[p.23]

A BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS

 

SECTION 12

 

HEBREW CRUXES WITH EGYPTIAN ILLUSTRATIONS

 

According to Josephus, the Egyptian writer Apion most strenuously insisted that the Jews were of Egyptian origin. He affirmed that when they were cast out of Egypt, they still retained the language of that land. He brings forward a proof which Josephus irately repudiates. Apion's account of the Jews was intended to satirize the worshippers of Sut-Typhon, the aat, lepers, outcasts, and religiously unclean. These, he says, were driven out, and as they were afflicted with the bubos, they rested on the seventh day and called it the Sabbath, after the disease. Apion was playing upon words. Josephus asserts of him, 'He then assigns a certain wonderful and plausible occasion for the name of Sabbath, for he says, "When the Jews had travelled a six days' journey, they had buboes in their groins, and on that account they rested on the seventh day, that thus they preserved the language of the Egyptians and called that day the Sabbath, for that malady of buboes in the groins was named sabbatosis by the Egyptians." This grammatical translation of the word Sabbath either contains an instance of his great impudence or gross ignorance; for the words sabbo and sabbath are widely different from each other. The word Sabbath in the Jewish language denotes rest, but the word sabbo as he affirms, denotes among the Egyptians the malady of bubo in the groin.'[1]

Apion was impudent or humorous enough, but not ignorant of his subject. He was right in asserting that the Hebrews retained the Egyptian language. Saba, in Egyptian, means solace or rest. Sabba-tosis or saba-tes denotes some secret or veiled form of opprobrious disease, just as in Latin bubo is the owl, sabu signifying all that is profane, wicked, insulting, and typhonian. This permitted a pun on the word sabbo. He was no doubt speaking of the botch of Egypt, the boil out of which broke the plague of leprosy.[2] Tesh is red, and sabo-tesh, the red boil, as bubo is the red boil in the groin. Sabo-tesh might also have signified the sabbo or boil with [p.24] the red spot indicative of leprosy. The Hebrew name for the botch, shachen, and the Egyptian name for rest, repose, alight, cause to alight, as skhenn, offer another play upon a word, with the same result. These outcasts of Egypt were, according to their own writings, fearfully afflicted with the botch and leprosy. Diseases of this kind were attributed to Typhon, who was called Baba, the beast. Ba is the beast; saba the beastly, and those who had the diseases were worshippers of Sut and Sebek (Sefekh), whose name is for ever associated with the Sabbath, because it signifies number seven, and the seventh day, the Hebrew צבש, which the afflicted fanatics kept so gloomily, and in the secrecy of that gloom held up to heaven with piteous appeal their sufferings and their sores; a sad sight and a sorry subject for jest. There was, moreover, another covert meaning in the word sabbatosis. The subject has to be further dealt with, and meanwhile it must suffice to say that sabu (Eg.), not only means to circumcise but to castrate. This was the earlier form of excision practised in the worship of the genetrix, by the Sabeans, who offered up their manhood to the motherhood. Sabu is the name of the ox or bullock, the castrated animal, and of the eunuch. Seb (Kronus) was the castrator of his father. Sabu-tes means to excise the genitals; tes is the testicle, and the very self. The disease Sabbatosis, the botch of Egypt, and the leprosy, were evidently attributed to the sabu in this sense, and the lord god of Sabaoth was thus not only the deity of the seventh day, or seven stars, but of the self-mutilated, the Galli, the Attys priests, who became Eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake.

The Hebrew chethem is identical with the Egyptian khetem, to shut, lock, and seal; it has the meaning of a seal, to seal up, and set a seal upon. The root is khet, to shut, to seal, and a signet. This will throw light on the form of the word as chethen, to give one's daughter in marriage, to circumcise, to be a bridegroom, etc. Each is a form of sealing. Khet is likewise to cut, and cutting is the sealing by circumcision. Khet is cut and sealed. To seal is to cut, and the seal is cut. The circumcised child[3] is called metaphorically a bridegroom of blood, that is, sealed (cut and sealed with red) with blood. Aben Ezra says the Jewish women call a son when circumcised the bridegroom[4]. Further, the seal and signet khet is a ring, and the excised portion of the male is a circle, a wedding-ring of the peculiar rite with which the covenant of the bridegroom is contracted, and the sacred bond is sealed. The word circumcision implies the excised circle. Also, in Egyptian, the form 'heten' is a ring. The rite was symbolical, and the khet-ring is hieroglyphical. It is the type of reproduction, and if we read the matter hieroglyphically, the covenant of circumcision was instituted as a rite of reproduction, a swearing-in of the male to reproduce his kind, and a protest against [p.25] all unnatural practices of the earlier time. The proper period of the ceremony with the primitive races was that of puberty, when the lessons were taught as in the Maori 'young-man making.' The Hebrew circumcision for the second time[5] probably denotes a second mode; the one in which the circle was excised for the first time in the solar cult. Hence the foreskins heaped in the circle of Gilgal or the ring of reproduction. The Jews identify the second circumcision[6] with the word periah, now applied to a secondary part of the rite. The numeral value of the letters in the word periah amount, by gematria, to 365, and that being the number of the negative precepts of the law, it is said the circumcised person is to be considered to have fulfilled all those precepts[7]. The number identifies the rite with the solar year, as did the twelve stones set up in Gilgal, which came to supersede the Sabean-lunar reckoning, together with some of the older ceremonies.

The Hebrew words דוח (chevd), to tie knots, and cheedah, an enigma, a dark saying, riddle, parable, as in the symbolical sayings of old[8], the sentences of the hidden wisdom called Proverbs, have great light thrown upon them by the Egyptian khebt and khet. The goddess Kheht carries the knot or tie, the sign of a circle, so much time (Kept) measured out, and tied up by quipu. Kep also denotes the hidden things, to lurk darkly and lie in wait; khab is the phase of eclipse. Khebt modifies into khet, to shut and seal; kheti, to go round, surround, make the circuit. Khebt was the goddess, but from the abraded form of khet we obtain the name of the god. Khetu is a god of things, we might say of the hidden things which belonged to the earliest science, and were the secrets of the learned, but hard riddles, and dark sayings to the ignorant. All this and more underlies the word דוח applied to the dark sayings, parables, riddles, and hidden wisdom, spoken of by the psalmist.

The Talmud[9] says there was a flute in the temple which had been preserved from the days of Moses. It was smooth and thin, and formed of a reed. At the command of the king it was overlaid with gold, which ruined its sweetness of tone until the gold was removed. The flute in Egyptian is sebt: it was a symbolic seven, and the name of sebt (hept or khept) identifies it with Sut and the number seven. On account of the typhonian origin of the seven, it and the flute became the synonyms of all that is vile, wicked, profane, abominable in the word seba or sebt.

It is a Jewish saying that the sun always shines on Saturday. Such sayings are a mode of memorizing facts that can only be read symbolically. Of course there is no direct meaning in such a statement. But Saturday is the day of Sut, and Sut signifies a [p.26] sunbeam. Suti, the sunbeam, has the determinative of the sun shining; and in the hieroglyphic sense the sun always shines on the day of Sut or Saturday, because it was, so to say, the earlier Sunday or Sabbath.

Here is another typhonian illustration. In the Mishna[10] it is said, 'If a person has slaughtered the animal with a hand-sickle, it is clean [kosher] and fit to be eaten.' The crooked hand-sickle is a type of Typhon. It is extant in the sickle of time (Kronus), and an early form may be seen in the Egyptian scimitar, called the khepsh, a sickle-shaped scimitar, which bears the name of the hinder thigh, a special ideograph of Typhon and of the Great Bear. The khepsh is crooked, and khab means bent, crooked-like, cam in English and other languages. The origin of the shape as bent, crooked, orbicular, depended on the turning round of the Great Bear, the ancient genetrix who carried the loop-shaped emblem as her sign of rule and measure. In later times a moral or immoral meaning was read into the imagery, and the crooked or bent was made typical of perverseness, wryness, deflection from the straight rule and right line of rectitude and the strict accuracy of law as represented by the stretched-out measure of truth, personified in Mati, goddess of the twofold right. The coiling serpent, nenuti, had been an earlier type of the circular measure, and this was superseded, together with other crooked things, by the straight rule, the straight knife (kat), the straight path. But the sickle-knife which was permitted to be still used in common with the knife of stone and of reed was a survival in shape from the earliest, the Typhonian Cult, and can still be identified by the khepsh sabre with the goddess of the seven stars and the seven Cabiri, or turners-round. So persistent shall we find the primitive types, many of which were preserved by the Hebrews.

But first of some verbal cruxes in relation to Egyptian.

The Egyptian origin of Hebrew is well illustrated by the name of the wilderness as midbar. No satisfactory account of this word has ever yet been given. The root mat in Egyptian, Hebrew, and Sanskrit, has the meaning of measure and extent. Mat (Eg.) is likewise time, to fix, appoint, prove, witness, and the middle, or midway. Par (bar) is the name for a road, and signifies coming out, to manifest, show, and explain. The midbar was a mark of boundary, and a synonym of the wilderness and desert; the desert of Arabia[11]. The midbar, as the extent measured and made manifest by a set boundary, is identical with the desert or wilderness. In Egyptian the nome, district, frontier, and the desert are identical as the tesh, and teshr, with the t terminal, our word desert. Egypt of all countries was the land of the desert-boundary, the narrowest strip of land in the world running between such a double desert; hence the wilderness, or waste, was the nearest, most natural image of visible limits to the [p.27] Egyptian mind, and the wilderness was with them a synonym of boundary. The Hebrew midbars bear the name of the adjacent town, as the desert of Ziph, Maon, Edom, Gibeon, Paran, Jeruel, which shows the midbar did not express the modern idea of a wilderness. Ezekiel refers to the midbar of Egypt. 'I pleaded with your fathers in the midbar of the land of Egypt.'[12] Possibly the desert of Edrou Heremos or the Mhagh of Edair, the Irish Hill of Howth, is a form of the midbar-boundary named from the wilderness, in the Egyptian sense.

Bunsen, whose Egyptology is often of the most cursory character, and who was personally obsessed with the idea that the so-called Semitic speech was earlier than the Kamitic, and that the rootage of Egypt was in Asia, has asserted that the word makatura for migdol 'has no root in the Egyptian language. It cannot come from mak.'[13] But it does, and makatura is of course the same by permutation with migdol. He derives migdol from the Hebrew gadal, to be great. In Egyptian tura is the tower. Mak means to watch and rule over. The migdol was a watchtower. Makatura signifies the watchtower. 'There stood a watchman on the Migdol,'[14] 'the Migdol of the watchman.'[15] It was the tower of the mag or mage, the starry watchman of the night. Mak, the mage and to watch, doubly identifies the Egyptian origin of the migdol as the watchtower.

The river of Egypt, the inundation, the 'flood of Egypt,'[16] are called the iaur (or ior) in Hebrew. That is the Egyptian aur. But nahar (רהנ) is the name of Nile, the actual river and flood of Egypt, as well as the river of mythological astronomy, the river of Eden[17], the river of Egypt[18], the typical river emphasized as the, no matter under what name. The river, as Nile was religiously designated, is aur, and the Hebrew name of names for the river, the typical waters, the mythical floods, is that of the Nile, and the formation of the name is Egyptian. Nahr (Heb.) is a plural for river. In Egyptian aru is the river, and nay is the plural article the; the river is Nai-aru, or the dual waters of the Nile, the two waters welling from the pool of the Two Truths, or the vase of Hapi-Mu, the biune waterer.

The divinity of the Psalms who founds and establishes the earth on the floods[19] does so on the Nile and its inundations, which deposited the earth as khebta; surely then it must be an Egyptian divinity who is celebrated in the Psalms.

According to Josephus[20], Kimchi[21], the Seventy[22], and Ben-Sira[23], the river Gihon (or ןוהיג) of Genesis, is the Nile which flows through [p.28] all the lands of Kush, the southern lands. It is not that the narrator thought of the origin of the Nile as being in Asia, as Fuerst[24] suggests, but because the narrative was Egyptian at first, the imagery is Egyptian from the first, and the riddle of the mythical commencement can only be solved in relation to the localities as Egyptian. Theirs is the river that runs from the south through all the lands of Kush. Calmet[25], on the river Gihon, says the people of Goiam call the Nile by that name. The Hebrew name of the river in full is the Gichon, i.e., the Gikh-Khan, an Assyrian synonym for the river Euphrates. If we refer this back to Egyptian, khekh denotes the tidal water, and khen means the interior, the lake, the southern (khent); thus khekh-khen is the tidal river of the lands of the south. The Nile of Egypt flows from south to north, but the celestial Nile was figured in khepsh, the north, and only in the Egyptian imagery, and by aid of the Egyptian naming, can this Kvsh of the southern land be reconciled with the same naming, khepsh, of the celestial north, and only on the theory previously propounded, that the first namers dwelt where the land of Kush (Ethiopia) was yet to the north of them, and Kush, Kvsh, or Khepsh, was their north, whilst Khentu was then their south, and Kheptu-khentu was their north and south. The Nile thus identified as the terrestrial Gihon includes the celestial river, and proves the mythos to be Egyptian. According to Fuerst, ןוהיג is derived from היג, i.e., the equivalent rendering of khepsh, the thigh, as the mouth of source, the great water of the hinder thigh, located in the place of emanation[26]. No explication of the scenery and naming is possible from the Hebrew alone, whereas the Egyptian will make all perfectly plain, and followable in phenomena. This place of source is the well or pool of the two waters and the hall of the Two Truths, and as such was readapted to other localities wherever a fountain rose and formed a double stream. Hence Gihon is found as the name of a fountain on the western side of Mount Zion, where it made a double pool, the upper Gihon being identical with the upper pool[27], and the lower with the lower pool[28], the celestial prototype of these being still represented by the double stream of Aquarius.

The Hebrew word shakam, has the general sense of to rise up early, to perform some act, also to enter some place, to bend oneself, the first thing in the morning, although no noun is found in the Hebrew thesaurus as a basis for the verb shakam, which would denote morning. This implies an original use of the word shakam, such as included the morning or the act of the morning, to identify the primal meaning, which may be traced by aid of sakh (Eg.), the shrine or sanctuary, the act of saluting and adoring, also the illuminator, which might be the opening eye of day. Am denotes that which appertains to. The skhem (Eg.) is also the shrine, and sekhem-t means to obtain grace. In Egypt going to the shrine was a typical [p.29] act of the morning, and the equivalent for rising early, and 'shakam' remained with the Hebrews as an expression having a sacred because symbolical significance when applied to early rising, even without going to the shrine. The Hebrew sakh (ףש) is the name of a hut or tent.

The Hebrew shakan (ןכש) has the same significations as the Egyptian skhen, the habitation, the place, the dwelling; whence skhent, to institute and establish. But in the hieroglyphics the word also means to alight, and cause to alight. This is missing from all interpretations of the Hebrew, yet it supplies the better sense to several passages, especially those relating to the glory, the pillar of cloud, and to the alighting of winged and wandering things. The habitation of the fowls of heaven thus becomes the far more appropriate place of their alighting[29]. Of the eagle it is said[30], 'She dwelleth and abideth on the rock,' which is tautological. The Egyptian skhen makes it, 'She alighteth and abideth on the rock.' In other instances the sense of to alight adds indefinitely to the meaning, as, for instance, 'I will cast thee forth upon the open field, and will cause all the fowls of heaven to alight (remain) upon thee, and I will fill the beasts of the whole earth with thee.'[31] 'If I take the wings of the morning and alight in the uttermost parts of the earth' is a far finer rendering than the Authorised Version, 'dwell.'[32] So in the passage, 'Oh that I had wings like a dove I (for then) would I fly away, and be at rest. Lo, (then) would I wander far off, (and) remain in the wilderness.'[33] The restored sense would be, 'then would I fly away and alight afar off in the wilderness.'

The chief value of the variant skhen, to alight, to cause to alight, is this restoration of the nomadic ideograph, which shows the first perception of dwelling, abiding, and inhabiting the earth to have been imaged as alighting like the winged wanderers of the air.

Hebraists have not been sufficiently acquainted with the exact meaning of the word nqph (ףקנ) to correctly translate the original of the passage rendered, 'And though after my skin worms destroy this body, yet in my flesh shall I see God.'[34] Some kind of destruction is intended, but it cannot be by worms. It is true the Arabic nqiph has the meaning of worm-eaten. But the missing sense and true form of the destruction will be found in the Egyptian nekhfi, to calcine or be calcined. The reading then will be, 'And though this (thing) my רוע (cover) be calcined, yet in my רשב (basar) shall I see God.' Af (Eg.), the flesh, will account for the Hebrew avr, the skirt or cover, and bes, to transfer or transform, pass from one place or shape to another, with ar, the likeness, will render the Hebrew basar. The fundamental sense of the passage then is, 'And though my likeness of the flesh be calcined, yet in my type of transference [p.30] or transformation shall I see God,' a mode of description according to the Egyptian doctrine of khepr.

In the passage, 'Thou shalt engrave upon it (the plate of gold) like the engravings of a signet, "Holiness to the Lord,"'[35] the word holiness gives no definiteness to the Hebrew qodesh. Egyptian offers us the clue to understand the word qodesh in all its applications. Ka is the type, figure, function of thing or person. Tesh is to separate, hedge about, put a boundary to. Tesh is the frontier of a nome. Tesh is blood; the separating period, the red line or full stop in the earliest of all rubric. Tesh-Tesh is a title of Osiris in the feminine phase. אשד, to be young, pure, new, is derived from this origin in feminine pubescence. Tesh, to make or be separate, a frontier and limit of boundary, yields the principle of qodesh. So Mount Sinai was rendered Qodesh by being hedged round and made inaccessible[36]. The cause, object, or result of the separation may be very various as is the use of this word. The woman set apart for seven days would be qodesh, equally with the priest who was separated and consecrated to the Lord. Hallowed or accursed are secondary meanings in the Hebrew, but to be separated, divided, set or put apart is primary in Egyptian.

Tekh, the hard form of tesh, means the frontier, boundary, crossing, to fix and attach. It is likewise a name of Taht, who represented the new moon. Hence the new moon and the time of the new moon were Qodesh. The first day on which the new moon was visible was a boundary, a limit, a measure in time, and the new moon was the type (ka) of the tesh or tekh. The moon, the lunar month, and the feminine period are particularly Qodesh. Tekhi (Eg.) was the goddess of the monthly period.

Naam, in Hebrew, is a word specially employed to express the voice of revelation, the oracle, the voice of God, by which oracles were revealed to the prophets. It is the voice of Jahveh, the Thus saith the Lord; also used for the utterance of oracles[37]. Nam is Egyptian for the word, speech, tongue, utterance. It is literally the voice of periodicity, or again-coming. Nam is to repeat, see, perceive. This repetition includes the inundation and the period determined by a drop of blood, as well as the time for joining and engendering, these being a form of the Two Times, of the Two Truths. Nam has the meaning of guiding and directing on this ground. Nam-nam means to go again, repeat. The nam (namt) is the retreat, the womb, which will be shown in this work to have been the first oracle and mouthpiece of revelation. With the permutation of the m into b, we have nabi, the prophet; naba (אבנ), to announce, manifest, prophesy. A mere hint only is here given, so much has to follow. Enough to know that nam with all its imagery is Egyptian, and that means getting foothold on granite, instead of losing it among quick­ [p.31] sands. For nam is not the earliest shape of the word. The phonetic n is an ideographic net, and nam is netem, a variant of snatem, and both relate to the gestator and primordial prophesier.

The word selah has caused much perplexity to commentators. It is frequently found in the Psalms, it only occurs three times elsewhere, and then in a hymn or psalm[38]. It is generally accepted as a sign of silence, rest, or a note importing a pause, as if it meant the singer was to rest, whilst the instrumental music went on. There is a fuller phrase[39] where, instead of the usual selah, the note is, הלס ןויגה 'hegiun selah.' Gesenius[40] suggests that this should apparently be rendered 'instrumental music-pause.' But if as is here contended, the oldest of these Psalms of David belong to the books of Taht, Egyptian ought to enable us to settle the matter. Selah with the r in place of l will be ser. Ser means something sacred, involved, reserved, and very privately personal. Ah denotes a salute. Ser-ah or selah is a most private and personal salute. We do not get silence specified as one of the meanings of the word, but this may be gathered from the others. Whilst huknu is to supplicate, huknu read phonetically will be huken. The Egyptian hek has the same meaning in the Hebrew chug, to charm or the muttering of enchanters. Chug (an) is to draw a circle, the circle of magic being an early figure. Chug is also to celebrate, as in Egyptian it is to praise. Huka (Eg.) is magic or thought, to charm and to utter the words of the magic formulas. To charm is to invoke or supplicate. Taking the word hegion to be identical with huken, to supplicate, we find the truer meaning of selah to be a pause for prayer, a space of time reserved sacredly to silence and supplication. Meanwhile the music apparently died out in a cadence, for huken also signifies a cadence.

And still further, serah is an Egyptian word meaning to reveal and exhibit. Huknu-serah would indicate the supplication for the god to manifest his presence. This was done by means of representative images which made motions to the worshippers. The elevation of the host over the bowed and silent devotees is a relic of the same mummery.

Un-her-heb, in Egyptian, signifies the show-face festivals when there was an appearance or exhibition of the god to whom the offerings were made. So in the margin[41], where we find little leakings-out of the primary sense, Moses besought the face (panim םינפ) of the Lord, and the face of the Lord is the same as the showbread, or bread of faces (panim), the bread of the show-face festival, hence the relation of the showbread and bread of faces to Moses beseeching the face to show.

Tubal is a Hebrew type-name for the metallurgist. Tubal, the son [p.32] of Japheth, is a metal-worker. Still earlier Tubal-Cain is an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron[42]; this, be it noted, in the seventh generation of men. In Egyptian tub or teb means to purify and refine by fire. Teba is to roast. Al (ar) is to make, shape, create the form or likeness, and denotes the maker, doer, or shaper. Thus Tub-al (Tub-ar) is the maker who shapes or makes in purifying and refining with fire; he is the metalworker.

Kam (Eg.) is black, and to create; in Arabic, to arise, to commence. The beginning, in mythology, was with blackness or darkness, as the background of emanation. Kimrir (ררמכ), to be darkened, as the day by the obscuration of the sun, is the Egyptian kam, black; rer, to circuit, go round, encircle. Kam-rer means to enshroud with blackness, hence to eclipse and conceal. The kimrir of Job[43] are, therefore, eclipsing or eclipses. This suggests that the Kimarim[44], the priests of the ancient religion, were really the Chimririm, or those who could foretell and explain the causes of obscurations and eclipses. Beginning with darkness, the recurrence of that phenomenon in heaven was the first to arrest attention and wonder, and to demand explanation. The interpreters were the Kimririm or Kimarim; not because they were gloomy and sorrowful or wore black, but because they were able to interpret the recurring gloom of night and the phase of eclipse, whether in heaven or on earth. For the first eclipse studied by the Kimarim was monthly, hence the monthly prognosticators. The root meaning of רמכ to be thickened, to boil, bubble up, with the connected sense in Syriac of mourning, is related to this fundamental fact of periodic obscuration, which has to do with the primeval darkness of creation. The two kinds of eclipse are referred to by Job, the celestial and terrestrial, the one naturally following the other. The raisers of leviathan, or the bringers-on of the feminine period, were the causers of eclipse. In Israel the Kimarim were degraded as the priests of an illegal Jehovah-worship[45] and of the golden calf, the symbol of the Elohim who led them up out of Egypt. The Assyrian kings used to keep astronomers who prognosticated from eclipses.

Light seems to me to be shed on the word navem (mn), rendered 'habitation' in the English version[46]: 'I have seen the foolish taking root, but suddenly I cursed his habitation,' by the Egyptian word nabeh, which signifies to be in flower, some kind of flower, probably golden. This would make it, 'I cursed his flowering, or his flourishing appearance;' and it agrees with the Hebrew הונ, to be lovely, celebrated, beautified. It would also be less repugnant than cursing the homestead. Nab or nub (Eg.) being gold, nabeh may have the meaning of gilded or glorified.

[p.33]

The word tsamim[47] has been a great perplexity. 'Whose harvest the tsamim eateth up.' The tsamam[48] is a sort of gin or noose. This will not do for the earlier passage. But may not tsamim be the Hebrew plural corresponding to the sami (Eg., plural), the conspirators, the typhonian company of evil plotters? The snare, noose, or tie, is a type of Typhon, chief of the sami or tsamim, who make use of the Tsamam in the work of the conspirators. Sam (Eg.) means to devour.

'Though the root (of the tree) wax old in the earth and the stock thereof die in the ground, through the scent of water it will bud.'[49] The word rich, rendered scent, as if it were the exhalation of water, has a more appropriate meaning in Egyptian, where rekh signifies the washing or laying and purifying of the water. The Hebrew יר for a watering[50] may be the remnant of this rekh, to wash and water.

The word םדק, rendered 'prevented' in the passage 'Who hath prevented me, that I should repay?'[51] may be illustrated by the Egyptian sharma, which means to make the salaam, or salute, and sharumata to convey a peace-offering. This was a mode of propitiation for securing favour beforehand, not to call it bribery. The speaker asks, Who hath made presents to me in this wise that I should repay, when all under the whole heaven is mine?

Ramoth, rendered coral[52], is a word more probably derived from remti (Eg.), to weep[53], the ramoth denoting substances, that are wept, which supplies a principle of naming. This ramoth is mentioned amongst the precious things by Ezekiel[54] as a production of Syria. So derived, it would be some kind of gum, and may have been a form of the famous tzri, or balm of Gilead, which is rendered rosin in the margin[55]. It would then follow that Ramoth-Gilead was named from its oozing gum, balm, or amber.

The word naspu (Eg.) means to numb, stupefy, render torpid. It appears in Hebrew as natzb (or nazb), to fix, make firm, rigid, erect, set. It is used by Zachariah[56] and applied to a shepherd of souls. The shepherd, לכלכי אל הבצנה, (who) does not victual but devour that which is natzb. Here the Egyptian naspu extends the sense of natzb most appropriately, for naspu signifies, not only to numb and stupefy, but also to abuse, delude, and devour. Then the sense of the passage is that a shepherd will arise who will not victual but devour the foolish sheep who are to be falsely led, abused, and deluded, by their threatened devourer. The rendering of 'standing still' has no actual relevance to the meaning.

Jezebel stimmied her eyes, says the Septuagint, when the English version renders it 'Jezebel painted her face,' or, in the margin, [p.34] put 'her eyes in painting.'[57] This is an Egyptian relic, of which Hebrew gives no account; only by permutation of mem and peh and using the word shedph for blasting, and inferring from that 'to blacken,' can we get any approach to stimmied. The Hebrew word, however, has in it the elements of stb in stibium, and in Egyptian stem is stibium; to stem or stemmy the eyes was to blacken them with stibium or kohl. With this stem the eyebrows were elongated and the underlid dyed black. In this way the maidens who had attained puberty made the symbolic eye the sign of their period. They underlined the eye, the hieroglyphic an, the periodic, and ar, which has the meaning of fructus. Smat, a variant of stem, is stibium, also to daub the eyes, a certain period of time, and to wrap up with linen.

The word shatham (םתש) is a crux of Hebrew scholars, never yet mastered, it is used only of Balaam the seer, who is called the man whose eyes were open (shatham), and in the margin, whose eyes were shut. The truth is that neither open nor shut will reproduce the sense. The Egyptian shetam or satam also means to shut. But that is by no means the whole of the matter. The picture characters of the hieroglyphics exhibit things in themselves, and shetam denotes a total of two halves. Tam is the total with the same image; the sha (or sa) may have many applications; in regard to which totality, sha, as a measure would make shatam, a total of measure. The sa is a priest, and sa-tam is an Egyptian high-priest, or an unique one, a host in himself. Satem, again, has the sense of covering round, either with dress or other form of protection. Wholeness, oneness, totality, composed of two halves, is the meaning of shatam, and of tam by itself. Balaam was the seer, the man who saw with his eyes either open or shut. Sa or sha (Eg.) is to dive into, see, perceive, know, discern.

There was an order of priests in Egypt known as the sa or sha. The name is written with the jackal sign, denoting the wise men, the mages. Sha is the earlier form of the word, and signifies secret, mystic, hidden. 'Shaa,' the name of the substance born of, appears to connect the name with the monthly diviners, the observers of the feminine first cause, as sha is named thirty, the end of the monthly period, one form of time. 'Shannu' is the name of a diviner, and 'nnu' is divines so that the shannu is a divine or a divining sha. Satham[58], a variant of shatham, signifies a revelation. Reading the sha as sight, sha-tam is the double sight, and as tam is second, shatam is literally second-sight or clairvoyance. The seer is a person credited with dual vision, so that 'shatham' signifies this totality, inclusiveness, and oneness, of the double vision which sees with the eyes open or shut.

This is confirmed by the Hebrew form 'sh'ttaim,' which means two, and instead of the man who saw with his eyes open or shut, [p.35] it should be who saw double or both ways; the ancients were quite familiar with this phenomenon. All that is secret, sacred, mystical, the innermost of all mystery, apparently including some relationship to or communion with the dead, is expressed by the Egyptian word shet, the Hebrew sod. Having explained the duality of vision, the briefest rendering would be shatham, to be a clairvoyant, or to see double.

The Authorised Version renders[59]: 'A man was famous (i.e. in time past) according as he had lifted up Axes upon the thick trees, but now they break down the carved work thereof at once with axes and hammers.' The first word translated by axes is לישכ kassil only appears in this passage and in Jeremiah[60] for םדרק. Kassil represents the Egyptian khesr for the arrow, as that which cuts its way. Khesr modifies into sesr, sser, and ser. Sser or ser means to cut, inscribe, or carve, whence ssrt or sert is the name for sculpture, carving, and engraving; the Hebrew טרש to cut. In the rendering of kassil, the cutter or carver, as axe, is put in place of the sculpture, and the true meaning is that they once honoured the carver of the trees, but now they lift up the instrument of cutting to destroy the work of the artist. The two words are used for the sake of the antithesis. Khesr (sser) for carving supplies our chisel, Armoric gisell, a chisel, used by the sculptor and carpenter. In Polish the carpenter is a kiesla, and the block or trestle on which stone is sawed is a kazly. In the African Limba the kusala is a hoe, as the kassil appears to have been in Hebrew. In Irish, ceasla is an oar for cutting the water, and chisel is an English name for bran, the shavings of wheat. So kasl in Arabic, is the treading out of wheat, and in Zulu Kaffir qazula is to grind (cut) wheat coarsely. But the same word has travelled a long way when found in the Irish caisli, and Cornish kuszal, which denote polished manners.

There is a passage in Psalms[61], 'Dogs have encompassed me, the wicked have enclosed me, they יראכ my hands and my feet.' The Hebrew word has been rendered by 'they pierced,' and taken as such in evidence of prophecy, whilst the piercing of the hands and feet in the crucifixion, which occurs in accordance with this translation, is the fulfilment. We have the indubitable root of this matter in Egyptian, both etymological and mythological. The sense of to pierce does not exist in the original, and in Hebrew the digging, boring, and thence penetrating, is derived from the beetle Khepra. Kef (Eg.) means to seize, lay hold by force. Kep is the fist, a type of seizing and gripping. Khepra is the seizer with his claws; his name abrades into ker, to seize, lay hold, contain. The kra is the claw; ker is to seize with a claw. Kar is to seize by the foot, to entrap and ensnare, like the Hebrew kir for ensnaring. In Maori koru is a noose, a loop. Giro, in the African Dewoi denotes chain- [p.36] fetters; ekuru, kupa, fetters; karr, Arabic, a fetter; kara, Sanskrit, a fetter, a binding. Exact representatives of the Hebrew word ראכ are found in gvre (Eng.), a circle; cwr (Welsh), a circle; gvri (Latin) circle; gouris, in Chinese, is a girdle, and others might be adduced.

The Hebrew ראכ then, is Egyptian, to be determined by the hieroglyphics. The speaker of the passage is encompassed and enclosed by the wicked, who ראכ his hands and his feet. In the hieroglyphics, kheri is the victim, caught and bound for the sacrifice. The victims were bound hand and foot.

They were the kheri because bound, and the true sense of the passage is, they have encompassed, ensnared, and incarcerated me. They have bound my hands and feet. The fettering of the victim is then in perfect keeping. Fettering of the hands and feet is the true sense, not piercing, and this is the sense of the Hebrew ראכ only it did not prophesy of the crucifixion. Further, in the parallel passage in the Book of the Dead, which will be adduced, as the original matter, Horus, the 'beloved son of the father,' is 'pierced to the heart by Sut,'[62] but not in his hands and feet. 'I have seen Osiris,' says the Osirian; 'I tell him the things about this, his great and beloved soul (Horus), pierced to the heart by Sut.'

Isaiah[63] exclaims: 'We wait for light, but behold obscurity; for brightness, but we walk in darkness. We grope for the wall like the blind, and we grope as if we had no eyes: we stumble at noonday as in the night; we are in eshmannim ... We look for judgment but there is none.' Here the word eshmannim, rendered in the Authorised Version 'desolate places,' and by Jerome and the rabbis 'darkness,'[64] supplies a precious bit of the Egyptian mythology lurking in the Hebrew writings. Eshmannim, eshmoun, or smen, was a name of Hermopolis in Egypt, and in the map of the heavens, Am-smen is the place of the eight first gods who existed before the firmament of Ra was lifted, in the time of Sut-Typhon. In the second time, Taht, the lunar god, was made lord of smen, and in the solar mythos it was in smen that the son Horus was annually established in the place of the father. Another name of this region of the eight is Sessennu, a place of agitation, torment, distraction, desolation, and darkness. Taht, the lunar deity, was lord of this region, which, in relation to the lunar orb, is the region of change of moon. From the eclipse of this change Taht emerges bearing the crescent on his head. Shmenai means the eighth in Hebrew, and in Phoenician eshmun was the eighth son of Sydyk. Sheminith is also a Hebrew form of the eighth[65]; and Isaiah's imagery belongs to eshmenein, with the Hebrew plural ending eshmannim[66]; the eighth region of agitation and distraction, torment and change, [p.37] the change from darkness to light, which does not come. 'We look for the judgment,' says the writer, 'and it is far from us.' This was the region of the judgment seat, and the place of the fourteen trials in the Book of the Dead, half the number of the lunar mansions, through which passed the moon-god. And here he signed the sentence of the dead in the Hall of the Two Truths, and justified those whose lives were pure. This was in Ashmenein. And we, says Isaiah[67], are in eshmannim, waiting for the judgment, and groping darkly for the 'manifestation to light,' but there is none.

Smen[68], signifies the 'appointed.' Smen was the place appointed for the purging, purifying, and preparing of souls. Hesmen is the Egyptian name for the menstrual purification, and in this region was the Pool of Hesmen (or Natron). The moon in one of its two phases was the woman in her courses, and smen the place of her pain and torment, out of which emerged the new moon. In the chapter of 'making the transmigration into a god,'[69] we read, 'I am the woman, the orb in the darkness; I have brought my orb to darkness, (where) it is changed to light. I have prepared Taht at the gate of the moon.' This was in Smen, where the feminine moon changed into the male god Taht, or transmigrated, that was, transformed in sex, and the change was made from darkness to light. The woman half of the orb was impersonated as Sef(kh), the consort of Taht. Sef is to purge and sift; sef, to refine by fire; sephui, to torment, torture, punish; sefi is dissolution. On the other side, the name of Taht denotes the establisher for ever as the renewer of light. These represent the two halves of a lunation with the symbols derived from sex.

It was in Smen that the solar god entered his feminine phase, and suffered the agony and bloody sweat, described in the Ritual as the 'flux of Osiris,'[70] and the drama assigned to Gethsemane* was pre-enacted there.

* This place was in the vicinity of the Mount of Olives, and the name is supposed to relate to the oil (shmen) prepared from the olives. The Talmudist writers affirm that shops were kept on Mount Olivet by the Children of Canaan, and that beneath two large cedars there were four shops for the sale of doves and other things necessary for the Purification of Women[71]. The meaning of smen and hesmen (Eg.) agrees with that of Gethsemane as the place of purification in the Jewish sense.

When the words, 'his feminine phase,' are used it does not mean that the sun or moon was supposed to change sex; but the red, sinking, ailing, winter sun was lessening, was suffering, was ill, and the illness was described according to the female phase. Typology consists in various things being set forth by means of one original type. Symbolism was a mode necessitated, not a system designed, because the one primitive type had to serve many purposes of expression, and by aid of the Egyptian doctrine of the 'Two [p.38] Truths' the present writer expects to reach the fountainhead of the ancient typology.

Of course here, as elsewhere, the total myth can only be put together by collecting the whole of the scattered remains, some of the most precious of which are preserved in the Hebrew rewritings, and, when complete, it will verify itself and establish its right to the possession of its own members, no matter where these may be found. The present object is to show how certain Hebrew words imply the mythos, and can only be read by means of the Egyptian symbols. The sculptured stones of the first builders have, so to speak, been calcined to make mortar for the later builders, and they reappear without their ideographs and determinatives.

When we use the words ever, eternal, and eternity, we require the symbols to give definition to the primitive meaning.

On the authority of a word, αίώνιος (Aionios), found in Greek, human beings are damned for ever, for all eternity, and there is no other foundation for the doctrine of the eternal punishment with which foolish fanatics threaten all who do not think as they do. And yet ainios has no other basis than the aeon, a cycle of time. This is the Egyptian an (or han, the cycle), with the meaning of repetition. The Eternal was based on periodic repetition. Millions of times is a formulae of eternity. And four times, the equivalent of the four cardinal points of the circle, is equally an equivalent of ever. The symbol of these words meaning ever, for ever, is a circle. Heh (Eg.) is Egyptian for the Eternal, and it means an age, an aeon, or an, a cycle of time. The Eternal is aeonian at last, and was based on, was a birth of time, the deity who lived and died alternately for ever, not a conception of something abstract and independent of time and space. The perpetual is the periodic.

It is said of the hidden god in the Inscription of El-Khargah[72], 'He has not come out of a womb, he has come out of cycles,' and the circle is the image of the cycle. The mode of continuity was by transformation; one circle running into another. This transformation was represented as the work of Khepra, the beetle-god, the transformer.

There is no other basis than the cycle continually renewed for the Hebrew everlasting. Ad or gad (דע) means ever and ever, everlasting, eternal, eternity, perpetually. The same word signifies until or meantime, as yet, how long, and so long as, during, duration of time, a limit of space, all that is opposed to eternal, infinite, limitless. It is a period whether monthly or a moment. דע means especially the monthly period of women, and according to the Masora the word also signifies twelve times. It was thirteen in the lunar reckoning. The earlier form in qedim (םדק) the plural of khet, for old times, shows the same origin, the letter ayin being midway between a and q or k. Qedem for Eden is the Egyptian [p.39] khetam or circle, the sign of which rounding, closing, and sealing is a seal-ring, the sign of reproduction. The khet (Eg.) means a circuit, zone, to surround with anything, make the orbit or circle. Khut softens into hut, the winged solar disk, and at, the type of time figured as a circle. At (Eg.) is a moment, with the circle and exactly the same as the Hebrew ad for the everlasting, perpetual, eternal. The everlasting is simply the ever-recurring and repeating. Aulam or gvlam (םלוע) we must take in the primitive form with the vau, when it reads gvlam, or, in Egyptian, khepr-am, with which we touch bottom.

Am (Eg.) signifies belonging to, and is the place, the paradise, Eden, or circle of transformation (khepr) and renewal in time, where the perpetual goings-forth from of old of the Messiah Son are manifested in the circle without beginning or end, hence eternally; he who is periodically reborn from avlam, gvlam, or khepr-am[73]. If we read the Hebrew as the plural of khevl (khepr), nothing is changed. It was the plurality of cycles which constituted the continuity of the eternal, the ever-during. Khep is to transform, generate, create, cause to exist. One symbol of this process of transformation was the sloughing serpent, the hef, the serpent of life, personified as heh-t, the feminine heh, with the serpent's head. Thus the ever, heh or aye, the eternal, is derived from one cycle of time being transformed into another by periodic renewal; the circle, heh, being one symbol; the seal-ring, khet, another; the serpent, heh, a third; and the beetle, khepr, a fourth. The circle of hefa (kefa) can be traced to the cycle of the Great Bear. The circle of Khepra as sun-god was that of the twelve signs, where the year was at one time renewed with the sun in Khepra (Cancer), and the circle itself is Khepram, Khevelam, or Aulam. The Phoenician gubulim means a quarter. By the circle was the Eternal established, and another Hebrew name denoting forever is tzemthath תתמצ it is used for establishing for ever[74]. The Egyptian equivalent is semi-tat, from sem, a representative sign, and tat, to establish. Tat or Thoth is the representative of the lunar cycle. Another form of the semtat, or symbol of the ever, the established for ever, is the tat sign of Ptah, the fourfold cross (Ĺ) or cardinal points whereby the solar circle was formed. Semi means to encircle. Semi-tat is to establish the circle, the sign of ever. The first solar circle was framed in two halves, the upper and lower heavens, and the two halves of the moon. These two halves joined in one to make the whole, and the twin-total is in Egyptian temat. Temat also furnishes a Hebrew word for ever, continual, evermore, and always, as thamid דימת. Tem-at means the complete circle, and is identical with our word timed. So in the cipher survives the name and the symbol of Khepra, the creator, former and transformer, whilst heh or hoh, represented by the circle, [p.40] becomes our O, in Egyptian uau, the one, one alone, and only one. The monotheistic sign is at last a nought or a knot, found in the hands of the goddess of the Great Bear, who created the first circle of time. The name of the 'Ancient of Days,' in the Book of Daniel[75], will reveal his nature. He is the attiq קיתע. At or kat (Eg.) is the circle of time, and hek or ak signifies rule and the ruler of the circle. A title of Amen-Ra, who was born of cycles, is hek of the first region.

If we render the Hebrew attiq by the Egyptian tekh, we obtain the measurer and recorder of the cycles of time. Tekh as the moon-god is the measurer, the calculator, and distributor of time; the counter of the stars. Tekhu is the name of the instrument corresponding to the needle of the balance for measuring weights, the ancient Egyptian cubit of tekh.*

* Renouf[76] is wrong in supposing there is no such known Egyptian word as tehu, if Chabas[77] be right, who gives the group tehu, to tell, synonymous with 'tet.'

Tekhi, the goddess of the months, was a measurer of time-cycles. The tekh, attiq, kat-hek, can be traced back to the goddess of the north, Kheft, as the first ruler of time, the original Ancient of Days. Kheft-ak, Khet-ak, or Kat-ak, is the old Kheft. The first chronicles, as the word implies, were records of time and period, and such was the primary nature of the Hebrew Chronicles; this fact is admitted in a sort of marginal remark[78] or murmur, sotto voce, that these, the subject-matters of the records, are 'attiq,' rendered ancient things. They were in their first form the registers of the celestial chronology, and, like the Book of Enoch, the record of the luminaries of heaven, together with their generations, classes, periods, powers, and names.

Without the ideography it is impossible to fathom the language of Psalms[79], 'My substance was not hid from thee when I was made in secret and curiously wrought in the lowest part of the earth.' That is in the Hebrew יתהת (thchthi), the Egyptian tuaut, the lower hemisphere. A tuauti is an inhabitant of the lower hemisphere. In the tuaut was the meskhen or place of regeneration and new birth. The language of the Psalms is only directly possible to the solar-child, who was engendered in the tuaut, and only humanly possible, because the solar birthplace was founded on womb-world, and the nethermost parts of the earth are identified with the matrix. The tuaut survives in English as the twat, a name of the feminine organ. It was here that the tomb and womb were one. Hence the tuaut is also the grave or hell[80].

In the ancient thought there is not an image engraved on one side of their door of life when it stands open, but is repeated, and serves the reverse purpose on the door when it shuts, as what we term the door of death, and in that way was the eschatology founded.

[p.41]

There is a passage in Book of Job[81] in which the speaker says, 'thou dissolvest my substance,' meaning the body of flesh, and it is followed by an allusion to the grave. The substance is shuvah. In Egyptian this is shebu, the flesh, a slice, a certain quantity of flesh. The shebu is a collar or tippet with nine points. This is symbolic of the nine months' time for sheb-ing, shep-ing, shaping the child, or figuring in the flesh. The Egyptian sheb and shep being the same as shape, the sheb, flesh, is the clothing typified by the sheb collar, also worn by prisoners. 'Thou dissolvest my shuvah' is identical with 'thou unshapest me,' let loose the sheb-girdle of my flesh, the vestment hieroglyphically rendered with nine points, and by captivity: or, to change the image, it may be read in English, 'thou unsheafest me,' the sheaf being a form of the binding-up. 'Thou dissolvest my substance' (shuvah) alternatesaccording to the Kethib[82]with 'thou terrifiest me.' Here again the Hebrew shuvah is identical with shef or shefi (Eg.), to terrify, be terrible, demon-like. Both are Egyptian, but the context shows the first to be the right lection.

The collar hieroglyphic with all its significance passed into Israel, as we learn by the denunciations of Isaiah[83]. The collar has various names. Khekh is one. Khakri is some kind of necklace. Art khekh are neck-chains. The determinative of these is the sign of horns and testes; this indicates the nature of the restraining collar. The collar with nine points alternates with one of thirteen, the same number as that of the knotted loops round the Assyrian asherah or grove, signifying the thirteen periods to the year which have but one original in nature. The khekh collar is likewise called baba, that is Typhon. Typhon the Red was the adversary, looked upon in later times as the destroyer, and at best as only working for good under restraint. The collar was a symbol of this; hence the khekh collar and akhekh, the dragon or Typhon, are synonyms. There is a vulgar expression still in use, 'Go home and tell your mother to chain up ugly.' Translated into Egyptian that would mean Typhon, Baba, the beast, who was chained up with the collar number nine, or the menat collar, number ten, according to solar or lunar reckoning.

This is enough to show the symbolic nature of the collar emblem, and account for the indignation of the Jewish Protestants at the tricking out of the daughters of Israel in such ornaments. These collars are called 'sweet jewels.'[84] The 'chains' are[85] 'sweet balls,' which can be explained by the collar with nine bubu or balls worn by Isis. The 'tinkling ornaments about their feet'[86] are gekes, one with the Egyptian khekh, and the art-khekh, or chain for the ankle.

When it is asked[87], 'Canst thou draw out leviathan with a hook?' the word used is chach, that is, with the khekh or akhekh collar [p.42] of the dragon Typhon. The Hebrew chach is a hook, chain, or bracelet, and the stocks. And although the writer knew that Typhon could not be drawn out with the khekh, he also knew, as did Isaiah, the significance of the symbol; the tinkling khekhs were calling aloud for the restraint of Typhon, in other words, they were proclaiming that the wearers were marriageable. With us the wedding-ring is the emblem instead of the collar, and to gig is to engender.

The Hebrew writings are full of language which has no meaning without the types by which alone it can be understood, and hitherto it has been read and rendered without these types. It is enough, one would think, to make the ignorant expounders of symbolical language who have drivelled for half a lifetime spend the rest in a savage silence, with the tongue held fast between the teeth, as the only amends they can make.

In a passage unexplicated hitherto, the writer of the Book of Ezekiel exclaims, 'Woe to the women that sew pillows to all arm­holes, or elbows,'[88] or hands or arm-holes of the hands, whatsoever these may mean. The word rendered pillows is kasathoth (תוחמסט) and only occurs twice. 'Woe to the (women) that sew kasathoth to all arms and make mispacoth (תוחפסמ), upon the head, of every height, to hunt souls.' 'Behold, I am against your kasathoth, wherewith ye there hunt souls to make (them) fly, and I will tear them from your yod, and will let the souls go, the souls that ye hunt to make (them) fly.'

Let us see what light Egyptian may shed on this passage. The general sense as it stands is that the allurers of men wear some particular images or charms upon their yod and on the head to ensnare souls. The kasathoth are worn on the yod; the mispa-choth upon the head. Yod is the hand or the arm. Kes (Eg.) means to envelop with little bands; at signifies typical; ut means magic, to inscribe, wish, command, give directions; and ti is plural, like the Hebrew terminal. Kes-ut-ti or kes-at-ti would denote some form of bracelet or binding for the arms, worn as a magic amulet or as a means of proclamation. There was but one fact the wearer had to proclaim, and that was her period of pubescence. Kesa, in Hebrew, is the appointed time or new moon, the festival of which was divinely ordained and made statutory in Israel[89], and afterwards denounced as an abomination[90], this was, as Jewish rabbis acknowledge (as Isa Bar Au), the first day of the full moon. It was likewise applied to the whole time of the full moon. The appointed time also applied to the age of puberty, when the maiden in Africa put on clothing for the first time, if only a loincloth or basu, or the Zulu Kaffir dwaba and the top-knot, bonga, formed of crimson clay (bomvu), worn by the women.

The relation of the feminine period and the ornaments of dress to [p.43] the moon is indicated by Isaiah[91], who denounces the 'round tires like the moon' which were worn by the daughters of Israel. We still speak of tying the knot in marriage. The sense of kes (Eg.), to bind, enters into the Hebrew qshr, to tie, to bind, an  טירשק for the attire of the bride[92] which is coupled with the ידע, of the maid; ידע being a plural form of דע the feminine period. Kas (Eg.) is the knot, to tie a knot, and an entreaty to tie the knot, to bind up the female, as is symbolised by putting on the wedding-ring and snooding the hair. The same writer also includes the snood or the caul, a cap of network, in the list of things anathematized. One ideograph of kas is the loop or knot sign; one, a bundle of reeds tied up, the ret emblem of time and indication; a third is the type of transformation; a fourth, the tongue. The kasathoth were worn before marriage, and announced the season of womanhood or full moon. Their relation to the period is likewise glossed by kasa (Eg.), to mourn. The bracelet worn in the shape of a serpent holding the red blood-drop of a ruby in its mouth is a kasathoth in the emblematic language. They also made mispachoth on the head of every statue. Mes (Eg.) is the sexual part, the ems or hem. Mes is to bear, generate, conceive, give birth to the child. In Hebrew mesa is a sign of bearing; at root that is child-bearing in all languages. The pakat garment is found on the monuments as some kind of linen or tunic; linen hung up to dry is the ideograph which in itself reads mes, and in the group[93] we have the Egyptian for mispachoth, and it signifies the linen worn at the time of full moon, or the mespakati of puberty. The prophet objects to these kerchiefs being displayed on the head as a sign of invitation. The Hebrew qomah applied to the height of the headdress appears as kemhu, an Egyptian mode of dressing up the hair. Qomah signifies attainment, accomplishment; khem, to be mistress of, grace, and favour. Komah adds another correlative to the meaning of the mispachoth, or top-knots of feminine puberty, which were worn on the head as a kind of investiture and proclamation of ripe age and social status amongst many races, and in a variety of shapes.

Hunting souls to make them fly is apparently meaningless. In the margin it reads, 'into gardens.' The sense is that the daughters are desirous of refreshment (naphish), but not anxious that the flowers should be fructified, or the time of flowers be followed by the season of fruit. The soul was figuratively the breath; they wanted to take the breath of life in a double sense. 'But will ye save the souls alive if they come to you?' No! they only lusted to take the life of souls, or hunted them to destroy or disperse and extinguish them.

A kindred illustration of the hieroglyphic language, only to be read by means of the hieroglyphics, occurs in Jeremiah[94], 'A [p.44] drought is upon her waters, and they shall be dried up, for it is the land of graven images, and they are mad upon emim,' (idols). The reference here is subtly symbolical. The hieroglyphic hema, sign of the lady, wife, seat, place, is the ems pudendum. It is the type of containing and turning back the waters of the red source, so that in the ancient language fish may be caught, or children propagated. The symbol was then adopted as the picture of a water-frontier, the pehu, harinu, or hema; this, in the names of places, marked the water-nome. Such were the emim or hannu that Israel had been so mad upon, and the imagery is peculiarly appropriate in prophesying a drought upon her waters, because they had made so much of the hieroglyphic image of the feminine water-frontier.

The Hebrew name of the divining cup or עיבג, by which Joseph is said to have divined, is rendered by κόνδυ in the version of the Seventy. This, as the name of the cup, is also found in Persian and Arabic, and in the Sanskrit kundra, a bowl-shaped vessel, or an aperture for water or fire; the Two Truths. This vessel is used in certain Hindu ceremonies for drinking out of, and it was carried in the procession described by Apuleius[95]. It represented the self-conspicuous image of fontal nature alluded to in the Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster[96], 'Invoke not the self-conspicuous image of nature, for you must not behold these things before your body has received the purification necessary to initiation.' Wilson, in the Asiatic Researches[97], says, the kunda was fashioned in the shape of a lotus, the type doubly feminine, the flower that bore the seed within itself, which was therefore adopted as the emblem of the Virgin Mother of mythology.

Both Athenaeus[98] and Iamblichus[99] mention the κόνδυ as being used in the religious ceremonies of Egypt. According to Norden[100], in recent times the lotus on the water was represented by the dish, cup, or κόνδυ, placed on the water for divination, just as the dish was employed for the same purpose at Shadar, in the Isle of Lewis.

Kunda is a particular name of the goddess Durga, relating to the vessel, cup, or κόνδυ, which was very primitive as the type of fontal nature. Kunda, in Sanskrit, is the name of the number nine. The cup is the Egyptian knau, Maori kona, the mother-emblem. With the feminine terminal t, this is the khent (Eg.) or hunt; English quiente; Greek, κόνδυ, Sanskrit, kunda. Kento, in Basunde and Musentando, is the type-name for the female. In Zulu Kaffir, cunda is mystically the 'woman's word.' The cup imaged the fountainhead of all kenning or knowing and thence of divining, because the mother was the revealer of the Two Truths of time and period, pubescence and gestation, in relation to reproduction. Cyn, Welsh, is first and foremost. Khen (Eg.) is to conceive, image, bear; gin, Gaelic, to beget. All forms of genesis are in this root, and many types of the birthplace are named from it, as khen (Eg.), the interior, [p.45] also the ark or canoe; qenn (Heb.), the nest; ken, Romany, coni, French Romance, Persian, khan, for the abode; kwan, Chinese, for the granary; qnah, the garden in Hebrew, and gona, a farm in Kandin, Kadzina, and other African languages. The can, an English vessel or cup, also the ken, a churn, are named from the same prototype as the Greek κόνδυ. The Hebrew עיבג is figuratively a flower-cup[101], and is cognate in sense with תעבק, which represents the Egyptian khapat or khept, called the hinder thigh, but which, like the Hebrew qebah, denotes the genitalia muliebria, as the khep, kheb, qeb, or cup. Such was the nature of Joseph's עיבג, or cup of the diviner. There was a time when the monthly prognosticators in Israel divined by the image of fontal nature itself, just as the Jains or Yonias of India do today, the q'deshoth being attached to the temples for the purpose of demonstrating certain natural facts in the primitive school of physiology. The gabia, khep, or cup, finally deposited the phonetic ka as the cup of the hieroglyphics.

The atzeb of the Hebrew is vaguely rendered an image, a representation, an idol, without telling us what the image represents. It is associated with the asherah[102], and is connected with the woman in travail, bringing forth[103]. But the wherefore is out of sight. In the hieroglyphics the aseb or asep is the seat or throne, the feminine image, the sign with which the name of Isis is written (´).

As-bu is the place of rest, and the ash is a type of this, hence the seat. The seat also shows the relation to the woman in labour. The seat or aseb had various forms based on the feminine type. The kavvanim made by the women of Israel[104] represented the goddess with the symbolical seat, the kűn image. The house of the seat (azeb) is identified with the house of Ashtaroth[105], as and hes (Eg.) being names of the seat, the type of the bearer. The absence of the seat in Hebrew has misled the translators of Isaiah[106], 'Bel boweth down, Nebo stoopeth, their idols (atzeb) were upon the beasts and upon the cattle; your carriages heavy laden, a burden to the weary beast.' All the missing sense is restored by reading 'their seats' (atzeb) instead of 'their idols.' Isaiah identifies the nature of the atzeb with the seat of the beast. In Egyptian, hes, the seat, is also the calf, or heifer. So the atzeb goes with the heifer and calf in Israel. 'Israel slideth back as a backsliding heifer; Ephraim (is) joined to the Atzeb.'[107] Again, the atzeb is coupled with the calf of Samaria[108]. And again[109], the atzeb is one with the calves. The craftsmen have made the atzeb, and they say of them, 'Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves.' That is kiss the seat, as in the witches' [p.46] Sabbath, the symbol of the motherhood. These ideographs infuse new meaning into words. For example, Jeremiah puns with grim coarseness on the name of Koniah[110], and on the atzeb or kun, Egyptian knau. '(Is) this man Koniah a despised broken Atzeb (or Kun) or vessel wherein (is) no pleasure?' This also identifies the hieroglyphical nature of the seat or throne. Without these original images in mind half the meaning of the Hebrew constantly escapes.

The molten image of the calf is denounced by Nahum[111], 'Out of the house of thy gods will I cut off the graven image and the molten image: I will make thy grave, for thou art vile.' In the next chapter we read 'and huzzab (בצה) shall be led away captive, she shall be brought up and her maids shall lead (her) as with the voice of Doves, tabering upon their breasts.' Huzzab is a personification of which the Hebrew gives no account, but the doves show her relation to the Virgin Mother who was represented by the dove and the calf. Hus in Egyptian is the cow, or rather the calf, the sacred heifer or calf adored under the name of Hus (Isis) in the time of the old empire. Hes is likewise the typical feminine seat, couch, or bed, the atzeb, here written בצה, elsewhere as בצ the seat, sedan, or palanquin for persons of distinction, which corresponds to the hes or aseb seat and throne of the hieroglyphics. Huzzab is the goddess of the hinder-part, the north, the lower half of the circle, a form of Hes-taurt or Ashtaroth. Asebi is an Egyptian name of Cyprus, the great Paphian seat or shrine.

The mest (Eg.), the sexual part, the place of birth, is the name of the mother in the Cypriote masdu; and the meska, the womb in Egyptian, and the eschatological place of rebirth, called the purgatory, supplied the calf of the Hebrew cult; the masak for the door of the tabernacle[112]; the Spanish masa for the mouth; Irish mas (of the hill); the Swahili mazika for the burial-place; the Persian mushko, a temple; the Turkish mosque, the Welsh mysg, the middle, answering to the meska as the mid-region or purgatory of the Ritual.

The meskah imaged by the molten calf is represented by the calf and cow in the following languages. Mas, Egyptian, a calf; moschos, Greek, a calf; moschas, a heifer; meusi, Japanese, a cow; mosa, Pahri, cow; mosya, Chopang, cow; maoiseag, Gaelic, a heifer; mosha, Kachari, a cow; musho, Bodo, cow; mesa, Anglo-Saxon, a cow; mashu, Garo, cow; mis-musu, African Bambarra, a cow.

Divine types are found in a vague generalized condition. The Hebrew menchah החנמ is a sacrifice, an offering, an oblation to the gods. It was at one time the name of blood-offerings, but under the later legislation the word was applied only to unbloody offerings of meat and drink, in which the drink took the place of blood.

[p.47]

Menchah, the offering, is the type of the goddess Menka, Menkat, or Menâ, and Menât, the Egyptian wet-nurse. Menka is mentioned in the Ritual, 'He has engraved a palm on his knee, says Menka.'[113]

According to the present writer's view, this goddess is the earliest form of Maat, the divinity of law, right rule, and true measure, but she was representative of the time of ten months or moons, whereas Ma bears the name of no. 9. Men signifies liquid measure; ment the no. 10. Menkat was the first feminine measurer in relation to the water-period. She is portrayed on the monuments in the act of offering two vases held in her hands[114], the offerer in person, whereas the Hebrew menchah only denotes the offering. Menka (Eg). means to create, form, work, fabricate, clothe; and Menkat was the feminine creator and former who clothed the child as the prenatal nurse. Corn was designated the dry-nurse of Rome and Italy; Menka is the wet-nurse; the twain were personifications of the Two Truths assigned to the Great Mother in mythology. The one nursed the child with her blood (water), the other with her breath or spirit, she was the quickener of the seed or corn. Menŕ is a reduced form of her name, and the Babylonian goddess Meni associated with Gad, who was worshipped with drink-offerings, is probably the same divinity.

The Greek Magos was a form of Maka or Menka, the Irish Macha, as a title of Artemis, who was imaged in the great temple at Ephesus as the many-breasted wet-nurse. The month of May was likewise dedicated to Magos at Ephesus, and the name of May is a form of Maka (Menka-t), the Hindu Maya and Greek Maia. Maia is called the eldest of seven Pleiades, but the seven stars were not the Pleiades; they belonged to the Great Bear, the earliest form of the genetrix, the wet-nurse found in Menka or Maka. Menka was the first measurer, whose later form was Ma, the luni-solar measurer in conjunction with Taht and Ptah. Ma can be traced in the Greek Themis and Maka in Artemis. In Plutarch's Moralia[115], Meragenes says the Hebrews call the brazen vessels used in their ceremonies the 'Nurses of God.' The vessel imaged the womb or breast, the type of the wet-nurse Menka.

Another reduced deity might be recovered in the person of the prophet Elijah, who will be referred to hereafter.

The Hebrew baruk haba (אבה ףורב) 'Blessed, is he that cometh,' is used by the Jews as a salutation to the child when it is brought into the room to be circumcised. The word haba contains various mystic and occult meanings. The value of its letters in Hebrew is considered to amount, by gematria, to the number eight. The eighth is the day of circumcision, and the salutation is connected with the child's coming on the eighth day to be circumcised. By notariqon, these letters, H B A, are held to be initials [p.48] of three words, הילא אב הנה, 'Behold Elijah cometh.'[116] The Jews are said to suppose that Elijah enters the chamber along with the child to take the seat left vacant for him in the double chair, and they exclaim, 'This is the seat of the prophet Elijah.'[117] Elijah is the centre of a large number of Hebrew traditions, and this identification of him with the one who comes and with the number eight, appears likewise to indicate that he is a from of the god Taht, or the earlier Sut-Anubis. Sut was the announcer of the goddess of the seven stars, as the one who came annually. Taht, who superseded him, was the messenger, the voice or logos of the seven gods, the manifestor of the Pleroma and completer of the ogdoad. He was the Lord of the Eight, or eighth to the seven. Haba, 'he that cometh,' is the name of Taht's ibis. Haba is the Egyptian form of ibis. The word also signifies the messenger, and the coming or returning one. Elijah commences as the messenger who announces the prophecy to Ahab[118]. Taht superseded Sut, that is Bar or Baal in Egypt, and Elijah is portrayed as the great opponent of Baal in Israel. Taht was the scribe of the gods, and eight years after his ascension into heaven on a chariot of fire, Elijah sent a letter of reproof to Jehoram, King of Judah.

In the Gospel of Matthew the Christ says of John the Baptist, 'This is (he) of whom it is written, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee.'[119] 'And if ye will receive (it), this is Elias which was for to come.' The coming of this messenger is represented as being fulfilled in the advent of John. This contains matter of great moment for a later volume; it may, however, be remarked in passing, that Aan in Egyptian mythology is also the messenger and announcer; first as Anubis (Sut), and next as a form of Taht the lunar god. In a fresco of the second or third century, Elijah is seen ascending on his fiery chariot, and the figure of Mercury (Taht) is present as a part of the picture[120].

The atef crown of Upper Egypt, or of the southern heaven, consists of the white crown and double feathers, set on the solar disc. It is the crown of Osiris and gods of the lower world. In Hebrew the word ףטע (atph) has the meaning of clothing and covering, to clothe as with a garment or with gloom. The hieroglyphic is almost recoverable in Job[121] where he says of God, 'He puts on (hides himself) in the south, and I see not,' which is equivalent to putting on the atef crown with the insignia of the netherworld, the wearer of which becomes the hidden sun of Amenti, overshadowed, obscured, darkened.

[p.49]

The hieroglyphic kan is a corner of a building, the corner-symbol held in the hand of the mother of the messiah-child, in the sign of Pisces[122], the one of the four quarters at which the child was brought forth. In Egyptian the article sometimes follows the noun, and kanp would thus be the kan. The word occurs as kanb, kanbet, and kanteb with the sign of a corner. This is extant in Hebrew as kanph, the corner or extremities of the earth. Kanphoth[123] signifies the four quarters or corners of the earth. Kanbut (Eg.) means the corner-place. Kan-put the corner of the circle, that is, one corner of the house of four quarters. Put (Eg.) is the foundation, bu (or but), a stone. Thus kan-but is the corner-stone of the foundation.

In this sense the chiefs of the people[124] are designated corners (in the margin). Isaiah[125] makes the princes of Zoar to be the stay of the people, the corners or corner-stones. The Egyptian kanbut (and kanteb) is one who performs service and is the stay and support, whose emblem is the corner, our image of the corner-stone. Kanput and kanteb are synonymous, because teb and put both mean the circle. The Hebrew word is applied to the highest summit of the temple, and in Egyptian teb is the summit, the top; as is the pet. The plural of kanphoth will be explained further on. The hieroglyphic corner has to be built on hereafter. The reader must not think these disquisitions are objectless word-mongering.

There has been no rendering of the Hebrew kiyor that makes out the meaning. The name is applied to a small hearth or oven[126]. The karr is an Egyptian furnace, and oven. Next, the kivor is a layer or molten sea. The karua (Eg.) is a lake, pond, or layer. Again, we are told that Solomon made a kiyor of brass, and had it set in the middle of the court, and he kneeled down upon it[127]. This was neither oven nor layer. It has been translated scaffold. The kivor in this instance was five cubits long, five broad, and three cubits high. Egyptian will tell us what this klvor was.

The hieroglyphic kharu is a shrine, a tavern, the place of refreshment. The Hebrew kivor was evidently the table or shrine of the eucharist, what is now termed the communion-table. The Egyptians had a kind of bread named kharupus[128], that is, bread baked for the shrine or altar. This would be baked in the karr, or oven. The raised kar represented the upper of the two kars, the layer, the lower; both were shrines in Egypt. The upper held the bread-symbol of the highest truth; the other, the waters, emblematical of the lower. Both symbols still meet in the bread and wine of the Eucharist.

The Hebrew kallah, a technical term for the highest school, has, [p.50] according to Deutsch[129], long been a crux for etymologists, so the Jews know of their own origins. It comes from the kha, book-library, and altar; ru, discourse, word, mouth. Whence kh, the sacred shrine, the cell of learning; kher, speak, speech, the word and the karheb, a kind of Egyptian priest. Ah (Eg.), would the house of, to kher or khal.

The Hebrew yod (די) for the hand, is the Egyptian it, to figure forth, with the hand of the artist for determinative. It has a variant in at, a type, to work, build, form, image, the hand-worker, a handiwork. The female as the shaper is the at. It therefore includes the work of the hand as well as the member, whilst the organ of working and figuring forth is not limited to the hand itself; which is but one of various yods or types of working. This alone will make sense of the passage[130], and Israel saw the great yod which the Lord did upon the Egyptians. Hand does not render it, the hand was hieroglyphic for the work done, not literal: at or kat (Eg.) is work. The word yod, hand, is used for ability[131], just as we say a 'handy man,' which shows the typical use of the hand. Only in the absence of the symbols the yod has been chiefly confined to one type as the hand, whereas in the original it may also be the womb, the circle, a boat, the heaven round, a house, a place, and twenty other things according to the determinatives. Yod is a place in Hebrew; 'every man in his yod,'[132] but the hand is not the only place. At (Eg.), to build, is applied in the Hebrew name of the 'tenons' yod, used in building[133]. The hand is a type of holding, so is the tenon, but as the reader will apprehend there may be any number of yod, whereas the translators have only known of one chief type. Yod also means to consecrate, but not by 'filling the hand.' Of course the hand was used in consecration, but it was laid on the head typically, a mode of figuring forth and constituting sacred handiwork as in it (Eg.), to figure with the hand.

It is not a part of my work to revise the Hebrew testament the oldest portions of which would have to be rewritten hieroglyphically before it could be rightly restored, but two or three applications of the Egyptian it, or at may be made. We read that 'Saul came up to Carmel and behold, he set him up yod,'[134] rendered a place. At (Eg.) is a shrine, a monument, and in Assyrian it is a carved stone. When God came from Teman he had horns or emanations coming out of his yod[135]. Here the yod is translated hand or side. Had the determinative been present it would have shown the at (Eg.) as the solar circle or disk, the image of Adonai, God of Israel. At, the circle of the sun, was the yod whence issued the fiery-hornedness, there was the hiding and [p.51] manifesting of his power. At signifies doing, and the yod [136] means deeds. Lastly, the hand is frequently used for the mouth. At is to utter, put out, it is also that which is uttered. Hence at, the word, to speak. But we are told that the Word of the Lord came by the yod of Malachi[137], and by the hand of the prophets. This may be supposed to indicate the written word, which has no meaning. The word was oral. Besides we find[138] the Lord had spoken by the hand of Moses. In these instances the yod signified is not the hand but at, the word, mouth, or type that needs interpreting by aid of the hieroglyphics, but which never has been interpreted.

In the work of Tabari[139] it is related that two animals came out of the Ark which did not enter; they were produced within it. These were the hog and cat, created as scavengers and to keep down the rats. The elephant gave birth to the hog, and Noah produced the cat from the sneeze of the lion by passing his hand down its back.

Remote as this is, it can be partially read by the Ritual, where the sun is said to transform into the cat or 'it is Shu making the likeness of Seb.' The alternative shows Shu making his transformation into a cat. Shu was the lion-god and one of the two lions was the cat which dealt with the 'abominable rat of the sun,' a type of the enemy Apophis. Now when we know that Shu represented breath (Net) or spirit, we can see how it may be said the cat was evoked from the nose of the lion. We see further that the root of this strange rabbinical and Haggadistic matter is Egyptian, which is the object of the present investigation.

In the Egyptian pantheon the seven Hathors are the Parcae or Fates, the prognosticators and foretellers of coming events, and these in the funeral Ritual are represented in the form of seven cows. Thus the seven kine of Joseph's dream which indicate the seven years of plenty and the seven years of famine correspond to the seven cows or Hathors who fulfil their character as the foretellers of events to come assigned to them by the Egyptians. The seven cows are also the givers of plenty who are invoked for food. 'He has known the seven cows and their bull, who give of food and of drink to the living, and who feed the gods of the west. Give ye food and drink to the Osiris; feed him.' 'Give ye to him daily food and drink, oxen, geese, and all good things.'[140]

Of Behemoth, the hippopotamus[141], we read in the English version, 'He is the chief of the ways of God; he that made him can make his sword to approach unto him.' The word rendered sword is chereb (ברח). The chereb is a sword or some other kind of [p.52] cutting instrument, the Chaldee cherba, Phoenician harba, and Greek αρπη, but the reading is more than doubtful. The passage is followed by, 'Surely the mountains bring him forth food.' The context shows the meaning to be that, mighty monster as he is, the power which created can feed and sustain him. Therefore it appears probable the word chereb represents the Egyptian kherpu which denotes supply, sufficiency, or enough. The sense of the passage would then be, 'He that made him can supply him with provisions.' Surely the mountain (can) bring him forth food. In a sense he has all the mountains for grazing-ground, though not because these were the particular pasture of the hippopotamus. The imagery is thought of in relation to the typical hippopotamus, the Great Bear of the Egyptians. For this reason the rabbinical writers consider the 'cattle upon a thousand hills'[142] also refers to Behemoth whose celestial type was Ursa Major. It is said of Behemoth in the Authorised Version[143]: 'Behold he drinketh up a river and hasteth not.' The Seventy have it 'if there should be an inundation,' and this sense is recoverable by aid of the word aaseh (Eg.) which means a flood or a deluge of water, and may be derived from aa, great, and sekha, flood-time; aasekha being equivalent to קשע. Thus the passage would mean, 'Behold in time of a great flood he hastens not, he does not mind an inundation and as for Jordan he could swallow it.'

The particular idea expressed by the word thachash has never been determined. It is the name given to the skins used for the exterior covering of the tabernacle[144]. The same thing is named in the Bull Inscription of Khorsabad Sargon says: 'I constructed palaces of skins of taakhash, of sandalwood, of ebony.'[145] Oppert characterizes the word as 'most obscure.'

According to Rashi[146] the takash may be a badger, a sea-dog or dolphin; the Talmud says a marten, others identify the name with the colour rather than the animal. The Arabian Jews call the red-dyed hide of the ram thachash[147], and this is the sense corroborated by Egyptian when we find the word worn down to tesh. Tesh is blood, red. It is applied to the red Nile, the red crown, and to the planet Mars, Tesht. Tesh-tesh is an epithet of Osiris in his inert feminine form, and red phase, the great mystery. Tesh means to separate, leave, be left destitute, set apart. This in relation to the mystical sense which first made it sacred. Teshru is the red calf, red land, a red bird. Tesh, earlier takash, means red, blood (hence the dyed ram skins), and may of course be applied to anything of that colour: it does not otherwise represent an animal, and cannot represent the grey badger.

The 39th chapter of Job[148] contains allusions which prove a knowledge of the hieroglyphics. One of these is especially intimate. [p.53] 'Will the unicorn be willing to serve thee, or abide by thy crib? Canst thou bind the unicorn with his band in the furrow, or will he harrow the valleys after thee? Wilt thou trust him, because his strength is great?' The allusions like those referring to the peacock and ostrich are made in mockery. The unicorn was the type of Typhon. The mythical unicorn is the ramakh, the hippopotamus that dragged and drew round the starry system all night, till men were once more drawn out of the deluge of the darkness. Will this puller above pull for you here below, that you worship the image of Typhon? One name of the animal itself is apt, and apt (Eg.) is the name of the crib or manger. The question in Egyptian is, 'Will apt (the unicorn) abide by the apt (crib)?' 'Will he plough for you?' is the gist of one question, and kheb (Eg.) is both a name of the plough and of the unicorn. Also this constellation of Typhon is called the Plough. These queries show great familiarity with the hieroglyphic symbols; a convincing proof of this is afforded by an assault on the character of the ostrich[149], 'which leaveth her eggs in the earth.'

The ostrich-feather is one of the hieroglyphics, and reads either mau or shu, that is, light or shade. Horapollo says it was adopted because the wing-feathers of the ostrich are of equal length[150]. This feather is the especial symbol of Ma, the goddess of truth and justice. It was the sign of the Two Truths and total wisdom of Egypt. The writer of the Book of Job is aware of the sacred character of the wing-feathers of the ostrich, and asks in effect, Is she either true, just, or wise, or pious? Does she sustain the character of her wing-feathers? Does not she leave her eggs in the sand for the earth to warm them or the passing foot to crush them? He asserts with the Arabs that the bird is impious. This is the modern realism opposed to the symbolic character of the bird, and even that can only be read as it is written, hieroglyphically.

The tip of the crocodile's tail is the ideograph of kam, black, darkness, because the crocodile left the land for the water at night, and the tip of the tail was the vanishing point.* To express sunrise, says Horapollo, they depict the two eyes of a crocodile, because, of the whole body, these are seen glaring conspicuously from the deep[151]. This is the imagery of Job. 'By his neesings a light doth shine, and his eyes are like the eyelids of the morning.' The writer uses the Egyptian symbol of the morning, hence the sole sense of sorrow being turned into joy before such a thing as the crocodile.

* Horapollo gives another reason. He says the tail denotes darkness because with a blow of it the animal will inflict death[152].

'Hethe Lordstretcheth out the north over the empty place.' 'Hell is naked before him.'[153] That is, the 'bend of the great void' [p.54] found in the north, the open abyss, the place of the waters, the region of the hells, in the Egyptian Book of the Dead. This is the quarter where the 'Dead things (ghosts and evil spirits) are born beneath the waters, and are the inhabitants thereof,'[154] as in the Ritual. 'Though they be hid from my sight in the bottom of the sea, thence will I command the serpent, and he shall bite them.'[155] That is the Apophis serpent of Egypt, the dweller in the deep, the dragon of the waters, who lives off the blood of the condemned, and executes vengeance on the wicked. The Apophis is depicted as a crooked serpent set all along with sword-blades, typical of destruction.

On the sarcophagus of Meneptah in the Soane Museum may be seen, amongst various scenes of the valley and shadow of death, one in which a crooked serpent keeps the door of death. This is Job's crooked serpent and doorkeeper. 'Have the gates of death been opened unto thee? or hast thou seen the door-keepers of the shadow of death?'[156]

The Hebrew word apap, to encompass round, in the passages, 'the waters compassed me,'[157] and 'the waves of death compassed me,'[158] is the name of the dragon of the deep, the Apophis monster, that strangled within its coils.

The great serpent of the later Hebrew mythology, called the Bariak-Nachash, may be explicated by means of the hieroglyphics. It is called the crooked serpent[159] and the piercing serpent[160]. The typhonian dragon, to whose influence tempests were attributed, is certainly intended; the Apophis or akhekh serpent, whose heaving, rolling, writhing body is set with sword-blades. Akh (Eg.) means fire; pra (Eg.; Hebrew, bra) is to manifest, emane, fulminate. This would make the Bariak-Nachash the fulminator of fire. In Egyptian ful-garavit, fulsit, is expressed by buireka. This corresponds to the Hebrew form baraq (קרב), to cast forth, lighten, or fulminate. The only difference in the Hebrew is the substitution of the letter cheth for qoph. Another name of this serpent in the hieroglyphics is the destroying serpent, and the Hebrew barak was called the 'thunderbolt.' Another title of the serpent is 'brass of earth,' which tallies with the Hebrew nachushta; nachush meaning brass, whilst ta is the Egyptian word for earth. This will suffice for identifying the Hebrew serpent of evil with the typhonian serpent of Egypt.

The plural bariakim employed by Isaiah[161] is founded on another Egyptian word. He uses it for ships, and bari (Eg.) is the bark, of which bariakim is the plural.

The mythological and symbolic character is mixed up with these [p.55] typical beasts, which cannot be simply understood apart from their hieroglyphical nature. Many names of mystic meaning have been rendered by translators who were in the dark and thoroughly ignorant of the thing signified by the word. No Hebrew scholar ever yet knew what was intended by the words 'Tan' and 'Tannin,' which include the whale that swallowed Jonah, the serpent that tempted Eve, the leviathan of Job, the piercing serpent, the crooked serpent, and the dragon of the deep[162], the dragon that Job claimed to be his brother; Pharaoh, king of Egypt[163], and the rod of Moses in its serpentine transformation[164]. It is applied to creatures of the desert and monsters of the deep, also by comparison to the wild she-ass of the wilderness, snuffing up the wind at her pleasure[165], and lastly, it is used to indicate the old serpent called the Devil and Satan[166]. Thus philologically the serpent that tempted Eve is one with the serpent into which Moses' rod was changed, and the whale which swallowed Jonah is one with the leviathan whom Job wishes had swallowed him[167] rather than he should have been born, and these are all one with the dragon of the waters, who was the cruel pharaoh drowned for the time being in the Red Sea, but who emerges once more as the Satan of the Apocalypse.

The primary question for us is not, What is the tan? There is no the in the case where there are so many. The question is, What does tan mean as a principle of naming applied to the various illustrations? Now, tan in Egyptian means division, cutting in two, to cut off, to divide, turn away, make, become, or be separate. The serpent covered with sword-blades was the piercing or severing serpent. Worms, or destructive animals of the waters, in Egyptian, are tan-mu, the tan of the waters; they pierce and sever in destroying. The River Tan (Iarutan) of the waterman is the river that divides. The period of mourning desiderated by Job was the dividing period opposed to gestation. The wild beasts cut off in remote deserts and isolated on desolate isles are the Tannin on that account[168]. Islanders are the tena in Egyptian. Lunar eclipses are tennu; they cut off the light, and occur at the dividing-place. Tenu is the joint or break, as is the number ten. Tane is one of the Polynesian great gods, the divider of the heaven from the earth personified. Egypt as the tan, whether celestial or geographical, was the divided heavens or countries.

'Tenny' is the name of lines that give the waved barry look to the shield of a coat of arms. The heraldic colour and blazon of tenny is yellow; the jacinth in stones, and the dragon's head in the planisphere.

Having the principle of naming, the hieroglyphics supply the means of applying it by determinatives of the different ideas that [p.56] have to be expressed by one word. Once cut adrift from these, we have no philological anchorage anywhere. But the hieroglyphic language is like an old sea-bottom, still intact, and rich with the lost treasures of a myriad wrecks.

Leviathan as one of the mythical monsters, or tannin, is probably the Egyptian ref, or refi, a form of the Apophis serpent, from ref, or ru, as the typical reptile, viper, snake, worm, scorpion, or dragon, and tan, to cut in two, whence the cutting, destroying akhekh, serpent of night, armed with piercing blades, which represented the power of the darkness and death to sever the circle of light and life in the 'bend of the great void'[169] where it lurked. Job's[170] description of leviathan, simply supposed by commentators to be a veritable dweller in the sea, includes all the clothing of the monster of mythology.

Max Muller[171] has shown how the fleets of Solomon must have been to India to obtain the monkeys, on account of the name, which is qoph, because in Sanskrit the ape is kapi. 'Qoph,' he says, 'is foreign in Hebrew, and the land in which that word is indigenous must be the Ophir of the Bible; therefore it was India.' Kafi is the original word, and it is Egyptian; kepi in Persian; kapi in Sanskrit; kepos in Greek; ape in English. The kafi, a monkey of a peculiar kind, appears in the tombs of the Fourth Dynasty as early as the time of Khufu, with the name of kafi written over it, about 3733 BC. It is the dog-headed ape, or cynocephalus, made so much of in Egypt that it was a co-personification with Taht, of the word (logos) itself. It represented the moon and periodicity in its feminine phase, and was therefore a feminine logos. Iamblichus[172] tells us this cynocephalus was honoured in the temples on account of certain changes it underwent in common with the moon, by which time could be reckoned! The truth is, the kaf is a menstruating monkey, and suffered eclipse (khab) periodically like the moon, and was adopted in the mysteries, where it took the place of the Q'deshoth, the human demonstrators of primary facts in nature. This kaf belongs solely to Africa, which is Kafrica, the ka, inner land, of the kaf, or af (born of) the first (ap) land, and therefore Ophir was in Africa.

It has likewise been argued that Solomon's םייכת (peacocks)[173] were brought from India, because toki is the Tamil name for the peacock, and togei in Malabar. But the original of both is the Egyptian tekh, or tekai, a symbolic bird. Tekh is a name for the ibis of Taht; tekai is the Otis Tetrax. The name applied to the peacock is full of significance. Teka is to see, behold with the symbolic eye. Tekhen is to open and shut the eyes, wink, sparkle, illumine, and the techi, as peacock, is the bird with the eyes that open and shut with [p.57] their winking splendours. Nothing could be more happy than the name tekhi, from the Egyptian tekh. Not only is the name of the peacock Egyptian, it exists, without the article prefixed, as the akh, or khu, the splendid, illuminated, coloured bird; a sun-bird, the symbol of spirit, lustre, and light.

The ivory in Hebrew is called shen habbim, ivory, or elephant's teeth (margin). This habbim, says Max Muller, is without a derivation in Hebrew, but is most likely a corruption of the Sanskrit name for elephant, ibha, preceded by the Semitic article[174]. Again, there is no need of corruption as in Egyptian ab is the name both for the elephant and the ivory. The ab had earlier forms in hab and kab, so that the names of the peacock, ape, and ivory, may be foreign in Hebrew without being derived from Sanskrit, or Ophir being in India, or a navy of a King Solomon having existed that traded with India. The first India known to the Greeks was in Africa, and the earliest Indians were Ethiopic. When Eustathius[175] states that the Ethiopians came from India he means the African India. When Claudius Claudianus, the last of the Latin classic poets, at the end of the fourth century, speaks of the 'India, which is painted on Jewish veils,'[176] the India meant is Ethiopic and not Asiatic. Tacitus[177] says many considered the Jews to be the progeny of the Ethiopians, but they would mean the Indians of Africa. India in other classical writers is a name of Ethiopia or the land of Kush. Virgil describes the Nile as coming from the land of the coloured Indians[178], and Diodorus[179] calls the black Osiris an Indian by extraction. The conquest of India by Osiris or Bacchus is allegorical, and belongs to the sun in the southern heaven. Horus-Khenti-Khrati[180] is a form of this sun of India or the south, the Harpocrates of Khent, the southern heaven. This leads to the derivation of the name of India as a developed form of khentu (Eg.), the inner, interior, southern land; extant as far south as U-ganda, the patriarch of which was named Kintu, and who, according to Stanley, came and went and was expected to return[181]. Khentu modifies into the Zend hendu, Pahlavi hendo, and India.

Thus Khebta-Kheftu is Egypt south, the earliest Hindu-Kush is Southern Ethiopia, and the final, the original form of the Sanskrit sapta-sindhu and Zend hapta-hendu, is the Egyptian khabta-khentu, or Egypt north and south.

India may or may not be named as the land of the Seven Streams from Sapta-sindhu, the Seven Rivers. But if it were, the celestial Egypt was also the land of the seven streams[182], and seven mouths were assigned to the Nile. The Romans reckoned the branches of the Nile to be seven in number, Septemplicis ostia Nili. It can be shown, [p.58] however, that the typical seven of naming are the seven stars of Khepsh (Kush) not seven streams. The Indian Ocean, if named from the African India, or Ethiopia, certainly was not called after the seven streams. It would then be the ocean of those who had sailed south by the Red Sea, and khentu (Eg.), means the south, and going south. The ocean would be named first and the land last, as that of the Southern Sea.

The rabbis say the world is like an eye, and the pupil of it is Jerusalem. The image seen in it is the sanctuary. This belongs to the Ritual where the god is visible in his disk, which is also the eye. The eye, or its pupil, is the ar, and the eye is made at the place of reproduction, the eye being the symbol of mirroring, making the likeness, conceiving, and it is full when the circle of the year, the round, is completed. Jerusalem represented this centre of the eye, or the place of juncture in the ring, the gem of it.

One meaning of םלש (shalem) is to complete, form the whole, be full. This does not supersede the high place, the summit. But if we take the eye, aru, and shalem, in the sense of to fill, complete the whole, we see that Aru-Shalem is just the place of making or filling the eye. As a constellation the eye, a sign of Horus the child reborn every spring, is figured at the place of the vernal equinox, where the hill of the horizon was fixed, and the birthplace of the child, the sanctuary, is found.

The Egyptian makha supplies a sense missing in Hebrew, where the word אחמתא (ithm'cha) signifies to be fixed or affixed to a cross, be crucified. The machba (אבחמ) is a junction, the place of uniting and dovetailing. Machaneh (הנחמ) in the plural form of machanim, denotes a dual dance, the up and down of it. Mak (Eg.) means the dance. Macbar (רחמ) is the morning time, the time of light on the horizon. Makôn (נוכמ) means a stand, a dwelling-place, the heavenly seat, the dwelling-place of deity, the foundation or basis of a throne. In the feminine form, makônah (הנוכמ) is a stand, support, pedestal, a foundation for the world.

Makba (Eg.) is the balance, the equinoctial level, the place of the horizon. Ma is place, and akh is the horizon. Har-Makha was the sun of both horizons, or the level. The first foundations were laid in the four corners; at the chief of these, the place of the spring equinox, was the solar birthplace. Here is the Tser Hill, or rock of the horizon, on which the gods landed from the waters. This was the place of juncture or conjunction of sun and moon, and the birthplace of their son, and from the crossing was derived the symbol of the cross, and the imagery of the crucifixion.

There is a mystery about the use of the Hebrew mem. The meaning of this addition to words as modifying the idea, says Fuerst[183], has not been ascertained as yet. The Egyptian m will illustrate the Hebrew mem. Ma, as place, explains the mem prefixed in הערמ for [p.59]  pasture, and the time at which an action takes place as in בשומ (ma)[184], the place, and akha, the horizon, yield makha the level, balance, or equinox.

The heroic exploit of Samson is connected etymologically with a place called Maktesh, a name applied to Jerusalem by the Samaritans. Tesh (Eg.) is a nome or division of land; mak-tesh is the equinoctial division or level. As this was the place of the mount we may infer that Jerusalem is the aru (Eg.), the ascent, steps or mount of peace, representing the hill of the horizon in the solar scheme. Tabariyya is also called Maktesh in the Midrash. Tab (Eg.) is the point of commencement in the circle; an (Eg.), again, is the mount. The Hebrew chag is a festival, a feast which was celebrated with dancing[185]. It means particularly the feast of harvest[186] or the Passover[187]. The harvest and the Passover were the two equinoctial tides. Khekh (Eg.) is the horizon and the balance, ergo, the equinoctial level. Skhekh (Eg.) means to adjust the balance. Khekh modifies into hakh, a festival, a time, determined by the twin lions of the horizon, and by the double-seated boat; two ideographs of the sun upon the horizon, at the time of the equinox. This chag or hak is the same as the English Hock-tide, celebrated twice a year, after Easter and at harvest-home, which properly belongs to the two equinoxes. In the Hebrew name of Chaggiyah (היגח) we have the god Jah on the horizon (khekh) who is the Egyptian Har-Makhu. The name of Cheg-Baal (לעבגח) in Herodotus[188] is probably derived from Sut-Har, a Sabean form of the deity of the horizon.

Beth-Diblathaim is the proper name of a city in the plain of Moab[189]. The plain is the makha, the level, the place of the equinox. Diblathaim reads the dual circle, or double cake; dibl, meaning to cake together; diblah being a cake of pressed figs. Teb (Eg.) means a cake, also a cake or teb of figs. There was a city of Diblah which was identified with Riblah or Daphne, in the extreme northern border of Palestine. There was likewise a city of Daphne in the north of Lower Egypt. Daphne is derived from Tef (later Tefnut), the goddess of the North or hinder thigh, a type of the birthplace. Now the hieroglyphic of the horizon is a cake, and therefore the double cake answers to the double circle of the horizon; Beth-Diblathaim is the double house of the equinoctial level, where the copulae occurred at the time of the vernal equinox. The cake of the horizon and its double house is still preserved in the hot cross bun, or cake of Easter, as already intimated. The present writer holds that this double cake is the sign commonly called the 'spectacles ornament,' found so frequently repeated on the sculptured stones of Scotland. The double house of the horizon, or house of the dual equinox, appears in the Sabean myth as the double house of Anup (Sut-Har) in Abtu; Abtu is [p.60] designated the double holy house devoted to Anubis. This, in the solar myth, was called the double abode of Tum or Har-Makhu, the god of both horizons in An. So ancient was this birthplace that it bears the name of Apt (Ta-urt), the old suckler, the hippopotamus goddess, who appears also as Ahti, the Double House, or house of reproduction, whose name connects her with the moon.

Terp (teru) is a name of literature, the rites and writings of Taht, the scribe of the gods. A teru is a roll of papyrus, the equivalent of the Hebrew Torah or sacred roll of the law. The Torah הרות is the law of Moses, the law or doctrine in the Egyptian sense of religious ritual, written on the roll in hieroglyphics. If, as will be shown, the ancient Hebrew records were in the hieroglyphic signs, then the Torah was the Teru, and the Targum was the writing in which the secret symbols, in addition to the doctrine therein hermetically sealed, were rendered into the alphabet for common use. The Toharoth, a part of the Mishna, treats of what is clean and unclean. This is a form of the two truths. Teru relates primarily to the two times, which were first of all physiological, hence the clean and unclean, Next they were solstitial, then equinoctial. These two constitute the all, the ter or entire, whole. From this same ter, the all consisting of the Two Truths of Egypt, it is now proposed to derive the name of the Talmud as Tar-mat, the total truth of a twofold nature. The work is still divided, according to the Two Truths, into two parts, as the Mishna and Gemara, the legal and the legendary lore. The Mishna denotes the second truth (ma-shen) or law. Shen, in both Hebrew and Egyptian, means second, and the Semitic mi stands for ma (Eg.) The name of Gemara is possibly derived from kem (Eg.), to discover, find, invent; hence hidden, dark; and ra, formula, ara, ceremonial. The Two Truths of Egypt dominate the Hebrew scriptures. These are represented by the two stone tables of testimony given on Sinai. Sinai itself is the twofold in both languages. The written and unwritten law were another shape of this duality. And when Ezra re­rendered the law it was still in accordance with the Two Truths; one part was to be published, the other kept secret as the hidden wisdom.

It is somewhat like our own written and common law, the origin of which latter is unknown, but it has been handed down by tradition, custom, and usage, from a time before covenants were written, and is frequently found at variance, especially in the popular mind, with the written code. Rabbinical traditions represent the Hebrew deity as studying the scriptures by day and the Mishna by night[190], which is a mode of acknowledging them to be of the nature of the Two Truths. In this sense the Mishna is the second of two, that is the oral in relation to the written law of the Pentateuch. Both Mishna and Gemara belong to the unwritten law, the second of the twofold [p.61] total of truth. It was the character of the Gemara to make examinations of the Mishna as it accumulated. It has been termed a critical expansion of the Mishna. Hence the likelihood that the name comes from kem (Eg.), to seek, find out, discover, and ra (Eg.), formula.

The Chaldee word targum, of uncertain origin, rendered to translate or interpret from one language into another, yields a more particular meaning when derived from the Egyptian as tar-kem. Tar means to interrogate, question, sift, distil, indicate, and kem is to seek, find, discover. Taruu also denotes the stems and roots. The Egyptian experts were designated kem-sep, and the Targum derived from tar-kem is an interpretation of the concealed sense, the dark sayings, allegories, and symbols, of the hidden wisdom, an intermediate between the secret lore and the outside public, and well does the word thus derived express the nature of the process applied in questioning, sifting, modifying, rationalizing, and generally tampering with the materials of mythology, for the Targumists did not remain faithful to the original meaning.

As no Targum on the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah, and Daniel, has ever been known, and as these books were written in Chaldee, this fact further tends to show the meaning of the Targum as the book of elucidation of the secret language; those written in Chaldee and in the square letter were not in the same category.

'Petar ref su,' is a formula in the Egyptian Ritual that occurs more than thirty times over in one chapter, the seventeenth, called the Egyptian Gospel or Faith[191]. 'Petar ref su' is translated by Dr. Birch, 'Let him explain it.'[192] Petar means to show, explain, interpret. The su, however, is not merely him; he was the royal scribe, the interpreter, the 'sole sage, possessed of science,' the keeper of the secret wisdom that was only communicated orally; the voice of the unwritten word. The Hebrew meturgeman, or interpreter, fulfilled the same office, and will help to explain this frequent 'Petar ref su.' Deutsch, on the Targums, quotes various instructions relating to the regulations of the meturgeman. 'Neither the reader nor the interpreter are to raise their voices one above another;' 'they have to wait for each other until each has finished his verse.' The meturgeman is 'not to use a written Targum, but he is to deliver his translation viva voce,'[193] for fear that it might appear he was reading out of the Torah itself. One interpreter was allowed to one reader of the law, while two interpreters were at times allowed for the prophets.

The status of the meturgeman in Israel had become the reverse of what it was in ancient Egypt; he was a mere go-between, a translator out of the sacred language into the vulgar, out of Hebrew into Aramaic, and at times the utterer of a lying gloss; but the origin was the same. Both at first were expounders of the oral and unwritten wisdom, the living tongue of the most ancient tradition.

The uncleanness of creeping things is most definitely laid down in [p.62] the law, and yet the Talmud affirms that 'no one is appointed a member of the Sanhedrim who does not possess ingenuity enough to prove from the written law that a creeping thing is ceremonially clean.'[194] This is denounced as sophistry, whereas it is but the blending of the oral and written, the oral going back to the time when creeping things were not considered unclean. A member of the Sanhedrim was bound to be in possession of the gnosis or kabbalah, by which all such incongruities could be explained. 'Whoever translates {as Meturgeman} a verse in its closely exact form is a liar,' says the Talmud; that is, whoever literalizes that which is symbolical and requires oral explanation of its hidden meaning. According to this, the literalizers are liars and incompetent exponents. Yet the Christian world has never had any other teachers. A gentile inquired of Shammai, 'How many laws have you?''Two,' said Shammai, 'the written and the oral.''I believe the former, not the latter,' said the gentile; 'accept me as a proselyte on condition that I learn the written law only.' Whereupon Shammai ejected him with execration[195].

The Phoenician had a kind of judges as recorded by Livy[196], and proved by the two tablets of Marseilles and Carthage, designated suffetes, whereupon it is inferred and assumed that the Hebrews imported their shophetim or judges from Phoenicia. Goldziher writes: 'The consideration of the word Shophet itself leads to the conviction that the office was an institution suggested by Phoenician custom, for it is found in no other Semitic language in the same signification as in these two dialects of Canaan. The Samaritan, in which Shaphat is also found, scarcely requires separate mention. So the Hebrews, as was often the case, must have borrowed the term Shophet together with the corresponding institution, from their cultivated neighbours,' e.g., the Phoenicians[197]. But the roots of the Hebrews are not always to be found in Canaan, nor were their institutions borrowed there from their neighbours. The sep in Egypt was a judge. Sep means to examine, verify, judge. The sep is the throne as a judgment seat; sab (Eg.), a wise man, a councillor; sufi, in Hindustani, means the wise; sophoo, Greek, to instruct in wisdom; sefou, Manchu Tartar, a master, a teacher; suibhe, Irish, sessions, assizes; gafate, African Galla, to examine, inquire, search out; sabit, Hindustani, to prove; sabit, Malayan, established on evidence, proved; subut, Arabic, proving on evidence; sift, English, applied to scrutinizing evidence for judging. The sophi was a Persian king. The Swahili suffi, a hermit or religious devotee, and with the African Galla, the soba is a king. In Egypt, the sheft or shept are a sacred order of some kind. The sheft or suffetes were common; not limited to the Phoenicians.

[p.63]

In Egypt, the ancient order of the judges, the shept, had been superseded by monarchy in the monumental times, but the names and signs lived on. The sep are an order of persons belonging to religious houses. Sep permutes with ap, and ap, if not a judge, is to judge, and means the first, head. The sep as judge is imaged by the sheps (variant, as), the most ancient ruler, and as as means the servant as well as the ruler, including the shus of the Shus-en-Har, the servants of Har in pre-monumental times, it seems probable that shus is the worn down form of sheps, who, as rulers, would be the Hek-shus kings, the shepherd kings as the judges. The institution of the judges, the shophetim, is pre-monarchical, pre-solar; it is Sabean, and has a name as old as time, Seb, or the Dog-star, Sebt; it is Sut-Typhonian. In the time of Amenophis III it is found on the tablet of his triumphs over the negroes that they were not ruled by kings or chiefs in the monarchical sense, but by judges, exactly like the shophetim in Israel. The institution had been retained in Ethiopia and the birthplace. It was once Egyptian, and as such had been carried into Phoenicia and other lands. The earlier Hekshus had passed over Canaan and Palestine before the exode of the Jews, who followed and found many of the outcast customs of earlier Egypt. There is no need to derive the judges from Phoenicia.

In the harem conspiracy which aimed at the overthrow of Rameses III, Penhi, one of the chief culprits, applied to the sorcerer, saying, 'If I only possessed a writing which would give me power and strength!' 'Then he gave him a writing from the rolls of the books of Rameses III, the great god, his lord ... Then there came upon him a divine magic, an enchantment for men. He (also) formed human figures of wax, with the intention of having them carried in (to the women's house) by the hand of the land-surveyor, Adiruma, to alienate the mind of one of the girls and to bewitch the others. Now, however, he was brought to trial. They inflicted on him the great punishment of death, such as the holy writings pronounced against him.'[198] These magic practices were the work of the godless, whom the Egyptians called the kheft, after the ancient typhonian mother, and were prohibited by the sun-god Ra. So in Israel the old customs of witchcraft, sorcery, calling up the spirits of the dead, were superseded by the teacher called Mosesthe phrase is used of set purposewho announced the new divinity by the name of Jah, who will be shown to be a solar god entirely distinct from the Jehovah of Genesis.

In the Ritual of the instructions given to the reader of a certain sacred book, amongst other things to be done in the purificatory preparations, the sign of Ma, goddess of truth, is to be placed on the tongue in fresh colour (rui), used by the scribes to denote that he [p.64] spoke with the tongue of Truth herself when he read the book to Ra[199]. Incense is also applied behind both ears of the priest or prophet who reads the book.

The colour of Ma was red, of which word rui is the root; red does not appear by name as ma, but n and m permute, and na is the paint or rui for writing. Ma must have signified blood, as damu derives from ma (Eg.) with the article t prefixed. The red rui put on the tongue as typical of the truth suggests the natural inference that the blood of the sacrifice which was to be put on the tip of the right ear of Aaron and his sons, and on the right thumb and right great toe, was meant for the mark of Ma, goddess of the Two Truths, the Hebrew Thummim. The red on the ears had transferred the truth to the hearers, whereas on the tongue it applied to the utterance. The mark of Ma in red paint is the probable meaning of the vermilion, red paint, or blood, with which stones are still bedaubed in various parts of the world. If so, each ruddled stone reads sut-ma, the pyramid of truth; the pyramid, sut, is a form of the stone of Sut, the simpler stone being the oldest. Sut­ma (Eg.), as a compound word means to make fast, establish truly, and as the pyramid, sut, signifies an offering, the red stone is the ideograph of a true offering.

We learn from the inscription found in the tomb of Hap Sefa, son of Al, and high-priest of Anubis, or Apheru, the lord of Lycopolis, that the inhabitants of Egypt, in the time of the Thirteenth Dynasty, were accustomed, rich and poor, to make an offering of first-fruits to their deity, just as the Hebrews were bound to do in later times. The festivals narrated in the inscription took place at the end and the beginning of the year, from the last day of the year (the fifth intercalary day) to the feast called Uak, which was celebrated on the eighteenth of the month Taht[200]. The Hebrews, however, dated from the equinoxes, of which Apheru was the divinity.

In Lightfoot's[201] account of the Temple, the showbread is described as being laid cake by cake between canes or reeds of gold. These reeds or canes were not whole, like the reed itself, but represented it as cloven in two or slit up the middle, so that when the cakes were placed between the halves of the divided reeds they were the symbol of food contained in the reed. Fourteen of these halves were used in each pile; twenty-eight for the total of twelve cakes, placed in two piles with three half-reeds placed between two cakes up to the fifth, and only two between the fifth and sixth, the lowest cake being laid on the plain table. The number twenty-eight is lunar in the mystical sense. Every seventh day the old cakes were replaced by a fresh offering. The table heaped with bread was, as the vase in the centre shows[202], a form of the hieroglyphic hept (or hetp), the table of the [p.65] shrine heaped with food, and signifying a pile of food, plenty, welcome, peace. Kept also means the number seven, and on the seventh day the stale bread, sacred to the priests, was eaten.

The Egyptians, says Horapollo, to 'denote ancient descent, depicted a bundle of papyrus, and by this they intimate the primeval food, for no one can find the beginning of food or generation.'[203] The papyrus reed was a type of beginning, named tufi. Af is born of; ap, the first; tef, tep, or tufi, denotes this commencement. Also, the Egyptians, in making their offerings to the dead or the manes set out their cakes in the tombs upon scaffolds of reeds[204]. 'And the Lord said unto Moses, Thou shalt observe the feast of weeks of the first-fruits of the wheat-harvest.'[205] The offering was to include two loaves and two assarans of meal. This was the Hebrew Pentecost, our Whitsuntide. The fast is assumed to have been first instituted by the Lord for the Israelites to observe. According to Josephus, its name is asartha[206], which signifies Pentecost. So far from this originating on Mount Sinai or by any direct revelation to Moses, the ashrta must have been an Egyptian institution even if it did not bear the same name.

Ashrta means a slice or portion of bread, a measure of corn that is, the slice and the measure of corn are determinatives of the word ashrta[207]. It was probably the sheteta or shat-sha festival of cutting harvest, whence the symbolic slice of food. Asha is to mow. The assaran measure of the Hebrews may be the corn-measure of the hieroglyphics, the kat ideograph of Asher.

In the Annals of Rameses III[208], amongst the bread offerings to the temple are 441,800 buns called 'Buns Kolusta.'[209] The Egyptian kolusta becomes the kallisteus of the Greeks, a kind of cake or bread which they beautified. Apparently it was made of the finest ears of wheat (καλλιστάχυς). Rendered with the letter r, these buns are karusta. Ta is bread, food, offering; karas denotes the dead, the corpse or mummy; karas, a funeral. A Cornish word, clusty, will enable us to determine the nature of the bread. Clusty means close, heavy, unfermented, dead; it is also applied to potatoes when they are not mealy. The kalusta buns were unleavened, like the showbread of the Hebrews, eaten by the priests only, and offered to them in piles. The pile will identify the bread under the name of mar­chet; and this in Egyptian is merr, cakes; khet, the corpse; making it one with the karus-ta, the offering to the dead, which was unleavened, as a symbol of the dead. This was offered in a pile or in the shape of a pyramid. Bun, in Amoy, denotes the cakes of the dead. [p.66] Ppa-nem, or beh-nem, in Egyptian, signifies the cakes or bread repeated for the following festival; from ppa, cake, nem, repeat, be second, the second festival. This repetition was made by the Hebrews every seventh day. The priests only ate the old loaves of showbread on the seventh day or festival following[210].

The headdress worn by the priests is described by Josephus as a crown-like cap made of thick swathes of linen folded round and round many times[211]. This he calls the Masnamphthes. The high-priest's mitre was of the same fashion in the inner part, but round it there was a golden crown. It is evident from his account that this double mitre worn by the high-priest was a form of the double crown of Egypt, worn by the pharaohs and the figures of gods.

Nem denotes the secondary form. The nams was a double headdress, cap, or wig, worn by Egyptian priests. Mes is a diadem, and signifies the anointed or to anoint. Tes is to envelop by coiling round and round, just as Josephus describes the thick swathes being wound round and round many times to form the lower part of the mitre. Mas-nam-p-tes is Egyptian for the secondary diadem (or headdress) of an enveloped form; from mes, a diadem or headdress; nem, second; p, the article the; and tes, to coil, swathe, tie round and round. And if the s be only the Greek terminal, then mas-nam-put is still the secondary form of crown, whilst put denotes the divine circle of the gods. With the outer crown of gold bound round the mas-nam-put, we have the mitre of the high-priest called the mitznephth (תפנצמ). Mes-nabt, in Egyptian, means the diadem encircled with gold. Mes is the diadem; neb, gold; nabt, gold-type; nabt, to tie, plait, noose, swathe round. The nabtu is the solar disk of gold. Nabt was a title of Amen-Ra, and mes-nabt in one form is the diadem of Amen-Ra. But the Hebrew miznepheth was of another type than the double crown of Egypt, the crown of the south and north. Josephus leaves an opening in the lower crown for the plate of gold to be inserted[212], and that suggests the peculiar pattern of the double crown worn solely by Atum; the crown of east and west. Josephus gives an elaborate portrayal of a cup of gold which rose up out of the miznepheth like the flower of a poppy or the navel of the pomegranate in shape[213], and this formed a crown to the double crown previously described. He seems to have gone a long way round not to depict the lotus-flower itself for that is obviously the original type of flower intended by the epheilis, and on the head of the deity Atum, alone among the gods, will be found the lotus-flower, which he carried as a natural crown, long before crowns of gold had been made by human hands. This will enable us to get at the root meaning of the miznepheth, the high-priest's mitre, also known as a diadem[214]. Mes signifies in Egyptian the product of a river, the water [p.67] born. Nef is breath and to float on the water. At is a type, a symbol. All three roots are extant in Hebrew: mesa, product of the water; neph, breath; and ath, a sign, portent, symbol. The lotus floating on the water, bearing the seed up in the flower, or carried upon the head of Atum, was the type of breathing out of the water. And this lotus crown gives the name of the miznepheth to the mitre worn by the high-priest of the Hebrews.

It can be still further identified.

The papyrus pattern is found in the fan or flabellum of the monuments; the leaves spread fanwise as ornament to the hemispherical shape. And Josephus describes the semi-spherical form with its leaves sharp as the leaves of mint.

The fan is of course a sign of breath, and one of its names is the neft; mes-neft is Egyptian for this fan worn as a crown. Also the papyrus-plant, like the lotus, was a birth (mes) of the waters, and image of breathing.

The high-priest says Josephus[215], wore a long vestment of a blue colour reaching to his feet; 'in our language it is called a meer (or mer), and is tied round the waist with a girdle.' Mer (Eg.) is to gird round, a circle, swathe, envelop, tie round. The mer was a governor and superintendent, also persons attached to a temple as monks, the universal wearers of the long vestment or mer. The garment called by Moses the abanat is designated by Josephus the amia. 'We have learned,' he says, 'from the Babylonians, to call it Amia, for so it is named by them.'[216] This may enable us to recognize the Egyptian amilia. In a hymn addressed to Amen-Ra, the deity is described as being 'Lord of the high-placed crown, of the fair turban, the white crown; the coronet and the diadem are the ornaments of his face; he is invested with the amiha; the double crown is his head-gear; benignly he receives the atef-crown on whose south and whose north is love; the Lord of life receives the sceptre; Lord of the breastplate armed with the whip.'[217] The amiha has not been recognized, but if Goodwin[218] is right in his rendering, it would seem to be one with the Jewish amia, therefore a name of the shent apron.

A stem, banat (טנב) is assumed for abanat, in the sense of to bind, bind about, gird about (Sanskrit bandh, to bind; Persian bend), but the stem is not found in the Semitic dialects. Kimchi and others regarded the word as Egyptian[219]. Bent (Eg.) is determined by the skin of the beast which was worn by the priests. This skin was made into an apron called the shent. Shent denotes that which wraps, encircles, girdles round. The sign read shent is also read fent, nor is the latter reading, though rare, to be given up. Fent is a variant of bent, and the bent or banat or benti, we take to be the Hebrew form of the shent worn by the Egyptian priests, [p.68] which survives as the bishop's apron. A pshent crown is found as a pinu or pinut[220].

Another name given to this vestment by Josephus is massaba-zanes[221]. Mess (Eg.) is a strap; mash, to tie; mess, a belt; sab, to encase, engird; sanes, to salute, adore, invoke: hence the girdle put on for ceremonial service. A garment was worn about the privy parts called a machanase. It was made of linen, like a pair of breeches, with the top cut off. Maku in the hieroglyphics is some unknown linen object[222]. Makunas would denote the lower linen object with the sign of the noose or tie. Now, the lotus worn by Atum is a symbol of the female, when the genetrix was represented as containing the seed within herself. The Hebrew imagery, including the priestly petticoats, is essentially feminine, and nas (Eg.) means her, she, the female, out of. Hence we infer the machanase was a feminine garment, in keeping with the skirt.

Josephus calls the piece that was inserted in the void place of the Ephod the essen or hessen, and says it signified the oracle[223]. Shen (Eg.) is the circle; the shaunnu is a diviner. The essen was the circle of divination, hence the oracle. Shna is the sacred serpent that often formed the typical circle. The essen is a modified form of the choshen spoken of by Philo, the two sides of which, he says, were called truth and revelation[224].

The choshen (ןשח) was a four-cornered gorget worn on the breast of the high-priest. The four corners denote the aft (Eg.), the abode, and form the square to the circle as in the quadrangular caer. The four-cornered gorget, set with twelve precious stones in gold, is best explained by the Egyptian khu for the four corners, the four supports of the heaven, or circle of the four quarters, and shen the circle This is supported by the number of the stones which, according to Josephus and Clement Alexander[225] typified the zodiacal circle, the circle of the Two Truths, whence the shen pshent the double crown, or khu-shen, the circle of the four corners.

The machashebeth (תבשחמ), rendered cunning work, has in Hebrew the meaning of work wrought with skill and art, it is also applied to the strong work of fortification[226]; Egyptian will tell us khesbet (Eg.) is the name of wrought iron. But the typical khesbet is the lapis-lazuli stone, the blue, the symbol of heaven. Ma (Eg.) means true, truth, the goddess of the Two Truths, and ma-khesbet (Eg.) reads the true lapis-lazuli, an Egyptian expression which distinguished the real from the artificial. Khesbet is also written khesba for blue and for lapis-lazuli. This is the form of kesheb, the name of the curious girdle worn by the high-priest, which Josephus states the Jews had learned from the Babylonians to call amia[227]; probably another form of khesba-ma, the true blue, the [p.69] real foundation. Kes softens into hes; and in the huzzab of Nahum we have an obvious allusion to this Egyptian basis. Huzzab shall be ungirdled and made naked. Huzzab was a personification of the one established on what had been held to be the foundation of truth, whose signs were the aseb seat, the kesheb-ma of Egypt and the girdle kesheb in Israel. One form of the khesbet-ma was worn by the Egyptian judges, and consisted of a figure of Ma carved in lapis-lazuli. Ma represented the dual of truth, and with the feminine article prefixed to her name we have tema, to distribute justice, whence the Greek Themis, the goddess of justice. Ma, who made justice visible (tema), was herself depicted blind, or as seeing with insight. The Egyptian twin-total is temt, with the ideograph of the two halves made one whole.

In the time of Philo and Josephus it was a matter of dispute with the Jews what the urim and thummim were. According to Philo, they were two small images, one of which was emblematic of revelation, the other of truth[228]. Tema, in Egyptian, is the true. Precious stones also are tameh, and temes signifies a plate or written tablet. The two feathers of Ma, the goddess of Truth and Justice, would, in the Hebrew plural, render the word thummim as the total of Two Truths. This exists as םיטת for the whole, entire, a whole year; which, according to Jewish reckoning, consisted of two halves. Thummim is perfect and truth[229], rendered aletheia (truth) by the Seventy. The perfect is the double (tem) or twin truth. Rabbi Nehemiah said, 'Every place where it is said "cunning-work," there were two figures; in the needlework there was one figure only.'[230] Rameses III says to the god Ptah, he who created, with Ma, or truly: 'I made thee a good breast-plate (uta) of the best gold, of katmer (and) silver made with a setting of meh and of real lapis-lazuli, to be united to thy limbs on thy great throne of the horizon, and the company of the gods of the house of Ptah, who rest in them.'[231] Meh is either a precious stone, or inlaid work; may be inlaid stones, or inlayings of precious stones. The uta, or breastplate, also denotes the symbolic eye (one form of which is Ma), and means to speak, give forth a voice, like the Hebrew oracle of urim and thummim. The lapis-lazuli typifies the blue heaven as the throne of the god who was the lower sun known as Tum and as Af-Ra. Now the Afrim (or aurim, urim) is certain to belong to the thummim of Ma, and as the one represents the perfection of the twin Truth, the other must be solar, relating to the Tum cult of Egypt. Tum, the great judge of the dead, was the sun in the Hades. The breastplate was that of טפשמ (mishpat), or judgment. Tum, sitting n judgment, is accompanied by Ma, the goddess of thummim. Atum is one with Adonai. Therefore we [p.70] infer that the afrim belonged to the af-sun that crossed the waters of the underworld. The two figures then would be the red sun Atum, and Ma, the goddess of the Two Truths.

Matsui Rishon is an ancient name of the Hebrew divinity, said to signify the primary being. Res (Eg.) means the absolute, and un is being. Shui (Eg.) is light and shade; the sign of these is the feather of Ma, the truth, with two aspects. Maat denotes the Two Truths. Thus Matsui Rishon is the absolute being as divinity of the dual truth, signified by the feather of Ma, who in the solar cult is creatoress with Adonai or Atum.

It has been denied that there was any female to the Hebrew deity's nature. No Beltis, it has been said, to the Hebrew Baal! But that was implied in the Shekinah, and in the ark of the tabernacle, which was the same symbol as the ark or tabernacle of Ishtar or Beltis, the Baris of Isis, or any other form of the creatoress. The Hebrew imagery being Egyptian, symbolism will tell us more than the written and often rewritten letter of the word.

'The women of Israel;' we read, 'made Beth for the Asherah.'[232] The word beth, rendered 'hangings,' is house in the margin. The Asherah read by Egyptian is the Aser-ah; ah is the house, and aser, the tamarisk, a form of the ever-green tree. In Hebrew the eshel (לשא), according to Fuerst, is a tamarisk[233]. Thus the eshel is the Egyptian asru. Neither of the versions nor interpreters have identified this special tree. The Aser-Ah is the tree-house, the grove of the translators, presented to view in the Assyrian Asherah.

It was in a thicket of tamarisk, as described by Plutarch, that the floating ark of the child Osiris was caught, and the tamarisk grew up into a large and beautiful tree, inclosing the child in the heart of it; and the tree became a post or pillar in the palace of the Phoenician Malkarthos and Astarte or Saosis[234]. Asar-ah is the house of Osiris, the son (ar) of As or Isis, the house being typified in this instance by a tree. The tree-house was the compound symbol of the genetrix, who was the abode, the tree being one type of the dwelling. The tree-house corresponded to the duality of the nature of the great mother, whose name in the plural is Asheroth. Asherah was known as a Phoenician goddess, whose image was the tree or pillar. Such, it may be hinted, is the meaning of the Asherah, about which much further information has to be adduced. Here it may be pointed out how Asherah is a Phoenician development of the name of Asar in relation to the goddess Asherah. The name of As-ar already contained the tree and house personated by Isis. Ar is the son of, and as (or hes) means the house, abode, chamber of birth. The tree of Isis was the ash, the [p.71] Persea tree of life, and her child as Asar is the son of the ash or the house, long before the mother was designated Asherah.

The beth, rendered hangings, was the tent of the nomads, the ahal (להא), an early form of the habitation or hall. Ah (Eg.) is the house, dwelling-place, stable; the Egyptians were beyond the tent. Al (ar) is the child. Now, if we render the ahal the habitation of the child, it will show how the same word can signify people, race, family, as the ףסוי־להא people of Joseph[235], the child, plural children, of the Aft, as the tent; they who were nomads.

Ahlah (Aholah), a symbolical name for Samaria, likewise means the tent. Alah is a goddess, the habitation of the child, and in her the tree and abode meet under one name. The alah tree, whichever species, is the same emblematically as the ashel. Thus the Hebrew goddess Alah is one with Asherah. The tabernacle[236] is the beth. So also is the inward of the ephod[237]. The beth is elsewhere the palace of the king, the divine house. Bu-t and peht, in Egyptian, denote the uterus. In Hebrew, beten (ןטב) is the womb or inside. Clement gives a curious rendering of the meaning of thebotha (the ark), as 'one instead of one in all places.'[238] This is the Egyptian teb, to be responsible for. It was a representative symbol, and is assuredly responsible for representing the female nature of the Hebrew deity. The Egyptians built their Baris of the gum acacia tree[239], the tree of Khem, the tree of life. The name of it is kamai, and ka is male, mai, sperm: whence the word gum. The Hebrew ark was built of the same wood. In the hieroglyphics the acacia is ash. In Hebrew, shittah (הטש) answers to ash-tah (Eg.), the acacia wood of the ark (tab, a boat). The shetah, when made, is the Egyptian ark, chest, box, sarcophagus, a symbol of the most mystical, secret and hallowed nature, that imaged in one the womb and the tomb. We are told that the ark of testimony contained a pot of manna and the rod that blossomed. This rod or staff is the matteh (הטמ). It was the matteh of Moab that was broken with his horn, as derisively described by Jeremiah[240]; the matteh of Moses and Aaron which swallowed the serpents, and caused the Red Sea to divide in twain for the passage through it. The nature, of this Red Sea and serpent will be made apparent in the myths. We have now to do with the matteh, the potent conqueror of the opposing power as typified by the serpent and the Red Sea, which was sacredly preserved in the itinerating tabernacle of Jah. The matteh is Egyptian, as the mata of the hieroglyphics, the phallus.*

* This was a type of resurrection in the Egyptian eschatology, the image of Khem-Horus as the sun or the risen soul on the horizon. The sexual symbolry is as ancient as it is primitive for instance, the same type has been found, in France, incised by the men of the Palaeolithic age and art, on a deer's-horn that was buried beneath ten feet of stalagmite, and in all likelihood this was a figure of resurrection with the cavemen as it was with the Egyptians and Hebrews[241].

The matteh being the [p.72] male image, it follows that the pot of manna was a feminine symbol, and the two sexual types of source were the tokens of the divine presence. This ark was the holiest of all, placed in the holy of holies behind the second veil[242]. The Egyptians, as Mariette has discovered[243], used to keep their type of this dual deity in the sanctum sanctorum in the shape of the ankh emblem of life and of pairing. Ankh is identical with coupling and joining together. The ankh, like the neck and ankle, denoted the join.

We can identify the particular form of the Two Truths by the aid of the imagery as those belonging to the mother and child. There was no fatherhood in the earliest religion or symbolism. The rod that budded is the renpu (Eg.), the branch, the sign of the young one, the nursling of the virgin mother. In Egyptian, rennu means the virgin, and Rennut was the virgin mother personified. Her renn was the nursling and the budding branch, the renpu was the symbol. The mother and the male child are signified by the pot of manna, and the rod that budded. The sanctity of the Hebrew symbol was so great as to be divinely vindicated by miracles of murder. Nor need we marvel at the watchful jealousy when we know what the manna was!

The mishkan is used by Isaiah[244] in place of the Egyptian karas for the sepulchre or place of the mummy; the ark being a type of both womb and tomb, birth and rebirth.

The qeresh of the tabernacle of testimony, rendered 'boards,' is employed in an external sense. Its use for the deck of a ship and for benches shows that it could not be limited merely to boards. To judge by Egyptian, the qeresh of the tabernacle or portable sanctuary was in Egypt a form of the ark itself. The karas is the place of embalmment, the coffin of the mummy, and in Hebrew[245] the karas is the belly. Kha-resh (Eg.) would be the temple of the belly, i.e., the womb. 'Beloved of the Adytum, come to kha,' cries Nephthys to Osiris. 'Thou who comest as a child each month, to spread the water of thy soul, to distribute the bread of thy being, that the gods may live and men also,' says Isis[246]. The god came in the monthly course of feminine periodicity to kha, to the karas, to the Adytum, or holy of holies, also under the type of the young moon. This was why the mishkari, the Jewish tabernacle, had ten curtains, the number of lunar periods that were veiled or curtained round during the nine solar months of gestation, just as we find the Assyrian Asherah with thirteen signs to the circle of the year. There is in all nature but one possible origin for this reckoning. Ten feminine periods curtained round signify the creative work, in the physiological phase.

The people of Israel are said to have swerved from the straight [p.73] path, become corrupt, and made a 'molten image.'[247] The same 'molten image' was worshipped in connection with the high places by the people of Canaan[248]. Hosea[249] says of the Israelites, 'And now they sin more and more, and have made them molten images,' and 'say of them, Let the men that sacrifice kiss the calves.' These were the calves of gold[250], the same as the molten calf of the Exodus. The 'molten image' thus identified with the calf of Israel's worship is the meschali, the feminine fount called the 'lying teacher.'[251] This image has been identified with the Egyptian meska, called the place of birth. Mes is birth, and ka is the type, the seat, tail; kha, the vagina type; mest, the sexual part (feminine). In the earlier times the deity of Israel had given to the people the pattern of a tabernacle of testimony, the symbol of the divine dwelling-place, the 'tabernacle of Shiloh,' afterwards deserted by the divinity. This was called the mishkan. Now, the Egyptian meskhen is a variant of the meska, and both designate the same thing, the birthplace, the habitation of the child. In the eschatological phase the meska, or meskhen, is the place of purgatory and spiritual rebirth in the Akar of Hades. This, too, appears as the mishkan, or dwelling-place of the wicked in the underworld[252]. The meskhen (Eg.) is the interior birthplace or the womb. It was the habitation personified in Isis by the sacred calf, the heifer, Hes by the cow-headed goddess Hathor, and by ahti (the womb), a goddess with the head of a calf and body of a hippopotamus. The calf or cow in Egypt was made of gold or gilded; the 'golden Hathor' is a gilded heifer. The cast-out meschah of the later religion was the same image with the mishkan of the earlier, and had the same significance. Both represented the feminine creatory, the object of worship when religion was in a very primitive phase, but when the cast image or manufactured ark had superseded naked nature, the calf was kissed, or the hindward face of the divinity of the witches' Sabbath, instead of the living likeness of Hathor or Ahti.

The root of both meskhen and shekinah may be found in the khen or skhen (Eg.), the place, hall, bosom, womb, abode of breath. Skhen means to give breath to, sustain, make to alight, as the bird of the waters. The m (Eg.) adds the mother to skhen, and ah (Eg.), the feminine abode. The skhen, meskhen, or shekinah imaged the birthplace as a natural prototype of the dwelling-place for the presence of creative power. The prophet Jeremiah[253] prohibits the use of the word mesa (אשמ) applied to the deity. It is to be ignored utterly. 'The Mesa (burthen) of Jahveh shall ye mention no more.'[254] When people ask what they mean by the burthen of Jahveh and they say in reply, 'What burthen?' they are to be forsaken[255]. 'As for the prophet, and the priest, and the people that shall say, The burden of [p.74] Jahveh I will even punish that man and his house.'[256] If the burden of Jahveh be mentioned, Israel is threatened with being utterly forgotten and God-forsaken and becoming an everlasting reproach, a perpetual shame[257]. Why is this? The word mesa in Hebrew means a burthen and to bear, and has some indefinite relation to revelation and the utterance of oracles. Egyptian will tell us the rest. The bearing and the burthen are those of gestation. Mesa (Eg.) signifies to engender, conceive, bear, and bring forth the child. The divinity who bears the burthen of the child, must include the feminine nature, and it has to be shown that the Jehovah of the Genesis was the genetrix and not a male deity at all. Jehovah was the Hebrew great mother who bore the burden of her child, and in the later stage of religion, when Jahveh was worshipped in the image of the male, such words as mesa were a reproach; they were a reminder of the meska or meskhen, the symbol of the birthplace. The Hebrews had not 'perverted the words of the living God,' but were simply using the words in their original sense, which jarred on the later consciousness.

Maimonides[258] says the chariot seen in Ezekiel's vision was called the merkabah. Merkab (בכרמ) is a chariot, the chariot of the sun, an emblem of solar-worship[259] and of the cherubim[260]. In the Song of Solomon, it is a seat belonging to a chair. The seat and chariot are symbols of the genetrix, Kefa, or Chavah, the goddess of the Great Bear, who was the bearer before chariots were invented. When invented, the chariot is called by the name of urt, and chavah or khab, yet extant as the cab. Mer (Eg.) is a circle; mer-chavah is the circle of khab, the Great Bear. Mer-kab (Heb.) means a range of space, and this was the circle of the seven stars. Mer-kab (Eg.) is the circle of going round in the figurative chariot or bark of the gods in which they rode, as the seven Cabiri or Rishis. Kabni (Eg.), English cabin, is a name of the ship as the chariot of the waters. The first form of the chariot, seat, boat, or bearer, was the hippopotamus, khab, the Hebrew chavah. The doctrine of the merkabah was a great mystery in the hidden wisdom of the Kabbalah. The patriarchs are denominated the chariot-throne of the Lord. These, like the Oans, Rishis, and Cabari, were only seven in number at first, and will be shown to have been the seven of the chariot (Ursa Major). Maru­kabuta is an Egyptian name for the chariot. Ta is the boat, and to go in a boat.

The pillar set up by Jacob is called a matzebah; the word is also rendered images, standing images, a statue or pillar of Baal. 'He put away the Matzebah of Baal.'[261] 'They broke down the Matzebah of Baal.'[262] The word is also written with the Egyptian terminal matzebat. This is the mastebah or mastebat. The same variation is found in Mitzraim and Mestraim. The Hebrew צ repre- [p.75] sents the zet or a tes, which became both t and s; hence the permutation. Matzebah reads, as Egyptian denotes, an enclosure of the dead. And as sabat is the pyramid of Sut, the pillar-form answers to the pyramid. The Phoenician הבצמ was a funeral monument, and one of these memorial stones was erected by Jacob over a grave.

Now, the mastebahs of the ancient empire were a kind of pillar or pyramid tombs. The mastebah is described by Mariette[263] as a sort of truncated pyramid built of enormous stones, and covering with a massive lid the well at the bottom of which reposed the mummy. But to the Egyptian mind, rebirth was not only synonymous with death, it took the place of it, and in the form of mes-tabah, birth (mes) takes the place of death (mut), and mastebah is the sarcophagus or coffin considered as the place of rebirth. The teba or tabah is not limited to the box or chest. It is also the ark of the waters. This represented in a living form was teb, the water cow, and goddess of the seven stars; the cow preceding the ark and box as a type. Teb or tep means primordial, the first, and the teb-ah, or first abode, the womb, was the model of the tomb as the place of rebirth; hence mes-tabah. The womb ah-ti is the dual or reduplicating house, and such in the eschatological sense was the mastebah, the tebah of rebirth.

The mastebah was the image of the genetrix, hence the beth of Al (Bethel), the house of Al (or ar, the child), hence also the name of Luz[264], 'at first'; Laz being the goddess, consort of Nergal and the Arabian Venus, Egyptian Resh, as a name of the temple. Al, the child, is Baalthe prefix representing the Egyptian article, and the pillar of Baal is the matzebat or mastebatBar-Sut, whose name is written with the pyramid sign. Thus the Hebrew pillar was one with the pyramid, and it was the symbol of Baal, as the other was the sign of Sut, the Bar or Baal of Egypt. The sphinx was an emblem of the same twofold nature, and the mastebah of the sphinx is thus identified with the truncated pyramid and the Hebrew pillar as the place of rebirth. The conical pillar is a well-known emblem of Venus Genetrix. The present point, however, is to identify the imagery as Egyptian and Typhonian, belonging to the primal worship pf the mother and child.

The pyramid of Saqqara has seven steps; the Great Pyramid seven chambers; the temple of Seti at Abydus, seven sanctuaries. One of the two stones of the Druids was the Seven-stone or Syth­stone, called also the Yoni-stone; the stone of the Hebrew deity has seven eyes[265]. The origin of the number seven will be found in the seven stars of the Great Bear or Typhon. Seven, in Egyptian, is hepti (interchangeable with khepti and Sebti, Suti or Sut). The pyramid, the pillar, the stone then were types of Sut-Typhon, in whom [p.76] are summed up the mother and child. The stone is an ideograph of Sut-Typhon. Stone-head and Stone-face are characteristic epithets of Typhon, and the stone as pillar and Seven-stone is the symbol of the Hebrew divinity Jehovah. Also the stone of Jacob, the stone of Israel[266], represented the deity of Jacob. In the same passage the stone and shepherd are synonymous, 'the shepherd, the stone of Israel,' and in Egyptian the stone memorial, mena, and the shepherd are identical by name, whilst, in the feminine form, menat is the bier, the couch of the dead, and the birthplace as menat the nurse. The stone is the ideograph of Jehovah.

A city otherwise unknown is mentioned[267] as the m'tzoba of Jah (היבצמ); that is, the birthplace or lying-in chamber in which the Hebrew solar god, Adonai, was born, as son of the great mother.

The Hebrew repa, to bind about, put on a bandage, bind up, represents the Egyptian arp, a bundle, to bind round, bind up. This word is also used[268] in the sense of making the land to bloom again. To this answers arp (Eg.), the flower, or to flower. A variant of arp is rep, to grow, bud, and bloom. Words like this carry with them most ancient divine doctrines and personifications called divinities.

Repa, to bind up, to heal, to comfort, is related to the Egyptian repa in person. In Egypt the repa was the royal son, the heir-apparent, the hereditary highness, also the divine son, who came to heal, restore, redeem, and save. He was the mystic branch that brought to bloom again, the young shoot of the old tree who furnished the אפר who is the binder-up, the healer, the physician, the Aesclepios of mythology, and the 'comforter' of the Hebrew writings. Seb (Kronus), the youngest of the gods, was also called the veritable repa of the gods, as the son who manifests the eternal in time, the comforter through continuity, the restorer by reproduction, the healing one and saver by repetition of the cycle. The vine was one symbol of this repa-ship or sonship. Bacchus carries or impersonates the vine. In Egyptian arp (rep) is the name of the vine, and of the wine produced from it.

The feminine repa (repit) was the goddess of harvest, the periodic reproducer personified as the great mother. The harvest was a form of the annual healing with which the land was made to bloom again, a type of the seed, the comforter, the fulfiller of promise, like the bud, branch, vine, or offspring, the so-called son. Another personification was repi, the feminine Nile, also a type of periodicity, on account of the inundation.

In parts of France and Germany the tree is still borne, gaily decorated, on the harvest-home load, to be planted for one year [p.77] on or near the masters house, and to be replaced the following year.

That is the sign of rep and the repas.

It explains nothing whatever to say that the messiah or kristos means the anointed. How, when, where, by whom can a son of God be anointed? The doctrine of the divine sonship has to be explained before such names have any proper significance. Enough for the present to show how the messiah is Egyptian, and where we must seek for the obscure root of the matter, and get it related once more to the phenomenal fact from which names have been so long and completely divorced. Mes (Eg.) means to anoint and to be engendered. Mes is the child, the begotten child of the father. Horus, the Messiah, is called the only-begotten of the father. The root of this matter lies in a doctrine absolutely unknown to the expounders of scripture.

The first divine son in mythology was not the true Anointed; was not the Begotten of the Father. Sut had no father, hence in the development of the doctrine he had to become his own father and was said to do violence to his own mother. This character is the original type of the solar god. The Elder Horus had no father, but was the child of the mother. The feminine terminal in the name of khart (Har-pi-Khart) shows him to have been the son of the woman. It was the second Horus who was the begotten of the Father, the karast one or Christ of the anointing, re-begettal, re-generation, and resurrection.

The doctrine descended from the time when the fatherhood had not been individualized on earth, therefore could not be represented in heaven, and the virgin mother and child were the sole types of deity. It is easily understood on its own natural ground. But when reproduced by modern theology these primitive ideas are like the fabled giants of old; they stand up against the dawn and cast across the world the shadows that have darkened all our mental day.

To anoint and to be begotten are synonymous. Both meanings were united in the messiah of mythology. If we read the חי of חישמ as the divine name, the Iah or Iach of the psalmist, 'B-Iah is his name,'[269] then mes, the child, the son, the anointed, engendered, begotten, enables us to identify the messiach as Iach the anointed, the begotten son of the father, the equivalent of mesiata, an Egyptian deity whose name indicates the typical or anointed child.

Some of the commentators amongst the Jewish rabbis, who have expounded the sense of the prediction in Zechariah[270], 'I will bring forth my servant the branch,' have argued that this was the messiah, because the name, mencham (םחנמ), the comforter, a name of the Messiah used by the Talmudists, and the word tzema (המצ), the branch, contain letters of the same numeral value. It is exceedingly likely that the figurative language was thus read in figures. For instance, the word messiach (חישמ), contains the number 358 in its letters. And, [p.78] in Egyptian, masiu is the night of the last day of the year, and the evening meal of the first day of the new. These are the masiu. Mas means the child, birth, anointed, and Iu is two. Two days were thus devoted to the new birth or mas, and with the number 358 these complete the number of days in the Egyptian year, 360. The messiach, the child, anointed, born as Iach in Israel, was born every year in Egyptian myth. The branch is the hieroglyphic sign of one year. Mencham, however, has another relation to the branch than this. In Egyptian menkam is a kind or quantity of wine[271], with the Bacchic branch of the vine for its determinative; the branch and comforter in one! It is the vine on its props, therefore the sustaining branch, as was the messiah son, who as Horus, is called the substance and supporter of the father.

The words in Genesis[272], iba shiloh (הליש אבי) rendered 'shiloh shall come,' are much increased in vigour by the Egyptian uba, to pass through to the other side in spite of opposition; to work the way through as the passer (gimlet). The shiloh, in Egyptian serah, is the revealer, the consoler; and Uba is a deity, him who passes through or is bound to come. Khem-Horus is called the passer. The shiloh was the returning one. Heb (Eg.) for the ibis, the messenger, means to return. Whether stellar, lunar, or solar the shiloh was periodic.

The mesuauth is the Talmudic name of a fire-signal made by the Jews at the time of new moon. Mesu is birth. At corresponds to the Hebrew word for sign and signal. At is also the time-circle, the round; the earlier aft denotes the circle of the four quarters of the moon. Meshu (Eg.) signifies to turn back. Thus the mesuauth is the sign of new moon, as the turner back, the returner of the four quarters.

In the Mishna the names of God in the scriptures are termed azkeruth (תורפזא), and the signification, 'name of God,' as the highest and holiest has arisen out of sacrifice. ריכזה means to sacrifice[273]. In Egyptian, the victim bound for the sacrifice is the kheri. The kher, or har, was the son, word, logos. With the feminine terminal t, this is the khart, the child, as son of the mother. Har-pi-Khart, the child, was one great type of the sacrificial victim in the solar myth, as the sun of autumn equinox and winter solstice that descended and diminished, suffered and died to rise again as the younger kar, the sun of the resurrection. As is sacrifice; one possible reading of the name of Asar (Osiris) is the sacrificial son, and in one character Osiris was the saviour victim. Kheri (Eg.) denotes this victim bound (-) for the sacrifice both in the human form and as the cow. The cow, hes, was an early type of the mother, and the calf was offered up as her child. The hesm is the spot of sacrifice. Hes (As) was the sacred calf adored as Isis. The kheru [p.79] (calf-victim) with as, sacrifice, is the As-Kheru, which in a plural Hebrew form becomes תורכזא (azkeruth). The origin and doctrine of blood-sacrifice, and its relation to deity, will be explained in the 'Typology of Sacrifice.'[274] But it may here be pointed out that the khar or har, the child, a type of sacrifice, was also the renn, the nursling, and renn signifies the name. Thus the name of God is equivalent to the son who was the sacrificial victim, or kheri personified as Har-pi-Khart, the child of Isis, and Egyptian shows us how the name of God becomes identical with the divine sacrifice. When, in the Egyptian mythos, the setting sun-god prepared his generation for next day's or next spring's rebirth, that was the mass or mes, as much as ever it is in Rome; the mes of sacrifice, the prototype of the Roman Mass called the sacrifice of the Christ, the dead body, which was typified of old by the raw flesh, bread without leaven, or the bloody wafer. The setting sun was the victim and the sacrifice; in the physiological sense, the blood of which the flesh was formed for the new birth. Hence the bloody sacrifice of the Spanish misa, for the Mass. The bloody wafer, raw flesh, and unleavened bread were types of this sacrifice, and in German maze is a name of unleavened bread. The living mes (Eg.) signifies the generative spirit, still typified by the wine of the Eucharist, the blood of the grape, Bacchus, or the vine, the branch of the new life. This will be sufficient to prove that Egypt has much to tell us respecting the fundamental nature of the Hebrew scriptures and mythology.

 

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This page last updated: 18/04/2014