Origen says that all the neighbouring nations borrowed their religious rites and ceremonies from the Egyptians[1]. Sanchoniathon, according to Eusebius, expressly derives his cosmogony from the Egyptian Taht. He says: 'These things are written in the cosmogony of Taautus, and in his memoirs, and from the conjectures and evidences which his mind saw and found out, and wherewith he hath enlightened us.'[2] That is, he quotes from the Hermetic Books assigned to Taht, the divine scribe, the god of learning, the Egyptian word, whilst speaking of Taautus as if he had been human. The Phoenicians derived their divinities, including Taautus, and their mythology, from Egypt, as will be made apparent in the course of the present inquiry. The Jews of Palestine were no exception to the rest of the neighbouring nations.

The Jewish historian, Basnage[3], thought that the Hebrew Moses was a mythological character identical with the lunar deity Taht. Taht is the lord of the divine words, the scribe of truth, the manifestor. Moses was the lawgiver and mouthpiece of the deity. Taht carried the shooting palm-branch of the panegyrics; Moses the rod. One rod of Taht or Hermes was the serpent sceptre. The rod of Moses turned into a serpent. Taht wore the head of the ibis. The ibis, says Pliny[4], was invoked by the Egyptians against the serpent. Moses, according to Josephus[5], invented a wonderful stratagem whereby the army was saved from serpents by means of the ibis. Nevertheless, though the imagery be Egyptian, we shall find another divine prototype for Moses. Meanwhile it is intended to show that the psalmist David is the Hebrew form of Taht, the lord of divine words, the mouthpiece, logos, and scribe of the seven gods.

The name of David or Dud, (דוד) has the same significations as that of Taht. Tut means to unite, engender, establish; dud, to [p.81] unite, join together, bind, make fast, or establish. Taht is the servant of Ra, Dud is the servant of Jah. The genealogy also tends to show their identity.

Taht is lord of the eighth region or region of the eight, Ashmuneim or Smen. These eight have not been explained in Egypt where Taht had superseded Sut when the monuments begin. According to the present reading, which will be substantiated bit by bit, the first seven of all mythology are the seven stars in Ursa Major, the primal type of a septenary of divinities. These in one form are called the seven sons of Ptah, in another, of Sydik, and in the Hebrew form the sons of Gaish (שיצ, from שוצ) who will be traced to the seven in the Great Bear, the Egyptian Khepsh[6]. Of these seven, whether considered to be one in the genetrix, or seven, as the ari (sons, companions), Taht, formerly Sut, was the manifestor. These seven furnished the seven taas, seven gods of the word or speech, and Sut (Dog-star) or Taht (lunar god) was their word, speech, logos personified. The seven are represented by Sefekh the consort of Taht whose name signifies no. 7 by which we know that as Taht was formerly Sut, Sefekh was the earlier Kep or Khepsh, and her name may read Sef, otherwise Kef, the sieve being a well-known sign of alternation. The eight then are composed of the septenary and the Dog-star (Sut-Anubis) or Taht, the later lunar manifestor.

The Phoenician Esmun is the eighth to the seven sons of Sydik and Esmun is the same as Taht, lord of Smen, the region of eight. It is now proposed to identify Dud with Taht, as the eighth, and David as the eighth son of Jesse with the manifestor of the seven as the sons of Gaish. An Egyptian deity appears in the Ritual by the name of Aash, who is the hard and immovable. The Assyrian Assur, god of the eight rays, he who stands alone, probably derives from this beginning. For Sydik is also known as the god of the eight rays[7]. Ash-ar is the son, ar, of Ash, As or Hes, whose oldest form is that of the goddess of the seven stars, the son who was first represented by the Dog-star. The Hebrew form of Aash we take to be Jesse the parent of the seven sons, with David for the eighth. This would identify David with Taht, Lord of the Eight, and the eighth region, both being mythological. Jesse has eight sons, and as with the Cabiri, nothing is recorded of their mother, the father having taken her place. Taht is the manifestor and revealer. So David reveals himself to Samuel who comes to select from the eight sons the one who is to be anointed. Tut means unction, and Taht is the anointed of the Lord. The imagery shows Jesse to be feminine. Jesse is identified with the serpent and the tree, both feminine symbols. Jesse is called nachash, the serpent[8]. The Targum to [p.82] Ruth 4:22 says 'Obed begat Ishai' (Jesse) whose name is nachash, because there was not found in him iniquity or corruption. And he lived many days until was fulfilled before Jahveh the counsel which the serpent gave to Chavvah (Eve) the wife of Adam, to eat of the tree of the fruit of which when they did eat they were able to discern between good and evil. They make nachash, the serpent, says Jerome[9], to be another name of Jesse, because he had no sin except what he contracted from the original serpent, and thus David inherited none. Strange reasons these for calling Jesse after the serpent! There is more however in the word nachash than the serpent. Every one is familiar with the Greek tree of knowledge with the serpent twined round it, fawning and inviting the beholder to partake of the fruit. In Egyptian the neka is the serpent of evil, Sanskrit naga, the nekiru or devil of the African Yula dialect. Neka (Eg.) also means to provoke, play false, and delude.

The Egyptian tree of life is the ash. Thus the word nachash contains the Egyptian names of the typical tree and typhonian serpent, which do not directly appear in the Hebrew. The serpent and tree or stauros are inseparable according to the types. Jesse has also descended to us as the tree of life (the ash or Persea fig-tree in Egypt) which was to produce the fruit and leaves of healing as an antidote to the serpent, and the fruit of the other tree. The Jews had not preserved the legend quite correctly, nor had they the buried wisdom of Egypt to refer to as we have today. Still Jesse as the tree of life from whose root the branch was to spring is preserved and the tree is for ever feminine as birth-giver to the branch. The tree of Jesse with a genealogy is often to be seen in the reredos and east windows of English churches. There is one at Dorchester in which Jesse is the recumbent root of the tree, and a list of twenty-five names culminates in that of Jesus the latest branch. The branch of this tree is David. So is Taht who carries the branch in his hand as his emblem, the branch being typical of the manifestor.

Iamblichus[10] makes the remark that Hermes, the god of learning and language, was formerly considered as the common property of the priests, and the power who presides over the true science concerning the gods, is one and the same universally. Hence our ancestors dedicated to him the inventions of their wisdom, inscribing all their own commentaries with the name of Hermes. In Egypt these were assigned to Taht (Hermes), and David is the Hebrew Hermes or Taht.

There is an Egyptian form of the word taht as atet, speech, to speak, and this appears in the Hebrew aduth (תודע) the name of the revealed psalm[11]; Taht or David being the revealer as scribe of the gods and lord of the divine words. Indeed the Book of Taht is apparently quoted in Psalms[12]: 'Then said I, Lo, I come; in the volume of the book written of me.' Taht wrote the book of the [p.83] coming of the solar lord, Har (Horus), and this is one of the Psalms of David the Hebrew scribe of the Lord.

It is said of the 'Lord' celebrated by David in the Psalms that, 'He shall stand at the right hand of the poor, to save (him) from the judges of his soul.'[13] And in the Egyptian judgment Har, the lord, is the defender, intercessor, and saviour of the poor souls that have to pass the forty-two tribunals of their judges and the great judgment-seat of Osiris himself. Horus stands between them and the devourer of souls; he appeals for them in a praying attitude with clasped hands, he who is called Horus the redeemer, the lord of life, the vicarious justifier of those whose lives were right.

Taht the moon-god is the lord of a place variously named Smen (Ashmuneim) Sesennu and Annu. It was the place of dispensing, purifying and preparing as Smen; the place of agitation, distraction, torment, and change, as Sesennu, and the place of repetition as Annu. As Smen it was Sabean, as Sesennu it was lunar, as Annu solar. From the first it was the seat of the eight gods, the seven of the Great Bear and Sut; the eighth being the manifestor of the seven. When Taht superseded Sut he became the manifestor of the seven, because lunar time had been established as truer than the time of the stars. At last the solar Horus was elevated to the divine supremacy and Taht was made subsidiary to the solar measurer of time and saviour of souls from the abyss. Taht the scribe and registrar kept the sacred records in this region, portions of which are said to have been written by the very finger of the god himself. Taht makes the invocations on behalf of the souls in Sesennu, and pleads their cause at the great tribunal. He is the psalmist of the Egyptian Book of the Dead. On a coffin of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, Horus the redeemer of souls in Sesennu, announces to the deceased that Taht himself has brought the books of the divine words or hermetic writings[14]. These books contained the utterances of the soul in its passage from earth, its transit across the Hades and ascent to the presence of the sun expressed by the Egyptian David.

Sesennu, from ses, no. 6, and sen no. 2, reads no. 8, and is the region of the eight; the ogdoad in divinities, and octave in music. In Hebrew six is shesh, and zen or shen represents the Egyptian sen, for two. The equivalent for Sesennu in Hebrew with the plural terminal 'im,' would be Sesenim or Sheshenim. This name is found in the title of Psalms 80. 'To the chief musician upon Sheshinim­Aduth.' In the heading to Psalms 60 it appears as 'Sheshan Aduth.'

The Hebrew תעדו is a third form of atet (Eg.) to speak, speech (tet, Taht), and shetu, to recite and shout, or proclaim aloud (Sut being the earlier Taht). The thing uttered may be a law, precept, or a psalm. The Hebrew sheshen has the meaning of joy, which does [p.84] not apply to these two psalms, one of which, in the Authorised Version is headed the 'Miseries of the Church,' and the other, 'David prays for Deliverance.' Neither of them contains any expression of joy. But may not this name indicate the Sesen or Sesennu of the region of Taht? These two psalms would then contain the utterances of Taht or David in the place of travail, wrestling, distraction, on behalf of souls that suffered from purgatorial pangs in the process of sloughing the clinging skin of the old life, and undergoing the pains of purification in Smen, awaiting and praying and crying for deliverance. Psalms 60 is ascribed to David 'when he strove with Aram-Naharaim' which is the name of the Land of the Two Streams, in Mesopotamia, or in the planispherei, where it is the region of the Two Waters of the celestial Nahar or Nile. That was the region of Sesennu in the astronomical allegory.

Sesennu or Smen (Ashmunein) was the place of preparing and re-establishing. The word smen means to constitute, make durable, fixed; to establish the son in place of the father. The myth is alluded to in Psalms 80:17, 'Let thy hand be upon the man of thy right hand, upon the son of man (whom) thou madest strong for thyself.' The son and the man of the right hand was Horus who was established in the place of the father in Smen or Sesennu, i.e., Sheshenim.

We have seen that the smen of the Ritual, the region of the dead, the shades, the place of change, torment, preparation, salvation, and re-establishing of the mummy for the second life, is reproduced in the Hebrew ןמשא plural, eshmannim, of Isaiah[15], as the desolate places of the dead in the netherworld; sesennu is extant in the Hebrew plural form of sheshinim. Two Egyptian names for one and the same region are thus found in Hebrew. The sixth and the twelfth Psalms are inscribed 'to the chief musician on Neginoth; upon sheminith,' in the margin 'upon the eighth.' The usual Hebrew forms of the word for the eighth are s'moneh and shmeni. Sheminith only occurs here, and in Chronicles[16], and then in relation to music. The eighth of course suggests the octave, but beyond that meaning, smen is the region of the eight great gods, and sheminith, for the eighth, adds a third form of the name of the eighth region over which Taht was lord, the scribe, the psalmist, who gave utterance to the spirits there, or, as it is termed, wrote the Books of the Dead, fragments of which are contained in the Ritual.

The eight gods of Sesennu are thus addressed in the Ritual[17]: 'Oh, ye chief gods of Sesennu, greatest on the first of the month, less on the 15th!' that is, in relation to the two phases of the waxing and waning moon. In the Hebrew réchauffé the original subject-matter has been, to a great extent, divorced from the phenomena by which [p.85] alone it can be read, and thus it becomes invested with all the vastness of limitless vagueness, and all the sublimity of uttermost indefiniteness. The first of the two Psalms on the eighth region immediately precedes the one[18] concerning the Dabrai of Kush, or hinder-part of the north. The cries from the depths uttered by the suffering soul, and written by the psalmist David, are in keeping with those inscribed by the hand of Taht for the deceased when passing through the place of trouble, torment, agitation, and distraction (sesennu). 'O Lord! how long? Return, O Lord, deliver my soul; oh, save me for thy mercies' sake. Oh, let the wickedness of the wicked come to an end, but establish the just.'[19] The children of wickedness, the typhonian conspirators, were strangled on the floor of Sesennu[20]. The great adversary of the sun and of souls was finally conquered in this place, which was also the Tattu of the solar myth, the region of establishing for ever. The cry for the Lord to return is the same as that of the Osirian deceased for Har, his lord, who is the sun that passes through the world of the dead to illumine the gloom of the shades, revivify the shadows of the dead and make a way for them, by opening the gates of the prison-house, into the land of eternal birth.

The 100th psalm is still advertised as a psalm of Taht, in Hebrew thudh (הדות) the word rendered praise and thanksgiving. To 'publish with the voice of thudh'[21] is to proclaim with the voice of Taht, whose name signifies the mouth, tongue, speech, discourse, to speak, and tell, and who was the psalmist, glorifier, and thanksgiver personified.

Taut, the word, the male logos, the Egyptian psalmist, has for consort a goddess called the Mistress of the Writings[22]. Her name is written Sefekh, which signifies the no. 7. The present writer holds that she was a survival of the old goddess of the Seven Stars who was called the 'Living Word' at Ombos, brought on in the lunar mythos as consort of Taht. In Hebrew the sephr is a Master or Mistress of the Writings; a keeper of the rolls as well as the name of the scribe and of the writings themselves. The Psalms are chiefly ascribed to David and Asaph, and these are equivalent to Taht and Sefekh, the Egyptian Lord of the Divine Words and the Mistress of the Writings. One meaning of Sefekh's name is to capture, register, keep; and in the Hebrew asaph signifies to collect, gather up, gather together, store up. Asaph is the collector. Sefkh is the keeper of the writings. If David be the Hebrew Taht, it follows that the original of the psalmist Asaph is Sef or Sefkh. Moreover the Jews have a work specially called Sepher or Sifre, of unknown age. It is often quoted in the Talmud as one of the most ancient sources. It is indefinitely older than the Mishna, although it was redacted later from [p.86] the oral tradition[23]. Probably this work preserves the name of sec the feminine scribe and secretary of the gods who is depicted as the writer, as well as named Mistress of the Writings.

Certain headings and titles of the Psalms are amongst the words most obscure to the Jews themselves. Some of these compositions are called michtams of David, rendered in the margin golden, i.e., goldenly-precious psalms. This is Egyptian. Mak is a composition, whence the makar or composer, and tam is the name of gold. Here a clue to the Egyptian origin is preserved.

Psalms 7 is entitled the Shiggaion of David, the same word with the Egyptian terminal shiggionoth is found in Habakkuk 3:1. Hebrew does not explain it. The psalm begins 'O Lord ... in thee do I put my trust ... save me. Establish the just.'[24]

Sekhen (Eg.) means to support, sustain, give rest. The sekhent image is the prop on which the heavens are established, also the double crown. The prayer of David is to the sustainer; that of Habakkuk to the establisher who will make his feet firm in slippery places.

Skheni is an Egyptian god who impersonates the prop as the two arms of Ra. He is the Egyptian Skambha. Osiris is likewise portrayed as the skhen or prop, in a personification of the divine sustainer. The fundamental sense, however, of a psalm called ןויגש may be found in sekhenu (Eg.), to plead, to tell, to contest. It will therefore bear the sense of wrestling with in prayer, as the speaker does in the psalm.

Psalms 61 is to the chief musician upon Neginah. According to Fuerst[25], neginah means a song of derision in Psalms 69:12, and Job 30:9. Nekhi (Eg.) is derision, but if we read 'I am thy derision,'[26] no song is demanded. So in Psalms 69:12, if we read I was the derision, (הניגנ) of the drunkards there is no 'song,' and in Lamentations 3:14, if we should read 'I was their derision; their derision all the day,' there is no 'song' or a song of derision has to be understood, which is only explained by nekhi. Jeremiah says 'I was a קחש to all my people; a םתניגנ all the day.'[27] He was a laughing-stock, and probably the subject of songs of derision, but the Egyptian clinches it. The word nakhnu (Eg.) denotes youthfulness and the young. This shows the word neginah has more meanings than one. Thus the proper interpretation of Lamentations, 5:14, is possibly the young men have lost their youthfulness; and that of Psalms 77:6, 'I call to remembrance my youth,' in the night, in antithesis to the previous verse, 'I have considered the days of old.' The connection, however, between the musical instrument and youth is illustrated by the nefer (Eg.), which is a viol, and the word nefer denotes the youth, music being an expression of youthfulness and the voice of its spirit. Nakhen (Eg.) also [p.87] signifies false, lapse, slaughter, destruction. Psalms 60 breathes slaughter against the ziphim; and this is one of the neginoth. From which it follows that the title expresses various characters of the Psalms, although it became a general name associated with the musical instrument.

Maschil is a term found in the titles. Hebrew gives no primary account of the word, and it is usually derived from sakal, to give instruction. This is the Egyptian sekher, to give counsel and instruct. But such is not the meaning of maschil. We find it in a 'Psalm of David, Maschil;'[28] 'To the chief musician, Maschil;'[29] 'For the sons of Korah, Maschil;'[30] 'To the chief musician upon Mahalath, Maschil;'[31] 'On Neginoth, Maschil;'[32] 'Maschil of Asaph;'[33] 'Maschil of Heman.'[34] In this instance maschil is synonymous with a psalm or prayer, which is a cry from the depths, like many of the Psalms:

'I am counted with them that go down into the pit.'[35]
'Thou hast laid me in the lowest pit, in darkness, in the deeps.'
'I am shut up, and I cannot come forth.'
'Wilt thou show wonders to the dead?'
'Shall thy loving-kindness be declared in the grave?'

The speaker is in the meskar of the Egyptian Hades.

The meska, meskar, or mesken (Eg.) are names of the birthplace and the eschatological place of rebirth, from mes, generation and birth, whence the regeneration and rebirth of the mes-iah. The type exists in the Hebrew mishkan, for the tabernacle, habitation, and dwelling-place, the mishchar, for the womb of the dawn[36]; and the mishkab, the couch, which is at once the bed of the living and the dead; the womb and the tomb, as shown by the various texts. In the Ritual the place of rebirth for the deceased is also called the meska, meskhen, or meskar. Now it will be shown that certain utterances for deliverance found in the Psalms are the same as those in the Book of the Dead, therefore we connect maschil with the Egyptian meskar. In this way. The meskar, or purgatory, was the place in the Hades where the souls in bondage awaited and prayed for rebirth. They were in pain, in prison, undergoing the pangs of punishment. In Hebrew this is רגסמ, the enclosing, imprisoning, whence a prison or place of confinement, the meskar. Mas-kher (Eg.) is a cry of supplication for this rebirth in the meskar, meska, or meskhena prayer or psalm of the new birth. It may be noted that from the name of this meskhen, or purgatory in the lower regions, comes the Hebrew meschen, to be bowed down, low and poor; the state of being low and wretched; the Maltese, Aramaic, and Arabic meschen; Italian, meschino; French, mesquin; Portuguese, [p.88] mesquinho, and English meskins. The maschil was the prayer or utterance from the depths, the kars of the Hades. The continual prayers for the sons of Qorah uphold the sense here assigned to maschil. Qorah was fabled to have been swallowed alive by the earth. Prayers for the sons of Qorah are similar to those for souls in purgatory offered up by the Roman Church.

The blind and fumbling helplessness of the unskilled, the idiotes, in representing the myth as miracle, is at times very pitiful, as in this case of the sons of Qorah. The name of Qorah in Hebrew signifies an accident, a sudden hap, such as was the fate assigned to the sons when the earth opened and swallowed them. Qora denotes crying and calling. Kheru (Eg.) means the evil ones, the fallen enemies. But the full form of the word is qorch, unused in Hebrew, which means to freeze and stiffen with cold. Akh (Eg.) denotes the dead, and qorach identifies the dead below, in the kar of the underworld, those who were cut off, qorah for baldness, has a derivative sense from cutting off the hair for the dead; the sons of Qorach. This group of Psalms utters the cries of those whom the earth has swallowed, just as it swallows the souls in the Book of the Hades[37].

In one of these[38] the speaker says, 'My mouth shall speak of wisdom'that means according to the gnosis'I will incline mine ear to a parable; I will open my dark saying upon the harp.' This was one of the cheedah or khetu (Eg.), secret things, things shut and sealed to those who rewrote the mythos as history. In this psalm the sons of Qorah are the wicked who are laid like sheep in the grave for death to feed on, the unredeemed for whom there is no resurrection; hence they are the sons of the house of hell. 'I remember thee from the hill Mitzar.'[39] Mitzar is the star of the mest in the Great Bear, the type of the birthplace, and the speaker is in the place of rebirth. 'Thou hast sore broken us in the place of dragons, and covered us with the shadow of death.'[40] That is in the deep, the place of Apophis, the Hades to which the sons of Qorah had sunk.

One of these maschils is a prayer of David when 'the Ziphim came and said to Saul, "Doth not David hide himself with us?"'[41] The ziphim belong to mythology. The sefr is a gryphon or typhonian genie. Sephui is to torment, torture, punish. Sef to refine by fire. Shept denotes terror, terrible, to terrify, be demonial. The speaker, like the Osirian of the Ritual, is passing through the world of the dead; the Hebrew Sheol.

Psalms 53 is upon תלהמ (machalath or mahalath) maschil. Mâha (Eg.) is the sepulchre, the enclosure of the dead. Rat (Eg.) is the steps or staircase. If we read mak, a composition, the name would denote a 'Psalm of the Ascent,' and the Makalath-Maschil would [p.89] signify the prayer for rebirth uttered on the steps, well known to the Book of the Dead. Now the name given to fifteen Psalms, 120 to 134, is in Hebrew 'A Song of Ascents.' The Hebrew הלעמ means a step, ascent, degree, division, the plural being תולעמ in the inscription of these fifteen Psalms, or songs of the steps, degrees, divisions of the ascent. הילע stands for הלעמ in the ascent of Solomon[42].

The translators and interpreters have had no clue to the nature of these fifteen steps or degrees, of which they have given accounts as divergent as they have been unsatisfactory; but they may be studied in the Ritual, where there are (apparently) thirty-six seba or gateways in the great abode corresponding to the thirty-six decans of the zodiac. They are divided into the numbers twenty-one and fifteen. Some of these look like repetitions, but all that concerns us at present is the fifteen gates of the ascent, which end at the place of putting on the upper crown on the day of the festival of the Adjustment of the Year[43], at the time of the vernal equinox. This is the makha, the level, the balance, place of poise, in the region of Annu, the sign of which is the upright tekhu of the scales or makhu. הקעמ in Hebrew has a similar meaning, as the ledge of a level roof. This place of the equinox is also localized in the Hebrew macha, the name of a region that bounded the East-Jordan land, and lay between it and the north. The arru or arrut (Eg.) are the steps, the staircase of the ascent from the underworld, and the god Osiris is portrayed as forming the prop (skhent) of the balance placed at the head of a staircase, which men are ascending, as 'Osiris, the lord of Rostau, the same who is at the top of the staircase.'

In the Chaldee these Psalms are called a song that was sung on the steps of the abyss. This explanation is said to be founded on a Hebrew tradition[44], which relates that when the foundations of the temple were being laid there came out of the earth a great quantity of water, to the height of fifteen cubits, which would have drowned the whole world, if Achitophel had not stopped its progress by writing the ineffable name of Jahveh on the fifteen steps of the temple[45]. Psalms 130 is referred to the same event. The Hebrew tradition is but another name for Egyptian myth. Fifteen cubits were the typical measure of an inundation.

The steps of the abyss belong to the Ritual. The god Shu is depicted in hieroglyphic legends as standing on the steps of the abyss, where, with uplifted arms, he sustains the sun and afflicts the race of the wicked in smen (sesennu).

We shall draw a brief parallel between the fifteen gates in the Ritual and the fifteen Psalms of the steps. The first gate is that of the 'Mistress of Terrors; the Mistress destroying those falsifying words.'


The prayer in Psalms 120, the first step, is to be delivered from lying lips and a deceitful tongue. 'What shall be done more unto thee, thou false tongue?' 'Woe is me,' says the speaker, 'that I sojourn in Mesech.' Mesech is the equivalent Hebrew for Meska, the place of purgatorial pain, or the purgatory of the Egyptian Ritual. This is supported by the black abodes of Kedar, or black enclosures of Kedar. Chedal is used by Isaiah for this world[46]. The Egyptian khat is a secret abode, the womb of the tomb, the chamber of life or of death.

The second gate is that of the 'Mistress of Heaven and Regent of Earth, destroyer, mistress of created beings or producer of men, creator of all persons is its name. The name of its doorkeeper is born of Ptah.' Tum, who is the Great Lord of the Ritual, Lord of the Heaven and Earth, Lord of the doubled-seated boat, is born of Ptah. In the Hebrew version it is the Lord of Heaven and Earth who is celebrated. The Lord is thy keeper.

The third gate is the 'Mistress of Altars, great one of sacrifices, delighting each god in it the day of passing to Abydos, is its name. Subduer is the name of its doorkeeper.'

The parallel passage is, 'I was glad when they said unto me, Let us go unto the house of the Lord.' Jerusalem is here the mistress of altars and sacrifices. The going up of the tribes represents the passing to Abydos or Abti, where the double holy house of Anubis and the Pool of the Two Truths are found in the Ritual.

The eighth is a song of degrees for Solomon; it is in praise of children. 'Children are an heritage of the Lord, happy is the man that hath his quiver full of them.' And in the eighth gate of one series we find, 'Little One is the name of thy guardian.'

In the ninth song the children are to be like olive plants. And the speaker in the ninth gate says, 'I hold a stick (or branch) of the palm tree,' the type of renewal in the child, the renpu.

The tenth gate is that of, 'Loud words, exciter of divisions greatly victorious Lord of fear. The name of its doorkeeper is Great Clasper.'

On the tenth step the speaker says how they have afflicted him, and flowed over him, and made their furrows (divisions). For Great Clasper we have the metaphor of the sheaf-binder.

The fourteenth gate is that of the 'Mistress of Exultation.' The fourteenth of the fifteen Psalms begins exultingly, 'Behold how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity.' Many more likenesses might be pointed out, but that the space can be better occupied. The present writer has no doubt that these deliverances of the fifteen steps belong to the fifteen gates of the house of Osiris, the Lord, or Atum, the older divinity of the Ritual; their more perfect literary form is the sign of lateness; the original matter being Egyptian, written in the Books of Taht.

In the Book of the Dead the form is dramatic. The speaker [p.91] personates this or the other mythological character, and what he says is often the merest glancing allusion to the mass of doctrine and dogma, which was in the minds of all initiated readers. This makes the matter remote and the mode of utterance indefinite. So that we can better read the original at times in the plain personal and narrating form of the Hebrew copy. As an example, the spirit who speaks in chapter 78 on the 'turning into a Hawk the God of Time,' that is the transformation of the Osiris, who rises as a divine hawk (Horus) at the time of the spring equinox, makes various allusions to things that occur in the process of the metamorphosis, the passage through the lower signs of winter as depicted astronomically, and to the deliverance, after passing through all perils and attaining the final salvation in the per-em-hru, the coming forth with the day, or the 'manifestation to light.' He speaks of the one Lord, the adored, who is the support of the heavens, the establisher of the passage through the dark, the deluge, or death as the 'Lord of Urei,' the Lord of the Crown of Life, which had on it the two asps. In this passage he goes through the sufferings of 'Osiris, the great and beloved soul, pierced to the heart by Sut,' that is Typhon, the betrayer of Osiris. In travelling the appointed course the terrors of death and the snares of hell or the hades encompass him. The mouths of the destroyers who lie in wait are said to 'Water for his annihilation.' He is beset by the 'raging bulls.' He has to pass and 'turn back the lions,' who are elsewhere called the 'turners back.'

He 'prays for means from the universal Lord' to escape; 'Let me come forth and stand on my feet' is his prayer. He is 'defended by Seb.' He is 'set in his place;' delivered and preserved by the universal Lord on his Throne. In this chapter we have the subject-matter of the 22nd psalm, and many of the causes of the speaker's 'roaring,' including the 'bulls of Bashan.' 'Many bulls have compassed me, strong, of Bashan, have beset me round, they gaped upon me with their mouths as a ravening and a roaring lion.' 'Dogs have compassed me; the assembly of the wicked have enclosed me; they fettered my hands and my feet.' 'Save me from the lion's mouth, for thou hast heard me from the horns of unicorns.' The deliverance is thus described in Psalms 18:19, 36: 'He brought me forth also unto a large place.' 'Thou hast enlarged my steps under me that my feet did not slip.'

The unicorn, be it remembered, was the sign, we may say the totem, of Sut-Typhon, and Sut was the wicked encloser of Osiris, the piercer of his brother, yea, his 'own familiar friend,' and the dogs in the Book of the Dead are the accompaniers of Shu, the Lord of Shual, as the punishers and devourers of the damned, the hounds of hades or hell. In the eighteenth chapter of the Book of the Dead the conspirators of Sut, he who betrays Osiris, the Egyptian messiah, [p.92] are said to transform themselves into goats, or the plural of the unicorn, or antelope, which was one of the types of Sut.

But there is a still more special application of the Egyptian imagery. In the Ritual we read, 'O Lord of the Great Abode, chief of the gods, save thou the Osiris (or my soul) from the god whose face is the dog. He lives off the fallen at the angle of the pool of fire. Eater of millions is his name.'[47] This is the dog-faced Matet. The psalmist cries 'Deliver my soul from the sword, my darling from the power of the dog.'[48] This recalls to the student of the Book of the Dead the terrible block and the place of decapitation where the dog-faced deity, Lord of Gore, presides at the execution of the condemned souls.

The Hebrew jached (דיחי) answers to the Egyptian akhet, the spirit or manes. The prayer is for deliverance from the dog-faced deity.

The nets that were spread to ensnare the soul in passing through the hades are said to 'reach to heaven and stretch to earth.'[49] The Papyrus of Nebseni in the British Museum shows the deceased walking away and escaping from a net which the ensnarer of souls had laid in his path to capture him[50]. The 154th chapter of the Ritual is designated the 'Chapter of Escaping from the Net.'

The dove was retained in Israel as the bird of breath, the type of the soul. In the Osirian cult the hawk was the symbol of the soul. The sun was depicted with the hawk-head, but in the twelve chapters of the metamorphoses[51] the turtle-dove is one of the types into which Osiris or the deceased makes his transformation, and in the Psalms the bird is the dove or turtle-dove (רות), and the speaker exclaims in the solar character, 'O deliver not the soul of thy turtle-dove unto the multitude (of the wicked). The multitude or assemblage are the sami, who seek to catch the bird of soul or of the sun in their nets. 'Oh catchers of the birds (souls) flying on the waters,' says the deceased walking away from the net, 'do not catch me in them walking away from the earth. The Osiris comes forth and breaks them and goes free.'[52]

The psalmist[53] says, 'Thou will not leave my soul in Shual; thou will not suffer thy Holy One to see corruption.' The word translated holy one is chasid (דיסח).

The Assyrian kassudi are the times of ascendancy or turning back of the moon. The first kassud of five days ascension in the lunation was given to Anu, the second to Hea, the third to Bel.

The word khes (Eg.) means to turn back. The khesr is the turner back or the returner. Khesat denotes the type of turning back in the circuit. Kesa (Heb.) is applied to the new moon as one of the [p.93] turners back or returning ones[54]. The solar turner back is Shu, with the style of Shu-sa-Khes. Kes-kes is the Coptic name of Orion. Kesil is a Hebrew name of Orion, who was a type of Sut­Har, and a form of whom was the Phoenician divinity Baal-Kaas, one of the starry turners-back, among the earliest observed in the cycle of the year. The kesilim, as the stars[55], probably denote the returners. All record of the cycles of time depended on these kesilim or returners in their courses.

The Egyptian sense of khes is also found in Hebrew as chesm, to stop, to bar, to turn back, and in chesad to bend, crook, curve the neck, turn back. One type then of this turning back or returning was the ibis, heron, or stork; and in Hebrew chasidah (הדיסח) is the name of the stork. Now, the stork or ibis was the bird of Taht, the lunar god, the bird of return. 'I return as the ibis among the spirits of the western place.'[56] The ibis, as a curious type of the turner back was reputed to administer the enema to itself. Ta is a stork or heron and a type; khes, to return, makes the stork to be the type of returning, and this is the Hebrew chasidah, the stork, or, we may parallel the Hebrew word with khes (Eg.), to return, and teh (Eg.), to tell, or with another name of the lunar god, Tekh, which has the meaning of full. The bird alternates with the ascending moon on the body of Taht. The chasid is the returning one, and as Taht returned from the netherworld, Shu ascended from Shual, the sun from the deep, the stork from over sea[57]'the stork in heaven knows its appointed times for its passages to and fro'[58]so the souls of the just were figured as turning back from below in the eternal round of light and shade, night and day. That which returned again rose again as the sun ascended from the deep and the moon renewed its crescent shape and re-orbed for ever. The spirits arose in the forms of human-headed birds. The bird was an emblem of breath or soul. The breath was the mover to and fro in the body, and in death its types, the bird and the feather, were clung to as emblematic of the spirit. The Hebrew word ghesr has the sense of moving to and fro as does the returning breath. With us the goose is the khesr, or returning bird, still associated with the festivals of returning time. An Egyptian rendering of the bird of return is found in the form of the khashetu[59], some kind of goose, which was a type of return in common with the stork or ibis, and as kha means to return, and the shetu is a goose as the shet kab, the shetenru, and the shetentep, the kha-shetu may be taken for the bird of passage, as the returning goose.

Our goose is the khes, and thus derives its name from being a bird of passage and return, and as the bird was the type of soul and [p.94] breath, so the goose is philologically one with ghost or gast (breath and soul) our bird of breath. The chasidah is also the guest or returning visitor. As a bird, whether the hawk of Ra, the ibis of Taht, or the goose, the soul ascended from the lower world as the returning one. Taht, in his second type of An, is said to be created by Ra as the turner-back or returner, An-An. 'I shall give thee to turn thyself,'[60] and there arose the Aan, as Taht's image in the north, his other type, that of returner, being the ibis. 'Thou wilt not suffer thy chasid to see corruption,' is in the symbolic language, 'thou wilt not permit thy bird of breath, the turner back, the returner, to die out in the dark dark land of death.' Or still more touchingly, 'Thou wilt not suffer thy typical returner not to return!' This goes far to identify the divine scribe David with Taht, the chasid and scribe of the gods, as in other places it refers to the solar god. For instance, the chasid of Israel is spoken of in the blessing of Moses. 'And of Levi he said, Let thy Thummim and Urim be with thy chasid whom thou didst prove at Massah, and whom thou didst strive with at the waters of Meribah.'[61] The chasid was the ever-returning one, the sun-god, the god of Jeshurun who rode upon the heaven in their help and in his excellency on the sky.

The word chasid, however, is somewhat peculiar to the Psalms, and occurs in them twenty-three times. It is found only seven times in all the other books. The speaker is David, the Hebrew form of Taht.

Here is a perfect picture of Typhon, the wicked one. 'He sitteth in the lurking-places of the villages; in the secret places doth he murder the innocent; his eyes are privily set against the poor. He lieth in wait secretly as a lion in his den. He lieth in wait to catch the poor, he doth catch the poor when he draweth him in his net.' The ani (Eg) like the ינע (Heb.) are the sad and afflicted, hence the poor.

In the Ritual we recover a more definite sense. David in the psalm complains of the evil treatment of the wicked. In the Ritual the ani are the afflicted who are waylaid, cajoled, ensnared in the nets and evilly treated by the wicked Typhon. 'Break thou the arm of the wicked.'[62] In the Ritual Typhon is called Stone-arm. The Wicked is a title of the Apophis-serpent, and the opposers, the agents of Satan the Accuser, are designated the wicked.

It throws light on the nature of some of these Psalms of the Hades and the night to know that Taht the psalmist was a lunar god, who illumined the darkness, and of whom it is said: 'Ra created him a beautiful light to show the name of his evil enemy,' that is to expose the nature of Typhon, the evil power, darkness itself. Ra says to him: 'Thou art my abode, the god of my abode; behold, thou wilt be called Taht the abode of Ra.'[63] The Hebrew solar god says: 'I have sworn by my holiness that I will not lie unto David. His seed shall endure for ever, [p.95] and his throne as the sun before me. It shall be established for ever as the moon, and a faithful witness in heaven.'[64] The fulminations of David against his enemies answer to the words written down by Taht who calls himself the 'Justifier of the words of Horus against his enemies on the day of weighing words in the great abode of An.'[65]

Psalms 7 is entitled 'Shiggaion of David, which he sang to the Lord concerning the Dibrai (ירבד) of Kush,' here called the Benjaminite, probably from some relation of the locality to the right hand or side which can be paralleled if not explained by the first chapter of the Ritual in which Taht says, 'I am with Horus supporting the right shoulder of Osiris in Skhem,' the shut place. For Kush or שוכ is the khepsh of the Egyptian mythology, the hinder-part of the northern quarter where the chief transactions occurred in the passage from west to east, from death to life, from darkness to light. This was the black land of Kush, the celestial Ethiopia, and the Hebrew dabar also signifies the hinder-part as the back side of the temple where the Jewish holy of holies was located for mystical reasons; the especial seat of holiness being the birthplace, the oraculum, which represented the khepsh of the hinder thigh in heaven. Dabar, to be behind, describes the situation and character of Kush or the Khepsh, the place of the meska or meskhen in the Ritual. The goddess of the Great Bear when degraded, became the feminine Typhon of this quarterthe Dabar of Khepshin the eschatological phase, the monster of Amenti who was depicted with the tongue thrust out to lap the blood of the wicked. She also carried the noose or tie, once a type of life, but afterwards called a snare of souls. This tie is named tepr, another equivalent of Dabar, in which sense the tepr of Khepsh is the tie or snare of the wicked Typhon. The tongue also is tep in Egyptian. The tongue of Typhon or the wicked, is frequently referred to by the psalmist. 'Under his tongue is mischief and vanity.'[66] 'They flatter with their tongue.'[67] In the Ritual the adversary Typhon is told, 'Thy tongue which has been made to thee is greater than the envious tongue of a scorpion. It has failed in its power for ever.'[68] The Hebrew Kush, as before said, answers to the Egyptian Khepsh, the hinder-part, the night side, the feminine abode of birth determined by the hinder thigh or khepsh. To this the Hebrew Dabar corresponds; this it translates.

The Dabar as place was represented in person and by name as Deborah, the prophetess of Israel. The words or Dibrai of Kush are a psalm of the hinder-part, the west and north of the solar circle, where the sun passed by night and the Akar was in travail for the rebirth of the orb or the divinity of day. The time is one of travail, and the pangs are reversed; it is the wicked, the adversary, who is to suffer that which he has prepared for the just. 'Behold, he [p.96] travaileth with iniquity, and hath conceived mischief, and brought forth falsehood: he bath made a pit and digged it (the Ament or Sheol), and is fallen into the ditch he made.'[69] The speaker appeals to the covenant: 'Have respect unto the covenant, for the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty.'[70] These are the hells of the underworld described in the Ritual through which the Osiris and Osirians passed.

The psalmist says, 'The assembly of the wicked enclosed me.'[71] This answers to the sami (assembly) of Typhon, the conspirators. Again, 'He shall pluck my feet out of the net.'[72] And 'Our soul is escaped as a bird out of the snare of the fowlers, the snare is broken and we are escaped.'[73] The original matter is mythological, and belongs to the phenomena of the solar allegory. In the secondary stage this is applied to the soul, and becomes eschatological. In the myth, Typhon and the conspirators prepare a feast, at which he betrays Osiris. In perfect keeping with the story as told by Plutarch[74] we have the passage, 'Yea, mine own familiar friend, in whom I trusted, which did eat of my bread, hath lifted up, or magnified, the heel against me.'[75] The heel denotes that hindward part by which Typhon was typified. This is a supposed prophecy of the betrayal by Judas, and the subject of the Last Supper. There is one origin for both.

'I am a worm and no man,' says the speaker in Psalms 22:6. 'I am that crawling reptile,' cries the Osirian in the eighth abode[76]. This is said 'in the place of dismissing peace, the great and terrible place of the waters.' Again we read, 'The channels of waters were seen and the foundations of the world were discovered at thy rebuke, O Lord, at the blast of the breath of thy nostrils.'[77] 'He sent from above, he took me, he drew me out of many waters. He delivered me from my strong enemy, and from them which hated me.'[78] 'Thou didst divide the sea by thy strength; thou brakest the heads of the dragons in the waters. Thou brakest the heads of leviathan in pieces, and gavest him to be meat to the people inhabiting the wilderness.'[79] The Osirian exclaims: 'Hail! thou who art over the gods. Hail! thou who hast cut in pieces the scorner and strangled the Apophis.'[80] Horus smites the wicked, the enemies of Osiris. 'Horus smites off their heads to heaven for the fowls; their thighs to the earth for wild beasts, to the water for the fishes.'[81]

The subject-matter of the Ritual is obvious in the second psalm. It is the parallel to the assembling of the typhonian sami, who set themselves against the anointed son, Horus, and against Osiris, the lord and father. The wicked conspirators are represented by the heathen, and the netherworld by the uttermost parts of the earth. [p.97] The opponents say, 'Let us break their bands asunder and cast away their cords from us.' In the Ritual the conqueror of the Apophis and the sami says: 'Apophis is overthrown, their cords bind the south, north, east, and west. Their cords are on him. Akar has overthrown him; Har-ru-bah has knotted him. The sun is at peace; he goeth forth in peace. The Apophis and the accusers of the sun fail.'[82] 'Kiss the Son, lest he be angry,' says the psalmist[83]. 'Give ye to him glory, ascribe ye it to him,' says the Osirian[84]. In a moment of exultation the psalmist exclaims, 'The heathen are sunk down in the pit they made in the net which they hid is their own foot taken.'[85] The word gevi (יוג), rendered heathen, answers to the Egyptian khefi, who are the godless, the Typhonians, the liers-in-wait of the Amenti, the conspirators against the solar god. They are the khefi because in the abyss of the north, the lower region, and thus the name applies to the people of the isles of the north, or the hinder-part (וג).

'The kings of the earth take counsel together against the Lord and against his Anointed,' in the psalm[86]; and in the Ritual these are the typhonian sami, who conspire against Osiris, the Lord, and his anointed Son, Horus, who is called the anointed, the holy child, the redeemer, the justifier, the lord of life and eternal king. It is said, 'He sees his father Osiris. He makes a way through the darkness to his father Osiris. He is his beloved he has come to see his father Osiris; he is the son beloved of his father.'[87] The Messiah[88] is made to identify himself with the Anointed Son in the Psalms. 'All things must be fulfilled which were written in the Law of Moses, and the Prophets and the Psalms, concerning me.'[89] This acknowledges that the nature of the messiahship and the terms of its fulfilment must be in accordance with those of the Psalms and the 'volume of the book written of'[90] the Messiah therein referred to. We read[91], 'When he bringeth in the first-begotten into the world he saith, And let all the Angels of God worship him.' But in what scriptures? The passage is not found in the Hebrew at all; it was added by the Seventy, the Greek translators, and the writer of this epistle quotes from their version. It was interpolated from other scriptures extant in Egypt. Among the mystical phrases addressed to Horus in the Ritual is, 'The one ordering his name to ride the gods (or angels) is Horus, the son of Osiris, who has made himself a ruler in the place of his father Osiris.' And when Osiris makes his transformation into Horus, his son, as a hawk of gold, it is said, 'Osiris made the generation of Horus; Osiris figured him. How was he more dignified than those who belong to the beings of light, created with him?'[92]


The prayers put into the mouth of David are uttered by Horus or some other form of the sun-god in the original writings of which Taht is the composer. It is the son, the Anointed of the Lord, who is properly the speaker, as in Psalms 13; where he asks, 'How long shall mine enemy be exalted over me?' The enemy triumphed in turn over the sun-god during the passage of the darkness, and the change from the old cycle to the new. The cry of the cross is the same as the cry of the crossing, 'My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?'[93] uttered by the redeemer in the depths, the suffering sun of the underworld, the sun who was represented by the reptile (ref) writhing through the sloughing condition, whose cries are again and again recognizable in the Psalms. 'I am poured out like water.'[94] He is despoiled of his strength and stripped of his glory. 'They part my garments among them, and cast lots upon my vesture.'[95]

One form of the divine sufferer is Har-pi-Khart. Kart means silent as well as child. Har-pi-Khart is the dumb god, who opens not his mouth, but points to it significantly. This is the speaker in Psalms 39:2 who says, 'I was dumb with silence. I held my peace from good, and my sorrow was stirred.' 'I was dumb, I opened not my mouth, because thou didst (it).'[96] This was in presence of the wicked, the enemy.

Psalms 69 is entitled 'To the chief musician upon Sheshinim,' and this is expressly a cry from the troubled region of Sesennu. It is a prayer for salvation from the overwhelming waters; and here it should be pointed out that seshenin (Eg.) is the name of the lily-lotus, on which the young solar-god was up-borne from the mire of the region of Sesennu. One of the transformations in the metamorphosis[97] is into the lily-lotus of the sun. The vignette shows the head of the god issuing from the flower. The suffering Horus is likewise borne up out of the waters upon the lotus. At Denderah, Horus issuing from the lotus-flower is designated the 'living Soul of Atum.'[98]

In the psalm the cry is, 'Save me, O God; for the waters are come I come in unto (my) soul. I sink in deep mire (or the mire of the depth), where (there is) no standing. I am come into deep waters, where the floods overflow.'[99] 'Deliver me out of the mire, and let me not sink ... let not the water-flood overflow me, neither let the deep swallow me up, and let not the pit shut her mouth upon me.'[100] That is the sun of the waters in the tes, the mire, or primordial matter, as represented by Har-pi-Khart on the lily; the breather out of the waters called the 'Lily of the nostril of the Sun.' 'I am weary of my crying'[101] expresses the same character as Remi the weeper, of whom more hereafter.


The miry clay is one of the Talmudic names of hell, corresponding to the Egyptian lake of primordial matter, which in the Ritual becomes the miry pool of the damned. Says the Osirian in this place, after struggling through, 'I stand and come forth from the mud.'[102]

Osiris was the good shepherd; he carried the crook in his hand. The psalmist exclaims, 'The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want he maketh me to lie down in green pastures; he leadeth me beside the still waters;'[103] the Lord is tzer, the rock; out of this rock flowed the pure waters. 'A well or flow comes out of thy mouth,'[104] says the speaker, in the Book of the Dead. 'The raging bulls have not been stopped. I pass by them. I lie down. I go to him who dwells in the fields traversing the darkness. I have seen my quiet Lord.'[105]

'Thy rod and thy staff they comfort me,'[106] cries the psalmist. The user was borne in the hands of the Egyptian gods; it was their staff and rod of power. 'Thou preparest a table before me in the presence of mine enemies: thou anointest my head with oil; my cup runneth over,'[107] is said by the psalmist.

'I have received food off the table, and drunk libations at the eventide. I have come to those who are in the horizon with joy, glory has been given to me by those who are in the gate in this mortal body,' is said by the spirit who has just passed through the enemies in the valley of the shadow of death, and is rejoicing over his deliverance[108]. 'He maketh my feet like hind's (feet), and setteth me upon my high places.'

It is 'God that girdeth me with strength, and maketh my way perfect.'[109]

'My face is in the shape of the divine hawk (the soaring bird of soul). My hind quarters are in the shape of a hawk. I am the prepared by his Lord. I go forth to the gate (his way). I have seen Osiris. I am wrapped up by his hands.'[110]

'Thy right hand hath holden me up, and thy gentleness hath made me great.'[111]

'I have seen my quiet Lord.'[112]

In correspondence with these words spoken by the Horus or soul in the depths we find, 'I have seen my father Osiris. I have been made and emaned from his nostril.' This is Horus of whom it is said, 'his hand is strong against his enemies, supporter of his father; snatched from the waters of his mother, striking his enemies, correcting the aggressors.'[113]

Some fragments of the books of Taht have descended to us in the Divine Pymander of Hermes Trismegistus[114]. In these Taht is called [p.100] the son of Saturn[115], and in the Ritual he is Taht, otherwise Sut, who was the first form of Hermes. Other notes of genuineness might be cited. In introducing the Hymn of Regeneration, Hermes instructs Taht, and says, 'O Son, do thou, standing in the open air, worship, looking to the North Wind about the going down of the Sun, and to the South when the Sun ariseth,'[116] which is according to the earliest orienting, when the two. Heavens were North and South in the pre-solar reckoning. This hymn, or holy speech, is one of the psalms of Taht.

'Let all the Nature of the world entertain the hearing of this Hymn. Be opened, O Earth, and let all the Treasure of the Rain be opened.
You Trees tremble not, for I will sing, and praise the Lord of the Creation, and the All, and the One.
Be opened you Heavens, ye Winds stand still, and let the immortal.
Circle of God receive these words.
For I will sing, and praise him that created all things, that fixed the Earth, and hung up the Heavens, and commanded the sweet Water to come out of the Ocean, into all the World inhabited, and not inhabited, to the use and nourishment of all things, or men.
That commanded the fire to shine for every action, both to Gods and Men.
Let us altogether give hint blessing, which rideth upon the Heavens, the Creator of all Nature.
This is he, that is the Eye of the Mind, and Will; accept the praise of my Powers.
O all ye Powers that are in me, praise the One, and the All.
Sing together with my Will, all you Powers that are in me.
O Holy Knowledge, being enlightened by thee, I magnify the intelligible Light, and rejoice in the Joy of the Mind.
All my Powers sing praise with me, and thou my Continence, sing praise my Righteousness by me; praise that which is righteous.
O Communion which is in me, praise the All.
By me the Truth sings praise to the Truth, the Good praiseth the Good.
O Life, O Light, front us unto you comes this praise and thanksgiving.
1 give thanks unto thee, O Father, the operation or act of my Powers.
I give thanks unto thee, O God, the Power of my operations.
By me thy Word sings praise unto thee, receive by me this reasonable (or verbal) Sacrifice in words.
The powers that are in me cry these things, they praise the All, they fulfil thy Will; thy Will and Counsel is from thee unto thee.
O All, receive a reasonable Sacrifice from all things.
O Life, save all that is in us; O Light enlighten, O God the Spirit; for the Mind guideth (or feedeth) the Word: O Spirit-bearing Workman.
Thou art God, thy Man crieth these things unto thee, by the Fire, by the Air, by the Earth, by the Water, by the Spirit, by thy Creatures.
From eternity I have found (means to) bless and praise thee, and I have what I seek; for I rest in thy Will.'[117]


But, to return to the Hebrew writings. In the Book of Job, the palace of the prince of glory is juxtaposed with the mishkan of the wicked[118]. 'Ye say, "Where (is) the house of the prince? and where are the dwelling-places of the wicked?"' The house of the prince in the Ritual is called the Palace of the Great House, in the region of the hill. The dwellings of the wicked were in the ten kars or hells of the damned. The meskhen was the purgatory.

The son, as repa and heir-apparent, the prince of peace, the anointed one, had various impersonations in Egyptian mythology, as Horus, Khunsu, and Iu-em-hept. One of these is represented in the Hebrew mythology by Solomon, the son of David. Khunsu, in relation to Taht or the moon, is the lunar son, who fulfils and completes the double circle of sun and moon. As the solar son he is the child of Amen-Ra. Taht bears on his head the half circle of the moon; Khunsu carries on his the full round. He is the fulfiller. And this is the significance of Solomon's name. Shalom (םלש) means to complete, finish, bring to an end, perfect the whole work begun by some forerunner supposed to be the ante-type. The meaning of peace is subsidiary to and dependent on this sense of perfecting some work, and completing and finishing the whole. This is done by the son Khunsu, in fulfilling the soli-lunar circle at the vernal equinox. One of Khunsu's titles is Nefer-hept. Hept means peace; nefer may be read the good, perfect, plant, youth. The Nefer-hept is really the Hebrew prince of peace, or, as Solomon is designated in the Song of Songs, 'the king to whom peace belongs.' He is also called the 'king of peace with the crown.'[119] And as nefer is the crown, nefer-hept is the crowned of peace, i.e., the king of peace, synonymous with Solomon, the king of peace with the crown.

The seventy-second psalm is called a 'Psalm for Solomon,' and the speaker says, 'Give the king thy judgments, and thy righteousness to the king's son.'[120] Taht was the signer of the sentences passed on the souls of the dead in the hall of the Two Truths. And in praise of the son it is proclaimed with great appropriateness, 'In his days shall the righteous flourish so long as the moon endureth.'[121] That is the primary imagery. 'I will make the horn of David to bud; I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed.'[122] The horn of the new moon is borne by Taht; the lamp of the full moon by Khunsu. It cannot be shown that Khunsu was considered to be the son of Taut, although he is the lunar child, and carries the full moon on his head but the son in whom the soli-lunar types were both united was Khunsu, the prince of peace, who in the Hebrew myths is Solomon, the son of David.

Jeremiah[123] exclaims: 'Behold, the days come, saith the [p.102] Lord, that I will raise unto David a righteous branch, and a king shall reign and prosper, and shall execute judgment and justice in the earth. In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely: and this is his name whereby he shall be called, Jahveh-Tzid­kenu,' rendered, the Lord our righteousness. It has been hitherto assumed that tzidkenu was to be derived from קדצ with suffix pronoun ונ (enu) for 'our.' Thus, if we read Jahveh as the Lord, Jahveh-Tzidkenu is the lord our Tzidek, as in the name of Melchizedek. But there are two passages[124] referring to Jehovah-Tzidkenu. In the first there is to be a king, who is the branch, the Egyptian repa, called Jehovah-tzidkenu, and in the second it is Jerusalem which is to be called tzidkenu, the passage being literally, 'and this he shall call her, Jehovah-Tzidkenu.' Jerusalem can hardly be designated the Lord our Righteousness as well as the branch! Therefore we need a form of the word which will include both in its meaning. This may be found in the Egyptian as sutkennui.

sÛ ¸I Ù ¤ ê ê Î
St kn n u i    

Sutkennui has the meaning of accompanying, conjoining, going together[125].

Tzidkenu, on any interpretation, applies to two personages and sexes, and these can be derived from the name, if Egyptian, for sut expresses the necessary conjunction and going together, and kennu is the name of both the child and a concubine. Sut, the child, was accompanied by the genetrix long before the fatherhood was established, the self-begotten being the earliest form of the divine son. But now the son and the mother are to be called after the husband and father as Jehovah-Tzidkenu. In one sense Jehovah-Tzidkenu would be Jehovah in conjunction with Jerusalem. In another, the tzidkenu would be the feminine, accompanied by the male god, the mother of the son, she who goes with him. The genetrix is a necessity here, as this son is to be the begotten one, the anointed, the son of the father, not merely that effeminate child of the mother who was the earlier type.

A son is to be born of David in Jerusalem, which represented the Mount of the Equinox, and there the luni-solar child was to be brought forth at the place of the luni-solar conjunction as sut-kennui. The conjunction occurred where the sun, moon and star of Horus met in the sign of the vernal equinox, as the trinity in unity. This can be read by the mythology, with David as the representative of Taht. Taht was the moon-god, who built the ark [p.103] of the lunar zodiac and established the month of the moon. Taht is followed by a moon-god Khunsu, who is the child of both sun and moon, the divinity of soli-lunar time. Khunsu is the Prince of Peace, or Nefer-Hept. The Hebrew Khunsu is Solomon the son of David, the promised luni-solar son. And here the Egyptian sutkennui, to accompany, is in perfect accordance with the typology. The son was always of a twofold nature, whether stellar as Sut, or solar as Horus, but the blending of the soil-lunar types in one, as Khunsu, was a particular form of accompanying and of presenting the twin nature of the tzidkenu biformis; it was the latest and most perfect fulfilment of the sonship in which the dual nature was reproduced.

Khunsu was the branch personified, in token whereof he carried the branch of the Thirty Years, the number of the Messiah-Son. The Vulgate renders the branch[126] by omens, that is Horus of Egypt, the solar form of the son. But the branch of David promised to him, in the character of Taht the moon-god, is the soli-lunar son who was Khunsu, the Nefer-hept or Perfect Peace in Egypt, and Solomon in Israel. The allegorical nature of the passage and its celestial relationship is proved by what follows respecting the land of Egypt and the north. The days are to come when they shall no longer say, the Lord led them up out of Egypt, but out of the North.

The north is khept, the Egypt of the heavens, and the allusion is to the beginning in and with the north, the Great Bear and the superseding of Sut by Taht who was again followed by Khunsu the luni­solar son, as the branch of Amen-Ra and Maut.

When the wonderful child is born to Lamech in the Book of Enoch[127], Enoch says, 'the Lord will effect a new thing upon the earth.'

The wonderful child in this instance was Noah, who initiated the new order of things after the fall in heaven and the flood on earth. The first of these wonderfuls (םיאלפ) was Sut-Anush, the wolf-hound or Dog-star type of the son, the earliest male builder of the celestial temple. Next came Sut-Har, the Sun-and-Sirius type; then Taht the lunar type, and lastly Khunsu who united the lunar and solar cycles in one cult, as did Iu-em-hept in another, and Solomon in Israel. Each of the last three was a rebuilder of the temple in heaven, the perfecter of the work begun by their predecessors.

So far from this being matter of prophecy applying to Jesus Christ, it had been already fulfilled in Khunsu, the Egyptian Tzidkenu or double god, who, according to Macrobius[128], was primeval among the Egyptians, but who is stated by Herodotus[129] to belong to the order of the twelve great gods of Egypt. He appears on a tablet of the Eighteenth Dynasty which was found by General Vyse[130] in the quarries of Tourah, where he is called the eldest son of Amen.

The Hiram King of Tyre, who in the Hebrew myths and Masonic mysteries is associated with Solomon as co-builder of the temple, is [p.104] doubtless a form of the Har, Horus, Oriens, the solar half of the luni-solar god found in Khunsu; this is corroborated by the conjunction of Solomon and Hiram, in fitting out the fleet for India or the south (khentu). Another personification of the Har-Sun may be found in Solomon's brother Adoni-Jah, who is Jah-Adonai, the Hebrew solar Adon.

Solomon is reputed to have made gold as common as stones in the streets of Jerusalem. It was the same moonshine and solar gold, however, that the Gaelic Khunsu, Con, stole from the giants in the underworld, the golden light which they brought up after vanquishing the powers of darkness.*

* The present writer is not concerned to deny that there ever was an historical Hebrew David or Solomon. These are common names in Israel. All he has to do with are the winiest personages so named, and these he holds to be entirely mythical. The first twelve tribes that Solomon reigned over were zodiacal, and the riddles (הדיח), said to have been extant in the time of Josephus, doubtless belonged to the astronomical allegory[131].

David continues the character of Taht in several directions. Taht, who supports the 'right shoulder of Osiris' in skhem, or the khem (shrine), is also the opener of the door of the shrine, called skhem, or the khem[132]. This character of Taht, as the opener, is typified by the key of David. 'And to the angel of the church in Philadelphia write: These things saith he that is holy, he that is true, he that hath the key of David, he that openeth, and no man shutteth; and shutteth and no man openeth.'[133] This was the two-faced Janus who carried the key, and was called the opener and the shutter, Patulcius and Clusius. The key of David is spoken of by Isaiah[134] as being committed to Eliakim, the son of Hulkiah. 'And the key of the house of David will I lay upon his shoulder; so he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open; and he shall be for a glorious throne to his fathers house, and they shall hang upon him all the glory of his father's house.'

It may be noted that Eliakim corresponds to Har (Ar or El) of the shrine, the Egyptian Khem; he shuts the shrine which his brother Har, the younger, opens, and these two in unity are the shutter and opener who is personified in Janus. The place of shutting was in skhem; that of opening in apt, the birthplace, on the horizon of which the mount of peace, Aru-Salem, and Bethlehem as the house of David, formed the dual image corresponding to the Two Truths, two bringers-forth, two horizons, two Horuses, or the dual luni-solar Khunsu.

In the Midrash Tillim[135] there is a Hebrew legend, which relates that David was once keeping his sheep when he was carried up to heaven on the back of a colossal rhinoceros, and delivered from his perilous position through the help of a lion. Whereupon he vowed to build a temple to God that should be of the dimensions of the [p.105] animal's horn. It has been imagined that the rabbinical writers based this on the passage in Psalms 22:21: 'Save me from the lion's mouth: for thou hast heard me from the horns of the unicorns.'

The present writer sees in it one of those fragments of Egyptian mythology found in the Talmudic writings in the same stage of decadence as our folklore and faeryology. David is the Hebrew Taht, the moon-god, who in the Ritual[136] takes credit for first building the ark of Sekari, i.e., of forming a zodiacal circle, which afterwards became solar. An enormous horn was the type of Typhon, the unicorn or hippopotamus, and is often alluded to. Sut-Typhon preceded Taht as the timekeeper and announcer in heaven under the types of Sothis and the Great Bear. Also it can be shown that Typhon, the genetrix, as Ta-urt was continued in Astarte, the horned, as a lunar goddess, who preceded Taht, the male divinity of the moon. David borne on the back of the image of Typhon is the exact replica of Taht, otherwise or formerly Sut[137]; and when the circle was made, and the first four cardinal points were established, the lion was keeper of the corner where the sun was at the beginning of the year of the inundation; and this sign was a starting-point for Taht, or David, in building the new temple of the heavens, formed of the twenty-eight lunar signs. But when the luni-solar zodiac, or temple, was built, we find Taht seated in the sign of Cancer, as Hermanubis, at the place of the summer solstice. The final temple of the heavens was finished by Solomon, or Khunsu, the luni-solar son, according to the pattern left him by David, or Taht. He filled in and completed that which had been previously outlined. The same mythical matter may be found in the contention of our 'Lion and the Unicorn,' who fought each other for the supremacy until they became reconciled at last in their embrace of the British crown. The lion is supposed to have beaten the unicorn, whether the struggles were 'up and down' the garden or the town.

A rabbinical tradition affirms that before the destruction of the Temple the Holy One played with Leviathan, but since that event He plays with it no more. This is supposed to mean a temple built in Jerusalem, but refers to the temple in the heavens. The Holy One was the manifestor, the Anush who was first of all Sut, the son of Typhon, of whom Leviathan, the female monster dwelling in the deep, was one type[138]. The earliest temple was that of Sut-Typhon.

The Talmudic traditions go back to the first time and circle of the Great Bear, which was represented by the rhinoceros, hippopotamus, or unicorn. Next the lion identifies the point of commencement in the Egyptian sacred year. David's temple was that of Taht, the lunar measurer, and Solomon's represents that of Khunsu, or luni-solar time. The full moon carried on the head of Khunsu [p.106] still determines the time of Easter, or Astarte, in what may be truly termed the Sabean-luni-solar year of the Metonic cycle, and the golden numbers of the English Book of Common Prayer[139].

The names of Taht and David are similar without being identical, and this also can be explained by their different relationship to the double light, Taht, whose full name of Tahuti, shows he was the bearer (ta) of the huti, the type of a dual light, from hu, light, and ti, two, or to duplicate. The huti is a winged disk. The first winged disk is lunar. Two ibises are given to Taht in the Destruction des Hommes par les Dieux[140], and these explain the sign of a double-winged disk, which at times accompanies the name of this god. The duality applies to the two halves of the lunation. The luni-solar hut (huti) symbols another duality, that of the sun and moon conjoined, as they were in Khunsu. This blending of the two in one was represented by the Teb-Huti or winged disk, the emblem of the lord of heaven and giver of life. Khunsu, with the head of the solar hawk bearing the lunar disk, is equivalent to the sign of the tebhut or winged disk, only he belongs to another divine dynasty. The tebhut, is the type of Hu and the later Iu of the Atum cult. In ta-huti the dual light is lunar. In the tebhut both lunar and solar lights are conjoined. David represents the two blended together in one, which is the meaning of his name of the joiner, uniter, or the united, and so this name of דוד is the equivalent of tebhut, tevhut, tahut, or Taht, with the duality of Taht expressed by the two halves of the lunation, and that of David by the luni-solar unity, as it was in Iu of the Atum cult.

This duality was finally represented by the Son, who had both father and mother, as the second Horus of the Osirian cult; Khunsu, the luni-solar son of Amen-Ra and Maut, and by Iu the son (Su), the Iu-su, son of Atum and Iusaas, at On in Egypt, the Iu-em-hept, who comes with peace, and is the Solomon of that dynasty.

Another Egyptian form of the mythical father and son is found in Ptah and Tum, also in Tum and his son Iu-em-hept, he who comes with and brings peace, as Iu means both to come and bring. He is the issue of Neb-hept, the lady of peace. Iu-em-hept, as the repa, is the prince of peace, identical by title with Solomon, called the son of David.

In some respects Iu-em-hept, who was also a form of the dual son, offers a better original for the mythical Solomon, the Solomon known to the Freemasons, for example, than even Khunsu. He was the preacher who reappears in the Hebrew writings as Ecclesiasticus. 'I have heard the words of Iu-em-hept and Hartataf.'[141] It is said in their sayings,

'After all, what is prosperity? Their fenced walls are dilapidated. Their houses are as that which has never existed. [p.107] No man comes from thence, who tells of their sayings, who tells of their affairs, who encourages (?) our hearts. Ye go to the place whence they return not. Strengthen thy heart to forget how thou hast enjoyed thyself. Fulfil thy desire while thou livest. Put oils upon thy head, clothe thyself with fine linen adorned with precious metals, with the gifts (?) of God. Multiply thy good things; yield to thy desire, fulfil thy desire with thy good things (whilst thou art) upon earth, according to the dictation of thy heart. The day will come to thee, when one hears not the voice, when the one who is at rest hears not their voices (i.e. of the mourners). Lamentations deliver not him who is in the tomb ... Feast in tranquillity, seeing that there is no one who carries away his goods with him. Yea, behold, none who goes (thither) comes back again.'[142]

These are some of the sayings of the preacher known to us in Ecclesiastes, ascribed to King Solomon.

'Go thy way, eat thy bread with joy, and drink thy wine with a merry heart, for God now accepteth thy works. Let thy garments be always white, and let thy head lack no ointment ... for there is no work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom in the grave whither thou goest.'[143]

The Egyptian theme is that of the words which Herodotus[144] tells us were pronounced at feasts when the mummy image was carried round and presented to each person with the expression, 'Look upon this! then drink, and rejoice, for thou shalt be as this is.'

The song in the Harris Papyrus[145] is said to be taken from the house of King Antuf, and must therefore be as early as the eleventh dynasty.

How ancient are some of the Egyptian Books of Proverbs and collections of wise sayings may be partially gauged by the most ancient book in the world, the precepts and maxims of Ptah-hept in the Prisse Papyrus, which dates as far back as the time of King Assa-Tat-Ka-Ra[146] of the Fifth Dynasty. It is between five and six thousand years old, and, at that distance of time, appeals to the authority of the ancients just as we may appeal to it as a venerable work of antiquity. In this same papyrus is also found the 5th commandment of the Mosaic Law: 'Honour thy father and thy mother' with the promise annexed 'that thy days may be long in the land.'[147]

The apocryphal Book of Ecclesiasticus, called the 'Wisdom of Jesus, the Son of Sirach or Ecclesiasticus,' is admitted in the prologue to be an Egyptian work brought out of Egypt. Here the preacher is identified as Jesus. In the Hebrew collection the preacher becomes the typical wise man, as Solomon, or Ecclesiasticus. The Solomon, whose name signifies peace, is one with Iu-em-hept, who approaches with peace, to whom the wise sayings are attributed [p.108] in Egypt. In the Wisdom of Solomon it is written, 'In the long garment was the whole world.'[148] The long garment is typical of the learned, the ecclesiastic. And Iu-em-hept is portrayed on the monuments as the wearer of the long garment; he is Ecclesiasticus, the preacher, or word, personified. The Book of Ecclesiasticus is the 'wisdom of Jesus the son of Sirach.' The account rendered of it in the 'Prologue made by an uncertain Author' is that this Jesus was the son of Sirach, who was also a son of Jesus, the grandfather of Jesus. On one particular line of descent in the divine dynasties Ptah is called 'Atef-Atef' father of the fathers of the gods. His son Tum is the divine father, and Iu-em-hept is his son. Thus we have the grandfather, father, and son. But Ptah as a son was the first Jesus on this line of descent, that is the Iu-su, or son who comes. He is the Iu or Au in the form of an embryo. Ptah is the father of Tum the second Iu-su, and thus genealogically Iu-em-hept, the third Jesus, is the grandson of Ptah in Egyptian mythology. This relationship of Iusu to Ptah is manifested in a prayer of Jesus the son of Sirach[149], 'I called upon the Lord the Father of my Lord;' this was in trouble, when he called from the 'depth of the belly of hell,' or in passing through the Amenti. The true reading of this is, I, Iu-su, called upon Ptah the father of my father Tum, the Lord of An. He had been in the 'depth of the belly of hell,' his life was 'near to the hell beneath,' that was in the solar passage through the Amenti or Hades, where lurked the liers-in-wait, and Sut or Satan the Apophis was the accuser, and utterer of 'lying words.' The accusations against him are made by the 'unclean,' the 'unrighteous' tongue of Typhon, just as in the Ritual[150]. This is in a prayer of Jesus or Iusu, he who comes from the belly of Hades in the new birth.

Iu-em-hept, he who comes with peace, then, is, claimed to be a prototype of the Jewish Solomon, the impersonation of peace. 'Solomon reigned in a peaceable time. God made all quiet round about him, that he might build an house in his name, and prepare his sanctuary for ever. How wise wast thou in thy youth. Thy soul covered the whole earth and thou filledst it with dark parables. Thy name went far into the islands, and for thy peace thou wast beloved.'[151] Of Iu-em-hept (or Nefer-Tum) the gods say, 'Hail to thee coming, approaching in (or with) peace.'[152]

In an inscription copied by Dumichen[153] it is said that a certain part of the temple of Edfu was 'restored as it is in the book of the model of a temple composed by the Chief Kher-heb, Prince lu-em­hept, eldest son of Ptah.' In this inscription the kherheb or modeller of the temple, the original designer, would be Iu-em-hept, to whom various arts and sciences were ascribed, including poetry, healing, and building. And in this we have another prototype of Solomon as the [p.109] builder of the temple in Israel according to a book of the model ascribed to David.

One more quotation will show that the canonical writings in which Wisdom figures as the chief character are of Egyptian origin, and not only those that have been excluded as apocrypha. In this passage wisdom is personified as Hathor, who is nearly one of the oldest of Egypt's divinities. It is but a fragment, but all essence of the kind of utterances assigned to Solomon and Iu-em-hept the preacher.

'I walked in the way of Hathor, her fear was in me (lit. my limbs). My heart bid me to do her pleasure. I was found acceptable to her.'

'When I was a child, not knowing how to declare the truth (i.e., distinguish good from evil, truth from falsehood) my heart bid me adopt the sistrum (i.e., the badge of Hathor). God was pleased with it, the good ruler made me rejoice, he gave me this gift to walk in his way (or according to his rule).

'Lead your wives to her truly to walk in the ways of the queen of the gods; it is more blessed than any other way; lead them in her way.'[154]

Celsus, as reported by Origen[155], refused to admit the antiquity of the Hebrew scriptures, and affirmed that they were borrowed from the Egyptians. Much more might be added to show that they contain reproductions of the most ancient Hermean matter. In the first chapter of the Ritual we read: 'Oh, openers of roads! oh, guides of paths to the soul made in the abode of the Osiris! open ye the roads, level ye the paths to yourselves for the Osiris.'[156] This is the voice of him that cries in the wilderness referred to and quoted by Isaiah[157]: 'The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, prepare ye the way of the Lord, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. Every valley shall be exalted (levelled upward), and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain.' In Isaiah we only get the symbolical language with no clue to the subject-matter, and so it was held to be prophecy. This is assumed to be applicable to John the Baptist, and when we come to the Gospel of Matthew we find the actual proved by the prophetical, whereas the voice of one crying in the wilderness, and the very words it uttered, belong to the solar allegory, and are written in the first chapter of the Ritual, called the 'Manifestation to Light.' The scene is in the Hades, the wilderness of the underworld. The messenger is Taht, who accompanies the Horus through the desert of the dead. He is the mouth of the gods whereby the promises to souls were announced and made known, as Isaiah has it, by the 'Mouth of the Lord.'[158] It is by Taht, who is the mouth of the lord, that the deceased addresses the gods in the appeal to make the paths straight and level up to [p.110] the divine abode. One form or name of Taht, the messenger in the lower world, is that of Aan, who is designated the 'Preparer of the Way of the other World,' and with whom we have, later, to identify the messenger John as the crier in the wilderness. Enough at present, to show that the so-called prophet is quoting the Egyptian Ritualquoting the words of Taht, who is there proclaimed to be the messenger in the day of 'calling the world,' and who is the mouth of the gods personified, the announcer of Horus, the son, who is the glory of the lord (Osiris) revealed. The so-called witness to Christ in the Psalms, and the testimony to the Saviour in the 'Prophets,' do but refer to the anointed son, the Iu-Su of Egyptian mythology, whose nature and significance can only be understood by the matter being once more related to the primary phenomena upon which that mythology was founded.

Here, again, is a group of quotations from the Hymn to the Nile[159]. The resemblance between this hymn and the Psalms is particularly striking. It was written by Enna the scribe, author of the Two Brothers[160], in the time of Merenptah, a supposed contemporary of Moses:

'He maketh his might a buckler.'[161]
'He is not graven in marble.'[162]
'He is not beheld.'[163]
'There is no building that can contain him.'[164]
'There is no counsellor in thy heart.'[165]
'Every eye is satisfied with him.'[166]

The Epistle of Jude, for instance, contains a couple of waifs and strays from ancient writings. Jude quotes a passage from the Book of Enoch, found in chapter 2: 'Behold, he comes with ten thousand of his saints, to execute judgment upon them, and destroy the wicked, and reprove all the fleshly, for every thing which the sinful and ungodly have done and committed against him.' Again, he says: 'Michael, the archangel, when contending with the devil, he disputed about the body of Moses.'[167]

And in the Ritual, we read: 'I am washed with the same water in which Un-Nefer (the good being) washes when he disputes with Sut (Satan) that justification should be made to Un-Nefer, the Justified (Makheru).'[168]

One form of Horus the good being, Har-Makhu, the sun of the horizon, is the prototype of Micha-El, the Lord of our autumnal equinox (or horizon) called Michaelmas. His dispute with Satan over the Osirian is identical with that of Michael about the body of Moses. This dispute of Horus and Satan was annual.

We have the best reserved until the last. An inscription has been copied by Naville from the so-called 'Chamber of the Cow,' in the tomb of Seti I; it is unfortunately designated by him 'The [p.111] Destruction of Mankind,'[169] which turns a mythical figure into modern fact. It is one of the most precious of the creation allegoriesa legend of the god Ra, who is said to have existed before the raising of the firmament, or the mapping out of the heavens. The inscription is a portion of the 'Books of the Prophet, or Horoscopus,' of which there were four necessary to be known. This is shown by a rubric at the end.

When Taht reads this particular book to Ra he purifies himself during nine days; prophets and men must do the same. There is a destruction of some mythical race (rut); Ra complains that the beings who were born of himself utter words against him. 'Speak to me,' he says to the assembled hearers, 'what you will do in this case: behold I have waited and have not destroyed them until I shall have heard what you have to say. Behold, they are running away over the whole land, and their hearts are afraid.'

They answer: 'May thy face allow us to go, and we shall smite those who plot evil things, thy enemies, and let none remain among them.'

The god says: 'Go as Hathor!'[170]

This is repeated in the worship of the golden calf[171]. In that story the 'Lord said unto Moses,' who was with him up in the mount, 'Go get thee down, for thy people which thou broughtest out of the land of Egypt have corrupted themselves and turned aside out of the way which I commanded. It is a stiff-necked people. Now therefore let me alone that my wrath may wax hot against them, that I may consume them.' Then follows an exterminating slaughter in the camp of Israel. The 'Lord said unto Moses, whoever hath sinned against me, him will I blot out of my book,' and 'the Lord plagued the people because they had made the calf.'[172]

In the Egyptian myth the destruction goes forth in the shape of Hathor the goddess whose type was the heifer with the gilded horns, the Golden Hathor who was the lady of mirth and music and the dance[173], who held the cords of love, and drew all hearts to 'rise up and play' whilst beating time on the tambourine. In the Hebrew adaptation Hathor or the golden calf is made the cause of the destruction, the rewriters being desirous of turning a moral by means of the myth.

'Go as Hathor,' and 'the goddess started, ordered to destroy men during three days of navigation.' She smote the men over the 'whole land.' The god Ra says, 'I shall prevail over them and I shall complete their ruin.' And 'during several nights there was Sekhet trampling the blood under her feet far as Heracleapolis.' 'It is well done,' says Ra. 'I shall now protect men on account of this. I raise my hand to swear that I shall not destroy men.'

Hathor rejoices and says: 'I have prevailed over men and my heart is pleased.'[174]


The blood that has been shed is then mixed with the juice of fruit to make a divine drink as in the Hindu churning of the ocean to produce the amrit drink of immortality. This water of life is poured out over the fields, and the goddess came at morning and finding the fields covered with the water she drank to her satisfaction and was filled. The meaning of the myth must remain in abeyance at present as unnecessary for the purpose of comparison. Suffice it that it is so remote as to belong to the pre-creation of time, the establishing and mapping out of the heavens and the making of the moon[175]. In celebration of this deed of Hathor, the gracious goddess heifer-headed, the deity commands that libations of memorial are to be made to her at every festival of the new year. 'Hence comes it that libations are made at the festival of Hathor through all men since the days of old.'[176] In the Hebrew account the calf is calcined and pounded to powder, strewn on the water and the Israelites are made to drink of it.

Thus the festival of the heifer goddess was founded on the meaning of the myth, and whatsoever was signified by the water in the original version was meant by the 'water of separation' in the Hebrew Ritual. Also the festival of the heifer goddess was kept in Israel as it was in Egypt, the difference being that the Hebrews offered the red heifer, type of Typhon, and made a water of separation with the ashes of it. And this which is commanded as a statute for ever[177] has exactly the same symbolical significance as the drinking of the water with the ashes of the golden calf infused in it, and both with the drinking of the blood and juice of fruit. Ra then repents him of the destruction and grows weary to be with men.

The walls of the tomb have been so mutilated as to destroy or shatter some most important parts of the inscription. Enough however remains for us to see in dim outline that a drama of the creation was represented briefly, and this has been expanded with numerous details in the Mosaic record. Ra says he is so weary he cannot walk and must have others to support him.

'Then was Nut seen carrying Ra on her back. They saw him on the back of the cow.'[178]

So Jahveh exults in having ridden on the neck of the fair heifer[179]. So the ark of the Lord of Israel was drawn by the two milch kine[180]. The god Ra, imaged by the solar orb, was borne between the horns of Hathor. The Hebrew agl-ah for the heifer renders the Egyptian akr-ah the cow of the lower region who carried the sun across the waters of the abyss. Ra is described as descending to earth. 'His Majesty arrived in the sanctuary. The cow ... with them. The earth was in darkness: when he gave light to the earth in the morning. Said by the majesty of the god, Your sins are behind you, destruction of enemies removes destruction. Said by the majesty of the god, I have [p.113] resolved to be lifted up. Who is it whom Nut will trust with it? Said by the majesty of the god, Remove me, carry me that I may see; and the majesty of the god saw the inner part (of the sanctuary), and he said, I assemble and give possession of these multitudes of men. Said by the majesty of the god, Let a field of rest extend itself: and there arose a field of rest. Let the plants grow there: and there arose the field of Aaru.'[181] Aaru or Aalu is usually called the Egyptian Elysium. But this is to dissipate and dim the definiteness of Egyptian thought.

The Aahru is the house with gates, thirty-six is the number, in the house of Osiris[182], founded on the thirty-six decans of the zodiac. The creation of the fields of Aaru is the mapping out of the zodiacal circle. Hence what follows; 'I establish as inhabitants all the beings which are suspended in the sky, the stars! and Nut (our night) began to tremble very strongly. Said by the majesty of Ra, I assemble there (in the fields of the thirty-six gates) the multitudes that they may celebrate thee: and there arose the multitudes.'[183]

Then Shu is commanded to take Nut (night) and become the guardian of those who live in the nocturnal sky. He is depicted in the tomb in the position of supporting the heaven of night, which is in the shape of the cow that carries the stars called living beings.

Next, Time (as Seb) is called into being, with his serpents, the symbols of cycles and periods, and instructions are given to him as father in this newly-created land eternally. Then Taht is called, and his luminary, the moon, is created in the inferior sky of night to become the nocturnal abode of Ra. Fuller particulars of this drama of creation will be given hereafter. For the nonce we gather that after the great destruction the deity determines on being lifted up amongst men and entering a tabernacle or sanctuary, and the majesty of the god saw or entered the inner part of this sanctuary. The sanctuary is set in the heavens, in the thirty-six decans, and is the habitation of sun, moon, and stars, and the range of their measured courses. This is the sanctuary imitated in the emblematic tabernacle of the Exodus after the pattern shown in the mount. The opening of the Egyptian inscription with all its lacunae is the living original of the Hebrew copy.

'The god (Ra) being by himself, after he has been established as king of men and the gods together, there was ... (lacuna). His majesty living and well in his old age. His limbs of silver, his flesh of sold, his articulations of genuine lapis-lazuli. There was mankind. Said by his majesty, living and well, to his followers, I call before my face Shu, Tefnut, Seb, Nut, and the fathers and mothers who were with me when I was still in Nun, and I prescribe to Nun, who brings his companions with himbring a small number of them, that the men may not see them, and that their heart be not afraid. Thou shalt go with them into the sanctuary, if they agree with it, until I shall go with Nun to the place where I stand when those gods came, they bowed down before [p.114] his majesty himself who spake in the presence of his father, of the elder gods, of the creators of men, and of wise beings, and they spake in his presence, saying, Speak to us, that we may hear it.'[184] This is the prologue that precedes the drama we have already glanced at.

'And they saw the God of Israel, and there was under his feet as it were a paved work of a sapphire stone, as it were the body of heaven in its clearness.'[185] Blue stone, chiefly the lapis-lazuli, was in Egypt a divine image. The articulations of the joints, or mouth, or boththe hieroglyphics used might warrant the emissionsfor the utterances are said to be of lapis-lazuli, maat, just as we should say true blue. In another inscription the head of the god is of lapis-lazuli. Indeed the real stone was distinguished from the artificial, as khesbet-ma, or true blue. The blue stone was an image of the azure heaven, a type of the eternal, made solid as it were for an enduring foundation.

The Jewish elders saw God upon his sapphire throne; the elders who accompanied Nun bowed down before the majesty of Ra, and did speak in his presence. The Lord of Israel, now established alone, gave to Moses the tablets of stone, on which the law was written by his own hand. The 'articulations' (or utterances) of Ra are of 'genuine lapis-lazuli,' the image of heaven in hue, and of the texture of the eternal. The Hebrew name of the tables of stone, luch (חול), is the Egyptian rekh, to speak, announce, declare, acquaint, time, epoch. That which was the merest figure of speech for the articulations of Ra and the true blue or genuine lapis-lazuli, enduring Khesbet-Maat, the stone of the goddess of the Two Truths, has been reproduced in the Hebrew fiction as two veritable stone tablets, engraved by the hand of God Himself. 'And the tables were the work of God, and the writing was the writing of God.'[186]

On this blue throne has Jahveh been established, a 'God by himself,' as 'King of men and gods together.' He reveals Himself face to face with Moses, as Ra calls Shu before his face, and there are three accompanying Moses into the mount, just as Tefnut, Seb, and Nut are with Shu in the divine presence. And 'he said unto Moses, Come up unto the Lord thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel, and worship ye afar off and Moses alone shall come near the Lord, but they shall not come nigh, neither shall the people go up with them.' In the Egyptian myth a small number of the elders, as fathers and mothers, are to ascend with the four. Nun takes the place of Moses, and goes alone with Shu, Tefnut, Seb, and Nut, the four companions, into the mount. In Egyptian mythology Shu is the son of Nun. In the Hebrew the son of Nun is Joshua. The parentage of Nun identifies the sonship of Shu and Joshua.

In the Destruction of Mankind their blood is poured out over the [p.115] land for the length of a three days' navigation. From this a drink is to be concocted for the gods by mixing fruit with the blood.

'Said by the majesty of the god: Let them begin with Elephantine, and bring to me fruits in quantity. And when the fruits have been brought they were given. The Sekti of Heliopolis was grinding the fruits whilst the priestesses poured the juice into vases, and the fruits were put in vessels with the blood of men, and there were made seven thousand pitchers of drink. And the majesty of Ra came with the gods to see the drink, and he said, It is well done all this. I shall now protect men on account of this.'[187]

The myth has really nothing whatever to do with any destruction of mankind. The beings destroyed are born of Ra, the god. It is at bottom a legend of the primitive creation, and the language used is founded on physiology. The mixture of fruit-juice and blood, which is to be the future protection of the human race, is poured out of the vessels, and the fields are entirely covered with what is termed 'the water.' The avenging goddess, Hathor, came in the morning and found the fields covered with water, and she was pleased with it, and she drank to her satisfaction and went away satisfied, and she saw no men. Then Ra said to her: 'Come in peace, thou gracious goddess, and there arose the young priestess of Amu. Said by the majesty of Ra to the goddess (Hathor): I order that libations be made to her (the young priestess of Amu) at every festival of the new year, under the directions of priestesses, at the festival of Hathor, through all men since the days of old.'[188]

The geographical Amu was at the extremity of the Delta, near Lake Mareotis, in the last western nome, and in the district of the cow. The cow sign in the planisphere is in the west, and Hathor, the cow-headed, is goddess of the western hill. Amu signifies dates, the place of the date-palms. Naville supposes the young goddess of Amu to be Tefnut, in the cow-headed character of Hathor[189]. But the young goddess, a very young goddess, who was a form of Hathor, is Shent. Shent is a name of the nose sign of breathing (as well as fent), and the nose and its actions were represented by the head of a calf. Shent, the young cow-goddess, is the calf answering to the golden calf worshipped by the Israelites. The mount of the west, sacred to the cow-goddess, in the cow district, answers to Sinai, from shen, the point of turning in the circle, and place of the equinox. Here is another instance which looks like a rendering of the hieroglyphics by some one who was ignorant of the mythical significance. Sinai is the point at which the Israelites are described as turning in their course. They turn away from the Lord; they turn aside to worship the calf; they turn back to Egypt; they bend the knee in worship of the calf, and the word shen, or shena, has all these meanings. Shen, to bend, turn away, deflect, twist and turn, bend the knee, to blaspheme, be enchanted and bewitched. This one [p.116] word would furnish the Hebrew story of the turning away at the western point of turning in the domain of the cow, or rather of the calf. The date-palms of Amu are also in Elim, where there were seventy palm-trees and twelve fountains of water[190].

The goddess Mer is likewise found as a form of Hathor, bearing the solar disk on 'her fair neck,' between the cow's horns. The young goddess of Amu is represented in Israel by Miriam.

The pouring out of the blood to the extent of a three days' voyage is a mythical mode describing the Red Sea, a localized illustration of which was the inundation of the Nile when it turned red, and was under the protection of Mer-Seker, the Silent Mer, and was the image of the mother source, as the Nile was considered to be when red, and called Tesh-tesh, the inert (that is, feminine) form of Osiris. The rejoicing of Hathor over the blood shed is paralleled by the song and dance of Miriam over the destruction in the Red Sea. The bitter waters of Marah, which were sweetened by the tree cast into them, equates with the juice of the fruit poured into the blood of the Egyptian myth. A covenant and a statute are made on the spot by Ra, who orders that libation is to be made to the young goddess of Amu at every festival of the new year at the time of the overflow of Nile. In like manner the Lord of Israel makes for them a 'statute and an ordinance, and there he proved them.'[191]

The tree of healing is the tree of life, the male source as applied by Isaiah[192]: 'Neither let the Eunuch say, I am a dry tree.' In the elder version this is represented as the fruit of the tree whose juice was mingled with blood.

This bloody business of pouring out the vast crimson sea over the fields is transacted in the middle of the night, just as in the Hebrew story the blood was sprinkled on the lintels and the great destruction was consummated at midnight. Again, it is the firstborn of Egypt who are represented as having been slain; and in the genuine myth the men who are destroyed are the firstborn of all creation, born of Ra himself. The blood shed by Ra and Hathor is the blood of a covenant in making which Ra swears 'I now raise my hand that I shall not destroy men.' He then commanded the blood to be poured out of the vessels over the fields. That covenant, whatsoever its origin and significance, is obviously the prototype of the Jewish blood-covenant. 'And Moses took half of the blood and put it in basins; and half of the blood he sprinkled on the altar. And he took the Book of the Covenant and read.' And 'Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said, Behold the blood of the covenant which the Lord hath made with you concerning all these words.'[193] The Egyptian myth concludes with the creation of the heavens, the cycles and circles of Seb (time), the two halves of the sky where the moon appears, crescent and full, the establishing of [p.117] the Aahru, the houses and gates of the sun, and the habitations of the stars[194]. The Aahru, as previously mentioned, consist of the divisions of the twelve signs. This, too, is modestly imitated by Moses, who makes his zodiac by building an altar under the hill, and erecting 'twelve pillars according to the twelve tribes.'[195]

These things were the creations of Egypt, who alone can interpret their true meaning for us. As such they are but myths of the profane heathen mind; old wives' fables and 'silly sooth' of the world's childhood. But when reproduced in the records of God's own chosen people they become the direct revelations of the Most High speaking to a real man by word of mouth (uttering on Sinai what is found in Egyptian tombs), the myth is transformed to miracle, the word is made flesh, the symbol fact, Ra's utterances of lapis-lazuli are turned into two tablets of stone, the writings are divinely inspired, and their fables become eternal truths on which are founded the first revealed religion and the salvation of the human race. These extracts will show, however, that we are vastly indebted to the Israelites for preserving the Egyptian writings, however tampered with in the redaction. They also show to what a height the thought of Egypt soared, and to what a depth it sounded ages on ages before the Jewish people were an ethnological entity. This inscription gives us hope that other extracts from the sacred books of Taht may be still extant and recoverable hereafter.

Tut is the Egyptian word for speech, utterance, language, mouth, tongue. This does not pass into Hebrew as the common type-word for language or speech, and the word duth (תד), a law, edict, mandate, has been supposed to belong only to later Hebrew. Yet the Jews' language is twice over expressly called תידוהי (Ihu-duth)[196]. Not the (ןשל) tongue of the Jews, but the tut or speech of the Jews, designated by the Egyptian name. 'In those days also saw I Jews that had married wives of Ashdod, of Ammon, and of Moab. And their children spake half in the speech of Ashdod, and could not speak in the Jews' language (תידוהי).'

'Then said Eliakim unto Rab-shakeh, Speak, I pray thee, to thy servants in the Syrian language, for we understand it, and talk not with us in the Jews' language in the ears of the people that are on the wall.'[197]

The speech of the Jews then is the Egyptian language described by name in Egyptian. The word tut is abraded from Tahuti (Thoth), who was the word, the mouth, tongue, and pen of the gods, the divine scribe.

It is stated in the Mar Sutra[198] that the Pentateuch was originally [p.118] given to Israel in the holy language and in the Ibri writing. It was afterwards given to them in the Aramaic language and in the Ashurith writing, in the days of Ezra. Israel then adopted the Ashurith writing and the holy language and left to the Samaritans the Ibri writing and the Aramaic language. Here the holy language means the most ancient, and that was Egyptian. Hebrew tells us nothing of the meaning of Ibri or the nature of the form used. Ibri only appears as the proper name of a son of Merari[199]. But the Egyptian scribe's palette, paint-pot, and reed-pen used for forming the hieroglyphics on papyrus is an instrument called the rui. Papu is paper in Egyptian, and with rui, the scribe's implements, we obtain the word papyri. The Hebrew ibri or gabrith (תירבצ) writing, we may conclude was in the hieroglyphics of Kheb or Egypt.

Asha is a corner, and to meander or wind about. The hieroglyphic ham shows that asha means to wind not round but with corners, that is, square. The hieroglyphic as is quadrangular. The masons square is a corner. Asha-ret is writing that meanders corner-wise or what we term writing in the square Hebrew letter. Ashurith, the writing in square characters, contains the same meaning in Hebrew, derived from ashur to be straight, rigid, the opposite of flowing, and auth (תוא), a sign, Ashur-auth, the square character. The Ashurith writing in the hard form of Aga is spoken of as the תרגא, (p1. תורגא agarith)[200] and aka (Eg.), to twist with the sign of writing corroborates the sense of asha, the squared. The idea lurks in the Hebrew agn (ןגא) to be crooked, only it needs the hieroglyphic to show the square form of the crook. The earliest method of registering the circle was by the square of the four cardinal points, the corners. This tells us the truth in the plainest manner that the Pentateuch was written on papyrus by the scribe's pen, in the ancient hieroglyphics.

The sacred language and records were those of the hieroglyphics written first in granite, with the chisel for a pen, by the patient scribes of the monumental land. The hieroglyphics as secret signs gave to the Egyptian writings their sacred character, and conferred the authority of a canon. The Ibri writing and the holy language doubly identify the oldest Hebrew as Egyptian.

'Israel then selected the Ashurith writing and the holy language, and left to the Ιδιωται the Ibri writing and the Aramaic language.'[201] The Hebrews retained the ancient language with the square letter, and left the earlier hieroglyphics to the Ιδιωται or those who were unlearned and uninstructed in the later mode of writing. And who are the idiotes? is asked. 'The Cuthim' (Samaritans). 'What is the ibri writing?' 'The Libonaah' (Samaritan)[202].

The Hebrews have the name of Haphtaroth (תורטפה) for certain writings or readings the nature of which has caused much speculation, and it seems to me to be related to the hieroglyphic rolls. Deutsch [p.119] says former investigators (Abudraham, Elias Levita, Vitingra, etc.) almost unanimously trace the origin of the Hebrew haphtaroth to the Syrian persecutions during which all study of the Law was prohibited and all copies of it that could be discovered were ruthlessly destroyed[203]. Deutsch thought the term applied to the kind of selections made to he read during the exile[204]. Frankel[205] explained the word as meaning an exordium. But in the parent language hap means the hidden, to conceal, hide, spy out secretly. Hapu is likewise a name for the laws. Teruu denotes the roll of papyrus, drawing and colours with the symbol of the hieroglyphic scribe. The Hebrew form of the word, taroth, does but add the plural terminal which is Egyptian as well as Hebrew, and we have the teruu, the hieroglyphic rolls of papyrus, whilst haphtaroth denotes either the hidden papyrus rolls or the papyrus rolls of the law. It thus appears on this showing, that the Hebrews were still in possession of the papyri and possibly of the hieroglyphic writing which were preserved and read by the learned when the better known copies of the law were destroyed. Ezra is credited with founding the Great Synagogue, or men of the Assembly, which succeeded in establishing the regular reading of the sacred records, and with rewriting the law after the books had been burnt[206]. 'For thy Law is burnt, therefore no man knoweth the things that are done of thee, or the works that shall begin.'

This burning of the books is the destruction during the persecution when the haphtaroth come into notice. The haphtaroth being the secret papyrus rolls written in the sacred, that is hieroglyphical language, we now see that the work of Ezra, described with supernatural accompaniments, was that of re-translating the Law from the hieroglyphical or Ibri writing into the Chaldee of Ashurith, or the square letter.

Ezra dictated the translation during forty days and nights, and the five scribes wrote down what they were told by him, which they knew not[207], as they did not understand the original characters. Ezra drew on his 'memory,' which had been divinely strengthened for the work. They wrote 240 books, or rather engraved 240 blocks of boxwood, still the favourite for wood-engraving. In this description we see the translator and his five amanuenses engaged in rendering the hidden rolls or haphtaroth into the common language, and possibly in the square letter, although its introduction is considered to have been later.

Ezra is described as 'ascribe of the law of the God of heaven;'[208] and a gemr (רמג) rendered perfect. But the true meaning is not found in the Hebrew. Kem (Eg.) means to discover, find, in the space of an instant. The kem-sep belonged to a class of Egyptian experts, and the gmr was a kem-sep. Kem-ra (Eg.) denotes a discoverer of formulae.


No marvel if in this process dislocated myths were remembered as history, and Euhemerized; the fables of symbolism represented as human facts, and divine personages were recast in the mortal mould. In this transfer the truth that was in the ancient parables when rightly interpreted has at times been completely de-naturalized, whilst that which has been naturalized in its place is true neither to fable nor fact. It was here the obscuring cloud descended on the Ibri writings, and we shall never see clear sky again in that direction until it has passed away.

Fuerst[209] insists that the Hebrew alphabet is not symbolical or founded on picture writing. Nevertheless the characters represent ideographs and are named in the ideographic, not in the phonetic stage of writing. They are hieroglyphics turned into square letters.

Aleph, which denotes the ox or heifer, is in Phoenician the name of the steer. The hieroglyphics will show us why. The au (Eg.) is a heifer or calf. Au has earlier forms in khau, kau or kaf, just as aleph hard, is the English calf. The Phoenician letter retained the form of the head, with horns, but the hieroglyphic au is the hornless calf, the first figure of ox and cow. Therefore the aleph must be an ideographic hieroglyphic. The beth ב corresponds to the hieroglyphic par, and phonetic p. Beth is a house, and the p (R) is the solar house, one half of the dual heaven. Gimel ג (called gi) is said to be the camel, but one rather sees in it the Egyptian khi å modified. The khi is a water plant and ginia (אמג) is the papyrus rush, Coptic kam, Talmudic gmi, the rush, in Egyptian kam, a reed, and kami the papyrus. It did not take great ingenuity to convert the Egyptian T ) into the Hebrew daleth (ד) or the h's, ® and µ into the Hebrew ח and ה. The h, however, is a modified k. This can be traced through the Greek and Phoenician back to the hieroglyphic khi ! called the sieve. The Phoenician letters were derived from the Egyptian hieratic writing, in which the h is a modified khi. The principle of the sieve was continued and retained in the cross-stroke of the H, and the Hebrew He with the mappiq sign הּ is sounded hard like k, whilst the dot preserves the cross-stroke of the modified sieve. The vau ו is said to be a peg or nail, an emblem of bearing and carrying, and fa (Eg.) means to bear, and carry as the genetrix, whose name of Apt signifies a peg. Also au (Eg.) is a hook or means to hook and fasten. But the vau or f of the hieratic, the demotic, the Phoenician and the Greek alphabets, was taken from the cerastes or horned snake, the hieroglyphic fu à and visibly continued in the hieratic or cursive writing as the Phoenician and and the Greek digamma from which in a reversed position was derived the roman f. The horned snake is the likelier original of the Hebrew vau, especially [p.121] as vau has the numeral value of 6, and the hieroglyphic fa is also written with six snakes[210].

In the hieroglyphics the mummy type and the black doll are ideographs of senn and shen, the statue; senn, to found and establish, shen, the mummy. The sayin or zain is possibly a form of the statue Senn. The yod י means a hand, and it in the hieroglyphics is an ideographic hand. The ta also is a hand. The kaph כ represents the hollow of the hand, the palma cava. The hieroglyphic kefa is a fist, a closed hand È. The Hebrew kaph is the hieroglyphic kafa hollowed out. But the yod has the numerical value of ten, or two hands, and the Phoenician form of the letter is evidently the Egyptian hieroglyphic for no. 10 (∩) formed of two hands clasped together, cut off at the wrists, and conventionalized.

The capital letter L of the English written alphabet, is apparently derived from the hieroglyphic peh, the tail of the lion (î). The lion became the phonetic l of the Ptolemaic inscriptions. R and l are interchangeable. In Chinese the l answers for the r; in Japanese the r for the l; and here we have a remarkable connection between the two; both appear to be derived from the lion. The hieroglyphic ru is a mouth (¨), and the peh, or rump, is also a mouth of the lioness. But there are two mouths, two pehs, two lions, or a dual one. The ruru is the horizon as the place of the two lions, or the dual one. The horizon is double, one mouth in front and one behind, represented by the double mouth of the lion. Hence the two mouths are figured by r and l, from which it appears that the r and l meet as one in the lion, and are two as signs of the duality of the lion of the double horizon. The lion was feminine at first, doubly feminine, and later it was the male-female. The lion of the hinder part, the north region is Shu-Anhar. He wears the hinder-part of the lion as his symbol. The lion or lioness of the fore-part is Tefnut. Consequently the ru (r), mouth, is feminine, and the l of the hinder-part is masculine. This agrees with the change in the name of the Rock of the Water from tser, in the time of Miriam, to sila, under Moses, when he struck the rock. The change from Miriam to Moses, from tser to sila, from female to male, corresponds to the hieroglyphic nature of r and l when both are derived from the lion. It is probable that the Hebrew lamed ל is a conventionalized representation of the hinder-part of the lion, and not an ox-goad, as supposed. In the hieroglyphics the n and m permute with the running water for the sign of both. In Hebrew the letter mem means a wave. The Egyptian symbol as an ideograph of water is a visible wave II; the plural of this n forms the m, or mem. The Hebrew mem, in pronunciation, has the twofold character of the dull labial and the strong nasal sound [p.122] corresponding to the Egyptian duality of the water sign, and the unity of origin for both letters. The ayin ע denotes an eye, and means a fountain. The eye enclosed in the precinct is an ideographic An, y a pool with an eye. In An was the fountain of the Two Truths which may be denoted by the double strokes of the Hebrew ayin. An was at the centre of the circle; this, too, is expressed by the Phoenician ayin ¤. At this place (An) the eye was figured in the Egyptian planispherei.

Pa, פ, as a letter of the alphabet, means a mouth; the Greek Πι is interpreted in the same sense. Two different p's in the hieroglyphics are pictographs of the open mouth, that of the lioness and the water­fowl. Another pehi is the mons veneris, or mystic mouth.

The god Taht was formerly Sut. And in the hieroglyphics the tet sign was the earlier tset, the two letters of one origin, answering to the two gods. The tet or tset was a snake. The Hebrew tzaddi צ has the look of a double-headed snake. Evidently it is the same letter as the Coptic zeta or zida z and English z (zed). The tzaddi has the numeral value of 90, being the ninth in the series of tens, and the Coptic theta or tida, has the value of no. 9; thus the tset and tet are united in the double-headed tzaddi. The double-headed serpent was finally expressed by the capital letter z, and this letter is the representative of the z-shaped serpent, and interchanges with it for the same sign on the Scottish stones. The teth ט likewise is said to mean a serpent and to twist and knot into each other, as serpents do. As the hieroglyphic serpent tset becomes both a tet and a zed in later language, it may have done so in the Hebrew alphabet, and the teth, like the tzaddi, probably preserves a shape of the double-headed serpent and a proof of its dual origin. The qoph ק is reputed to denote the back of the head. In the hieroglyphics the head presented back-foremost is the api, and as no vowel is a primary sound, this is no doubt an abraded kapi or qoph. Api the head means the chief one, the first, and qoph signifies a hundred, it being the first letter in the series of hundreds. As a hundred the qoph is one, that is five in scores, and kep (Eg.) the hand is a figure of five. In Coptic the kappa has the numeral value of 20, that is the one as a score. The back of the head suffices to show the hinder part. But the hinder-part signified is the kep or khept, the hinder thigh, the feminine cava, and as qoph modifies into qo, so in Egyptian khaf becomes kha the hieroglyphic @ the sign of the vagina and the womb, the kha, khat, or khept. It probably follows that the Hebrew qoph represents the hieroglyphic kha.

The reason why one letter permutes with another is to be sought in the hieroglyphical equivalents and has nothing to do with the primal nature of sounds. The tes divides into t and s, and so the Hebrew Zephon represents the Egyptian Typhon or Khepsh, the north. In like manner the qoph occasionally interchanges with the tau ת [p.123]  and the api also reads ta, and is rendered api (ta), ta or tata being the head.

The resh ר supposed to be the head from 'rash' is visibly derived from the hieroglyphic :, the ideograph of res, to raise up. Res has also the meaning of head as the upper heaven, the south. The shape of this letter in Samaritan, old Aramean, and Palmyrene, shows this is the origin. The determinative of res is the stand of a balance, and the stand agrees with the meaning of השר.

The Hebrew shin ש, pronounced shi, is obviously derived like the Ethiopic saut, w, and Coptic ¥, from the hieroglyphic shi or sha á. The shin represents the third letter value 3, in the series of hundreds: the sha denotes number thirty, or three in the series of tens. The letter tau ת is probably the squared form of the hieroglyphic theta ¥ a cord with a double loop; as a letter the tau means a cross. In Egyptian tat (earlier taft) is the cross sign. Symbolically crossing, tying, knotting, are synonymous, and tha, to make turn back, is equivalent to tat, to cross over; ta, knot, a tie, or cross-loop. The Hebrew alphabet is certainly ideographic because it is based on things and is a reduced form of picture-writing.

The square letter is symbolical. We shall find the square competing with or supplementing the circle in the halos of the saints[211]. The square is typical of the genetrix who was first represented with four legs. The heaven stood on four legs (as it were) over the earth, resting on the four corners. Aft, the four corners, the abode of birth, is the great mother, and the square letter is as much a type of her as is the quadrangular caer of the Druids.

In this way, by aid of the hieroglyphics, symbolism, and mythology of Egypt we shall be enabled now to get beyond that 'original Hebrew' so often appealed to, which has so long served as the last covert and lurking-place of hunted lies. The cave of refuge is found to have a backdoor open with a daylight world welcoming us beyond. Egyptian gives us the primaries of language, the very shapes in which thoughts were thinged. Meanings that have been pursued in vain for ages can now be run down to earth at last. The typical and symbolical may be read in the symbols and the types of those who created the myths, unless in the meantime the obscurity of the cave has produced in us such visual weakness that the organ is henceforth limited to seeing in the dark.*

* The present writer had made a collection of matter from countries outside of Egypt which implies one common origin, but will not be able to find space for it, so great is the quantity more directly Egyptian. Here is one example of what is known from the Hebrew scriptures as the Judgment of Solomon[212].

A certain woman took her child in her arms and went to the pond of the Pundit to bathe. A she-devil having seen the child, and wishing to eat it, took the disguise of a woman and drew near saying, 'My friend, this child is very beautiful, is it a child of yours?' Upon her answering, 'It is even so, my friend,' she [p.124] replied, 'Shall I give the child milk to drink?' 'It is good,' said the mother; whereupon taking the child in her arms and giving it a little milk, she hastened away with it. The mother ran after her saying, 'Whither are you going with my child?' The she-devil fearlessly replied, 'Whence did you get a child? this child is mine,' and so they both went quarrelling by the door of the judgment hall.

The great Bodhisat, having heard the noise, inquired, 'What quarrel is this?' but knowing within himself this one is a she-devil because she does not wink her eyes, and also because they are red like two olinda seeds he asked:

'Will you abide by the decision I shall give?' They answered 'Even so.' He then caused a line to be drawn on the ground and placing the child in the midst, commanded the two hands to be taken by the devil, and the two feet by the mother, saying, 'Pull both of you together; let the child be adjudged to the one which pulls it to herself.' Now the child being pulled by both came to sorrow, so the mother being in anguish, like as when the heart is rent, let go the child and stood and wept. Then the Bodhisat asked many persons, saying, 'Is the heart soft of those who have brought forth children or of those who have not brought forth children?' They said, 'Oh Pundit, assuredly the heart of those who have.'

He then asked them all saying, 'Which think ye is the mother?' to which they answered 'She who let it go.'


Fortnightly Review, Aug. 1st, 1878.

The she-Devil shows the more purely mythical nature of the matter, which in the Hebrew version has been Euhemerized.





This page last updated: 13/04/2010