Hindustani id, the solar festival at Easter, and with od, the Akkadian name of Shamash, the sun-god.
The Irish ecclesiastics of this name are countless, which shows it was of a sacred type. It is rendered Aidus by the Latinists, and by the English it takes a return curve, and is always rendered Hugh, the hard form of Hu. Mac-Hugh, or Magee, is the final shape of the son of Hu. Cathair Aedhas is the stone or circle of Hu, and the son of Hu is an Aed in the English church, as Bishop Magee.
The god Hu and his followers, the Hut and Hedui, are solely responsible for the 'Jews in Cornwall,' of whom tradition tells. The Hut with the s terminal instead of the t would become the Hus, as children of Hu. Hu or Hiu becomes Iu. Iu (Eg.) means to go forth, as did the son of the mother called Hu and Iu. The Ius are the Jews. The story is that Jews migrated to Cornwall, and worked as slaves in the mines; this is continually repeated in Cornish books. But if the Jews were ethnological, they would still be the Hut of Wales, who were called Hus or Ius. The Hebrews only got there by an edict of language, through the sound of the letter j. The name is not ethnological. Old smelting-houses are still called 'Jews-houses' by the Cornish people. This offers the right clue.
Hut, in Egyptian, is the white, whether metal or other substance. Hut is the name for silver, as the white metal. The white metal, Hut, rendered silver, most probably includes tin, so inseparable is Hut and the white thing, the image of light and of the white god Hu. But that does not matter here. Huel is the Cornish name of a [p.462] tin-mine. This relates the tin to Hu, the white god, and Hu with the terminal is Hut. Hut being white is also that which is whitened. Iua (Eg.), for instance, means to wash, that is, to purify and whiten. This process applied to smelting and refining ore, making the black tin white, is Iua in Egyptian, and the refinery is the Iua-house, or Jew-house, singular; Jews-houses, plural.
This derivation of the Jew-house from Iua, to wash and whiten, is corroborated by the fact that the smelting-house is also called the white-house, and white is hut (Eg.). White represents an earlier quhite in Gaelic; and chiwidden, in Cornish, is the white or Jew-house. The Egyptian hut, for white, had an earlier form, as khu is light, and akhu is white, and with the terminal these are khut and akhut. Chi-wid-den, however, rendered khi-hut-ten (Eg.), might mean the white house as the place of beating and spreading out thin, to whiten or make the white, and khi-hut—that is, literally, the house of white tin.
The chiwidden, or white house, is the smelting, refining, beating, whiting house; and for discovering this process chiwidden was placed in the Christian calendar of saints. Chiwidden, as person, can also be derived from the white god Hu. The white god and the white substance have one name as tahn, the repa, and tin. Chi-hut-tahn is the young sun-god, the heir-apparent, who is the white ruler, the Iu or manifestor, who was Hu in the character of Aeddon or Prydhain.
This appearing youth also turns up in Cornish hagiography as a companion of Chiwidden, called St. Perran, who landed in Cornwall at Perran-Zabuloe with a millstone tied round his neck. Per-ran (Eg,) signifies the appearing, manifesting youth; it has the same meaning as Per-t-han (Prydhain) and again as St. Picrous (of the crossing, where the eye of Horus or the tahn is found in the Egyptian planisphere), who was also credited with the discovery of tin or tahn. Kiran in the legends equates with Piran.
The spelling of the name of Kiran called the saint will enable us to clinch the meaning. Kir or kar (Eg.) is the course, and an (Eg.) means to repeat, appear the second or another time. Kiran is the great saint who in his old age went to Cornwall to die. Cor-an (Eg.) is the repeated, secondary circle or cor, and he is undoubtedly the Corin or Corineus who was fabled to divide the island of Albion with Brut in the time of the giants.
Market-Jew is one of the many names of Marazion connected with the legend of the Jews in Cornwall. We have identified the Jew with Iua, to whiten and purify; the market hyphened with it shows its relation in Egyptian, but not by making Market-Jew the Jew's Market. Khat (Eg.) is the name of a mine and a quarry. Mar is a region, [p.463] a limit, a street. Mar-khat-iua is the region, the limit, of the mine and smelting-houses. Market-Jew, then, is a name of the place solely associated with the mining and smelting of the famous tin.
Different names of Marazion tell the same tale. Mara-shen (Eg.) is the water-limit and the lands end, as place of turning-back. Mar-kes-iu, the form used by Leland, Mar-kys-yoo used by William of Worcester, and the other spellings, Markesiow and Marghasiewe, correlate with the Iua or Jew in this way. Mar is the region, land-limit, bank, as it is likewise the water-limit; khes is to ram, beat, pound, found, and if we keep to our determinative iua to whiten, the Mar-khes-iua is the water-region or land-limit of the foundry and refinery of tin.
Norris says it is a rule without exception for words ending with t or d in Welsh or Briton, if they exist in Cornish, to turn the t or d into s. Thus the hut become the hus, ius, or Jews in Cornwall.
The Jews vanish and leave us the Hus or Hut, the worshippers of Hu and children of Kêd.
Mother and son are typified by the mine and metal. Kheft, the hinder quarter, the north, the underworld, the well of source, is also the mine. Kheft was the mine itself abraded in khabt and khêt (the eagle or accented a having been an earlier fa), the mine, the quarry; and the white metal, the Hu, was the child of the womb, the Kêd, Kheft, Khaut. Kheft, the mine, still survives in the shaft.
The rut in Egypt were the race, the people, mankind. And the word lives in the English lede for people and mankind. It is a type-word in various languages of the same value as rut. In the names of places we have the land of the rut, in Rutlandshire, Redruth, Ruthin, Rutchester, Ludershal; the City of Lud, in London, and Ludlow. Then there are the laths and ridings.
The county of Kent is divided into five 'laths' for civil purposes, and these are subdivided into hundreds. The lath is supposed to come from the Saxon gelathian, to assemble. But the Cymry and the rut, as the Egyptians called themselves, are more likely to have brought the name of the lath, especially as the rut is a symbolical figure of five—the sign of five steps corresponding to the five laths of Kent; and as the rut image is the determinative of the word khent, the south, so the country of Kent is in the south of England.
We have the earlier orthography of the lath and leet in our rides, ruts, and ridings for divisions; rod-knights, or reding-kings; rate, to govern, rule; rede, to counsel or advise, and the Irish raths. The laths and ene were relics of the rut, the race par excellence as the people of Egypt, whose name of the rut, the first, from the root of all, is retained in our word rathe, for the earliest. The Triads [p.464] speak of the Brython from Lydaw (Britanny), who were of the original stock of the Cymry. Both the name of Brython and Lydaw tend to show the relationship. Gwydion is called the great purifier of the Brython. In later times the Brython from abroad are distinguished from the primitive Cymry as one of the cruel races that afflict them.
Now an early name of Britanny is Lydaw. Au (Eg.) is the place or country. Lydaw or Rut-au then is the land of the rut, the ancient race. Rut and Lud are interchangeable, but rut is the oldest form. So the Rutuli of Italy are probably older than the Latin name. Also Rhodez in Rovergne was the place of the ancient Ruteni; Rennes, of the Rhedonis; Rouen, of the Rothomagi.
The Scotian Fir da Leith, rendered the men of two halves, is from the Egyptian rut, to be divided, the men who separated from the parent stock. Rut (Eg.) means to be several, repeated. These were the Fir da Leith. In the coal country a Leite is a joint or division in the coal, Scottish lith and Gaelic luth for a joint; that is the sense of the divided Leith. The lathe is a division of a county, and the lath is made by splitting.
We learn from the 10th chapter of Genesis that Mizraim (Egypt) begat Ludim. There were various branches from the rut in Egypt which spread in Africa, Asia, and Europe under the one name. In a sepulchral inscription at Thebes the Ruten or Ludim are described as the people of the 'Northern Lands behind the Great Sea.' This name may have included the people of Lydaw, Britanny, and Britain. The range of Tahtmes III, Seti I, and Rameses II was immense both by land and sea. 'I have given thee to smite the extremities of the waters; the circuit of the great sea is grasped in thy fist,' is said by the god to Tahtmes. 'I have given thee to smite the Tahennu, the isles of the Tena'—the divided, cut-off, remote people. 'The chiefs of all countries are clasped together in thy fist.'
The oldest names of the children are derived from the motherhood. The ruti bear the name of urt, the greatest, chief, first, and oldest; the Egyptians of Kheb. The Auritae or Kafritae included two names of the typhonian genetrix. The Ketti we derive from Kêd, who, as Kheft, named the Japheti. This naturally enough suggests a divine origin for the Picts and Scots, who were the Cymry in Scotland. The Welsh bear ample testimony to the fact that the Picts were of the race of the Gwyddyl (Gadhael), whom we call the Cymry of the second degree, that of sonship. It is well known that Ireland was, so to say, the first Scotland, or country of the Scot. In ancient records Scotia means Ireland. In the fabulous history of Scotland it is said that a daughter of Pharaoh named Scota was wedded to a Celtic prince, and these were the progenitors of the [p.465] Scots. We are told by Hesychius that Venus was worshipped in Egypt under the name of Scotia; by which he means Sekhet (or Bast), called the goddess of drink and pleasure. Venus is a general name for the genetrix, and Sekhet, also identified with the element of heat, is one of the two characters of the Great Mother. The Irish Bridget will help us to recover Scotia in the isles, in Ireland first and Scotland afterwards.
One part of the process in converting the Irish was to take their ancient deities, the devil included, and transform them into Christian saints, and as saints they have figured in the calendar ever since. Thus the mythical Patrick appears to be identifiable with the god Ptah not but that there may have been a priest of Ptah named Patrick. The rekh (Eg.) is the mage, wise man, priest, and there may have been one or many Ptah-rekhi, the priests of Ptah. Patrick, or Ptah-rekh is probably the hard form of the Paterah known as a Druidical title. Attius Paterah, the friend of Ausonius, was a Druidical Paterah or Patrekh in this sense; he who was said to have been 'stirpe satus druiden gentis armoricae,' and the companion of Dyved.
When the original Patrick landed in Ireland, the country was ruled by Niul of the Nine Hostages, who may possibly be a form of the Welsh ner, Budd Ner. Budd answers to the put circle of the nine gods, which was represented by the Bed of Tydain, in Tad Awen, the father of the nine British muses. Ptah was the framer of the put circle of nine in the solar reckoning, and division of the dry period. It is not necessary to claim the sacred title of Budd as denoting a form of Ptah, but we certainly have Ptah as the 'old Puth.' The title of Budd is written Vytud and Vedud by Cuhelyn, and it is also assigned to the goddess Kêd. Now, in the hieroglyphics, fut, the earlier form of put, signifies the circle of four quarters which preceded the put circle of the nine gods.
Nial of the Nine denotes the second of these two, and this was the order of things when Patrick came to Ireland. Also, there is a character that figures in Hanes Taliesin as 'Bald Serenity,' a form of Ptah, who is pictured as bald or wearing the close-fitting skullcap, the sign of baldness. Bald Serenity had his abode in the middle of a lake or mere. Ptah carries in his hands the Nilometer sign, the emblem of serenity, as lord of the waters. Ptah was the former of the egg, and a daughter of 'Bald Serenity' was named Crierwy, the 'token of the egg,' also the manifestation of the egg.
The pudduck is a frog, and Ptah was in one form the frog-headed deity, the biune being whose likeness was reflected in the twofold nature of frog on land and tadpole in the water. Budd seems to be the British Buddha, and both are probably derived from Putha, so that Pat may be the living representative of Ptah. Patrick is said to have been christened Succath or Socher by his [p.466] parents. The sekht (Eg.) is the ark of Sekari, and Sekari is a title of Ptah; Ptah-Sekari is the Ptah of the Sekhet or ark, the silent or mummy form of the god. Paterah was the companion of Dyved, or Hu, the solar Tevhut, who was the son of Ptah.
Patrick was accompanied by St. Bridget, she whose fire was in the keeping of nine maids, and surrounded with a fence of a circular form, the put circle of the hieroglyphics, the divine circle of the nine gods; put being the name of number nine.
Nial of the nine hostages looks like the ruler of the put circle of nine gods who was Ptah in Egypt. If historical, he would be affiliated to that system of reckoning by the solar nine, which includes the partition of China into the nine divisions of Yu.
Sheelah-na-Gig is sometimes called Patrick's mother, sometimes his wife, and is an Irish form of the Great Mother, Sheelah's day is March 18th. Sheelah as the mythical mother is known by the figures called 'Sheelah-na-Gigs,' very primitive and plain in their meaning. These were portrayed over the entrance of ancient churches, and formed in one particular part a hieroglyphic ru, the typical mouth or cteis which Sheelah pointed to as the door of life. Kekh (Eg.) means a sanctuary, in English a church; the chech is a stone chest, kist-vaen or cromlech, and the birthplace supplied the type of the burial-place. This gave appropriateness to the Sheelahna-Gigs being portrayed as the way of life over the church-door, Sherah (Eg.) means source, the waters of source. Serah (Eg.) is to reveal and exhibit. Sheelah-na-Gig may mean the revealer of source in the sanctuary and birthplace. Sheelah is a goddess of drink and pleasure, as was Bast (Eg.), who exists as the Bebaste of the Irish mythology; therefore it may be inferred that Sheelah the revealer and Bebaste are identical. Sher (Eg.) means to breathe with joy, which the Irish do on Sheelah's day, and the shamrock worn on Patrick's, the previous day, is drowned in the last glass of whisky on Sheelah's night to her immortal memory. Further, Sheelah-na-Gig ought to enable us to read the name of Bridget. Ket is the womb, the birthplace personified in Kêd. The Sheelah-na-Gig exhibits the ket. End is a name of Prydhain, the child. Bridget may therefore be a personification of the mother of Brid, Brute, or Prid, the manifestor as the solar son.
In Scotland Bridget was known as Scota; she is called Scota by various writers. Scota, the wife of Patrick, adds to the likelihood of his being the god Ptah, for Sekhet was the consort of Ptah, the mother of the solar son—the Egyptian Pridhain or reappearing youth—and she, like Bridget, was the goddess of fire.
The month of Choiak was sacred to Sekhet and her festival. In the sacred year this answers to our October-November. And in [p.467] the Roman calendar the principal festival of Bridget is celebrated on the 7th of October.
The Scottish Scota, Bridget, once identified through Patrick with the Egyptian Sekhet, ought to help us still farther north. For Sekhet was a name of the lioness-headed goddess Pasht, Pekht, or Peht. The consort of Ptah takes two forms as goddess of the Two Truths of the north and the south. As goddess of fire in the south she is lioness-headed; as goddess of moisture in the north she is cat-headed; the one is named Sekhet, the other Pasht, Bast, Pekht, Peht, or Buto. Buto, in the north, is the cat-headed form of the genetrix, and baudrons, the Scotch name for a cat, retains that of Peht or Buto, the cat-headed goddess. Butha is also an Irish name of the moon.
The Irish goddess of moisture is called Be-Baste that is, Bast or Pasht of Egypt; and Scota (Bridget) is the fire-goddess, that is, Sekhet. These are the two divine sisters in the Ptah Triad, the plural form of the genetrix. The gist of all this is that the names of the Picts and the Scots meet in this goddess, who is Pekht in one form as the divinity of the northern frontier and Sekht as the mistress of fire in the south.
If we were to derive the Sgiot or Scot from Sekhet the goddess, then the Sgiot-ach of the Scotch probably comes from the akh (Eg.), meaning the illustrious, noble, honourable sons of Sekhet (Seota), who is recognized on the monuments as the goddess of pleasure and drink, ergo of whiskey, the fire-water; spirit and fire being synonymous in the symbolism of the Two Truths.
The Scotch were anciently called Cruitnich, the Corn-men, the cultivators of corn, and the word cruitne is extant as the name of a place called Cruden. Sekhet is an Egyptian name of corn. We hear of the Picts and Scots as the painted men, and sekht signifies the painted. The Gaelic sgod, a dweller in woods and forests, answers to sekhet (Eg.), field and forest. The Picts, and Scots are generally coupled together; Pekht and Sekhet will enable us to make a geographical distinction.
Pekht denotes the hinder, the northern part. Peh (Eg.) is the rump. The pukha was the infernal locality of the underworld. Pick-a-back is a pleonasm of hindwardness. Pest (Eg.) is the pes, the back, and in Gammer Gurton's Needle we read, 'My Gammer sat down on her Pes.' Pes, peh, pekh are forms of one word, back. The Picts therefore were the people of the hinder part of the land, the Egyptian symbol for the north. Khebt has the same meaning, and in Kent a gipsy (kheb-si) is still called a pikey. The Peak in Derbyshire has been shown to be a type of the hinder-part, and in the Saxon Chronicle the men of the Peak are called Pecsaetan. They, too, were Picts according to the naming from the north, the genetrix Pekht being a later form of the goddess of the North who was the earlier Kheft. [p.468] Suâ, the south, is an abraded suka, and with the terminal t, sukat is synonymous with south. The Scot was localized as the southerner of the two.
Pasht and Sekhet are a form of the twin-lions of the equinox facing the north and the south. Our Pash or Pasch of Easter is named after the goddess who presides at the place of the equinox, the Pekha, in her dual form. The pekh or bekh was the solar birthplace at the time of the vernal equinox.
The western equinox is represented also by her name, although the date is now belated. The Monday after the 10th of October is called Pack-Monday; on this day hears were baited, and dogs were whipped. Formerly a number of cats used to be burned to death on the Place de Grève, Paris, in the midsummer fire of St. John. The cat-headed Sekhet was the Egyptian goddess of fire. The bear was a type of the ancient outcast mother as well as the dog, both having been symbols of Sut-Typhon. Poke-day in Suffolk is when food is divided and portioned out among the labourers. Pekh (Eg.), is food, and to divide.
Pekh appears to have left her name in the county of Buchan. Her image survives in the red lion of Scotland, red being the colour of the northern, the lower crown, and of the female lion represented by Pekht. The wonderful temple at Bubastis was made of red granite. Bede wrote the name of the Picts as Pehtas, and in Egyptian pekht became peht.
The twin lioness (or the lioness and cat), as pekhti, represents double might and vigilance; pehti means vigilant and foreseeing. This meaning is modified in our word peke, to peep, pry, and peer into. Pekht was the watcher, and in one of her two forms she must have watched from 'Arthur's Seat,' Edinburgh, where the dim outline of the lion is not solely drawn from imagination, although the work of man has been almost effaced by the work of time. It is obvious too that this was Sekhet, the goddess of fire, known as Scota (or Bridget), who tended the fire with her nine maidens, at Edinburgh, the maiden castle.
Mai (Eg.) is the cat-lion, ten is the elevated seat, the throne, which in the hieroglyphics is lion-shaped. And Edinburgh was the maiden city, ergo not only the circle of the nine maidens of Scota, but also the seat of the cat-lion.
The mai is also the lion rampant of Scotland, and has its tail between its legs and thrown over its back.
Lastly, in the arms of England the lion and the unicorn are united in a common support, and the unicorn is a type of Typhon, the one-horned, the ramakh (hippopotamus or rhinoceros), called the mythical unicorn, the ancient Kheb or Kheft of Egypt and the Kêd of Britain.
In the eastern part of the territory of the Rhobogdii, in Ireland, [p.469] says Richard of Cirencester, was situated the promontory of the same name; their metropolis was Rhobogdium. Rru (Eg.) is a name for the children. May not these Rhobogdii have been the rru as children of Pekht, the dual lioness? Pekht in the form of the twin lions, also named the rhiu, was seated on the rock of the horizon called the ru as the place of the lions or Pékhti.
The Rru-Pekhti should be the children of the goddess Pekht, unless they called themselves descendants of the Pekhti. Either way the promontory of Rhobogdium repeats the Egyptian imagery.
Bast, the goddess of drink, has given us some names connected with drinking. To booze is to drink deeply. A bussard is a great drinker. A basking is a drenching. The bush was a symbol of drink at the alehouse door. Afterwards the wooden frame of the signboard was termed the bush. Grose says buzz, to buzzer one, signifies to challenge a person to pour out all the wine from the bottle into his glass, and to drink it, should it prove more than the glass would hold. It is said to a person who hesitates to empty a bottle that is nearly out. To buzz is to empty the bottle, and the buzzard is the coward who refuses. Bes (Eg.) is the inundator or swiller.
Bast as goddess of pleasure is our divinity of bussing. To buss is to kiss, conjoin; to baste is to tack together. To Bast we owe the bastard. To bask is pleasure. Baskefysyke is a name of fulutio. Bagford mentions an image that once stood at Billingsgate. The porters used to ask the passers-by to kiss the same, and if they refused, they were bumped on the seat against it. He calls it a post, and intimates that it represented some old image that formerly stood there, perhaps of Belin. Bagford adds, 'Somewhat of the like post or rather stump was near St. Paul's, and is at this day called St. Paul's Stump.' This is probably alluded to as the bosse of Billingsgate in Good News and Bad News.
'The Water-workes, huge Paul's, old Charing Crosse,
Strong London bridge, at Billingsgate the bosse.'
The bosh is a figure, the Egyptian pesh a statue.
We can recover the bosse as the seat of Bast.
Besa (Eg.) is a name of the seat or of seats. Pest (Eg.) is the back, spine, seat. The Bessy who was Bast made a special symbol of the cow's tail. The gate of Belin, the birthplace of the son, was represented by the bosse or Bast, the hinder-part, and those who would not bus her in front were bumped behind.
Pekh, the goddess of pleasure, is possibly invoked in the expression, 'an' it please the Pix,' i.e., if Pekh please, for she was terrible at times; in the character of Sekhet she was the punisher of the [p.470] wicked. Her name is sacred as that of the Pyx, the vessel in which the host, mass, or consecrated wafer, is kept. The pyx is an emblem of the womb, and pekh, later bekh, is the birthplace, where the bread was baked. Mesi (Eg.) is a cake, mes-t is the womb, and mes means to engender and generate the child; the pyx with the bread in it represents the mother and child; but the mother signified by the name of Pekh, the goddess of Pasche, of bussing, of pleasure and drinking, is the old cat-headed puss or beast. Kissing the pax after the service, according to the Ritual of Rome, is a survival of kissing the bosse-image of pekh as the goddess of the Easter crossing.
The fairy is a diminutive of early deity, and pekh also survives in the form of a fairy, as the Piskey or Pixy of Devonshire and Wales. A man who is glamoured, it may be with drink, is still said to be piskey-led; the goddess of drink thus protects her followers, or plays the devil with them, as the Puck or Pouke.
The lioness-headed Pekh (Pasht), who was both Pekht and Sekht, mother of the Pict and Scot, was one of the very ancient deities of Egypt, but not the oldest.
The goddess of the North and of the Bear is the most ancient form of the genetrix, first, oldest, and chief, as her names declare. She, as the present writer contends, passed into the form of Uati as goddess of the North, who had her sanctuary at Dep (tep, the first), at the extremity of the Rosetta branch of the Nile, and who, as Uati the dual one, bifurcates into Pasht and Sekht of the solar myth. Sekhet also has the title of Urt, the great goddess, who had been Ta-urt.
The secondary stage of the lioness goddesses is well shown by the two lions that draw the car of Kubele, the Great Mother, the Kheb of Egypt.
There may be some sort of gauge in this naming. If the ethnological titles follow the order of the divine dynasties, then those who claim from Kêd are primeval, whilst those who date from Pekht and Sekht of the lioness type are in a second or a third degree of descent from the beginning. This assimilation to the divine order is likely to afford some guidance in seeing that the Pict and the Scot were offshoots from the Cymry of Britain, who claimed to be the children of Kêd. Thus, when we meet with the Atta-Coti in Scotland, and know that atta (Eg.) is the father and typical ancestor, it looks as though the Atta-Coti still claimed in another country to belong to the original race of the Ketti. The Catini, or Gadini, may likewise have claimed descent from Kêd.
Here for example is an illustration by which the tentative tentacles appear to hold fast in another bit of anchorage in the heavens. We are told there was a Scottish tribe during the Pictish period named the Selgovae, in the West of Scotland, their western boundary being the River Dee, and their southern limit the Solway Frith.
Selk also is an Egyptian goddess who was connected with one of the four quarters, as she is found conjoined with the four genii which quarter is shown by the scorpion borne on her head. Selk means the scorpion, once the sign of the western equinox; and serkh is the hole, the opening of the Ament in the west. The Selgovae were the people of the western quarter. Afa (Eg.) means born of. Selk-afa is born of Selk. Her name is also found in Sark. Selk (or Serk) is a goddess of Dakheh, in Nubia, the Dog-star was sacred to her, which takes her back to the primal motherhood. The name of Dakheh reminds one that Bridget was said to be a daughter of Dakha.
The Picts disappeared in so mysterious a manner because they never existed in the distinct ethnological sense supposed.
The Cymry were the first known people in Scotland; they preceded the Pict, Scot, and Gael; the appearance of the Picts in the north of the country is strictly connected with the disappearance of the Cymry, and will account for it. The disappearance is but the submergence of the name of the Cymry in that of the Picts and Scots. The Cymry being the original race that inhabited Scotland, bifurcated into the Picts and Scots. The Picts vanished, and the Scots' name spread over the land. In India we find the same thing occurs under the same names. Dr. Bellew has recently called attention to the fact that in Afghanistan large sections of the Afridi people and the family of the Khan of Kelat are called the Kamari, whilst the inhabitants of the 'Pukhtún-khwá country' are designated Pacts and Scyths, the equivalent for our Picts and Scots. The name of Pukhtün-khwá, rendered by Egyptian from pukht, divided in two, and ka, for country, recognizes that division north and south of the bifurcating race, as in Scotland, and as in the land of Egypt. Here, then, are the Cymry in India, as in Scotland, dividing into the people of the two lands (of Egypt) called North and South, whence the Picts and Scots. Ari (Eg.) denotes the companions, fellows, the family, as in Cabiri, the seven 'Ari' of Kheb, the goddess of the Great Bear. The Pict and Scot, or Pact and Scyth, follow and correspond to the division of the heavens by north and south when the solstices only were marked and reckoned by, and the Great Mother was represented by the two divine sisters, who in one system were Pekht and Sekht of the lioness type of the genetrix. We need not, therefore, be surprised to meet with the Logan of Logar in India answering to the Logrians of ancient Britain. For Dr. Bellew also finds the Logan, whom he parallels with the British Loegrwys. The Logan (Rekhari) [p.472] are the ari, children, fellows; and rekh denotes the race, or the people of a district. The race of Kheft or Kêd may also be found in India in the chedi, a very ancient people who lived in Bundelkhand, and were famous for their close attachment to ancient customs, laws, and religion. In both directions the naming must have been carried out from one source, which was the land of Kam, םוח, or Khebma, as only by the Egyptian mythology and language can the facts be interpreted. It is this unity of origin in Egypt that has created the glamour concerning the lost ten tribes who have been discovered in so many lands, including Afghanistan. There is a common source for the people, the mythology, and the naming. The Afridi folk, found in India at the head of the Kamari, the Pacts and Scyths, may now be claimed as a form of the Auritae, Afruti, the primal Kafruti of Africa, and the brotherhood of the Kamari, Cabiri, Abroi, and Cymry goes back to the unity of the black race.
Before Caesar landed in Britain, the people of Dorset were known as the Morini and the Durotniges. The Morini (in Egyptian Meruni) are the inhabitants of the water-region and the land-limit. Ten (Eg.) is the extremity of the land, the frontier. The t adds the article the, and rekhi signifies the people of a district. The Terutrekhi or Durotriges are the people of the district on the water-frontier at the limit of the land. Rekh (Eg.) gives us a type-name, but one somewhat difficult to utilize. For the rekhi may be the architects, builders, metallurgists, refiners, timekeepers (Druids), teachers of various arts and sciences. They are the magi, the learned, the knowers, and experts.
Richborough, at the navigable estuary of the river forming the Isle of Thanet, yields the Borough of the Rekh. Buru (Eg.) is the high place. Here was the Roman haven of Rutupia and the Urbs Rutupiae of Ptolemy, described as one of the chief cities of Kent, and commonly supposed to have been one of the first Roman stations in England. The name proves it was one of the first Egyptian stations. Ru is the gate, road, way. Tepi means the first, the point of commencement, and from this initial point proceeded the Watling Street or Way, the ru which as primary is in Egyptian rutupi. The castle of Rutupi on Richborough Hill was said to exhibit a more perfect specimen of Roman military architecture than is found elsewhere in Britain. But is not that owing to the rekh (builders) who preceded the Romans?
Rutupi is not only the point of commencement for the great road, as tep is the sacred hill, also written tepr, i.e., Thabor, our Dover. The hill of Rutupi stood by the bay—whence the Romans procured the famous oysters mentioned by Juvenal*—which is now mere marshland. As teb (Eg.) is fish, and ru a pool, rutupi may also denote the oyster-bay. It is not necessary to prove too much, but such is the fundamental nature of Egyptian naming.
* 'Rutupinove edita fundo.'
Ragae, the chief city of the Coitani, was a name of Leicester; thus ragae and leic permute in the ster or Kester of the leic or rekh. The Logi also inhabited the north-east part of Sutherlandshire and the south-east of Strathnearn. A people named the Regnai, Ptolemy's Ρηγνοι, were in possession of Sussex and Surrey before the Romans came and were powerful enough to maintain a kind of independence afterwards. Tacitus mentions their king Cogidubnus as a faithful ally of Rome. Regnum, the modern Chichester, was the capital of the Regnai. Rekh-uni (Eg.) are the native rekh. As the rekh were, amongst other things, masters of the art of smelting, and as the Weald of Sussex was famed from time immemorial for its ironworks, it is possible the rekh in this instance signifies the workers in metal, the regnai being of the old race (rekh) of knowers.
But we can get in a little closer. The rekh is the brazier and smelting-furnace. Nai is the Egyptian plural. The rekhnai, the plural rekh, signifies the smelters, and furnace-men. Khekh-tebn (Eg.), the equivalent of Gogi-dubnus, is the ruler of the division or circle.
Creklade or Greeklade, not far from Oxford, is famed in ancient traditions as the place to which certain Greek philosophers came with Brute. Drayton remarks that the History of Oxford in the Proctor's Book and certain old verses affirm this, and that both Creklade and Lechlade (the physicians' lake) in this shire derived their title from these Greeks and Lechs or Leeches. Once we get the Greeks and Brutus out of the way, we can better interpret the obscurities of tradition. Our lechs are the Egyptian rekhi, the learned, the wise men, the mages, the men of science, physicians and astronomers, builders and metal-workers. Rat, the equivalent of our lade, a place, means a place, to plant, make fast. Lechlade, i.e., Rekh-rat, is the settlement of the rekh. The Roll-rich stones, in the same county, mark another place of the rekh. Rer is a circuit, circle, to go round. The stones formed a circle of the rekhi, who were also masons, builders, and religious teachers in Egypt.
The name of Crek classicized into Greek is probably derived from kha, a book-place, an altar, and rekh. Kharekh would naturally abrade into Crek, and be as naturally read Greek. Creklade is thus the college of the rekh. The magi of Egypt are the pure wise spirits and intelligences. And the rekh exists with us as the rook, a name for the parson. The rekh, the pure wise spirit, has for determinative the rekh bird, the Arabic roc, a mythical bird. The rekh is the phoenix, the ancient bird-type of transformation. This rekh becomes our ancient and wise bird, the rook. Thus we have the Egyptian rekh in several forms.
At Caiplie, near Fifeness, in the parish of Kilrenny, Scotland, there is a cave with sculptured walls. The name Caiplie is modernized from [p.474] Caip-lawchy. The Egyptian equivalent will be Kep-rekhi, and kep is the concealed place, the hidden sanctuary; rekhi, the wise men, pure spirits, knowers, the mages. 'Kar-rennui' signifies the astronomers as namers of the star-courses, from kar, an orbit, and renn, to name. Another of these caves is found at Dysart, which name in the same language reads Teb-sart, the cave or place of the sowers of wisdom and science. In the name of Rugby we probably have the bi (Eg.), a place of the rekh, the learned. Leighton-Buzzard is a town near Ashridge. Leigh-ton denotes the ten division, seat of the rekh. The buau (Eg.) were chiefs, heads, archons. Ser is to arrange, organize, dispose, distribute, amplify, augment, conduct, console. Sart is to plant, grow, sow the seeds of wisdom and science. The Buau-sart were the chief ministers and officers of the rekh, Leighton being the centre of a settlement, the boundary of a shire. Rickmersworth introduces another name of the rekh of Egypt in the mer, plural mert. The mer was a monk, a person attached to a temple. Mars-worth is possibly the worth, a nook of land belonging to the mert, in the English plural the mers. Thus Rickmersworth would be the enclosure of the rekh, the wise men, mages, pure spirits, who lived the monkish or mer life, and whose sanctuary, park, pavilion, a retired nook, was at Marsworth and Rickmersworth. In Domesday, however, the name appears with the Egyptian masculine article prefixed as Prick-mare-word, that is, 'The-Rick-Mer-worth.' P-rick-mer-worth was held by the abbot of St. Alban's. St. Alban's held the manor in demesne, and this may give another meaning to the mer. The mer is a superintendent, overseer, governor; Morien, a name given to the builder of Stonehenge by the Welsh Barddas may have been the superintending mer in this sense. The 'Fomorians' is one of the Irish typal names of the race. Fu-meri-uni (Eg.) are a large number of inhabitants enclosed and governed, equal to a claim of being civilized. Moor Park is at Rickmersworth, and park in Egyptian is hert, our worth, a nook of land enclosed. Rekh-Mer might signify the prefect, superintendent of the rekh, who was modernized into the abbot of St. Alban's, and if so, the hert would be his place, as park, garden, pavilion, whence Moor Park.
The time came when the Welsh specially distinguished England as the land of the rekh. Lloeger is the name for England known to the Barddas. The Britons divided the island into Lloeger, Cymru, ag Alban. When shut up in Wales, that district constituted three regions, called Gwynedd, Pywys, and Dehenbarth, which were distributed into a number of Cwinmwds, Trevs, and Cantrevs. But in the first Triadic division England is Lloeger. 'Lloegyr,' says Lady Charlotte Guest, 'is the term used by the Welsh to designate England.' The writers of the middle ages derive the name from the son of the Trojan Brutus, Locryn, whose brother, Camber, bequeathed his [p.475] name to the principality. But from another authority, that of the Triads, we learn that the name was given to the country by an ancient British tribe, called the Lloegrwys. Lloegrwys is a form of the Logrians of Lloeger.
This brings us to the original type-name of the rekh or lekh, which may afterwards indicate the calling, but primarily it means the race (it is the same word), as the descendants. Just as the Irish laegh is posterity, or luch, offspring; luchd, Gaelic, people.
Cormac Mac Cullman derives the Orbraige as the descendants (raige) of Orb or Orbh, raige meaning posterity or race. O'Donovan, in his commentary on this, says: 'Orbh was the ancestor of the people called Orbraigh, who were descended from Fereidhech, son of Fergus Mac Roigh, King of Ulster in the first century.' The Irish orb here represents the Egyptian kherp, to be first, chief, principal, royal, consecrated. The Orbraigh were the royal race.
The Lloegrian race of England were the posterity of the Cymry, corresponding to the Logan of Afghanistan as the race, the descendants of the Kamari and Afridi. The primeval unity of the Lloegrians and Cymry in race and religion is acknowledged in the Gododin by an address to the universal goddess Kêd, 'O fair Kêd! Thou ruler of the Lloegrian tribes.' The Lloegrians were one in religion after they were divided by new ethnological lines of demarcation in Britain. Lloeger rendered by rekh-r means the division of the rekh. All we can say of them further is to repeat that they include the magi, the metal-workers, the builders, the doctors.
They gave us the rike, the master, the governor; the leech, the laghe-man (lawyer), the lake (player and actor). The lace-maker and lacking (fulling), lake and lockram (kinds of linen), leach or purified brine in salt-making, leches for cakes, and the loker or carpenter's plane, are named after them.
The Scottish Picts' towers are called Brochs, and as these are built in contradistinction to the caves and holes, it may be the rekh (Eg.) enters into their name. The rekh is an architect and builder. The pa (or b) denotes a house. The p-rekh would be the house that was built, and the brick would be named in the same way as the means of building. Further the rekh is the furnace, and the brick is burnt. So read, the pa-rekh would be the burnt house, and the brock may not only have been the erected house but also the vitrified fort.
The rekh (Eg.) as people of a district apparently supply the English ric as in Cyneric. This became a kingdom in the German konig-reich, but the earlier Cyneric was derived from the rekh or people of a district who were of kin and formed the gens. The bishopric is now the only word with this ending in ric, meaning rule and sway. But is the ric compounded with bishop identical with the [p.476] ric in Cyneric? Not necessarily. The rekhi (Eg.) are various. They are certain people of a district, and may be a religious order, as the magi, the knowers or men of learning. The ric of the bishop may therefore denote his sway and dominion over the rekhi or the rooks. But as the rekh or people of a district are also the race, mankind, at first in the gens, and then generally, the ric becomes secularised, and Cyneric and Bishopric are two distinct forms of the rekh.
The origin of the ship, as in fellowship, can be traced far beyond the verb scapan, to shape. Ship is no doubt akin to shape, but there is an earlier source for the word. The sep (Eg.) were a body of persons belonging to a religious house. The sepa was a district, a country. This in the earlier form is our scape in landscape; shaab, Arabic, a large and noble tribe; szczep, Polish, family, tribe, race; sibbo, Anglo-Saxon, race or relations; suba, Hindustani, a province.
Skab (Eg.) means double; to kab is to double and redouble. The sheb image of the second life is the double. Whence the kab (kab-t) is a family. With the s prefixed, this is the skab, shab, or ship, as a companionship or fellowship, from the redoubled fellow or companion; this is the German schaft, equivalent to kabt, a family. In Hebrew the tribes are shebt. This was the sept, as the English clan, race, or family, that proceeded like the seven stars from the common genetrix. Sheft (Eg.) means order, and a section; zeppet, Circassian, foundation and groundwork; shebt, Hebrew, tribe or tribes; safedd, Welsh, the fixed state; saft, Scotch, a rest, peaceful; heft, (Eg.), peace, number seven, and the ship; septum, Latin, an enclosure; sapti (Eg.), to construct, wall in.
The sept in Swahili is the kabila, like the Arab tribes of that name; in Turkish the kabile is a clan, tribe, or sept. The gbalai in Gbandi is a farm. The Zincali chival is a village, the Latin cubile, a bed, a place of repose. The Welsh gefail is a smithy; the Swahili cofila, a caravan; the Cornish ceible and English coble, a barge or flat-bottomed boat; Malayan, kapal; Irish, cabal, a ship; Gaelic, cabail; kuff, German, a kind of vessel, with a main and mizen mast; evu, Adampe, canoe; uba, Ibu, a canoe; abies, Latin, ship; kufe, German, tub; keeve, Scotch; cuve, French; kufa, Polish. An old tub is a nickname for the sailing vessel.
The root of the matter in relation to the ship arid number seven is that the first ship in a double sense was the constellation of the seven stars, the sept or kabt of the Cabiri, and all forms of the name lead back to them, and to the genetrix Khebt or Khepsh. Seb-ti (Eg.) reads five-two, or seven, and this companionship of the seven in heaven was copied on the earth in the sept, schaft, and the ship of the companions, or companionship.
Maccu, maqvi, and macwy are different forms of a word frequently found in the Ogham inscriptions of Wales, as in MaccuDecceti, Macu-Treni, Maqvi-Treni. In the Irish and Gaelic mac [p.477] it has come to signify the child, the son of. But the individual is not primary; the gens, tribe, or clan is named first, and the word ending as mac can be traced backwards. Maga, Cornish, is to feed and nourish. Mao, Welsh, to breed, nurture, rear, and bring up; maeg, English, a kinsman or blood-relation; maika, Hindustani, kindred, relations, the mother's family. And in the Irish Book of Armagh Maccu or Mocu has the force of gens or clan, and interchanges with the word corca, people, in Mocu-Dalot and Corcadallan; Mocu-themne and Corca-temne; Mocu-runtir is rendered by the phrase, 'de genere runtir.' Magad (Welsh), a brood, follows magu, to breed, and magad is identical with the so-called Anglo-Saxon maegreth for the family, tribe, people, which is the Egyptian mâhaut, earlier makhaut, meaning the clan, family, cognate, with especial reference therefore to the motherhood. The magad, brood, and makhaut clan of blood-relations, belong to the earliest sociological types, hence in the Quiche language machu means very old. In Zulu Kaffir, makade denotes a very ancient thing, and in Arabic mahkid is root-origin. The maccu or makhaut is the clan, gens, family, or community, and the Mocu-Druidi or Maccu-Druidi were the Druidic clan, family, community. The Mocu-runtir was the clan that had their cattle (run, Eg.) in common; ter being the whole people, all. Dallan seems to be the same word as runtir, reversely compounded. In Ar-magh the name is localized, and as it is on the hill, the ard may be the Egyptian ascent, and as art is also the ceremonial type, Armagh may denote the place of a religious family, the makhau, on the height. Possibly the vi in maqvi may stand for the Egyptian fu or fi, meaning numerous, and as the Welsh qv passes into or comes to be equivalented by the letter p, magvy is the later mop and mob; the mop being an assembly of servants at a fair waiting to be hired; the mob, an indistinguishable multitude, yet represents the many, the common family or makh. The fact and relationship of the makh is shown by the magbote, a fine for murdering a kinsman. It also exists in the magdalen, an asylum, whilst its hieroglyphic sign is extant by name in the mace. Every early name shed by the human being has been applied elsewhere in the animal kingdom or in other domains. Thus the societary phase represented by the maegeth in English and the mâhaut (makbaut) for the clan in Egyptian is now represented by the maggot, which bears the name and continues the type of the makhaut as an indistinguishable swarm or multitude, that bred like maggots, and were massed under a clan-name, a mac-something or other. Moreover, the human makhaut or maggots worshipped a god of the same status as their own, a maggot deity—the same process of naming applies to the divinities as well as to animals, reptiles, or insects—and in the crom-cruacr the Irish adored the maggot-god. Crom in Irish [p.478] means a maggot, and O'Curry says the name of the celebrated idol of the Gadhael signifies literally the 'Bloody Maggot.' But if we render it the maggot of blood, we obtain a kind of synonym for the makhaut, which was a family, or clan of cognates founded solely on the tie of blood, originally on the mother's side. The motherhood of the family under this name was doubtless represented by the Irish goddess Macha, the Egyptian Makha, who holds the two vases in her hands, or Meh, a name of Hathor, the habitation. This naming of the family, the place, and the person had been applied in various lands. The mother and her emblem typify the abode. In Kaffir the mâi or maki is the womb; maga, Tasmanian, the mons veneris; maga, Fijian, the same; makau, Maori, the female; maci-ma, khaling, the old woman; maku, Timbuktu, the womb: mke, Swahili, the female as producer; English make, German magd, and Egyptian meht. In Swahili the makao is the abode; in Hindustani, the macka is the maternal mansion; magha, Sanskrit, a typical house; muk, Akkadian, a building; mogha, Sanskrit, an enclosure or fence; maha or makha (Eg.), a sepulchre, an enclosure; mukhooa, Arabic, a storehouse; mok, African Penin, a town; moki, African Murundo, a town. Mas or mauce, in Irish, euphemised as the thigh, in the name of Más-reagh, in Sligo, is a form of the maccu, abode. Más-a'-Riaghna, near Antrim, the thigh of the queen, identifies the más with the Egyptian mes-t, the place of birth, the womb, and with the imagery of the Bear and Thigh constellation. From the maccu as the family or clan is then derived the mac now prefixed to names with the understood meaning 'son of,' whereas primarily it signified the clan. The clan and mac are acknowledged to be synonymous by the sacred keepers of the Clan-Stone in Arran, whose family name was Clan-Chattons alias Mack-Intosh. Thus Mac-Donald was the Maccu or Mâhau, the family or clan of Donald, and this is still indicated by the style of the Macdonald, who is Donald of the Maccu named from the uterine abode itself, whence the magad-brood and the makhautclan; hence also the personal title, as in the Swahili mkuu, a chief, a great man; the mek, in African Senaar, a king; makh, Akkadian, supreme; the makht (Eg.), a mason and the explorer of mines; the Irish moghaide, a husbandman; the Japanese mikado, an emperor, and the mac in the Highlands, who is still the great man.
Typology explains the nature and cause of conservatism in the matter of names. The 'O' prefix is still the sign of the mother-circle, whether extant as the Irish O of O'Brien, the Japanese O of titular honour; the Maori 'Ouou;' Egyptian uau; Fijian ah, a prefix and title of respect; and various others. The ¡ circle is the hieroglyphic deposit of the hoe, hoh, haigh, and khekh, the circles [p.479] of many languages, as the ega, Akkadian, crown; aukhu (Eg.), diadem; hak (Eng.), enclosure; khekh (Eg.), a collar; kak, sanctuary; chakra, Hindustani, circle; khokheye, Circassian, circle; kekee, Swahili, a bracelet; cokocoko, Fijian, beads; gocv, Craven, and kok, Basque, an egg; a name which on every line of language may be traced to that circle represented by the Irish og, the virgin (mother) of the beginning. The O, like the Mac, is an ideographic sign of descent on the mother's side, from the time when the children did not know their own fathers.
The name of the Gadhael is derivable from Kêd, the mother. Hel, har, or ar (Eg.), is the son. This can be corroborated by the symbolic branch. The mother and son were represented by the tree of life and the branch, the Welsh pren and Egyptian renpu. One form of the tree of life is the ash; an ancient name of this tree is the Kit. Ash-keys are called Kit-keys. Kit-Mut is a name of the Egyptian Great Mother, our Kêd. The ash is one of the few trees on which the mistletoe branch can be found, but very rarely. The mistletoe was the Druidic pren or branch, and Guidhel is one of the names of the mistletoe, which was especially venerated at the time of the winter solstice. Guidhel, the branch, is hel or har, the child of Kêd whence al, Welsh, for the race. Thus the Guidhel is the son or offspring of Kêd; if we apply this ethnologically, the Gael is a branch race of the ketti (or Cymry), acknowledged to be so by the name, and whereas the ketti are directly named from Kêd, the tree herself, the Gadhael are named after the branch as the offspring. The earliest form of the name Guidhel is Gwyddyl. And Gwydd is the wood or tree of the branch race, that became the Gael of Ireland, and afterwards of Scotland.
The w in Welsh often has to represent an earlier f or v; consequently the name of the Gwyddyl, in the Welsh form, preserves that of the al, the race (in Egyptian the sonship) of Kheft. Gwydd, for example, is the Welsh goose, and kheft (Eg.) is the typical goose or duck of the genetrix, whose names (Kheft and Aft) it bears. The Gwyddyl are also identified and denounced in later writings as the distillers and devils, and in Egyptian the name of the old mother denoted the mystery of fermentation, and Kheft supplied a type-word for the evil one, the devil, the English quede.
Tradition affirms that five Firbolg brothers divided Ireland between them. The name of the Firbolg people is usually said to mean the big-bellies, and bolg is an Irish name for the bellows, which are called after the belly. It is possible that the early people were pot-bellied like the soko and gorilla, on account of their diet. It is also conceivable that the term big-bellies might be a nickname employed by the men of a later cult to describe the worshippers of the Great or enceinte Mother. In Hebrew גלפ (pelg) denotes an image of fullness and inflation, or bulge. But this is not a primary appellation [p.480] applied to a race. The Irish bolg are identical with the Hebrew peleg in another sense. The Fir-bolg are the five brothers who divided Ireland between them, and are probably a form of the five kings in the astronomical allegory who came between the flood of Noah and the conquest of Abraham, in which interval we find peleg. In Akkadian and Assyrian pulagu and bulugu mean division, but, as we see in the Hebrew pelg, this may be a family division, the tribe, kindred, or gens. The dividers of the earth made the divisions into which the first families were formed. Thus the Swedish bolag signifies partnership and the Icelandic felag, the mann-felag was an association, a community of men. In Arabic we have the balak for a crowd; in Turkish, the buluk is a number of persons, as a military company; also the German, Russian, and Polish pulk: Persian, fay-lak; Lithuanic, pulkas; Greek, phalaggos; Gaelic, burach; Sanskrit, varga. The one root supplies the English bulk; German volk, a mass of men; Danish flok, a company; English flock; Norse, flokk; Anglo-Saxon fylc, a company; Hindustani, firka; Latin, vulgi, the common herd; Spanish, vulgo; Italian, volgo; and English, folk. All these have one origin and retain the meaning of the division as a distinct body of men associated, so that the flag is the type as a military sign, and the name of it preserves the same word. These, then, it is contended were the Fir-Bolg. They may have worshipped the Great Mother, and so supplied a nickname, for the prostitute is still known as the bulker. Oldham, in his poems, speaks of the 'bulk-ridden strumpet,' who is so-called from being used by the bolg or bulk, the whole body of men. The bulker is the namesake still of the Greek Παλακίς the concubine who, in Egyptian temples, was the divine consort, the Latin pallaca or pellex, a harlot, a strumpet, and Hebrew שגלפ (pilegsh), the concubine, woman of the court, or prostitute. She represents the earliest status of the woman as consort of the company, the mut and mort, who was once the Great Mother. The Hebrew נלפ likewise denotes this intercourse in common.
Belawg (Welsh) means apt to be ravaging; boloch is disquiet; the Scottish pilk, English filch, is to pilfer, bilk to defraud, and bileigh, to bely. Words often conspire, so to say, to give a bad character to the oldest names of the people.
In the African Galla, bulgu is the name of the cannibal, and in Irish folgha meant bloody. The Scottish belgh, or bilch, is the monster. And so the Firbolg got a bad name. But they have left us the billy for a brother, a term of endearment because the bolg was a brotherhood or family, gens, or division; also the fellow, a companion, the w representing a g, as the felly or felloe of a wheel stands for fellick. Moreover, the burgh is a deposit of the bolg, as the general enclosure of the clan, also the park for animals [p.481] and the net of that name for enclosing the fish, and the paroch, later parish. The burgh or borough is related to the tithing by ten over which the borsholder presided, as borow in Old English is tithing, and the tithe is a tenth. The no. 10 is per in Akkadian, fer in Dselana; fura, Yula; fura, Kasm; fulu, Malagasi; fulu, Batta; pulu, Atshin; blawue, Basa; puluh, Malayan and others; the Fir-bolgs were probably founded on the division by ten, which was the base of the hundreds and counties.
The Hebrew type-word is apparently compounded from pu (Eg.) to divide and rekh (lekh), relations, people of a district, the race. The pu, fu, or bu (Eg.) also signifies the belly, i.e., the womb, as birthplace. From this, the bu-lekh or bolg are the people of the womb, who descended on the mother's side when the individual fatherhood was necessarily unknown.
As an Ethnic name springing out of the fellowship, the bolg of Ireland is the same as that of the belgae and the bulgars. All three represent the folk-name of those who date from the division and discreting of the undistinguishable herd, as well as the earth on which they settled, no matter where they dwelt at first, before the bulk was as yet subdivided into individual families and whilst the woman still remained the bulker. The existence of a Belgian tribe or people with a language nearly akin to the Irish has been recently proved by the glossa malperga, disinterred by Leo, which may, perhaps, supply an ethnic link between the Belgae and the Firbolgs.
The Irish traditions report that the Round Towers were erected by the 'Tuath-dadanan,' who were opposed in their work by the priesthood of the Firbolg, which led to a religious war. They have been described as an early race of conquerors from the north of Europe. It happens, however, that tuaith is an Irish name of the north, and for the left hand. Tievet is also a form of Tuath, as in Tievetory the hillside north. In the hieroglyphics, the north, the lower of the two hemispheres, is first the tepht (Eg.) and next the tuaut (Eg.), and this was the Welsh Dyved of the seven provinces in the north. Tena (Eg.) means to divide, turn away, and become separate; ani (uni) are the inhabitants. This tends to show that the Tuath-da-Dana-an were emigrants from the north, whichever country it may have been. It happens also that the Tuaut of the north is the domain of Ptah the builder and establisher, and one of his titles is Tatanen. Ptah-Tatanen typifies the eternal with a round pillar, which, as a fourfold cross is the emblem of stability, and of the four corners (Å). Tatanen means the nen, type, image, statue; and tata, the head of ways, or, as we say, the crossroads. The round tower, with its four windows, one to each quarter, is a similar ideograph, and it raises a suspicion whether the Tuath may not have been named from the north quarter in connection with the word [p.482] tatanen or dadanan, as indicator of the four of which the Tuath was one, just as we have the Tuath in Cross-thwaite, in the Vale of Keswick. And if Patrick was a Mage of Ptah, it would explain why he was also called Coth-raige, rendered 'four-families,' not because he was the property of four masters, but because of the four corners, the Irish ceather, which in the Manx kiare (number four) equates with the quadrangular caer of the Welsh. Cothraige denotes the four-cornered circle, as do the tat and round-tower.
The Tuath-dadanan were reported to have descended from Nemethus, a native of Nem-thor, or Nemethi Turris; to have learned magic in Thebes, and waged war successfully against the Assyrians. They were led into Ireland by Nuadhah, the silver-handed. Now Ptah was the son of Nem, the god of Thebes. Nem-tes is Nem himself; the type of Nem; nem-ter, the bourne or boundary of Nem, which was that of Thebes. Nnu is antenna, feelers, and may have been the hand; huta is silver, nnu-huta, the si1ver-antennaed or handed. Thus the descent claimed from Nem himself by the Tuath-Dadanan is exactly that of Ptah-Tatanen in the divine dynasties of Egypt, and no record of this descent of Ptah from Num was above ground out of Ireland until the present century. This increases the likelihood that Path-rick, the priest of Ptah, was the mage of the god himself, whose name is thus pronounced in the Irish Path-rick.
If so, this will be the British budd called by the Welsh the Victorious, who as Ptah is the Establisher, the budd of the 'Established enclosure,' and who becomes in English the 'Old Puth.' Ptah-Ur the old Ptah is one of the characters of the god.
The Egyptian ka-type, cultus, kind, supplies the terminal ch to our adjectives, by which nationality is designated as Welsh, Scotch, Dutch; this as in the Irish 'corca' and in Greek was hard originally. Strange as it may look, the word welsh is the same as corca, or karka, the type of the kar, whatsoever that may mean. But unless we know what it does mean we cannot know what 'people' may be included under that name.
Corca for people is Egyptian. Kar is native inhabitant and ka the type of person or function. But kar is essentially the lower, the nethermost, that is really the earliest. Corca as a type-name then belongs to the kar, and in this case it may be from Wales. The corca and the Welsh are synonymous in this sense.
Possibly the Irish type-name of corca for the people is derived from the kar type in another way. Kar (Eg.) denotes the cultivator of the soil, as in the name of the gardener, corn, and the crop. Karka (Eg.) means to prepare, and the word will also read kar, food; ka, to create, or kar, to cultivate, and ka, the food. Thus corca may denote a form of the corn-men, the Cruitneacht of Scotland, the [p.483] Scoti (skhet, Eg., corn), the Hut or Hud of the Land of Hûd, in Wales. Coirca, in Irish, kerch, in Armorican, and ceirch, in Welsh, are the names of oats, and the corca may have been the oat men, who probably preceded the wheat-men, the oat being a cereal nearer to the grasses. The Celtae as the Karti were already known to the monuments. Karut signifies natives, inhabitants, aborigines, and karti is but a variant of karuti, which as previously shown is a modification of Kafruti, and the Karti or Keltae are finally the Kafruti of Africa.
An ancient name of Babylon was Kar and the people are the Karti or Chaldees. The Egyptian name of Babylon is Kar. Kir is a supposed Hebrew name of Babylon. The meaning of kir or qir as that which embraces and encloses, hence a wall or a circle, also agrees with that of bab (Eg.) the circle, enclosure, and to go round. Inscriptions of Assyrian monarchs designate the whole land as Kaldi, and the inhabitants as the Kaldiai. They also are the Celtae from the original Kafruti on another line of migration and development.
So old was the word kart for stone-polishing in Egypt that it was reduced to herut, meaning to polish stone, and as an illustration of the Celt axes, hatchets, and knives, it may be pointed out that the word herut also means to arm for war. It is noticeable that these stones are confounded or mixed up with thunderbolts. In Shetland the Celt stones are called thunderbolts. But is not this because the lightning also kills? The Celt-stone was polished for killing, and the supposed safety on the spot where the bolt has fallen may arise from the Celt being a type of protection and defence, for which reason it was interred with the dead.
The Taffies are among the first people in the world. Tefi or tepi (Eg.) means the first. Tef is the divine progenitor, who came to be called the Father, but the female Tep is first. Af the flesh, the one born of, the Eve, mother of all flesh, is primordial. With the article prefixed Af or Eve is Tep, the typhonian genetrix, and the Taffies are her children. The British have their Duw Dofydd, a male god like Tef the Divine Father, and through him the Jewish David has been foisted upon them. But their descent is from Teft, the Egyptian tepht, the source of all, the mother of all, who as place was Dyved of the seven provinces, and as person was the goddess of the Seven Stars. Teft and Kheft are interchangeable names of this old genetrix. The rhyme of
'Taffy was a Welshman,
Taffy was a Thief,'
recovers an Egyptian word tafi, worn down to tai, and taui, meaning to steal, run off with. And shall the ancient mother Tef, Teft, Tâui, be confounded with and merged into the Hebrew David? Let language forbid. This shall not be so long as a child has its toffy, or [p.484] the sailor his tafia, and the ship its taff-rail, or the caged skylark its divit, or lovers have their tiffs, and married folk their duffle; so long as daffin and tiffin continue and taff-cakes are made with taffy—taf (Eg.) is to carry, bear—riding on his goat, and there is a dobbin, to carry a sack of corn, or a painter to daub, or a dove to croon, or a devil to frighten, or a Davy Jones's locker for a seaman to send to, the name of the ancient mother thus memorialised in English must never be lost in that of the Jewish David or the Christian saint.
It has been already suggested that the Welsh David was identical with tebhut (Eg.), in which we have the hut, corresponding with the name of the solar race, of teb. We shall find the chief type-names of the people are derived from the Great Mother; the Ketti and Gadhael from Kêd; the Fenians from Fen, Ven, Wen, Oine, the Irish Venus; Taffy, from Tef (the same as Kêd), which makes it all the more probable that the Manx people are the children of the genetrix Menka, or Mend.
Menka (Eg.) is the goddess whose name may be read Mâka, and who is the Irish Macha who bore the twins of mythology. The Manx arms consist of three legs in a circle doing the wheel, each one being a counterpoise to the others. In the hieroglyphics a counterpoise to a collar is called a maank; the counterpoise is also the determinative of the nurse's collar, named the menâ. The accent shows an abraded sign, which we restore by reading menka. Taliesin, speaking of one of the mystical characters, says, 'I have been mynawg, wearing the collar. I hold the splendid chair of the eloquent, the ardent Awen.' The goddess Menka represents the Two Truths, implied by the collar and counterpoise which bear her name. She is a rare form of the genetrix, and must be most ancient. Menka means to form, fabricate, create; and she was the feminine creator to whom the work of creation was assigned before the fatherhood was impersonated. The Manx counterpoise tends to identify the Manxmen, as named after Menkae. We have the manger, a horse-collar. Menka, to create and form, is extant in the saying, 'We were all mung up in the same trough,' i.e., in creation. The word mingled is a deposit. Manx is modified into Man, as the name of the island. One of its names is Inys Mon, the island of the cow. The cow Mon will identify the wet-nurse of mythology, as Mena or Menka, the goddess of the Menâ-t, the outcast shepherds of Egypt.
The Menka deposited the Monk, the Isle of Man as Mona was an especial religious sanctuary. The word ma-ank also reads Mother-king, or, I, the Ruler. Now the Chickasaws at one time had a king whom they called the Minko, and the succession was hereditary on the mother's side. This points to the female rex, or mother-king (ank). One particular clan whose hereditary king was on the [p.485] mother's side, called themselves the Minkos. The same meaning may have entered into the Manx name as the children of Menka for their right of primogeniture still extends to females as well as to males. So the Guanches of the Canary Isles, when discovered by the Spaniards, were found to be living under the government of 'Menceys,' who were chiefs subordinate to one head.
The Chickasaws were divided into six clans, namely, the Minko, Sho-wa, Co-ish-to, Oush-peh-ne, Mm-ne, and Hus-co-na. And when the chiefs thought it necessary to hold a council they requested the king to call one. The king then sent out runners to inform the people of the time and place at which the council was convened. This council of the six clans summoned by the Minko is identical with that of the six sheadings summoned by the Manx. The island is divided into six districts called sheadings (sheth is a separate division, in Egyptian, and in Hebrew, sheth is 6) under the jurisdiction of the Court of Tynwald. This court sits for the summary trial of offences for breaches of the peace and misdemeanours. It is still called holding a council. The Court of Tynwald sits in Douglas every fortnight; and 'tna' is a fortnight in Egyptian.
Wald, by permutation, is wart, ward, or word, and in Egyptian, uart means the foot, leg, go, fly; that is, word sent with all speed by means of the foot-messenger or runner. Thus the Tynwald was the council summoned fortnightly by the runner. The Manx judges are still designated Deemsters, and, in the hieroglyphics, tem or tma means distribute justice, make truth visible, satisfy. Anciently the Manx coroner was termed a moar. The Egyptian mer is a superintendent, and to die. Further, the mer is superintendent amongst five as the 'mer-tut,' and the Manx coroner was also the sheriff's officer of a court which had four bailiffs, and he, too, was a superintendent of the five, named the Moar. In the North of England a farm-bailiff is a Moor, whilst the superintendent of the town-walls in Chester was a Murenger. The mayor is perhaps derived from the Egyptian maharu, the hero, to whom the collar of gold was awarded. The collar of gold is a part of the insignia of the English mayor. Still mayors are superintendents, as the French maire du palms.
All lands, Dutch and Welsh, is a phrase used to express the whole world; and the whole world thus resolved in two halves is according to the Egyptian pattern. But theod, a people, and Welsh, strange or outlandish, are not primitives of speech. Dutch is the Egyptian tut with the type-terminal (kh, Eg., type), and tut, tat, tata, denote the upper of the two, the head, chiefs, princes. Tut is the mountain, our Tot-(hill). The Welsh are the people of the kar, or well, the lower half of the whole. This symbolical and philological distinction was then assumed by those who bore the name of the Upper, the [p.486] Teuts, Teutons, or Dutch, who looked down on the Welsh people of the underworld, the kars, as the lower. Ethnologically, the loftiest means the latest, nearest the surface, the upper stratum; and the lower is the earliest. It should be 'all lands, Welsh and Dutch.'
The Irish Aithech-Tuatha, who are usually identified with the Atti-Cotti of the Roman writers, constantly found to be warring against the dominant races during the first centuries of our era, are rendered by Dr. O'Connor as the giganteam gentem, and were looked upon by O'Curry as the rent-paying people. The name read by Egyptian is Aat-hek-tata; aat, is house, abode; hek, to rule; tata, heads, chiefs, heads of ways; the established heads of houses, or the equivalent of rent-paying people. Atai means chief, superior.
The name of the Pheryllt often occurs in the ancient writings. They are the legendary wise men of Wales. In Hanes Taliesin, the goddess Keridwen prepares her cauldron of inspiration and the sciences according to the books of the Pheryllt. An old chronicle quoted by Dr. Thomas Williams affirms that the Pheryllt had an establishment at Oxford, where we find the Uskh Halls, the temples of learning, prior to the university founded there by Alfred.
The Pheryllt have the reputation of being the first scientific men and teachers of arts, more particularly those connected with fire. They are supposed to have been the earliest metallurgists and chemists. The name of Pheryllt, in its earlier form, is Phergyllt, and Gyllt answers to Karrt, the Egyptian furnace; the double r even is repeated in the double l. Per or pra (Eg.) means to show, cause to appear, exhibit, reveal, manifest, explain, and is a form of the word fire. Those who did this by means of fire might very well be the Perkarr-t, Phergyllt, or Pheryllt, the fire-furnace men, or metallurgists.
It is not necessary to derive the name of the Culdees, who formerly occupied the cils or cells in Scotland, Wales, and Ireland, from that of the Celtae race, or karti, the stone-polishers. They were a kind of monkish priesthood, having especial relationship to the dead. This primarily applied to the covering, burial, and preservation of the mortal remains. The Gaelic ceall is both a cell and a church; the cill is a burial-ground or a churchyard. The English goale is a sepulchral tumulus or barrow, and the cell is a religious house. The cel, in Welsh, is the corpse; cil, Irish, and ciall, Gaelic, mean death. Cleith, in Gaelic, is to conceal, hide, keep secret; cleithe, Irish, is concealing and keeping secret. How early this is applied to covering over may be seen by the African Padsade name of the loin-cloth, the kuloto, the Irish cealt, and Scottish kilt; Welsh golawd, a covering or envelopment; Hebrew galad, and Javanese kulit, a skin; an early form of covering and clothing; Irish cloth, a veil or covering; English [p.487] cloth and clothing. The clergy are still called the cloth; they were the first coverers of the dead, as the mena-ster is the layer-out of the corpse. The French collet is a clergyman. The culdee was a collet, Hebrew תלהק, the preacher, but in especial relationship to the covering and concealing of the dead, the stone-circles and the stones. Clethv or cluddu in Cornish is to bury. The Irish cludh is a burying-ground; the Gaelic cladh a churchyard; the callaid, Gaelic, a funeral wail; the Anglo-Saxon gild, service, worship; Greek keladeo, to invoke, call, celebrate; French culte, worship; Hindustani, Arabic, and Turkish khuld, being perpetual, in perpetuity, or eternal. The Egyptian kart was the chest of the preserved mummy. The karas was the burial-place; the karat, a key, bolt, lock. Our karat or culdee kept the enclosure of the dead, as at Kirkcaldy. In Egyptian the ka is the religious minister, and rat means to retain the form, plant, and to beseech, which describes the office of the culdee. Teru, to invoke and adore, is also the name of the layer-out and mourner of the dead. This is one of the most important meanings of the root teru, the Cornish deruw, and Irish draoi, the Druid. Also teru, to mourn, is the English dare, to grieve; Gaelic tuir, to rehearse with mournful cadence. The Gaelic toir is a churchyard, and in Cornish daiarou means to bury; the English thurh is a grave. The earliest religious service was rendered to the dead, and this was the office of the Culdee, who continued the work of the Druid, which was taken up and carried on by the Christian priesthood.
The Irish Corca-Tened were a form of the fire-people or workers in fire. The sons of Usnagh or Uisneach, also called Usnoth, were another. It was at Usnagh (Uisneach), in Ireland, that the Council of all the provinces met annually and the new fire was lighted that was sent over all Ireland. This identifies the name with fire. As a people, or clan, the sons of Uisneach are especially dear to Gaelic tradition and song, for the sake of the hero Naisi and the woman Deirdre, the fatal beauty of mythology.
The three sons of Uisneach are possibly a form of the solar triad, or trimurti. Hence their three domains and their booths of three divisions. If so, Naisi the hero and eldest of the three, will be the same representative of the sun in the lower regions as the Nasi, whom we shall find in the Hebrew mythology; one of three Adonim. Nas (Eg.) signifies fire and flame. The nasr is the fiery Phlegethon, and Naisi, in connection with the three brothers Uisneach, would be the solar god of fire.
It seems more than probable that the deirdre or darthula, who was the Celtic Helen, the fatal beauty of the sons of Uisneach, was likewise the Direte of the British coins or talismans; a name of Kêd, who has been identified with Ta-urt of Egypt. Darth-ula as Taurt-ula is [p.488] the variant of Deirdre's name at Ballycastle, opposite Raghery Island, Ireland, where there is a rock still called Carraigh Uis-Neach. This appears to connect the carraigh name with first, oldest bearer. Ta-Urt-Rre would be the first, oldest, chief bearer of the children as goddess of the Great Bear, the spark-holder or Mother of Fire, and deirdre is connected with the vitrified forts. The ancient spark-bearer is named kar-tek, and gar-drei is a local the smolten rock from rekh (Eg.) the furnace, fire, heat. If we divide the name of Deirdre as Deir-dre (compare Kar-drei) and deir is taken to represent Taur (used without the terminal t), drei as synonymous with terui—the Egyptian form of Troy of the seven-circled centre or Sesennu, found in the Kef of Troy at Cov-en-try, the place of the goddess of the Seven Stars and her son Sut-Baal, before the solar triad of the sons of Uisneach was established—Deir-dre is then Taur, the Great Mother of Troy. Hellen is the Renn (t) nurse of har the renn, and in one version Naisi and his two brothers are called the sons of Uslinn; us (Eg.) meaning to produce, become large, swelling, and lenn (renn), to nurse, be the gestator as the lenn, or producer of the lenn. Mythologically the matter is so ancient that to all appearance it must have gone from Wales to Ireland in the stellar form, and from thence to the West of Scotland in the solar stage as a comparatively modern reproduction.
So much for the mythical aspect. As an ethnological entity the clan of the sons of Uisneach are credited with being an offshoot of the Irish Gadhael, who migrated from Ireland into the West of Scotland, and settled in the region round Loch Etive, where they left a number of vitrified forts or mounds. They were rock-smelters. Many rocks are easily melted into vitrified masses, but of course the time was when it was a thing of wonder. The workers in fire, whether as vitrifiers, metallurgists, or makers of fire-water, were looked upon as magicians, and we find the direct descendants of the Cymry denouncing the Gadhaelic fire-people as smelters, distillers, and devils. The 'Rocks of Naisi' and the 'Wood of Naisi,' still found in the neighbourhood of Loch Etive, become significant in relation to the smelters when we know that nasi (Eg.) is fire. For the wood (birch-trees) was famous fuel for the furnace, and the iron made with its charcoal still fetches, in Glasgow, four times the price of coal-iron. This wood of Naisi, the Coille Naois, in Muckairn, was the earlier coal.
Dun Mac-Uisneachan, on Loch Etive, shows the seat of the sons of Uisneach, whose names are connected with the vitrified forts. Us (Eg.) means to create and produce, large, extended; en is by, and akh is fire. Us-en akh reads the creators and producers by means of fire. Further, the Egyptian has the terminal t in akht, fire. This would allow for the variant found in Usnoth or Usnath as a modified [p.489] form of Usnakbt. But there is more than the vitrified mounds concerned in the name and nature of the Uisneachan. We know that in the time of the Bronze age in Britain cremation was first introduced by the solarites, the men of the worship under which the barrows were made in the shape of a disk. The vitrifiers were also workers in bronze, and they burned their dead and placed the ashes in urns. Now, in Egyptian, ush means to consume, destroy by fire; ysu, Welsh, to consume; yssu, Cornish, to burn. Ash, in Hebrew, is fire; ozo, in the African Hwida; uzo, Mahi; wozi, Pika, and washa, Swahili, to set on fire; ush, Sanskrit, to burn; usha, burning, scorching. The word is likewise applied to reducing by means of fire, as ushm (Eg.) signifies a decoction and the essence; ushm is to grind down and devour. This ush would explain the name of the uis or Us-neach as the vitrifiers and producers of the forts, by means of fire, with another meaning for the akh, or akht. These are the dead. Ush-en-akh would denote the cremationists. Us, then, meaning to consume or reduce by fire, applies to cremating, vitrifying, and distilling (ushm, Eg., being the essence, the decoction). The akh or akht are the dead; en (Eg.), is 'of the,' and the Ush-en-akh (or Ush-en-akht, whence Usnath) would be the destroyers or consumers of the dead by fire. In the name of Dunstaffnage, a castle, built in later times in the neighbourhood of Loch Etive, we may find corroboration for this reading. Dun is the seat, the royal seat, of the Gadhaelic kings and chieftains, and stef (Eg.) means to melt or smelt, to purify and refine with fire, whilst nage also represents the en-akh as in Uisneach. The name of Uisneach derived from ush, to destroy by fire, would be most perfectly realized if the people were so designated because they burned their dead; a horrible practice in the sight of the men of the older faith. This would be sufficient cause for giving a bad character to fire itself, whether in the fire-water (whisky) or the element which consumed the dead, hence the 'distillers and devils' applied to the Gadhael.
If we may judge by the only living representatives of the Palaeolithic men in Europe, the Eskimos, the sole surviving people known to show a total lack of reverence for their dead, the earliest emigrants into Europe took little, if any, care of their dead. No interments have yet been proved to belong to the Palaeolithic period. Thus they would not have the very first stake in the soil afforded by the feeling for their buried friends. They drifted over the earth's surface without any permanent ground ties. They continued the life of nomads up into the Arctic Circle, and wandered about the world all over Europe, through Asia Minor and India, in a far larger range than that of their successors, whose increased culture and acquirements enabled them to add agriculture and fishing to their hunting, as [p.490] means of subsistence, whilst the respect for their dead helped to tether them down to the soil where they took root and founded on the spot their earliest civilization. The first emigrants from the primeval home were of necessity wanderers over the earth, and that was how the earth was peopled at first. But with the burial of the dead and the cleaving to them still, came the more or less permanent settlements grouped about the graves as a fixed centre of civilization. The caves, kasses, caers, long barrows or disk-shaped tumuli, mounds, cromlechs, tombs, and temples, all tell the same tale in unbroken continuity. The difference in the range does not therefore imply a difference in the race. Thus it appears probable that the prime incentive to form a settlement and take a fixed rootage in the earth originated in a clinging to the burial-place, as if the nomads were first laid hold of by the dead hand, and retained by the skirts, in the locality which made an irresistible appeal to them with the voice of their loved and lost crying 'Stay with us and protect us in our helplessness.' One seems to see this in the skhen or khen (Eg.). The skhen is a shrine, and the name signifies to alight and rest, place, dwell, be in sanctuary, a sanctuary, to institute and establish. If the meaning of sekhen be summed up in a word, it means to settle; the determinative being a water-bird. Khen, khenen, and sekhen are interchangeable. We have the Egyptian khenn, the religious sanctuary in Caer-Conan, the ancient name of Conisborow, situated upon the high lands of the river Don; here the sacred place on the rock, the Kester, was converted into a later fortress or castle.
Khennu (Eg.) is to believe, and the word means to lean on, rest, be sustained. It may be divided into khen, to carry, transport, image, and nu, divine, or heaven. So nahb, another name of belief, means to sustain. Thus khennu is divine sustenance and heavenly transport in the sense of carriage and conveyance, rest and settlement. The Cangiani are thus traceable to the Kenners, whether we call them believers, knowers, or primitive settlers. Khen and sekhen permute, and the people of Caer Segont become the Cangiani. Ki (Eg.), denotes the land, region, or abode; uni or ani, the inhabitants. Thus the Cangiani are the inhabitants who first settle in the sekhen enclosure, which was a religious foundation, because a sanctuary of the dead, also found at Scone as the 'Mount of Belief,' and the word khenn acquires another relationship to the dead as if through them the primitive men first laid hold of the other world as well as made fast their earliest foundations in this. Caer Segont, the Segontium of the Cangiani, answers to the Egyptian skhent, that is, the sekhen, shrine, or sanctuary. The skhent is the double crown, emblem of the Two Truths, and of the established circle. Caer-Segont is the resting-place, the established khen or sekhen; a foundation in the caer or sacred circle, hence a sanctuary, one of those circles, for example, to which the living debtor can still flee and find protection [p.491] with the dead, although he does not know that it was on their account the right of refuge was conferred.
We might cross-examine other witnesses to the Egyptian origin of the Cymry in ages incredibly remote. For example, 'That was formerly Sut,' we are told, of the two gods. And this conversion of Sut into Tet has its analogue in the hieroglyphics, where tset is the earlier form of tet. The deep is tset or set, and the rock is tser or ser. A syllabic tes passes into the phonetics as both t and s, and thus divided, we obtain Set or Tet as the bifurcation of Tset. The snake tet must have been a tset. This double sound of ts or tz is lettered in the Hebrew tzaddi, צ, which looks as if it figured the snake with a dual head, or t and s in one. In Hebrew it expresses the strongest sibilant, the hiss of the snake. The snake tet, then, was an earlier tset, and survives as the Hebrew tzaddi and English zed. This double sound of the ts also divides in the same way in Ethiopic and Arabic. It is very rare on the monuments, where it leaves an accented t in the snake, supposed to have a similar value to the Coptic djandja, j or Dj. This latter letter, however, introduces another phonetic link. It is identical with the hieratic form of the crocodile's tail used as a ka in Kam. Ka modifies into sa with the same sign. Thus we have the sa, tsa, and ka, the ka being first of all. At present, however, we are concerned only with the tsa, tes, or tzaddi, which divides visibly into the letters t and s. This tes survives in Assyrian, Hebrew, Ethiopic, and Aramaic, as a representative of the s. Also, dz in Mpongwe, ts in Setshuana, dz in KiSwahili, dz in Ki-nika, represent the s. The Semitic z is convertible at times with d, or rather the z and d interchange; the Hebrew zeh (this) is da in Chaldee; the male, zakar, is dekar. The Egyptian form in tzer appears to explain that the root of both is a compound, and this bifurcates again, and offers a choice in the process of sound-shunting. By this process the Egyptian tser or ser, the rock, becomes tser, tor, or tyre. Ch in various languages of Eastern Asia is the modern equivalent of t. Ts, in Chinese, sometimes stands for the European s, and the Chinese s is t in Cochin-Chinese. The t often precedes the s, and is aspirated. In several languages of Eastern Asia the cr is equivalent to t. Before the e, in Latin, g changes to dj, whilst in French we get back to zh, and in Russian we find the primitive Ts. Tzar is purely the Egyptian Tser.
The Egyptian tes interchanges with tsh, which is probably the earlier sound, as in that we have the ground tone of the Mongol and Arabic dj and English j, French zh, Latin dj, and g, the English and Sanskrit ch, where we pass back again into the k. The origin of all this lies at the foundation of language, and has to be sought for in the clicks, where we cannot follow it at present. But the point is that this ts, tz, tsh or dj is a living sound today with the Welsh, and one they have been unable to exchange for the later representatives of [p.492] this primitive of speech. John Rhys, in a report as inspector at schools in the counties of Denbigh and Flintshire, remarks on the total inability of the Welsh children to master the sounds of j and ch. He says their inability to pronounce these leads them to read a sentence like 'Charles and James got a shilling each for finishing the job which they had begun,' 'Tsyarles and Dsyames got a silling eats for finicing the dsyob whits they had begun.' In some parts also the Carnarvonshire habit of giving a sputtering pronunciation to a final dental is not unusual, while the u of North Wales, which resembles the German u, is frequently substituted for the English i. Thus the sound which had almost died out of monumental Egypt, the ts or tsr of the snake and the bolt hieroglyphics (Äs), is perfectly preserved in Wales, still claiming kinship with the clicks of Africa, According to this pronunciation, the cherry would be called the tsherry, and that is the Egyptian name for the red. It is not known that they had the cherry-tree; but tshru is the red crown, red calf, red land, gore, red blood, red tree. The substitution of the u for the i is also notable, as in the hieroglyphics the i has in it an inherent u, and interchanges with u. The Egyptian u is the English i. Tef and Kef are interchangeable names of the same goddess who became our Ked, and the equivalent tv and qv both pass into the later p, (b) of Welsh. Also, as already pointed out, the qv of the Ogham is composed of five digits or one hand, and in the hieroglyphics Kef is the hand. The hieroglyphic language must be studied before the 'glossic' of the English can be perfected. For instance, the Cornish and other pronunciations of tin make use of an aspirate, which the Egyptian tahn for tin, will explain. Also the aspirated p of the Gaelic still represents the ideographic per, which in one form is the lioness, in another a water-fowl making the visible per with the open bill, both denoting the expulsion of breath, or aspirate.
The s (Eg.) is the causative prefix to verbs, and in Welsh, words are augmented and intensified in meaning by help of a prefix, ys. The sounds of the i in English are related to the Egyptian i, which has the u inherent in it; and as the u became e, the i also implies an ie, as well as Iu. Sounds representing diphthongs tell us of the ideographic stage of language and its complex types, out of which the simpler phonetics were finally evolved.
Some of the Scottish antiquarians seem inclined to consider, in direct antithesis to the reputed wise man, that there is nothing old under the sun, and to set the facts of survival in battle array against the evidence for evolution.
Dr. Arthur Mitchell, who has done good work for the stones and other Scottish antiquities, has recently shown us how, in its hiding-places of Scotland, in nooks and corners, and the far-off solitary isles, the past survives in the present so persistently as to make him suspect the evidence for an immense antiquity. He finds the stone whorl is [p.493] still in use; still manufactured for the spindle. In other places it is out of use and knowledge, and has become an object of superstition: and mystery, called an 'adder-stone.' But this, so far from severing a link with a remote past, establishes a new one; for the adder-stone,' or glain of the Druids, was a bead perforated to be strung like the beads worn by the Africans as gris-gris, or charms; and the whorl is a bead also, fixed on the spindle. The same type persisted in the beads worn on the pins of our Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire makers of hand-lace. Anything circular and perforated for use was typical, and was preserved on that account, as well as for use. A very early glain, which might have also been used as a whorl, was a joint of the backbone; joints of the vertebrae in Welsh are gleinaw cefn, and these are still worn as amulets by some races. In the hieroglyphics the vertebral column, the usert, is a sceptre of sustaining, and sign of maintaining power. The fact of the whorls being called adder-stones identifies them with the ancient system of symbolism, which included the beads and the serpent; and by that system must these types be adjudged. Lateness of persistence and reproduction of the type is no evidence whatever against its antiquity; on the contrary, it is only the most ancient type that does persist in this way, whether in race or in art, and the strength of its persistence is some measure of its age. Dr. Mitchell found a boy in the act of shaping a whorl for his mother's spindle with a pocket-knife, and the stone used, a soapstone, or steatite, is called kleber-stone in Scotland. This name of the stone has something to tell us of the past: it is the stone named for its being easily carved. Kleb is interchangeable with carve and groupe, to sculpture in English; graf, Gaelic, to engrave; cearfan, Anglo-Saxon, to carve; cer-fiaw, Welsh, to form, model, or carve; carpo, Latin, to carve; jarub, Arabic, a hewn stone; and the whole group of words are derivable from the Egyptian khereb, or kherp, that which is first in form or formation. Kherp means the principal, foremost, surpassing; to form, model, and figure. Khereb, the form, and to figure is primal; this, in kleber, is applied to the stone that is easily wrought into shape. Here the name agrees with the type, and both come from the beginning. The people who still continue to make whorls in Shetland are not responsible for this type-name of the stone, which goes back to the Stone age in Africa, and the names of the stone-polishers as the kara, or karti; the cylinder as a karu-karu, the circular thing as a kar, to which word the f adds it or him, whence the kherf, or carver, and the kleber-stone. The whorl was not turned into an adder-bead and amulet in less than a century. It always was an amulet by virtue of its being one of the hole-stones or kar-stones, as were the jade ring and perforated axe, the bead or adder-stone, and was religiously preserved for use on that account. [p.494] Dr. Mitchell appears to me continually to confound the rudeness of the later copy with that of the earlier type; rudeness of structure or of workmanship is primarily a proof of great age, but no guidance whatever to the time of the latest reproduction, and it is useless to adduce the lateness of the copy against the antiquity of the type. Nor, as against the doctor's suggested conclusions, is the evolutionist bound to believe that the prehistoric man was a brainless being, or that the cavemen of Europe were specimens of the primitive man and the missing link. We know they were not.
The troglodytes were found by Dr. Mitchell dwelling in the caves of Wick Bay in the year 1866, but that can afford no argument against men having lived in caves in the Palaeolithic age, possibly fifty thousand years ago. The kaf, coff, kep is the place born of, the cave of Mother Earth, or the womb. And from this it can be gathered that the Kafruti and Kaffirs were the cavemen. The accented â in kârti for caves, holes underground, excavations, shows the full word to be Kafruti, and the kâr is the kafru or kâ-ru, literally the earth-mouth, or, in the human form, the uterus. The evidence for the past is of various kinds, and in this case these caves of Wick and their dwellers could never be confused with those of Duruthy. The steel pocket-knife, needle, button, or something equivalent, would be found to continue the story, even though the stone whorl and clay graddan were also there. We have now to take into consideration the evidence of the namers.
In Lewis, at the extremity of the Western Isles, they still make the rudest pottery now produced in the known world in the shape of the craggan. It is made of clay by the hands of woman, the first shaper; it is dried and then filled with burning peats, and set to bake with burning peats all round it. Now in Egyptian ka is earth, of which the vessel is made; the rekh is a brazier-furnace, and khan signifies the hollow utensil for containing and carrying, the English can. The craggan is the can made of earth burnt in the furnace. The craggan is a cooking vessel, and the karr (Eg.) is an oven; akh is fire, and khan the carrier. The karr-akh would he a fire-oven, and with the kh modified into h, this would be the karh, or karau, Egyptian names for the jar, with the sign of cooking by fire, or of distilling. Khan is also a name of water and other liquids; thus the kara-khan would be a water-jar, as a craggan. The craggan is as rude and simple as anything made from the beginning of pottery that would stand fire and hold water, and it is thus a true type of the beginning, even though in point of time the beautiful karhu of Egypt comes between. The type is the test of antiquity, not the time in which it was last repeated. Language shows that the word jar is the later form of kar, and the Egyptian karhu, of an earlier karkh, found in the crag-gan, and no English jar-can will ever be called a crag-gan; hence the name and the type must be taken [p.495] together. This testimony of language is infallible and final, if we can only get the other facts rightly adjusted.
The wild Irish do not thresh their oats, says Fynes Moryson, but burn them from the straw, and so make cakes of them. According to Martin, the ancient way of dressing corn in the Western Isles was the same. He says, 'This was called graddan, from the Irish word grad, signifying quick.' But the Egyptian krrat, the furnace, offers the likelier explanation; and as tena is to separate, corn separated by the furnace-fire would be krrat-ten, or graddan. Karr and krrat are both used for the furnace or oven.
In Shetland corn is still dried or roasted by rolling hot stones among it. The corn is then ground and made into cakes called burstin bread.
Dr. Mitchell looks upon the roasting as an accident occurring in the process of drying the corn. Let us see what language says. Tin is fire, and the corn is dried or roasted with fire. The Egyptians likewise made burs or purs for food, as some kind of cake. The reader need go no farther than Dr. Birch's Dictionary to see that per (Eg.) is corn, the commonest of type-names for corn, as bere (barley), bar, Irish, corn; Hebrew, bar; Arabic, burr, for wheat; baeri, African Gobura, oats; peri, Krebo, beans; bora, Hindustani, beans; poires, Norman, peas; pare, Maori, corn; puron, Greek, corn; pare, Hindustani, corn; far, Latin, corn; pura, Sanskrit, some kind of grain; vora, Sanskrit, a pulse; vri, Sanskrit, rice. Per (Eg.) is corn, and pers, a cake, food made from it; the s in Egyptian adds the thing made from per, whence pers; tin adds the fire, and we have the pers-tin, or burs-tin, as a name applied to the cakes (Eg., pers) made from the roasted corn, most probably at first because it could be the more easily crushed.
We are not left without some sort of time-gauge for the immense past belonging to the people of the isles whose going forth is chronicled as the first thing after the flood of Noah.
In the stream-works at Pentewan, relics of human life and occupation have been found forty feet below the surface, and several feet beneath a stratum which contained the remains of a whale (Eschrichtius robustus) now extinct. In a stratum of still earlier date, a wooden shovel and a pick made of deer-horn were discovered at the Carnon stream-works.
The name of pocra has been preserved at Aberdeen by means of a jetty and a rock. It is unreadable as it stands. By making it bocna, a meaning is assigned to it in Gaelic, as the river mouth. There is a tradition, however, on the spot that the two rivers, Don and Dee, which now debouch at a considerable distance apart, once joined their waters at the foot of Broad Hill before they were poured into the [p.496] sea. The pocra rock is off the mouth of the Dee. The Dee in Wales rises from two heads, and is the dual river. Ti (Eg.), and English twy answer to the twofold or dual river. The Dee is the dual one, as the two founts form one river. But the river with the same name off Aberdeen is not a double river that becomes one. Nevertheless, the local tradition declares that it was once the double river that ran into one, but that the land has been so far eaten away by the sea that the Dee was divided from the Don. If we may read the name of Don by the Tun (Eg.), it will corroborate the tradition. Tun means to be divided and made separate, literally to be cut in two halves. But did the Dee and Don once unite in a single stream called the double river? The local tradition affirms that they did, and says further that the Pocra Rock stands at the spot where the banks were broken and the waters united to run seaward in one stream. Peka (Eg.) is to be divided; pekha, division, separated in twain. And rua is to rush swiftly and come near. Pekh-rua would signify the confluence of the divided waters; or, still more forcible, ruau is the bank of a river; pekh, to divide, sever, make a hole, gap, chasm. Pekhruau in Egyptian signifies the place where the two rivers ran together through the broken bank, and rushed in one channel to the sea.
Thus far Egyptian corroborates local tradition. To judge topographically from present appearance, it must be many thousand years ago since the Dee and Don debouched as one river.
One name of St. Michael's Mount is 'Careg Clows in Cows,' or 'Careg Clowz in Cowse,' accepted by Cornishmen as meaning the grey or hoar rock in the wood. On this, and a popular tradition, has been based a theory that the name was given when the mount formed part of the mainland, situated in a wood, some twenty thousand years ago, in the era of the mammoth; a fact which, if established, would be in keeping with that age.
It is certain the mount was at one time conjoined to Marazion Cliff. Equally certain that a people ignorant of geology have never ceased to assert that the mount was formerly connected with the mainland; also the tradition was not a geological theory. Camden, Carew, and Drayton called the mount 'Careg Clowse in Cowse.' But Carew likewise writes the name 'Careg Cowze in Clowze.' The Grey Rock may be got out of Ca-reg by aid of kaui (Eg.) grey, crepuscular, and rock.
The Egyptian word for wood is khau, it is also written with the terminal t, kauit. That is the Celtic cuit, Welsh coed, Armorican koad, English wood. We have it in English as cow; the wood-pigeon is a cow-prise, and it is the law of the Cornish language in such a case to change the t into s. But an entirely different rendering of the name is now proposed.
As we have seen, the crick and craig stones in the ultimate form of the name, are kar-rekh stones, in two cases, of birth and burial, of purification and concealment underground, and may be so in the present instance. Careg is not merely a rock. Kar is a rock, and roke denotes a vein of mineral ore. These are both in English. Rekh (Eg.), which means to hide, to purify and refine, is also the name of the furnace or refinery. The kar is found in a variety of forms implying underground, and being enclosed. Kar is the sarcophagus, or tomb, evidently applied to mining, for the plural karti includes passages, holes, prisons, and cataracts of water underground. Karrekh (Eg.) reads the refinery of the mine. We have the name in carrick. The karas (Eg.) is the kar where the precious thing is preserved, as the mummy. Kar is to encircle round, enzone, contain, possess, imprison; as the precious thing. From this come our killas, kollus, close, argil and clay, the kar in which the as, the precious thing is enclosed, embedded, imprisoned or karast. Gold is named from this kar, with the t terminal, kar-t that which has been karr'd; karr'd includes the incarceration in the earth and the passage through the furnace, when it is karred (charred and orbited), our gold.
It has been overlooked by all that we have a word 'close' in English with a special sense of metal enclosed in minerals. The matrix of clay or other argillaceous slate in which the metals gold (clay-slate is the main matrix of the gold found at Ballarat), copper or tin are embedded, is named killas, the Cornish miners calling it kollus. The word is identical with the Sanskrit caras, and Persian charas, for a place of confinement, a prison. Also in the North cows is the technical term for slime ore, that is the ore still mixed with mud. Khas (Eg.) signifies a rude and miserable condition. Hes is dirt; ush, mud. Khus, to pound, ram, beat with a mallet. Khus is a valuable variant for cows; the one names the stuff, the other the process. Khusing, or stamping and pounding the cows, is one of the most prominent of the processes. The stamps used are a kind of wooden pestles, these are attached to 'cams,' and khem (Eg.) means to bruise, crush, break into pieces; the cams being used for the pounding.
Clowze is a dialect form of kallas, kollus, and close; the proper mining and geological term for the special clay-slate in which tin is found.
This sufficiently indicates the meaning of 'clowze' and 'cows.' Kleuz and kloz are found in Armorican as names of the enclosure or tomb, the Egyptian karas, Hebrew שרח, Persian charas. We may note how this root kal (kar), enters into mining operations. Kal, the hard, is peculiarly a mining term. To gale a mine is to have the right of working it. Galuz is an old word for smooth or bald. Clysmic is cleansing by washing. Clevis is draught, or cop metal. Clash is [p.498] to bang and beat. To crush is to squeeze the slime ore; crazziled means caked together to calcine is smelting.
The 'in' may be the Cornish yn or an. En, Egyptian, is our in and also reads of, by, from, from the. We are now in a position to determine the order of the careg, cows, and clowze, which will further decide the preposition en.
We know the nature of cows and clowze in relation to the careg. We know the mineral ore was got from the clowze in the earthy condition of cows (slime ore), it follows that the true reading is careg-cowse-en-clowze, the kar-rekh of the cowse from the clowze. Not that it matters for the present purpose if we read it careg-clowze, for the fact is that form is yet extant as the name of a tin-mine, at St. Austell, abraded into 'car-claze' mine, cara-clowze being the modified careg-clowze. Car-claze is a mine so shallow that for a mile in circuit it is open to the day. In this the clowze or kollas, the matrix of the metal, is a soft, decomposed granite—the mount, be it remembered, is an outlier of granite adjoining the slate on the landward side—not the clay-slate; still the mine is car-claze. This points to an abbreviation of careg (cowse in) clowze. Caregclowze then, in the simplest, latest form, is the metal-inclosing rock, and a title still holding good at St. Austell is valid at the Mount of St. Michael. If we were to take cowse for wood it would still be the mine car-claze, careg-clowze, or kar-rekh clowze in the wood at St. Michael's Mount.
It would not be necessary even to insist on the kar in kar-rekh, as kha is the mine, and, with the terminal article, the kha-t, the kha, is the belly, the quarry, or a mine. Ka also denotes an inner region of earth or land. So that ka, kha, and kar come to the same thing, the mine. Rekh signifies to burn, whiten, purify by heat. The rekh is the Egyptian brazier or portable furnace. So that the car-claze, or ca-reg-clowze mine at St. Austell is named both as the mine and refinery of the clowze, close, or kollus, the karas in which the tin was enclosed. And the complete name entrusted to the keeping of the mount, which is now only a rock in the modern sense, appears to be recoverable as Ka-rekh-cows-en-kallas. The mine, the refinery, the cows, and the kallas. This means all that has been claimed for the Hoar Rock in the wood; it tells us the furnaces, the White-houses of Maraziort, once stood at the mount, and there took the cows, the slime-ore extracted from the kallas, in the ka or kar, and purified it by fire (rekh)—except the length of geological time to be reckoned. This will be lessened because, if the mine lay between the mount and Marazion Mound, the land would be so honeycombed by mining operations as to greatly hasten the work of the water when it once broke in.
Ictis was a name of the mount known to the Greeks. Diodorus [p.499] says the inhabitants of the promontory of Belerium, the people who wrought the tin, melted it into the form of astragali, and then carried it to an island in front of Britain, called Ictis. To this island, which was left dry at low tide, the tin was carted from the shore, and then transported by traders in ships. The island of Ictis is generally admitted to be the mount; this was one of the few probabilities of Cornewall Lewis. 'What's in a name?' The richest deposit of all the past. Names are the matrix, still inclosing the precious thing we are mining for. Ictis in Greek is a weasel, a ferret, or some form of the miner. Iko denotes the stamping of the tin-workers, to smite together at a blow. So does the Latin Ico. Ictus, Latin, is a thrust. Ikt, Heb., a fiery furnace. Akh-ta (Eg.) is to make splendid by blasting with fire. We have no form in ikt, but ikh is represented by khi, meaning to 'beat-beat.' And ukh is to seek, ukhs, to create, mould by pounding. Ukh, a column, probably signifies to be fixed, as does uka in Maori. Tes (Eg.) is the enveloped form and inner self of a thing. These go to show that Ictis was named as the place where the ore was extracted, pounded, refined, and shaped into metal. Camden calls the Mount 'Dinsol olim.' In ancient times it had been known as Din-sol. This, at first sight, looks like the Din, the high seat of the sun, which is worth bearing in mind. In Egyptian tahn is tin, and sel is the rock.
This would yield the tin or metal rock, for other metals, one supposed to be bronze, were called Tahn. Sole is English for the bottom vein in the lode of a mine. Thus Din-sole may be the seat of the deep mine, and as before said, in the lead-mining districts the beds of rock which contain the ore are named sills, whilst ser (Eg.) is some golden colour like butter with the tam sceptre of gold for determinative. Here again we must strike light by the aid of another title of the mount which will be a determinative for both. Tumba was an ancient name of the mount called the careg cows in clowz. So says William of Worcester in his diary. Max Muller has endeavoured to show that the name of Tumba belonged originally to the Mount St. Michael of Normandy, and was transferred with certain Christian legends to Cornwall. Tumba was applied to the one mount as early as the tenth century, and very possibly applied to the other from ten to twenty thousand years ago. For these reasons: ba is an Egyptian name for the mine; tum signifies the metal, whether tin or gold, or both; tumba is the tin mine or the gold mine. Tum is sol and gold at the same time.
The full form of the name for gold in Egyptian as in Hebrew is khetem, and it means the shut and sealed, the thing most preciously preserved. Tam is abraded from khetam, it is gold and the sceptre sign of rule, the m sometimes permutes with n, and tin is called both tahn and atam. The tahn is also a kind of bronze which may have [p.500] been made of tin mixed with gold. It is known that gold and tin are near allies. The earliest tin sent from Victoria contained a considerable quantity of gold.
Aur, our ore, is the Welsh name for gold. This implies that the first ore known in Cornish was auriferous. The name is not derived from the Latin aurum, but both are from one original, which, as before suggested, is found in afr, i.e., aur. Afr (Eg.) is fire, and means to burn, therefore to smelt, and the ore is for smelting; the aur, that which has been smelted.
The mine that lay between the mount and Marazion Cliff, which has since caved in, subsided, and been washed away, was possibly worked for gold, and Tumba may have been the name of it as the gold mine, before it was worked for tin as Dinsol. Where it exists, gold is the most self-discovering and easily perceived of minerals. It is quite within the range of the credible that Tumba contained both gold and tin. The Welsh Triads represent the Princes as riding in cars of wrought gold. It has been discovered that the Romans worked the Gogofau Mine, near Parnsant, in Carmarthenshire, for gold. Indeed the name of Gogofau, rendered by Egyptian khu-kefau, the hidden or lurking glory, points to the gold. Kiu (Eg.) also is the precious stone. Gold is occasionally discovered at Combe Martin in lumps as large as a pigeon's egg. There is still a small proportion of gold found with the alluvial tin in Cornwall.
Herodotus had heard there was a prodigious quantity of gold in the north, although he was unable to say how it was produced. The Druid priests were designated by the title of Wearers of the Gold Chains. The gold chain was a note of nobility. The root of the word noble, nub (Eg.), signifies gold. The shield of the chief Druids was a circle of gold. The beautiful torques worn by the Irish chieftains were of gold. The torque of gold is often alluded to by the Barddas. Aneurin states that in the battle of Cattraeth there were three hundred threescore and three wearers of the golden torques. Quite likely the Ancient Britons were not such poor naked savages as they have been painted. Tumba could hardly have been dissociated from gold or the god Tum in the Egyptian mind. Tum was the setting sun, the 'sun setting from the land of life,' in the west, as god of the ba, or bau, the Void. In the underworld the gold was located, hence Vulcan, the goldsmith of the gods. As the lower sun's domain began with the autumn equinox where the sun entered the six lower signs, tumba was the hill of the setting sun, and with its ba of Tum, the mine, an image of the western hill of the Amentes. In carrying on the Egyptian mythology Michael was put in the place of Tum, the judge of the dead. He is represented with the scales. The scales in Egyptian are named makhu, and Makhu-El is Lord of the Scales, primarily the equinox. From this relation [p.501] to the autumn equinox comes our Michaelmas. Tum however, keeps his place in the name of autumn, and the bau is expressed by our word toom, empty, void. Tumba, as a mine (ba), was a type of the underworld of Tum; the ba of Tum faced the divinity of the setting sun going down due west, and from the ba of Tum, in the underworld, came the Tumba and the Tomb. It is here that Din-Sol comes in as the solar seat. As the Pocra Rock standing out to sea off Aberdeen tells its tale of the juncture or dividing place of the Don and Dee, and supports a tradition so ancient that it remains oral, so these names of the Mount Dinsol, Ictis, Tumba, and Careg Clowse each and all affirm that the mine and mining were once at the Mount itself, which must then have been on the mainland many and many a thousand years ago.
It has already been shown how the name of the ruti, in Egypt, was derived from the earlier auruti, and this again from the earliest Kafruti; and how, on another line of modification, the name of the karti was also derived from that of Kafruti. Thus we have three stages of the name answering to three phases of the people. Language is a mirror which has registered all that it once reflected. And if we may now trust this mirror so often found to be true, if we may follow language as our guide a little further—and it is one of the most unerring guides and one of the last left us—we may trace the migration to Europe, and within the Isles by name in these three stages: First came the Pigmeans with the cave-and-ape-name the Kafruti, or Kamruti, the typical uncivilized and ignorant men of the later Egyptians. This name is preserved by the Cymry whichever way it be read. The plural terminal, if Egyptian, may be u or ui, or ruti, and if the rv be taken to represent rekh, that is the race. So that Cymruti and Cymraig, whence Cymry and Cymru, are the race of Kam, Kym, Kvm or Khebma.
The forms of Kafruti, Khefti, Japhti are followed by the Kétti, Epidii, and others. These were the children of Kheft (Kêd), the ape and hippopotamus mother, whose portraits they retained in the ape of the Druids and the monster of the Scottish stones. They must have come out black and short of stature from the interior of Africa, not merely from Upper Egypt, but from the general land of Kush, or the black people, whose complexion is retained in the name of the Corca Duibne and Corca Oidche of Ireland and the Cymry of Wales.
According to Egyptian thought the karti name belongs to lower regions. The karti are the circles or hells of the lower world. The karti people in Egypt are like our people of the shires, the lower lands in relation to the South, or to equatorial Africa. This does not limit the karti to the lower of the two Egypts known to us, but possibly to the two Egypts as the kars in relation to the still higher land. At this stage, according to the analogy, came out the Celtae of Iberia and the Isles, the Kaldi of Babylonia and others, their [p.502] namesakes. Karti (Eg.) is the name of the masons, the cutters, and carvers of stone, including the polishers. This serves to identify the Celtae race with the workers in stone who spread out into many lands.
Lastly, the ruti in Lower Egypt are the men of the monuments, who have shed their prefix with much that it typifies and tells us of their past. We find the three stages followable in the north. The Cymry and Cabiri equate with the Kamruti and Kafruti of the birthplace; the Celtae answer to the karti. The Rutennu, the Latin, Lettic, Lithuanir, and our own Ludite names correspond to that of the ruti. The sense attached by the later Egyptians to the name of the ruti as the race, the men, has been preserved in the English Lede and Lithe for a man and the type-name for the people. Also the Loegrian name denotes the race, descendants, in relation to the parentage, whether called Cymric or Celtic.
The earliest names of locality and dwelling-place must be sought for under those of the genetrix-Khebmn, Kefa, Kheft, Kêd, Tef, Teft, Tep, Teb, and Aft. These will identify the cave-dwellers, the people of the Cwm and Weem, Cefn and Kêd-Ing; of the points of commencement (tep, or tef), Menapia, Dyved and Devon, whence the Taffies, who derived from the primeval pair called Dwyvan and Dwyvack, whose descendants peopled the island of Britain, and who are topographically represented by the double land Dyved and Devon, or Wales, and Corn-Wales. The Caers, Kils, Gales, Wales, Corn-Wales imply the Chart of the Karti or Celtae, the earliest mapping out and inclosing in the Llan, the Tun, the Ster, Set, Trev, Cantrev, Peel, Pol and Parish, Rath and Lis, Hert, Haigh and How. The first places as dwellings were found in the Hill-caves, the Kep, Cefn, Ceann, or Cwm; the second were formed as holes underground or circles on the height; the third were built. To these correspond the Cymry, Celtae and Loegri, the men of the three Ages, Palaeolithic, Neolithic, and the Smelters (rekhi). In this third stage we find the Brithon, and the question arises whether this ethnical name is not distinct from that of Brittene as the broken off and separated land? The Brithon apparently derives from Prydhain, the youthful solar god. Hain or han (Eg.) means the youth who was impersonated in Pryd, the appearing, manifesting god. The Britten separated from Brittany became the Isle (Inch) of Prydhain. Inis Prydhain is the Brithon's Isle, and the Brithon is the third in place and degree following the Cymry and the Celtae. The first phase mythologically considered was Sabean, when the gods consisted of the Great Mother and her son as Sut, and Britain was the Island of Beli, the star-god of fire and representative of the seven, the Belerium of Diodorus. The second phase was Sabean-Lunar with Gwydion-Taht as the son of the mother Kêd. The third was solar with Hu elevated to the fatherhood and Prydhain for his son, when the isle was given to Prydhain as the Brithon's Isle. [p.503] Hu, the sun-god, as Tydain-tad-awn, the British Apollo and father of inspiration, is designated the third of the chief regulators. The solar god as sovereign of On (An) supplies the third profound mystery of the sage, who is the third deep wise one. To the first cycle belong the Cymry; to the second the Gwydelic or Gaelic race; to the third the Hedui, the Aedui, and the Brithons, as the facts are reflected in the mirror of mythology and language. These three degrees are at the bottom of the triads. 'What are the names of the three caers (inclosed circles) between the flowing and the ebbing tide?' asks Taliesin. These were the Sabean, lunar and solar circles of time. The same speaker claims to have been in the court of Llys Don, or Cassiopeia, queen of the celestial Ethiopia before Gwydion was born. That is the circle of the Great Bear; Gwydion being Hermes, Sut-Taht, the Sabean-lunar type of time. The Triads say that there were three social tribes of the Isle of Britain—the nation of the Cymry, the race (al) of the Lloegrwys and the Brithon. These have been looked upon as three successive invasions of three different peoples. But they were the social tribes of the isle, domesticated and indigenous. The Cymry were natives of Wales and Cornwales. The Lloegrwys were the developed race (rekh, Eg.), the English equivalent of the Gadhaelic race in Scotland and Ireland. They were both the children, the race of those who derived from Kêd. The Brithon is third. He had also been living in Lydaw or Brittany. The series and sequence can be followed as regularly as in the later succession of Roman, Saxon, and Norman. The facts were registered in the Triads; the three Awns of Gogyrven, the feminine and earliest form of the Word and mistress of letters, the goddess Kêd, who still talks to us with her ten digits in the Oghams, over the graves of the buried dead, like one that invented a language for those who were born deaf and dumb.
This page last updated: 22/04/2014