A BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS
EGYPTIAN ORIGIN OF THE EXODUS
A professed Egyptologist has written respecting the passage of the Red Sea: 'It would be impious to attempt an explanation of what is manifestly miraculous.' To such a depth of degradation can bibliolatry reduce the human mind! Such is the spirit in which the subject has been crawled over.
These impotent attempts to convert mythology into history, dignified with the astounding title of the Book of God, have produced the most unmitigated muddle of matter ever presented to the mind of man. There has been no such fruitful cause of misconception as this supposed source of all wisdom, designated the Book of God, ignorantly believed to have been communicated to man orally by an objective deity. Eschatological interpretations of ancient thought too, can only be judged when we have bottomed them in mythology, and mythology is not fathomed until we have found its natural meanings directly derived from the phenomena of nature. The Hebrew or Egyptian sacred writings can no more be understood, unless we have the original matter in mind, than the allusiveness of the Chinese literary language can be followed by those who are entirely ignorant of the subjects covertly alluded to by the learned. The vanity of building up history out of myth by a process of rationalizing the primeval fables is indescribable!—the likeliest-looking fragments being selected to erect a boundary wall between us and the vast prehistoric past, with the view of defining some sort of historic partition to bump against as beadles used to beat the parish bounds. History is impossible until the unreality of miracles is understood by their being once more resolved into the realities which are masked in the myths. The Hebrew miracles are Egyptian myths, and as such can be explained in accordance with nature.
The sacred writings of the world are not concerned with geography, chronology, or human history. Such things are secondary [p.177] and additional to the most ancient records held to be divine. The Jewish scriptures are no exception. The historic spirit is not there. This is so in writings late as the Talmud, and the reason is because the beginning was not with the historical spirit. Consequently the characters of mythology can no more be reduced to historical proportion than the monsters of the mountain and the mist. The interpretation of sacred—that is, symbolic writings, gets farther and farther removed from their original signification as they become more definite and historical-looking. In their first phase they are indefinitely divine; in their final phase they are supposed to be definitely historic.
We have to face the fact, and it is well to do so in a manly fashion. We cannot wriggle out of it by squirming; we shall not avoid the collision by flinching. The light will not be shut out by blinking. The myths of Egypt supplied the mysteries of the world. The myths of Egypt are the miracles of the Hebrew writings, and a true explanation of the one must inevitably explode the false pretensions of the other. Half my labour has to be spent in reducing the Jewish mythology from the status of divine revelation and establishing its relative importance by the comparative method, which will be applied incessantly and remorselessly. The key of these writings was lost, and is found in Egypt.
The original foundational matter of the aptly-named Mosaic writings is not, and was not, historical at all, but entirely mythical. The primordial exodus, like the genesis, belongs to the celestial allegory. But after the actual coming out from Egypt into Judea the ancient fragments were rewritten by those who welded the mythical and historical matter into one mass, and only by restoring the allegory can we divide and discriminate the one from the other.
The Mosaic account of the beginning called the Creation is allowed by the most learned of Jewish rabbis, by Philo, Paul, and certain of the Christian fathers, to be a myth—that is, a symbolical representation and yet the whole structure of the Christian theology is founded on the ignorant assumption that it was not mythical but a veritable human occurrence in the domain of fact. All translations of the Hebrew writings have hitherto been made under the belief that these were bona fide histories enacted upon geographical ground, to the everlasting perplexity and confusion of all who have ever attempted to verify the statements.
But it is not the face of history that we behold in these books. It is but the imagery painted on a veil which conceals the features of the face beneath, and prevents recognition of the facts obscured, so that we have neither history nor allegory. The myths of Egypt will be found to have been copied and reproduced, and declared to have been given directly from the hand and mouth of the Lord, whereas there was no revelation or divine origin in the matter. The [p.178] Hebrews took them from the Egyptians, with other stolen goods, and were unable or did not choose to render a true account of them; and out of the fragments of ancient mythology a dead wall has been raised around us, and made the boundary of human knowledge for the protection of a faith, against which wall myriads of seekers after truth and spurners of these false limits have dashed out their lives, and fallen, in the apparently vain endeavour to make a free thoroughfare. As history the Pentateuch has neither head, tail, nor vertebra; it is an indistinguishable mush of myth and mystery. Had it been a real history, Palestine and Judea ought to have been found overstrewn with implements of warfare and work, both of Hebrew manufacture and of that of the conquered races, whereas outside the book, it is a blank. The land of a people so rich that King David, in his poverty, could collect one thousand millions of pounds sterling towards building a temple, is found without art, sculptures, mosaics, bronzes, pottery, or precious stones to illustrate the truth of the Bible story of the nation of warriors and spoilers of nations who burst away from their captivity in Egypt two millions strong. Nor will the proofs be found, not if Palestine be uprooted in the search. The present object, however, is not to find flaws and falsehoods in the 'Sacred Writings' and 'Book of God' treated as history supplemented and disfigured by fables. There comes a time with all the preservers of the myths when the historical is joined on to the mythical, as in the Hebrew writings—say about the time of Hezekiah—and the divine descent of the gods is made to run into and blend with a line of historical personages; this process creates the monstrous, which has only been explained by miracle. The sacred writings of the Jews were treasured up and preserved in sanctity on account of their symbolic nature; in them the hidden wisdom wore a veil; the Isis boasted no mortal had lifted from her person was made to cover these writings together with their interpreters, who stood behind the veil and never lifted it. The writings were held sacred from a knowledge of their emblematical nature. They are sacred to the Christian world from ignorance; absolute, unquestioning, unsuspecting ignorance of the meaning of symbolism, and the purely the teachings. When the veil is lifted from them, all the sanctity will vanish, the glory will be gone. The sacredness consisted in what they have falsely read into the myths, the pictures painted by them on the outside of the concealing veil; their own fond imaginings of the divine realities believed to be verily behind it in the holy of holies.
The chief Jewish teachers have always insisted on the allegory of the Pentateuch, and the necessity of the oral interpretation of the books by those who were in possession of the key. No confession could be more explicit than that of the psalmist: 'I will [p.179] open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. We will not hide them from their children, showing to the generation to come the praises of the Lord, and His strength and His wonderful works that He hath done. For He established a testimony in Jacob and appointed a law in Israel, which He commanded our fathers that they should make them known to their children.' Parables and dark sayings of old are the allegories of mythology, and enigmas of the ancient wisdom of Egypt uttered emblematically; the wisdom with which Moses is accredited by Jewish writers. Foremost amongst these parables and mystical sayings are the exodus, the dividing of the waters, smiting of the rock for drink, and opening of the heavens to let down manna for food. These things which to the modern ignorance are miracles, are parables expressed in dark sayings of old, that is, they are the myths put forth in the manner of the mysteries. It was the same with the Hebrew teachings brought out of Egypt, as with the Egyptian writings, of which Origen observes 'the priests have a secret philosophy concerning their religion contained in their national scriptures, while the common people only hear fables which they do not understand. If these fables were heard from a private man, without the gloss of the priest, or the interpretation of the secret doctrine, they would appear exceedingly absurd.' And this is exactly how we have received the Hebrew writings.
The Jews always have insisted that two laws were delivered to Moses on Mount Sinai. One was committed to writing in the text of the Pentateuch, the other was transmitted orally from generation to generation, as is asserted in Psalms 78. This oral law was the primitive tradition that contained the apocrypha, the secret doctrines of the dark sayings and parables, the clue and key to all their hidden wisdom. That which was written was only intended for the ignorant outsiders; the interpretation was for the initiated. With the rewritten version of the Jewish sacred books in our possession, we have been locked outside and left there without the key.
'Woe to the man who says the doctrine delivers common stories in daily words. Every word of the doctrine contains in it a loftier sense and a deeper mystery. The narratives of the doctrine are its cloak. Woe to him who takes the covering for the doctrine itself. The simple look only at the garment, that is, upon the narratives of the doctrine; more they know not. The initiated, however, see not merely the cloak, but what the cloak covers.' That is a Jewish confession of the secret nature of the Hebrew writings. And the Christian world wonders why it cannot convert the Jews to its view of their Holy Scriptures.
As the Rabbi Moses Kotsensis justly says, 'If the oral law had not been added to the written law as a gloss, the whole would have been [p.180] left obscure and unintelligible, for there are scriptures contrary and repugnant to each other, and the written law does not comprehend all that is necessary to be known.' The foundation of the Hebrew religion was the oral and not the written law, and this matter is extant in the myths. In the Mosaic writings, says Josephus, 'Everything is adapted to the nature of the whole, whilst the lawgiver most adroitly suggests some things as in a riddle, and represents some things with solemnity as in an allegory; those, however, who desire to dive into the cause of each of these things will have to use much and deep philosophical speculation.'
The same writer remarks with much simplicity, after giving his version of the smiting of the rock, 'Now that scripture, which is laid up in the temple, informs us how God foretold to Moses that water should in this manner be derived from the rock.' The miracle ascribed to Moses was a myth, already recorded in the secret writings of the temple, to be afterwards converted into history.
It is said in the Gemara, 'He that has learned the scripture and not the Mishna is a blockhead.' The Bible, they say, is like water, the Mishna like wine, the Gemara like spiced wine. The law is as salt, the Mishna as pepper, the Gemara as balmy spice. To study the Bible can scarcely be considered a virtue; to study the Mishna is a virtue that will be rewarded, but to study the Gemara is a virtue never to be surpassed. Some of the Talmudists affirm that to study the Bible is nothing but a waste of time.
In the ancient Jewish work Sepher, the typical nature of names assumed to be geographical is shown in this way: 'The Lord came from Sinai,' that, says the Sepher, means the law was given in Hebrew; 'And rose up from Seir unto them,' which means it was also given in Greek. 'He shined forth from Paran,' that signifies in Arabic; 'He came with thousands of saints,' that means in Aramaic.
When Esdras, in a labour of forty nights' duration, had restored the whole body of the Jewish scriptures which had been entirely lost, he was divinely directed to publish some things and show the rest secretly to the wise. This is not quoted as authentic because it is not canonical. Still it shows the Hebrew deity conniving at the same process of suppression and elimination. Again, when these writings were translated into Greek in the third century BC by some Alexandrian Jews the process of elimination is very visible. Dates were altered. The threat in the Book of Zechariah, that the Hebrews should have no rain if they did not come up to the feast of Jerusalem was omitted, as the translators being in Egypt knew it did not apply. In rendering the Chronicles, the translator gives to the feast of the [p.181] Passover the meaning of leading forth (pask) instead of pascha, the passing over. After the allegories had been transformed into histories, the true interpretation, that is the symbolical reading according to the principles of the secret tradition, was forbidden to be taught in schools. The Pharisees were so fearful of the apocryphal wisdom being unveiled and the secrets made known that they sought to prevent people from writing.
Plutarch had evidently heard of the stories told by the Jews as their histories. He remarks, 'As for those who tell us that Typhon was seven days flying from the battle (with Horus) upon the back of an ass, and having narrowly escaped with his life, afterwards begot two sons, called Hierosolymus and Judaeus, they are manifestly discovered by the very matter to wrest into this fable the relations (narratives) of the Jews. And so much for the allegories and secret meanings.' He here connects the tales of the Jews, which obviously relate to the exodus from Egypt, with the myth of Sut-Typhon fleeing from the battle with Horus, and looks upon the one as a fable that has some secret meaning, the other as a fable without meaning, and unworthy of further notice. Still, for our purpose, he helps to identify the 'very matter,' which is, that the Egyptian fable and the Jewish relations were one and the same thing, whatsoever the amount of history or mystery these might contain.
The Jewish Haggadah deals with the legendary lore of Israel, the parables, myths, dark sayings, and allegories, and it is foolishly assumed that this work turns real history into fables and fantastic falsehoods, and resolves the persons and histories of the Pentateuch into mere symbols. On the contrary, the historical had meantime been evolved out of the allegorical, and the Haggadah preserves fragments of the primary truth. 'These things are an allegory,' says the learned Paul, a master of the secret wisdom, speaking of the two wives of Abraham, 'for these are the two covenants,' represented as two marriages; Agar and Sarah are the two mounts of mythology, the Sabean and solar, and Abraham, as the consort of two allegories, must be a myth likewise, or there is no meaning whatever. Myths and allegories will be found full of meaning, and these alone will recover the sense of various supposed human histories.
It is the strangest thing of all that the dreams of Christian theology should not have been broken or disquieted by the fact that Philo, the most learned and devout of Jews, treats the Pentateuch as allegorical and symbolical, which is the nature of the sacred writings. He was a descendant of the tribe of Levi, the holy caste. His son married Berenice, the daughter of King Agrippa. He is recognized by Josephus and by Eusebius as one of the most illustrious of his race. He appears to have been an initiate in the mysteries as Paul was, and it is vain to explain that he was given to allegorical interpretation [p.182] when all early sacred writings are allegorical; nor do we arrive at their facts by getting rid of their symbols. 'Now I bid ye, initiated men, who are purified as to your ears, to receive these things as mysteries which are really sacred, in your inmost souls; and reveal them not to any one who is of the number of the uninitiated, but guard them as a sacred treasure, laying them up in your own hearts, not in a storehouse in which are gold and silver, perishable substances, but in that treasure-house in which the most excellent of all the possessions in the world does lie, the knowledge, namely, of the great first cause and of virtue, and in the third place, of the generation of them both. And if ever you meet with any one who has been properly initiated, cling to that man affectionately and adhere to him, that if he has learnt any more recent mystery he may not conceal it from you before you have learnt to comprehend it thoroughly. For I myself, having been initiated in the great mysteries by Moses, the friend of God—nevertheless when subsequently I beheld Jeremiah the prophet, and learnt that he was not only initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was also a competent hierophant or expounder of them, did not hesitate to become his pupil.' Philo's testimony to the fact that the 'sacred laws,' as he calls them, were allegories, is unimpeachable on the score of character. He could have had no motive from race or religion for explaining away the early history of his people. He treats it as sacred, which signified symbolic and secret, and expounds the meaning in his own way. Not in the present way, nor altogether according to the teachings of the past. For with Philo philosophizing had taken the place of the physiologizing attributed to Moses by Josephus.
Philo reads new ethical meanings into the old myths of the mysteries. He Platonizes them. As cloud-forms take the mould of earthly shapes and go sailing off and dislimning in the heavens, so Philo abstracts and etherealizes meanings which, in the myths, had solidity as of the rock. The supposed history is so essentially allegorical as to permit of his taking the liberty of reading into it and shadowing forth still other allegories.
Speaking of the myths in the Hebrew books, he says truly, 'These things are not mere fabulous inventions in which the race of poets and sophists delight, but are rather types shadowing forth some allegorical truth, according to some mystical explanation.' He knew something of the facts on which the fables were founded. In writing of the woman formed from the rib of the man, he gives us the gist of the whole matter, and describes the very object of the present work. 'The literal statement is a fabulous one, and it is in the mythical we shall find the true.'
It is in the mythical we shall find the true, and the literal version is [p.183] the false. He affirms that the writer, in speaking of the Garden of Eden and the two trees, was conveying instruction by means of allegories. By the tree which conveyed a knowledge of good and evil lie was intimating that wisdom and moderation by means of which things contrary in their nature to one another might be distinguished. This is obscurely phrased, but in despite of the vague language Philo appears to have known the true nature of the myth. He remarks, 'When the soul has received the impression of vice it has become the tree of knowledge of good and evil.' This sounds like a generalization, but it is capable of a particular meaning. Again, in regard to the rivers, of Phison, which encircled the land of Evilat, where is the land of gold, Philo says the 'writer is not speaking geographically.' Evilat, he asserts, means bringing forth, and Phison, being interpreted, is the change in the month. 'The truth is, the sacred writer is here speaking not of any river, but of the correction of manners.'
Af (Eg.) denotes bringing forth, and means birth. Lat (rat) is to repeat several times. Pi-shen, in Egyptian, is the periodic; sen is blood. The change of the month relates to the monthly period. We shall see the link between this and the 'correction of manners' when we elicit the meaning of the Fall. Carbuncle and emerald are Philo's rendering of 'Bdellium and Onyx,' the stones of our version. And he connects the carbuncle with Judah as the symbol of a man who makes this confession, 'In respect of whom Leah ceased from child-bearing.' Moses, he remarks, has given especial praise to the animal called a serpent-fighter. 'This is a reptile with jointed legs above its feet, by which it is able to leap and raise itself on high, in the same manner as the tribe of locusts. For the serpent-fighter appears to me to be no other than temperance, expressed under a symbolical figure against intemperance.'
As Philo was more or less a master of the sacred wisdom and the allegorical mode of interpreting its types, every variant of his is worth scanning. He renders the text of Genesis 3:15, 'He shall watch thy head and thou shalt watch his heel.' He reads Genesis 32:10 'For in my staff did I pass over Jordan,' instead of with my staff. The whole tenor of translation by men who were uninstructed in the ancient wisdom has been a constant divergence from the primary meaning. They knew that water would be crossed with a staff, as such, rather than in it. But the Hebrew staff matteh is one with the Egyptian mata, the bark in which the sun-god crossed the zodiacal Jordan every year and every night. The Jordan in Egyptian is Iurutana (Eridanus). Aru is river, and tana to divide or dividing, the river that divided for the passage in so many mythologies because [p.184] they each and all related to the passage of the solar divinity across the waters. When we find, as we shall, that Jacob was but an impersonation of the sun-god, and his twelve sons of the twelve signs of the zodiac, it will become probable that Jacob did cross in the mata or solar bark of Egypt, and not with a staff. Mata also means going across in the ark as the sun did, the crossing being in the 'bend of the great void,' the nethermost quarter of the circle, where the abyss was located. This passage of the ark called 'going in the Cabin' (Mata), is one with the Hebrew matteh for beneath, downwards, the foundations of the earth beneath and 'hell beneath,' the kar-neter of the Egyptians. The crossing of the waters in the mata as the bark of the gods thus glossed will explain the passage of the Red Sea, by aid of the matteh of Moses. It is possible to cross the waters in the mata as a boat, but not in or by the staff, matteh, whether the rod be that of Jacob or Moses. Misinterpretation of the original Egyptian necessitates the Hebrew miracle, which is accepted by those in whom a sense of natural law has never yet asserted itself. In this matter, however, the true way of proving what the Hebrew writings do not mean, will be to show what they do, or originally did, mean.
Origen observes, 'If the law of Moses had contained nothing which was to be understood as having a secret meaning, the prophet would not have said "Open thou mine eyes, and I will behold wondrous things out of thy law,"' whereas he knew that there was a veil of ignorance lying upon the heart of those who read but do not understand the figurative meaning.
'Who is there that on reading of the dragon that lives in the Egyptian river and of the fishes which lurk in his scales, or of the excrement of Pharaoh which fills the mountains of Egypt, is not led at once to inquire who he is that fills the Egyptian mountains with his stinking excrements, and what the Egyptian mountains are; and what the rivers in Egypt are, of which the aforesaid Pharaoh boastfully says, "The rivers are mine, and I have made them;" and who the dragon is, and the fishes in its scales—and this so as to harmonize with the interpretation to be given of the rivers."?' What man of sense, he asks, can persuade himself that there was a first, a second, and a third day, and that each of those days had a night, when there was yet neither sun, moon, nor stars?[29a] Origen tells Celsus that the Egyptians veiled their knowledge of things in fables and allegories. 'The learned,' he says, 'may penetrate into the significance of all oriental mysteries, but the vulgar can only see the exterior symbol. It is allowed,' he continues, 'by all who have any knowledge of the scriptures, that everything is conveyed enigmatically.'
Clement Alexander states, that all who have treated of divine matters have always hid the principles of things, and delivered the truth enigmatically, by signs and symbols, and allegories and metaphors. Yet this foundation of primitive fable has been converted into our basis of fact. 'Accepted literally,' remarks the learned Maimonides, 'Genesis, ascribed to Moses, gives the most absurd and extravagant ideas of the Deity. But, whoever shall find the true sense of it ought to take care not to divulge it.' This was sound rabbinical doctrine. If any readers guessed the secret, especially of the six days of creation, they were commanded or adjured to speak of it only in enigmas. 'The true meaning of the six days work ought never to be divulged.' Surely this is evidence enough, yet it has hitherto been offered in vain. In vain the Talmud declares the voice on Sinai and the god descending on the mount to be mere poetic figures; the Christian world will not believe that. They know better. All such explanations prove the malice of the anti-Christian Jews! The figures have become literal facts for them. The real pig introduced on the stage, in the Greek play, stood no chance after the long successful sham. The men who once taught these things as mythology were in the first childhood of the human race, but those who continue to teach them now as divine revelations and matters of human history might be in their second childhood.
The misreading of mythology on which theology was founded, has created confusion everywhere; it has obscured the past, perplexed the present, beclouded the future, converted all scientific truth into religious falsehood, and made chaos in the moral domain look like the one only permanent institution in creation. We shall find the Hebrew records are invested with their supremest value in enabling us to see through them and get beyond them to identify their Egyptian origins, and then the myths will abolish the miracles. The exodus is no less mythical than the genesis; no less verifiably mythical. It is contended that if there were a dozen exodes of the Sut-Typhonians, the disk-worshippers, the Hekshus, the Jews or what not, from Egypt into Syria, the exodus of the Hebrew books belongs primarily and provably to the astronomical mythology; and its subject-matter has been, to adapt the words of Plutarch, wrested into the later relations of the Jews in composing the epic of that people.
If the reader will refer to the map of the exodus and the wanderings, it will be seen that had the journey been a real one the Israelites at Moseroth would have almost described a complete circle and come round to a point opposite to Baalzephon and the place of departure. This circular movement is solar and zodiacal. It may be necessary to repeat that the truth now sought to be established in relation to the exodus of the secret writings, wherein, according to Josephus, the miracle of Moses smiting the rock was already foretold, is, that the first mapping out of countries and giving them names belonged to [p.186] the heavens; the primal geography, so to say, was solar, lunar, and stellar; the first globe ever figured was celestial. A Kabbalistic image of this may be seen in the tree with seventy-two branches filling in a complete circle with seventy-two countries, or the seventy-two demidecans of the zodiacal circlei, copied by Kircher.
The Burmese constellationsi are called Coasts of Countries, the stars being mapped out in countries. Amongst other names found in their planisphere are Talain, answering to the Tulan of the Aztecs, Yoodaya (Judea), Kothambe (Kedam), Dagoun (Dagon), Tavay (compare Eg. tefi or tepi), and others common to the mythological astronomy. One of these is Rewade, rendered 'large water.' In Egyptian re-uat is the mouth, gate, outlet, or division of the water.
The earliest nomes of Egypt were astronomes, the divisions of the stars, whence comes the name of astronomy; not merely a naming, but a noming of the stars into groups, constellations, divisions, nomes. The first chart being celestial, the primitive Egypt was in the two upper and lower heavens where the thirty-six decans, gates or divisions of the Aahru, preceded the mapping out and naming of the two Egypts and their nomes. The first division was into the upper and netherworld of night and day. This is illustrated in a legend of two dancers doing the mill by each lifting the other alternately, a form of kabbing called kab.t. Kab.t or khebt, in this sense, is the doubled; Khebt, the later name of Lower Egypt, had its prototype in the north, the lower heaven of night and winter, the hinder-part (khept), where Typhon or Kep, the Great Bear constellation, was found by night, as deity of the dark side of the circle. All this has to be gone through piecemeal in an account of the mythological astronomy, the solar, lunar, and starry allegories of the astronomes. Enough, at present, to affirm that the earliest chart was celestial, and that its divisions and names were afterwards geographically adopted in many lands from one common Egyptian original.
Amongst the stories told as mythology, the same matters were related by the Egyptians themselves of the exodus out of Egypt and the contention between Sut-Typhon and Horus thousands of years before we read of these things as events in Hebrew history. We shall see the exodus out of Egypt is the common property of all mythology. Up to the present time it has been the endeavour, in which lives have been vainly spent, to follow the wanderings and settlements of the Israelites solely on the earth's surface. If the pursuers will but turn their attention now to Israel in the heavens, the chances of discovery will be much increased, and there is reason to hope that we may yet come upon the missing Ten Tribes in the skies, from whence they have never descended.
The difficulty of identifying such important spots as those in which [p.187] the Lord himself is said to have appeared to men is because these names, when they are localized at all, are but the shadows of the celestial places and positions, and it is hard to identify shadows. These astronomical positions and appearances of the Lord, whose excellency was to be seen in the sky and who rode on the heavens, are real objects, and realizable now as ever they were of old. Such sites will not be found in Palestine even though fifty societies be formed for exploration and all the Christian world should join in the search. When the stories were first related by the Egyptians, the localities were celestial, in the Aahru of the gods, represented by planispheres on the ceilings of temples; and now Palestine takes the place of the planisphere in consequence of the modern ignorance of mythological astronomy. This much is certain. Our Jews did not make the myths or the astral allegories which set them forth. They neither mapped out the heavens nor named the constellations. On their own showing they found the names already applied to places overhead and underfoot when they took possession (or woke to historic consciousness rather) of Palestine. Astronomically and geographically the names were there; the myths had been taught, and the stories related by other races in earlier times, which stories were condensed finally into a supposed history of the Hebrews who no more enacted that history on this earth (outside their religious mysteries) than they were the originators of the allegoric representations in the heavens.
The Mount Horeb, for example, called the Mountain of the Elohim, is the Egyptian Har, the heaven, of Har, the god; and Ap, the Mount. Horeb is the Mount of Heaven, or of Horus, the place where Deity is represented as descending to converse with man. Hor, the typical mount in Hebrew, is the Egyptian heaven; hence the divine character of the Hor, or Horeb. Mount Seir answers to the Rock of the Horizon called Ser, or, with the article Ta-Ser, the Taser Hill, the mount in the solar myth, where the buried sun-god was reborn, and solid foothold attained once more for the continuity of time after the passage of the waters.
Ser, the Rock of the Horizon, was the Mount of Har in Egyptian myth. It was known as Bakht, the land and the mount of the solar birthplace. In the geographical adaptation of celestial names we find Ser, the rock or mount mixed up with Har, the god, in Arabia Petrea, where Hor is a part of, if not identical with, Seir. Again, the name of Mount Sinai on the monuments is known as Bakht, meaning the birthplace of the sun, the newborn Har.
Sinai, the geographical, is supposed to be Serbal, as is likely; Ser, the rock of Baal or Har, the place of new birth. 'I have adored the place of New Birth of the Tser,' says the Osirian, in the 21st gate of the Aahru, Sinai, as Bakht then, is the solar birthplace in [p.188] Egyptian mythology, the horizon of the resurrection without the article, called the Akht and Khut.
In the same language sheni, the equivalent of the Hebrew (יניס), signifies the region beyond the tomb, and the Mount Sinai was the steps of ascent into that region attained by the god and the souls after their resurrection from the Hades. Sheni was the place where the divinity appeared on the horizon.
The Mount Zion, or Zian, the triumphing heaven of the Ceylon Buddhists, called the place of salvation, is identical, in the celestial allegory, with the Hebrew Zion, both being the same as the Egyptian shena, the region beyond the tomb, attained after crossing the waters and completing the circuit of the heavens.
The whole story of Sinai might be reconstructed solely from the meaning enshrined so safely in Egyptian words, even if we had not the mythology also. But we have the matter as myth, and the naming as Egyptian, long before these appear in the character of Hebrew history.
The tet is an Egyptian name of the tomb, the deep, lower heaven, or eternal abode, the place of death, i.e., tet, or the cutting off. Tet is an abbreviated form of Tahuti, the representative of Ra in the nocturnal heaven, one of whose names is Tekh. The tet, in Hebrew, remains the thchthi (יתחת) for the underworld. It denotes the nether parts of the earth. It is the nether land of Tachtiym-Hodshi, the lowest pit, and the lowest hell. The word became a general term for the nether, lower, undermost, but never in common use, and in Exodus, when the people stood at the nether part of the mount, these two, the height and the deep, or let, form the natural antithesis belonging to the mythological astronomy. The tet (Eg.) is the tomb, the void, the world of the mummies, and sheni (Eg.) is the name of the region beyond the tomb, the mount of the resurrection.
The original names of the towns and districts of Canaan, such as Ashtaroth-Karnaim, Avilah, Berytus, Bashan, Beth-lappuah or Tebekhu, Ephron (Hebron), Heshbon, Hamath, Judah (Southern), Kadesh, Kison, Megiddo, (Mageddo, near Ascalon), Tamesku (Damascus), and others are inscribed on a pylon at Thebes, containing 1,200 names of places, conquered or garrisoned by the Egyptians in the time of Tahtmes III, some two and a half centuries earlier than the historical exodus. The number of Syrian names is 119. In fact as Mariette observes, we have before us, most accurately rendered by the hieroglyphic names, a map of the land of Canaan in 'a list of 115 names, which is nothing less than a synoptical table of the promised land made 270 years before the Exodus.'
In the statement made by Plutarch respecting the flight of Typhon, the myth passes into history represented figuratively. Typhon, he says, fled for seven days, and having escaped, afterwards begot two sons, Hierosolymus and Judaeus. That is, the typhonian religion passed out into Judea, and made its home in Jerusalem. 'They who relate this are manifestly discovered by the very matter to wrest into this fable the relations of the Jews.' This flight and exode of Typhon from the battle with Horus was depicted in the mysteries and read in the northern heaven, where the outlet of Sut preceded the nome or ru of Sut, whence the Setroite nome of Egypt. Egypt below was a copy and replica of Egypt above, and every nome and name and narrative related of them was primarily mythological; afterwards the fables containing the facts of the astro-nomes were wrested from their meaning, and converted into the facts of fabulous histories.
In Hebrew night and netherworld are synonymous. The day was the other or upper world. The Sabean beginning was on the night side, that of the underworld; and the mythical migration so often met with is from the night to day, from the Sabean to the solar stage of mythology, from the cult of Sut-Typhon to that of Ra. The beginning with night, the negative, the netherworld, where the goddess of the north was the genetrix, the birthplace personified, the bringer-forth, as the ancient mother of the waters, will account for the netherworld being the domain of Typhon, when the religion had changed and the deity of darkness was transformed into the devil of the dark.
The reader has to lay fast hold of one end of the strands of rope we are plaiting for our anchor in the depths, and never leave go till it is finished. We must get well in mind and keep there the fact that Egypt, Khebt, or Mitzraim, are names of the old Sabean birthplace in the north, belonging to the celestial allegory before they were applied geographically to Egypt. They are so old that, as we have seen, Kheb, Kepsh, or Kush was named when Ethiopia was to the north of the namers. The Egypt of the Hebrew writings is mainly that of the astronomical myth, and if the anathemas of Egypt uttered by the divinely inspired writers have any application to the real country, Egypt itself furnished and had already applied the language to a locality of the same name, and a Red Sea that was in the heavens, and a monster that was in its waters; had, in fact, supplied the country for the cursing, the means of cursing, together with the whole imagery for clothing the curses with significance. But the Egypt continually intended is the typical Egypt, the Egypt of the allegory looked upon, after they had left it, as a land of mental bondage; and wherever the idols of the genetrix were set up for worship there was Egypt, there was Khebt, the goddess, as well as Khebt, the place.
When the God of Israel says, 'Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh, King of Egypt, the great Dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers,' the language and its application are the same as in Isaiah, 'In that day the Lord with his sore and great and strong sword, shall punish Leviathan, the piercing serpent, even Leviathan, that crooked serpent, and he shall slay the Dragon that is in the sea.' Here the serpent is one with the crooked serpent of the heavens. The language is typical, and can only be understood by the typology of the subject. The crooked serpent is the dragon of the north, or of Khebt.
The Egypt wherein Israel played the Zonah in the persons of the two women Aholali and Aholibah, was the land of Khebt, the genetrix, a celestial region belonging to the Sabean religion, hence her paramours, who were Sabeans from the wilderness, and men of בר, rendered 'common sort,' or a multitude, but which are the huge men who are called elsewhere 'Sabeans, men of stature,' the giants of the foreworld and the early time.
Jeremiah rebukes the women of Israel for making the cakes and pouring out the drink-offerings to Kivan, the Queen of Heaven. 'Jeremiah said unto all the people, and to all the women, Hear ye the word of the Lord all Judah that (are) in the land of Egypt.' Again he says to them, 'Hear ye the word of the Lord all Judah that dwell in the land of Egypt.' 'Then all the men which knew that their wives had burnt incense unto other gods, and all the women that stood by, a great multitude, even all the people that dwelt in the land of Egypt, answered.' This Egypt was not mundane but celestial, religious, typical; the abode of the Queen of Heaven, who, as Kefa or Kivan, ruled over the mythological Egypt. 'Ephraim also is like a silly dove without heart; they call to Egypt.' 'They shall return to Egypt.' 'Ephraim shall return to Egypt.' That was in backsliding to the old worship of the female called the 'whoredom of Ephraim,' of which the dove of Israel, of Juno, of Semiramis, and Menât was a type.
It was the literalizing of the myth that misled the Seventy in their correction of a supposed error in Zechariah. The writer threatened the dwellers in Egypt that they should have no rain unless they came up to keep the feast of tabernacles. The Seventy, knowing the dearth of rain in Egypt, altered this. But the Egypt signified was the place of the waters and the waterer Shadai in the north. The feast of tabernacles was a water festival. The water of life had been given of old by the feminine deity, the suckler, which was now [p.191] dispensed by the male god. It is noticeable that the Hebrew names for rain are drawn from the Egyptian names of the inundation. הרומ is rain; mur, the inundation; רממ, rain; ma, water, ter, libation; הרי, rain, aur, or aru, the river; משנ, rain; âkhem, a whelming wave of water, as of the inundation.
'Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the Lord. Have not I brought Israel out of the land of Egypt?' 'The days come,' says Jeremiah, 'that it shall no more be said that the Lord brought up the children of Israel out of the land of Egypt, but the Lord brought them from the land of the north.' This Egypt of the Hebrew scriptures was, primarily, the celestial Khebt which always remained in the north, the birthplace of the beginning and the starting-point for the migration found in all the oldest mythologies, always connected with the number seven, as in the seven provinces of Dyved.
In Ireland we have a representation of the seven caves, or sevenfold cave in the cave of the tribe of Oine, called the purgatory of St. Patrick, an ancient Druidic cell, on a small island in Lough Derg, in the south of Donegal. The island is only 126 yards long by 44 broad; on this is a small cavern, and round it are seven tiny chapels, which perpetuate the sevenfold nature of the cave of Oine, the Irish form of the genetrix, Kun, Gwen, or Kivan.
Seven mythical caves, grottoes, or underground abodes are the cradle of the race in many American legends. The Quiches ascended from Tulan or Tulan-zuiva, the place of the seven caves; the Mexicans came from Chicomoztoc, the seven caves. The seven principal islands of the Lesser Antilles were a form of these. So were the seven inhabited islands of the Hervey group, which were a copy of Savaiki, the original home of men and gods.
The Nahuas sailed in seven barks or ships, called by Sahagun seven grottoes. The Hohgates (seven in number) came in one boat, and the seven are now the seven stars in heaven. The seven are represented in the Ritual by the seven staircases and seven halls in the great house of the heavens. In the prefaces to the Puranas we are told that Swayambhava dwelt in the country of Puscara, at the farthest point westward. Seven sons were born to him there, and these divided the whole world, or the Seven Islands, among themselves. So Scotland or Pictland was said to have been divided into seven provinces by seven brothers who ruled over it. The names Zuiva, Savaika, Saba, identify the number seven. In Egyptian, hept (earlier khept) means seven, and the origin of all is found in khebt, the north, lower Egypt, the heaven of the seven stars, and the goddess, who was the birthplace personified.
The coming out of Egypt is coupled with the gods that were worshipped aforetime, when their ancestors were on the other side of the flood where lay the land of bondage. Joshua says to the people of Israel, 'Your fathers dwelt on the other side of the flood (the typical water רהנ), and served other gods.' 'Choose you this day whom you will serve; whether the gods which your fathers served that were on the other side of the flood, or the gods of the Amorites, in whose land ye dwell; but as for me and my house, we will serve the Lord.' The gods were the Elohim, a form of the seven, answering to the number of the stars, with Sut as the manifestor for the eighth.
When Hosea writes of Israel, 'I will give her the valley of Akar for a door of hope,' he is employing the language and imagery of the Ritual. The Akar, as in Hebrew, is the lower sterile barren region; the Amenti, Sheol, or Hades. The wilderness of Hosea is the Anrutf of the Ritual, the region of sterility and barrenness which is to be transformed. 'Sharon shall be a fold of flocks, and the valley of Akōr a place for the herds to lie down in.' The god Shu-Anhar or Ma-Shu was the leader through this dark desert, and the opener of the door of hope for the rescued people who came up out of Egypt. Rahab is a typical name for the Egypt and Pharaoh of the Hebrew mythos. 'I will make mention of Rahab,' says the psalmist, among the other dark sayings. 'Thou hast broken Rahab in pieces as one that is slain.' 'O arm of the Lord,' cries Isaiah; 'art thou not it that hath cut Rahab and wounded the dragon?' This is connected with the passage of the Red Sea, and the overthrow of Pharaoh's host. Rahab personifies Egypt, or Pharaoh, and is identified with the dragon that lies in the midst of his rivers. Again in Job, 'He divideth the sea with his power, and by his understanding he smiteth through Rahab.' In the Book of the Dead we read of the 'Waters of Rubu,' which are in the north. The northern hill of heaven is in the lake of the Rubu. Ru-bu is the place of the reptile, the Apophis, the Ru-Ap, which becomes the Hebrew Rahab. For in chapter 85 Rabu is also Tebu. 'Tepiu' is the devourer, and this Rabu of the waters, or Tepiu, takes finally the name of Typhon, the Apep, the Apophis of the waters, or dragon of the deep. Rahab, the dragon, is etymologically a form of the Egyptian Ruhef, a name of the Apophis synonymous with the Hebrew Leviathan. The waters of Rubu, then, are in the north, and identifiable with the pool of Pant, the Red Sea of the myth, in which dwells the monster of many names, all summed up as the Apophis. 'Eater of Millions' is his name, 'Hardness' is his name, 'Baba' is his name, who 'is in the pool of Pant,' or Red Sea. 'Hidden Reptile,' one of the names, [p.193] will render in Egyptian as 'Ru-hab,' the equivalent of Rahab, the dragon lurking in the waters. Ru is the reptile, and hab to prowl, beset, infest; hap is hidden. Also ru-hef denotes the crawling, the gigantic serpent; the Ru-ap, the reptile Apophis.
With the article tu prefixed we find the Rabu in the Assyrian mythology as the 'Tu-rabu-tu,' and in that language Rabu is the beast. Turabutu is the den of the dragon. In Egyptian tu is the, rubu (Eg., ref) the beast-reptile, and tu a cave or cavern. The Ruhef appears in Sanskrit with the name of the monster Rabu. The Hindu allegory tells how the parts of Barbara toward the mouths of the Nile were inhabited by the children of Rabu. Rabu is represented on account of his tyranny as an immense river-dragon or crocodile, or some fabulous monster with four talons, called graha, from a root implying violent seizure. Rabu, the river-dragon of India, is identical with Rahab the river-dragon of Egypt, and the river in both cases is the Nile of the heavens, the 'Nar' on which the first Ayana, a moving on the waters, was depicted in the planisphere. Rabu the monster of mythology is in the Hindu astronomy utilized as the cause of eclipses. Hence the name given by Wilford to the talons called graha. This is the name of 'eclipse,' and means literally the seizure, or, if personified, the seizer, the Sanskrit graha being the Egyptian krau, English claw or cray, as in crayfish. Both crocodile and scorpion were the seizers, one with the claws, the other with the mouth. The monster Rabu was represented as seizing and swallowing the sun during an eclipse. Rabu typifies the ascending and descending nodes, and the two parts, the heavenly and the earthly, correspond to the two halves of the zodiac, and the two regions of all mythology. Rabu was cut in two as the sun severed the Apophis in his passage through the underworld. So the Hebrew deity cuts Rahab. 'O arm of the Lord, art thou not it that cut Rahab?' He cuts through Rahab, and 'divideth the sea' at the same time; the crossing of the waters included both, because the monster of the darkness was the dragon of the deep.
The original matter and meaning of the exodus is found in fragments of the Egyptian Ritual or Gospel. In this the solar allegory of the lower world of darkness and the ascent into the world of light is so ancient that it had become mainly eschatological. Still the allegory of the exodus is there, although charged with a spiritual or theological significance, and the course of the sun is identified with the journey of the soul through the nether northern region where the place of bondage was located.
Khebt denotes lower Egypt, and was analogous to the lower of the two heavens, the hell of theology. Thus the celestial kheb below was the Egypt of bondage. The Osirian exults that his 'arms have not [p.194] been stopped in the place of bondage.' He does not remain in their toils although encompassed by them; he does not 'sit in the nets of them.' From other exclamations we learn that the soul is kept in this Egypt of bondage of which the god Shu opens the gate of the prison-house called the backdoor.
The cruel pharaoh who hindered the coming out of the Israelites has been borrowed from the imagery of the Ritual. Tum is a form of Ra the solar god, and divine type of the pharaoh. He ruled in the lower world, and in the twenty-third chapter we read, 'Tum hinders his coming out;' i.e., the pharaoh hinders the souls coming out of Hades, the lower Egypt of the two heavens. 'Let me come. Tum hinders his coming out.' 'Let me come out, open my mouth, says Ptah with his brick (book) made of mud, fashioning the mouths of the gods by it.' This is said by the Osirian who is being reconstructed for his exodus into the upper world. Ptah's brick made of mud is possibly one of those said to be made without straw, as one of the bricks made of sun-dried clay, stamped with the name of Rameses II, and surmised to have been made by the Israelites, has the straw still visible in the clay. It is possible the cruel Hebrew pharaoh or הערפ is the Af-Ra or Af-rek, the sun in the underworld. For this reason, Tum is the Af-Ra, lord of the lower world (Khebt or Egypt of the mythos) and judge of the dead, that is, of the souls in their prison-house, where all the plagues occurred and the trials were imposed. Af means to chastise, wring out drop by drop, as did the cruel Ra or Pharaoh of the Hebrew exodus. The realm of the Af-Ra or lower sun, is the domain of darkness, and in it there are ten hells or karti corresponding to the ten plagues of Egypt.
In Arab legend the name of the cruel pharaoh is known as Tamuzi. This is the Arabic name given by Castell as that of the cruel pharaoh who persecuted the Israelites. Tamuz is also used to denote the consuming heat of summer. Tamuzi appears in the Ritual as Ra-Tams or Ra-Tamesa. 'Oh Ra-Tamesa, he who eats the wicked; oh taker by stealth; oh stopper, do not steal me!' Tams means bad luck, and to hold fast in the grasp of the cruel hindering Ra. It is suggested that this is the Tamuzi of the Arab tradition who is Tum the great judge, the Af-ra (pharaoh) of the celestial Egypt. Afra appears in Hebrew as (ערפ) phara, to make naked, uncover, avenging, refuse, go back, let and hinder. Phara, to hinder, is personified in Phara, Afra, the hinderer of the exodus, who stripped the children of Israel and refused to let them go.
The 'Place of Passage,' and the 'Retreat of the Passage,' are type-names of the Hades or celestial Egypt. In the [p.195] Book of the Hades we also read, 'Horus says to Ra's flocks, which are in the Hades of Egypt and the Desert; Protection for you, Flocks of Ra, born of the great one who is in the heavens.' The Hades of Egypt is the Egypt of the Hades: the flocks of Ra are identical with the chosen people who came up from Egypt and wandered in the wilderness.
The headings of various chapters of the Egyptian Ritual read like a synopsis of the Hebrew story. Such is the chapter of 'escaping out of the folds of the great serpent,' the chapter of 'stopping all snakes;' the chapter of 'stopping all reptiles' with a picture of the deceased turning back a serpent, the Ap, at the place where it had been ordered to be cut up, 'in the house of regeneration of the sun at his falling, where the accusers of the sun are overthrown,' together with the Ap, and the sun goes forth in peace; the chapter of 'not eating filth or drinking mud in Hades;' the chapter of 'prevailing over the water in Hades;' the chapter of 'giving peace to the soul and letting it go in the boat of the sun;' the chapter of 'vivifying the soul for ever, of letting it go to the boat of the sun to pass the crowds at the gate—done on the birthday of Osiris;' the chapter of 'coming out as the day and prevailing against his enemies,' the chapter of receiving the roads, one of these being through the pool, the Pool of Pant, which is the mythical Red Sea. 'I have brought the things of the land of Tum, the time of overthrowing the ministers;' looks exceedingly like a hint to be acted on in literalizing the myth in the story of the borrowing from and spoiling the Egyptians, or Egypt, as we have it in the margin. In the Hebrew apocrypha, the Wisdom of Solomon, we have an account which might have been drawn from a representation of these things in the mysteries:
For when unrighteous men thought to oppress the holy nation; they being shut up in their houses, the prisoners of darkness, and fettered with the bonds of a long night, lay (there) exiled from the eternal providence.
For while they supposed to lie hid in their secret sins, they were scattered under a dark veil of forgetfulness, being horribly astonished, and troubled with (strange) apparitions.
For neither might the corner that held them keep them from fear; but noises (as of waters) falling down sounded about them, and sad visions appeared unto them with heavy countenances.
No power of fire might give them light, neither could the bright flames of the stars endure to lighten that horrible night.
Only there appeared unto them a fire kindled of itself, very dreadful: for being much terrified, they thought the things which they saw to be worse than the sight they saw not.
For though no terrible thing did fear them; yet being scared with beasts that passed by, and hissing of serpents,
They died for fear, denying that they saw the air, which could of no side be avoided:
But they sleeping the same sleep that night, which was indeed intolerable and which came upon them out of the bottoms of the inevitable hell,
Were partly vexed with monstrous apparitions, and partly fainted, their heart failing them; for a sudden fear, and not looked for, came upon them.
So then whosoever there fell down, was straitly kept, shut up in a prison without iron bars,
For whether he were husbandman, or shepherd, or a labourer in the field, he was overtaken, and endured that necessity which could not be avoided; for they were all bound with one chain of darkness.
Whether it were a whistling wind, or a melodious noise of birds among the spreading branches, or a pleasing fall of water running violently,
Or a terrible sound of stones cast down, or a running that could not be seen of skipping beasts, or a roaring voice of most savage wild beasts, or a rebounding echo from the hollow mountains, these things made them to swoon for fear.
For the whole world shined with clear light, and none were hindered in their labour;
Over them only was spread an heavy night, an image of that darkness which should afterward receive them but yet were they unto themselves more grievous than the darkness.
This is the scenery of the Hades (or Khebt of the mythos) answering to that of the plague of darkness in the Pentateuch, but nearer to the Egyptian original. It belongs to the mystical abodes of darkness, where the wicked were shut up and fettered in the bondage of a long night. There is the way of absolute darkness. The sun is there but it gives no light to the outcast Khefti, or Egyptians, neither do they hear the voice of the god as he passes through that vacuum of the darkness. There are fourteen of these abodes, the same number as half the twenty-eight lunar signs corresponding to the six solar signs in one-half of the circle. These in Egyptian are the Aat, the original in name and nature of the Hades. Hence the six or fourteen lower signs ranged from the west to the east. In the north was the nethermost corner (the kab) that held the spirits in prison, detained in darkness. The eighth abode, the place of dismissing peace, is the great place of the waters. 'No one has withstood the water in it, the greatness of its terrors, the magnitude of its fear, or the height of its roaring.' 'Oh the place of the waters! none of the dead can stand in it. Its water is of fire, its glow is of fire, it glows with smoking fire. The thirst of those who are in it is inextinguishable. Through the greatness of its terror, and the magnitude of its fear, the gods, the damned, and the spirits look at the water from a distance.' On the sarcophagus of the monarch Nekhtherhebi, a series of scenes in the infernal regions are described in the passage of the sun and soul through the hemisphere of darkness, the fourteen Aat of the realm of night. Here the hells, halls, or holes called karrs are ten in number, doubtless the ten worst, the 'bottoms of hell.'
'The screams of the damned burst on the ears of the passer-by in a mingled chorus of agony and confusion. They howl as lions, roar as bulls, squall like tomcats, tinkle as brass, and buzz with the incessant hum of bees,' and realize the description in the [p.197] apocrypha, that is, sacred writings. The apocrypha identifies the plague of darkness in the exodus, and the Ritual explains both with the aid of mythological astronomy. There is the serpent that dies not, the worm that utterly devours, and the fire that is never quenched; the hell of flame, wastes and waves of flame, a ceiling of flame: the lake of fire and bottomless pit with Satan bound in chains; the total outfit of the infernal paraphernalia of the Calvinistic theology is all there to be studied from the origin in relation to the primitive phenomena.
The Israelites in the wilderness are assailed by fiery serpents. 'The Lord sent fiery serpents among the people, and they bit the people, and much people of Israel died.' Then Moses was instructed to make the serpent of life and elevate it on a pole, and 'it came to pass that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he beheld the serpent of brass he lived.' In the Ritual we have the chapters of 'stopping all snakes' and 'of how a person avoids being bitten in Hades by the eaters of the back of the dead'—the question is how to avoid being eaten or bitten by snakes—the chapter of stopping the asps, and the chapter said to turn back the asps. In the passage of the Hades the souls are assailed by all kinds of snakes, vipers, and serpents, chief of which is the Apophis, breathing out fire and poisonous vapour. The vignettes show the deceased turning back a serpent. In the midst of these is the serpent of life, the good demon, one form of it being named Hefi. This is an invocation of the serpent of life: 'Oh chief Uraeus, serpent of the sun, with a head of smoke, gleaming and guiding (during) millions of years,' as the talismanic means of avoiding being bitten in Hades by fiery serpents and flame-breathing reptiles. The 'head of smoke gleaming and guiding' for ever, answers to the Israelitish column of cloud by day and fire by night.
Also an Egyptian hymn, copied by Brugsch from the temple of El-Kargeh, celebrates the one god who is immanent in all things, the soul of Shu (breath) to all other gods, and it says of him, 'He travels in the cloud to separate heaven and earth, and again to reunite them,' as the Hebrew divinity travels in the pillar of cloud which separates the children of Israel from the Egyptians.
In the Book of the Hades there is even an allusion to, but no specification of, 'the plagues' in the legend of the monkey. 'When this god rises he gives up (the pig) to the plagues.' The pig is an emblem of Typhon, the evil enemy who is represented as the cruel pharaoh whom the God of Moses gives up to the plagues; and in one of the legends of the same scene—that of the animals—it is said of the elect people, 'They hide those which are in the state of the elect. They, the country belonging to them, is Ameh in the land. [p.198] Behold, these are they whose heads issue. What a mystery is their appearance!' These, in the Egyptian myth are the prototypes of the chosen people, who dwell in light while their enemies are enveloped in darkness.
'Food is given to them because of the light which envelopes them in Hades.' These are clothed in white in the tomb of Rameses I, to represent the children of light passing through the lower world.
In the Book of the Hades the sun-god passes through twelve gates, having the blessed of his keeping on his right hand and the damned upon his left hand. These appear above and below, according to the Egyptian rule of perspective. They are the Israelites and Egyptians of the Hebrew mythos.
In the same book the entrance to Hades is marked by two mountains, one of these is turned upside down; the two form a kind of gorge towards which the divine boat passes, and the twelve gods of the earth are marching, corresponding in number to the twelve tribes. Twelve personages, designated the blessed, that is, the elect or chosen of Ra, are called the worshippers of Ra. They are those who are 'born of Ra, of his substance, which proceed from his eye.' 'He places for them a hidden dwelling.' Ra says to them, 'Breath to you, who are in the light, and dwellings for you. My benefits are for you. I have hidden you.' This was during the massacre of the enemies of Ra, who says, 'I have commanded that they should massacre, and they have massacred all beings.' 'I have hidden you for those who are in the world of the living,' the scenery and action being in the region and belonging to the drama of the dead. This is the replica or the original of the transactions in Egypt when the Israelites are sheltered and protected while the Egyptians suffer from the plagues; who are saved during the slaying of the firstborn, and who are dwelling in the light of Goshen while the Egyptians are in a horror of great darkness. Goshen, or khu-shen (Eg.), the upper and luminous half of the circle, is identical with the upper position of the children of light in the Amenti. The Book of the Hades was found at Biban-el-Muluk in the tomb of Seti I, where the 'Creation by Ra' was likewise discovered; an important fact in considering the Egyptian origins.
The coming up out of Egypt was an astronomical allegory which had passed into the eschatological phase ages upon ages before it was made historical in the Exodus of the Jews. The mythos was formulated in Egypt or in African lands beyond it long enough ago for the story to be carried out by the various migrations into other countries. The coming up out of Astulan (Tulan, or Turan,) has the same origin as the coming up out of Egypt. The allegory was Sabean and pre-solar, hence the journey from the land of darkness before the creation of the sun, and its appearance after they had [p.199] gone some stages on their way. It is so long ago for Egypt as to be almost effaced by time, and being of typhonian origin it was not perpetuated on the monuments in its primal form, therefore some of the Sabean imagery has to be recovered from its solar guise, which is a disguise.
Plutarch observes that when the Egyptians offer sacrifice upon the seventh day of the month Tybi, which they call the arrival of Isis out of Phoenicia, they print the river-horse, bound, upon their sacred cakes; besides this there is a constant custom at the town of Apollo for every one to eat some part of a crocodile, and they hunt and kill as many crocodiles as possible, Typhon having made his escape from Horus (Apollo) in the shape of a crocodile. The Egyptian name of Phoenicia is Kefa, and Kheft is the north, the quarter of Typhon, the Hebrew Zephon. The north is the place of the Great Bear or the water-horse, and in the earlier representation of the myth, before Isis, as the solar genetrix, had taken the seat of Ta-urt (Khebt), it was she, the Great Bear, the water-horse, who came up out of the north, Kefa, or Phoenicia. When the solar had superseded the old Sabean cult, and Typhon was changed into the type of evil, the water-horse appeared as a victim bound upon the sacred cakes. So that Isis, coming up out of Phoenicia, Kefa, Khebt, comes up out of the Egypt of the astronomical allegory, that is, out of the north, where the void, the abyss, was located, because it was the place of darkness and the quarter of the night; and before Isis came up out of the celestial Egypt it was the water-horse herself who came up out of the waters and carried the light, whereby the first time was reckoned and the first circle described.
The month Tybi bears the name of Typhon, Teb, Tabi (Bear), the first recognized mover in a circle, to whom it was once consecrated. The water-horse came up out of the waters of the north, because, not being within the circle of perpetual apparition, the constellation on that side dipped below the horizon, and was represented at Aphaka as the star of Astarte, which dipped in the lake. The ancient Hindu astronomers, who are said to have attributed an independent motion to the Great Bear about the pole of the heavens with a complete revolution in 2,700 years, called Ursa Major the Dipper. Again, we cannot have the word dip, without naming Tef or Tep, who dipped below the horizon, and rose up out of the waters, as the hippopotamus and as the duck.
Plutarch relates the transformation of the typhonian genetrix, the mother of Har, into Isis. In the battle between Typhon and Horus, Thoueris is said to have deserted Typhon. Thoueris is Typhon (feminine), as Taur. Typhon was delivered up to Isis fast bound, but she let Typhon go; whereupon Horus laid violent hands on his mother, and plucked the royal diadem off her head. This, in Egyptian, is the Urt, [p.200] and he was discrowning Ta-urt. Hermes placed the cow's head on her instead. This was the transformation of Typhon-Taurt into Isis-Taurt, the cow-headed, and it shows the change occurring under the lunar regime—Taht being accredited with it—or, rather, the Sabean genetrix passing into the Sabean-lunar great mother. The cow is called hes (Eg.), and the combination of the cow with Ta-urt forms the goddess Hestaroth from hes-ta-urt, whence Ashtaroth and Astarte. None of the origins were lost.
The primary matter of the mythology found in the Psalms and identifiable in the Ritual is older by untold ages than the exodus from Egypt. The coming out of Khebt and crossing the Red Sea or Pool of Pant belong to the solar allegory of the Ritual, the imagery of which is reproduced in the Psalms, where the Lord says, 'I will bring again from Bashan; I will bring again from the depths of the sea, that thy foot may be dipped in the blood of (the) enemies, the tongue of thy dogs in the same.' In the Ritual we read, 'The sun is that Great God, the greatest of smiters, the most powerful of terrifiers, He washes in your blood, He dips in your gore.' The scene is the same as in Psalms 22, where the speaker is in the Hades encompassed and beset by the bulls of Bashan, the dogs of the avenger, and the dog-faced avenger himself. These dogs in the Ritual are the 'punishers of Shu,' they feed off the fallen, the overthrown enemies of the sun, headed by the dog-faced Mâtet, whose name is Eater of Millions. 'He is in the Pool of Pant,' that is, the Red Sea of mythology and the celestial geography; he dwells there as the 'Lord of Gore.' In one chapter of the passage through the depths the Osirian says, 'I follow the dogs of Horus.' There is a desert or wilderness of Tsher, in which the wanderers stray and are environed with dangers; here they meet with the tempter who tries to delude and mislead them. Here they drop and die of hunger and thirst unless supplied with the bread of heaven and the water of life, which are administered by the hand of the goddess Nu.
In the Hebrew version of the myth, Miriam represents the goddess Nu in relation to the water of life. The Egyptian Meri is the lady of the waters, the Nile. The Targumists have a tradition respecting Miriam's well, that was fabled to follow the Israelites and encircle their whole camp till her death. They relate in their legend of the wandering well of water, that it was first of all granted to Israel for Miriam's sake, on account of her watching over the ark of Moses when exposed on the river, which she did at the peril of her life. For this the water followed her and supplied the people of Israel, every one at his own tent door, and encircled the whole camp till the time of Miriam's death; at which time the water disappeared. Miriam's well was said to have found a place in a gulf of the Sea of Galilee, where at certain seasons it overflowed with waters [p.201] of healing. The Targumists have got the true tradition. The Bible version does but follow it, limping and halting with its many false pretences. Miriam first represented the water. Hence the outcry at the time of her death and the water's disappearance.
The well in Israel takes the place of the old suckler, of Kefa or Nu, who poured out the water of life from the tree. The goddess of the seven stars was the Deess of the waters, and her typical number is found in the well of Beersheba or the well of the seven, the feminine nature of which is shown by the offering of the seven ewe lambs. This was also the well of the tree to be found in the pool of Persea, the ash-tree, for Abraham is said to have planted the tree or grove Aeshel by the well. Another well of Shebah or the seven was named by Jacob.
The Targum of Onkelos, in Numbers 21, says, 'It is said in the book of the wars, that which the Lord did by the sea of Suph, and the great deeds which he wrought by the torrents of Arnon, and at the flowing of the streams which lead towards Lechayath and are joined at the confines of Moab, and from thence was given to them the well, which is the well whereof the Lord spake to Moses, "Gather the people together and I will give them water." Thereof sang Israel this song,—"Spring up, O well; sing ye unto it, the well which the princes digged; the chiefs of the people cut it; the scribes with their staves; it was given to them in the wilderness, and from the time that it was given to them it descended with them to the rivers, and from the rivers it went with them to the height, or to Ramatha, and from the height to the vale, which is in the fields of Moab at the head of Ramatha."' In this account, which is invaluable, the water that runs and follows the Israelites uphill is certainly symbolic. The whole of the imagery will be identified as Egyptian and its signification explicated.
According to the geographer of Ravenna, the Ganges rises in the Garden of Eden, many thousand miles east of its apparent spring. This statement blends the mythological and geographical. So at Faran or Paran, Clayton, in his Journal, records the fact that no one in a certain place was allowed to put pen to paper, in consequence of a tradition that formerly there was a river there, but that when an European was about to write a description of it it sank under ground and has not been seen since. This was a relic of the wandering well; its importance is in its connection with Paran as a locality in the mythological astronomy.
The rock supposed to be struck by Moses in the desert was, if there be any historic truth in the statement, a very real rock, out of which there gushed real wet water which saved a multitude of men from a horrible death. That is what we have been taught to believe. And here is all our innocent childish faith upset by Paul, who was learned in [p.202] the Jewish legends, and did his best to turn them to account in his own teachings. He says this rock was the Christ. That it was nothing more than a figurative rock or metaphor; the rock of mythology, which alone will give us a true account of it. As myth we shall be able to make out both the rock and the water that sprang from it. It was, says Paul, a 'spiritual rock, and that rock was Christ.' Paul gives a spiritual or new theological interpretation to an ancient Egyptian symbol. Later on we shall see how the rock in Horeb and the Christ of Paul, in Jerusalem, may be one as he asserts. The myth is the sole repository of the meaning. It is written in the Targum that the Messiah was in the desert the 'rock of the Church of Zion.' Now this rock of the Messiah is identical with the rock or mount struck by the Hindu prince, on which rock he was to build his church.
The scene of smiting the rock for the spring or wandering well to burst forth is found in the Hindu writings, which relate of the triple-peaked mount near the fountain of Brimsu, that in the Treta or 'Silver Age' an ascetic called Kŕk or Kaga dwelt by this fountain, and the Pandu Arjun with Hari Krishna, came there to attend a great sacrifice, on which occasion Krishna foretold that, in some distant age a descendant of his should erect a town on the margin of the rivulet Kaga, and raise a castle on the triple-peaked mount. While Krishna thus prophesied it was observed to him by Arjun that the water was bad, whereupon Krishna smote the rock with his chakra (discus) and caused a spring of sweet water to bubble up, and on its margin the prophecy was inscribed: 'Oh Prince of Jiduvansa! Come into this land, and on this mountain-top erect a triangular castle! Lodorva is destroyed, but only five coss therefrom is Jesanoh a site of twice its strength. Prince, whose name is Jesul, who will be of the Yadu race, abandon Lodorpoora, here erect thy dwelling.' This prophecy was taken as fulfilled in the person of Jesul, a Bhatti prince of Jessulmer. In this the Prince of Jiduvansa of the name of Jesul and of the race of Yadu is literally the branch of the stem of Judah, figured as the reed (vansa). Jesul is equivalent to Jesu, the Lord, and the prophecy was taken to be fulfilled in the person of a prince so named. Jesul was to be a descendant of the Hindu Christ, Krishna. This has been assumed to be a Hindu forgery? Not in the least. Both the Hindu and Hebrew versions come directly from one original myth. 'Thou shalt bring them in and plant them in the mountain of thine inheritance, in the place, O Lord, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in; the sanctuary, O Lord, (which) Thy hands have established,' contains the very same subject-matter. The imagery belongs to the time when the fatherhood and sonship superseded the primal motherhood, and the solar cult the Sabean, as will be further [p.203] illustrated. Now, in one of the representations of Rameses II there is a scene of calling forth the water from the desert rock. The king had ordered a well to be made at Redesieh or Contra Pselcis to supply the miners and their asses which crossed the desert to the land of Akaitau. The king is addressed by a deputation, 'If,' say they, 'thou formest a plan at night it is realized by day, and if thou hast said to the waters, Come out of the mountain, the celestial water comes according to thy word.' This language is metaphorical, in allusion to the myth of Egyptian origin which we find in the sacred books of the Hindus and Hebrews. How idle is it to point out that this Rameses was a contemporary of Moses, and call the scene on the monuments an illustration of the biblical narrative! In both cases the imagery of the same myth has been reproduced; Rameses was assimilated to the god who was fabled to have struck the rock. Similarly the name of Mohrakha is found in Palestine. Instantly the spot is identified as the place in which God answered Elijah with fire from heaven, because the word means the place of the burning. But it signifies the same in Egyptian. 'Ma' is place, and 'Rekh' is a 'brazier,' heat, fire. There is a further suggestion with regard to the legend of Elijah in the fact that the Egyptian rekai means the profane, the scorners, the rebellious, the guilty culprits. The oath of 'raka' referred to in the gospel is also a Maori curse, meaning, 'May the sun smite you or consume you with fire.' Ra is the sun, ka, to set on fire. The Egyptian Ra is the sun, and kha signifies carnage and to make corpses. 'Mea-ra-kmha' in the Maori language expresses a wish for the sun to blast you with his breath. The author of Te Ika a Maui, says it endangered the life of the person who uttered this curse. The Maori Mea-ra-ka-ha is identical with the Hebrew word Mohrakha, the place of the burning and consuming the wicked, and the Egyptian Ma-rekhai, the place of the furnace, and of the culpable and accursed scorners. One legend underlies the whole. We have seen in the Creation by Ra another version of the same scene and circumstances portrayed at Sinai. The new creation by the sun-god is the installation of the solar son of the mother as the supreme deity, the son who comes being set above the mother who brought him forth. This is illustrated in Israel by the god Jah-Adonai being introduced by Moses in place of the earlier Jehvah. This can be followed more or less in the Eleusinian mysteries. According to the author of Nimrod, 'Eleusin' signifies 'the son shall come.' In Egyptian el (ar) is the son; iu means to come; san is to heal and save. Thus Al-Iu-San reads the son who comes as the healer or saviour. This would be one of the mysteries of the Eleusinia, which were called pre-eminently the mysteries, and were consecrated chiefly to Ceres. The initiation was by night, and the [p.204] holy mysteries were read to the initiates out of a book called Petroma, a word commonly derived from patra, a stone, the book being formed of two stones fitly cemented together. The two stone tables of Moses were identical with the Greek stone book of two leaves called the Petroma, the name of which shows that it represented the dual truth of the goddess Ma, typified in Egypt by the twin-feather and the divinity portrayed on lapis lazuli or true blue stone. Petru (Eg.) means to show, explain, interpret, reveal, and ma is truth. The two stones showed the dual nature of the truth, and thus the two-leaved stone book was the Petroma, the Greek form of the two stone tablets inscribed and given to Moses on Sinai at the great scene of initiation there enacted. When these tablets had been presented, strange and amazing objects were seen; there were thunders and lightnings, and bellowings and awful sounds, the place shook around them, it was at one time radiant with light, resplendent with fire, and then again covered with thick darkness, sometimes terrible apparitions astonished the spectators; those who were present at these sights being called the intuitional. The garments worn by the initiates were accounted so sacred that they were never changed or cast off, but allowed to drop away in rags, the last remnants being devoted to make swaddling clothes or consecrated to Ceres and Persephone. As the two stone tables, the thunders and lightnings, the descent of fire, the cloud, and the supernatural appearances of the one scene are found in the other, it may be that the clothes which never wore out were simply those of the initiates which were not to be cast aside till worn in tatters. In both descriptions the first act of the drama was one of washing and purifying.
The Hebrews and Greeks did not borrow their mysteries and mythology from each other. Nor is there any tendency in human nature to make the historical experience of any one race the common property of all, and if these poems and persons of mythology had been based on actual human experience they would not have become universal. They are universally sacred, precisely because they never were limitedly historical. They are divine because they were not human; they are based on the facts which were common property, and can be reproduced for all by means of the gnosis. The learned were in possession of the same natural facts below and their astronomical orrery overhead to teach the myths and illustrate the allegories wherever they went. Their facts were independent of time or place, geography or ethnography; thus they became universal in their acceptation; and we find the myth of the exodus as widespread as that of the genesis.
The Hawaiians had a sacred institution called the Ku, a four-days' commemoration of the rising up and deliverance from their mythical [p.205] Egypt of suffering. Ku denotes the rising up. The khut (Eg.) is the place of the solar resurrection. The celebration of the Ku was on four kapu days. Four kapu days answer to the four keb of Egypt, the name of the four representative genii that stand at the four corners of the world and of the sarcophagus of the dead. Read by the original imagery this institution was the celebration of a resurrection into some other life. Khu (Ku), the rising, is also the spirit name, the manifestation as a spirit or thing of light. Kapu (Eg.) is a mystery, the mystery of new life considered as fermentation. This ceremony has been supposed to illustrate some actual deliverance and rising of the people themselves in this life, just as in the case of the Hebrews. But such is not the origin of sacred festivals and rites. Their kapu had the same significance as the mythical Egypt of the Jews, it belonged to the Khab, Khep, Kapu, or Khefa of the Great Bear, and of the four corners, called keb.
The king of the country, named Honua-i-lalo, oppressed the Menehune people. Their god Kane sent Kane-Apua and Kanaloa the elder brother to bring away the oppressed people and take them to a land which Kane their god had given them. The people were commanded to observe the four Ku days in the beginning of the month as Kapu Hoana (sacred or holy days), in remembrance of this event because they thus arose (ku) to depart from that land. The legend further relates how they came to the Kai-ula-a-kane (the Red Sea of Kane) and were pursued by Ke alu wahanui; that Kane-apua and Kanaloa thereupon prayed to Lono, and then they safely waded through the sea and traversed desolate deserts, and at last reached the promised land of Kane, 'Aina-lauena-akane.' This, says Fornander, is an ancient legend, which also contains the story of water being caused to flow from the rock.
In a Hottentot fable we find the passage of the Red Sea and destruction of those who followed the fleeing ones. Heitsi Kabip was a great sorcerer. He could tell secret things, and foretell what was to happen. He had died several times and come to life again. When the Hottentots pass one of his graves, for like Osiris he has many, they throw a stone on it for good luck. He could transform himself, and sometimes appeared with hair that grew long, down to his shoulders, and at other times it was again short. Once he was travelling with a great number of his people and they were pursued by an enemy. On arriving at some water he said, 'My grandfather's father open thyself that I may pass through, and close thyself afterwards.' So it took place as he had said, and they went safely through. Then the pursuing enemy tried to pass through the opening likewise, but when they were in the midst of the divided water it closed upon them and they perished. 'Stone of my ancestors divide [p.206] for us,' say the Nama woman and her brothers who are pursued by an elephant. It opens and they pass. The elephant says the same, the rock opens but closes on the elephant and crushes it. In the account given by the Tuscarora Cusick, who sketched the ancient history of the six nations and was familiar with their traditions from childhood, we are told that they sprang from a people who were concealed in a mountain. When they were set free by Tarenyawagon the holder of the heavens, who had power to change his shape, they were commanded to go towards the sunrise as he guided them, and they came to a river named Yenonanatche, that is, 'going round a mountain,' and went down the bank of the river, and came to where it discharges into a greater river running toward the midday sun, and named Shaw-nay-taw-ty, and went down the side of the river till they touched the bank of a great water. Here the company encamped for a few days. The people were yet of one language; some of them went on the banks of the great water towards the midday sun, but the main body returned as they came, on the bank of the river, under the direction of the holder of the heavens. Of this company there was a particular body which called themselves of one household (like the chosen people of Israel); of these were six families, and they entered into a covenant of perpetual alliance, the bond of which was never to be broken. These advanced some way up the river of Shaw-nay-taw-ty, and the holder of the heavens directed the first of the six families to make their residence near the bank of the river. This family was named Te-haw-re-ho-geh, or the speech-divided, and their language was changed soon after. The company then turned and went towards the sun-setting, and came to a creek named Kaw-na-taw-te-ruh, i.e., Pineries. The second family was commanded to dwell near this creek, and this family was named Ne-haw-re-tah-go, or big tree, and their language was likewise changed. The company still went onward towards the sun-setting under the direction of the holder of the heavens. The third family was directed to make their abode on a mountain named Onondaga, and the family was named Seuh-now-kah-tah, or carrying the name, and their language was altered. The fourth family was told to take up their residence near a long lake named Go-yo-goh, or mountain rising from the water, and the family was named Sho-nea-nawe-to-wah, or a great pipe, and their language too was changed. The company still passed onward towards the sun-setting, and the fifth family was located near a high mountain named Jenneatowake, and this family was named Te-how-nea-nyo-hent, that is, possessing a door, their language likewise being changed. The sixth family went with the company still journeying towards the sun-setting and touched the bank of a great lake, named Kau-ha-gwa-rah-ka, i.e., a cap, and then went towards between the midday and sun-setting, and travelled [p.207] till they came to a large river named Ouau-we-yo-ka, i.e., a principal stream. Here they discovered a grapevine lying across the river, and they began to pass the waters with the vine for a bridge. A part of the people went over, but whilst doing so the vine broke in two and they were divided one against the other, for those who did not cross became the enemies of those who did. This sixth family is said to have gone towards the sunrise and touched the bank of the great water.
The narrative here begins with a deliverance of the people by the 'Holder of the Heavens.' This is a name to remember for recognition of the character. The changing and dispersion of language at the places of dividing repeats the legend of Babel. The number of divisions is the same as one-half the zodiacal signs, which were divided into six upper and six nether signs of north and south.
The Mandan Indians, too, hold. that they had a subterraneous origin. They were excluded from the light of heaven, and dwelt by an underground lake. The first intimation they had of the light that shone in the world overhead was through a grapevine, the roots of which had penetrated to their abode. By means of this one half the tribe climbed up into the surface world of light and plenty, but owing to the size and weight of one old woman the vine broke and the other half remained for ever in their underground abode.
The Waraus of Guiana have a similar myth, in which the position is reversed. They say their primary abode was in a pleasant region above the sky; one day a hunter named Okonorote was looking for a spent arrow which had missed its mark, when he found a hole in the ground through which it had fallen. On peering down he saw the lower world of earth lapful of abundance. Finding the hole was large enough to let his body through, he made a ladder-rope of cotton and descended. He came back again and told the Waraus of this new world of plenty, and counselled a migration thither. They listened with delight to the assurance of an unlimited supply of animal food, and all together resolved upon descending to these fresh hunting-grounds, in total disregard of the will of the Great Spirit. Accordingly the descent (or fall) began through the discovered aperture. The migration continued until an unfortunate woman too stout for the passage stuck, and the hole was filled up, and the sky closed for ever against the Waraus, who were thus confined to this earth without a glimpse of their brighter abode.
The Quiché Popul Vuh depicts the ancestors of the human race as travelling away from the place of sunrise, and then crossing the water, which divided as they passed. They went through as though [p.208] there had been no sea, for they passed over scattered rocks, and these rocks were rolled on the sands. This is why the place was called 'Ranged stones, and torn-up sands,' the name which they gave to it on their passage within the sea, where the waters were divided as they passed. This is the story of the mythical migration that always occurs in the beginning. Here is the same crossing of the waters that divide for the passage, as in the Hebrew crossing of the Red Sea or 'Ium Suph.' This spot of the ranged stones is a replica of the place of the twelve stones set up in the Jordan to mark the spot where the waters were heaped up to let the Israelites go through dry-footed. When the people had crossed they collected in a mountain called Chi Pixab, where they fasted in darkness and night. The Israelites collected on a mountain on the westward side of Jordan when Joshua performed the rite of circumcision at the 'Hill of Foreskins.' In Egyptian mythological astronomy the khi is the hill or high earth. There were four of these, called the four supports of heaven, at the four corners of the world. The corner is kab, and the article p is the. In Egyptian, Khi-p-Kab would denote the hill at the corner, one of the four supports of the heaven and cardinal points of the circle.
The Quiches also have a story of their wanderings in the wilderness which have been mistaken for a migration of the people. 'At last they came to a mountain where they had been told they were to see the sun for the first time.' They also had their confusion of tongues as at Babel, so that no one could understand the speech of another. In the wilderness when starving they were sustained by illusion and by smelling their staves. They had to cross the sea on their way, and this, as we have seen, parted for their passage as did the Red Sea for the Israelites. In the Song of Moses it is said the Dukes of Edom and mighty men of Moab shall be still as stone whilst the chosen people pass over. In the Quiche account, when the people have crossed the parted waters, and the sun rises, there is a scene of turning into stone; the gods connected with the lion, the tiger, the viper, and other dangerous animals are not only still as stone but are changed into stone. 'Perhaps,' says the chronicler, 'we should not be alive at this moment because of the voracity of these fierce lions, tigers, and vipers; perhaps today our glory would not be in existence had not the sun caused this petrifaction!' In the Hebrew mythos the lion is associated with Moab, and Moab is the land of the enemy in the shape of giants, the mighty men who are stricken still as stone.
After the miraculous deliverance 'then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song,' and it was on Mount Hacavitz where the Quiches first rested after their passage through the sea that 'they began to sing that song called Kamucu, "we see."' This was at [p.209] the first rising of the sun, and the Hebrew deity who had triumphed gloriously was the god of Jeshurun who rode on the heaven in their help. The Quiches sang their song though it made their hearts ache, for this was what they said as they sang—'Alas! we ruined ourselves in Tulan, there we lost many of our kith and kin, they still remain there left behind. We indeed have seen the sun, but they—now that his golden light begins to appear, where are they?' And they worshipped the gods that had become stone. In like manner the Israelites made the golden calf and lusted after the fleshpots, and said, 'Would we too had died in the land of Egypt.'
It was by the miraculous aid of a horde of hornets that the Quiches utterly defeated and put their enemies to rout. In the same way and by the same means the Hebrew deity drove out the Canaanites. 'The Lord thy God will send the hornet among them until they that are left and hide themselves from thee be destroyed.' 'I sent the hornet before you, which drove them out.' The first thought of the general reader is that the Quiche version is of necessity borrowed from the Hebrew. There is one origin for both, only we have not hitherto been able to get beyond the Hebrew as the original.
A kindred account is given of the Mexican wanderings, and of their deliverance and guidance under their leader and god Vitziliputzli the same story as that so fully told of Israel, which is of supreme value mythologically.
After the deluge or the destruction of the world by a flood, the Burmese writings describe the surface of the regenerated world as forming a crust having the taste and smell of butter, the savour of which reaching the nostrils of the Rupa and Zian excited in these beings a desire to eat the crust. The end of their lives as superior persons having now arrived they assume human bodies. These human beings live for some time on this preternatural food in tranquillity and happiness. But being seized with a desire and love of property, the nectarous crust disappeared as a punishment for their crime, and their bodies, deprived of transparency and splendour, became dark and opaque. From this loss of light dark night commenced, and mankind were in the utmost perturbation, for as yet there was neither sun nor moon. What is this but the story of Israel in the wilderness of Zin or Sin? In the Burmese myth the people are called Zian, in the Hebrew zin is the place. The Israelites are fed on manna which encrusted the ground like a hoar frost. They also sin from greed in going out on the seventh day in search of the manna, and from love of property hold it over till the morning when forbidden to keep any. Further, when the Burmese butter or manna disappeared it sank into the interior of [p.210] the earth till it reached the great rock, Sila-pathavy, transformed its nature and there sprang out of it a certain climbing-plant which also had the taste of butter. On this again mankind were fed until avarice prevailed and it likewise disappeared. Now this great rock called Sila-pathavy has the most unique relationship to the rock of Israel, and the water of the wanderings. Sila or sela is the same word as the Egyptian ser, which is determined by a liquid that is either cream or butter. Ser is also the rock. The first rock of Israel, the rock of Horeb, whence sprang the earliest waters to give life to the people, is always styled Tzer. That is during the life of Miriam or under the rule of the feminine source, for the feminine source was the first anointer. Sila-pathavy signifies this; anti in Sanskrit denotes a woman in her courses; put is to emit. The butter, the manna, the waters of Horeb, all symbol the feminine creative source, hence the pot of manna carried in the ark along with the rod that budded. On the death of Miriam the water of the primitive fount ceases, and Moses strikes the rock to bring forth the waters of Meribah. Here the name of the rock is changed from Tzer to Sela. At root the words are one, but a great change is implied both as a matter of religion and language. In the Burmese account the change in the food was from butter to butter-plant springing from the great rock Sila-pathavy; in the Hebrew it is from the water rising from the rock called Tzer to that of the rock called Sela. Sela is related to the shiloh who was to come feeding on butter and honey. 'Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil and choose the good.' That is, the anointed one fed on that which anointed. The Burmese say that, 'In the beginning, when men fed on the crust of butter and the climbing-plant, the whole of this food was changed into flesh and blood, but when they began to eat rice the grosser part of that required after digestion to be evacuated. In consequence, the different canals and organs necessary were generated of their own accord, and the different organs of sex appeared, for before that time mankind were neither male nor female. When the difference of sex appeared then men and women married.' Here the myth has been vaporized. This 'beginning' belongs to the time of the genetrix; of Atum the 'Mother-goddess of time'; of Menât the wet-nurse, the first giver of the water of life: the time when the feminine period of ten months or moons preceded the reckoning by the solar nine months, and there were thirteen of those periods to the year, as typified in the thirteen branches of the Asherah tree; the time when men worshipped the great mother, but had not yet begun to call upon the Lord.
The Mexicans relate that when their divine progenitors departed, each left to the sad and wondering men who were their servants their [p.211] garments as a memorial. The servants made up a bundle of the raiment left to them, this was bound about a stick into which a green stone had been embedded to serve as a heart. These bundles were called Tlaquimilloli, and each bore the name of the god whose memorial it was, and the images were more sacred than ordinary gods of wood and stone.
When Tescatlipoca died, disappeared, or was transformed, he left his raiment as a relic with his servant, and a scene is depicted which is the counterpart of one described in the Hebrew writings as occurring to Elijah and Elisha. After Tescatlipoca had been taken away his servant followed seeking him, bearing the garment on his shoulders and wondering whether he should see the god again. At length, on arriving at the sea, he is favoured with an apparition of his master in three different shapes. And Tescatlipoca spoke to his servant, saying, 'Come hither, thou that lovest me so well, that I may tell thee what thou hast to do. Go now to the house of the sun and fetch thence singers and instruments so that thou mayest make me a festival; but first call upon the whale, and upon the siren, and upon the tortoise, and they shall make thee a bridge to the sun.' This was done, and the servant went over the sea, on this living bridge, to the house of the sun. In the Hebrew myth the three appearances answer to the three appeals made by Elijah to his servant, 'Tarry here, I pray thee,' because the Lord had sent him to Bethel, Jericho, and Jordan. And when they came to the river, Elijah took his mantle and smote the waters, and they were divided before them. Elijah then leaves his mantle to his servant Elisha, as did Tescatlipoca in the Mexican legend. But the Mexican form of this myth has not been tampered with so much as the Hebrew. It shows us what the crossing of the waters was. The imagery belongs to the astronomical allegory. The whale, tortoise, and siren are the three water-signs through which the sun passed in its winter phase, and this passage of the sun is that of the soul in the Book of the Dead, and the dropping of the garment in passing signifies the body left behind, whence the left-off garment, the bundle, represents the god or spirit that has departed, as did the mummy-type in Egypt.
In the passage of the sun through the lower heaven and the six solar signs from west to east, the earliest mapping out of the circle being lunar, we find the fourteen mystical abodes and the fourteen judgment-seats before which the deceased has to pass, answering to the fourteen lunar houses of the zodiac. The first of these abodes is called the head abode of the west. 'Hail the head abode of the west! He who has lived in it (has done so) off cakes of thorns.' The thorn is the anbu-tree. One of Tum's transformations is into the [p.212] anbu or thorn. This we may take to be figurative for wearing the crown of thorns, the crown of justification, the crown of Tum.
'Cakes of thorns' possibly alludes to the manna-like gathering on the thorny acacia and other shrubs. The 'cakes of thorns' on which the spirits lived in the first abode are the analogue of the manna and quails in the Hebrew myth, on which the Israelites were fed in one of their first abodes after crossing the Red Sea.
The anniversary of the fall of manna and quails is kept in the Coptic Church at the time of the autumn equinox, on September 21st, the equinox being on the 22nd, and still associated with the sun's entrance into Libra. This is four days before the festival of the cross (September 26, 1878) or the crossing. In connection with this subject and the miracle of the quails and manna, it is observable that quail-shooting begins at Alexandria on the 5th of September the first day of the Nasi or black days, the five intercalary days, and that the quails migrate on October 31st.
'Moses, our master, physiologised,' says Josephus. The secret clue to mythology is physiological, and this was in the keeping of the mysteries; the outer ring is astronomical because the imagery in which the physiological ideas, as well as others, were expressed was figured first in the heavens. Philo observes that, 'By men learned in philosophy the flux of the catamenia is said to be the corporeal essence of children.' This is literal fact, the basement of mythology, the blood of the mother made flesh for the child. Here we enter the world of the earliest human thought to which belongs the manna of mythology.
Mena is the Egyptian name for the wet-nurse in the mystical sense, she who supplied the flesh-making fluid for creating the child. In all likelihood many things hereby announced will be at first denounced as untrue, solely because of their being too startlingly true, but after the strangeness passes the truth will remain.
The expositors of the Koran, repeating a tradition of the Jews, make the Red Sea divide into twelve different paths, one for each tribe, or every man of Israel. That was just how the Red Sea did divide for each at birth. This is fact, not fable, and in this tradition the physiological and astronomical exodus commingle. The Red Sea dividing into twelve different paths is zodiacal, and the Red Sea that separates or dries up for each man's individual passage is physiological. Not until the present writer had attained to a knowledge of this dual origin of the myths was he enabled to read them by distinguishing the one from the other, or interpreting the one by the other, or understanding the metaphor in which both are so often blended.
The passage of the Jordan will furnish us with evidence actually topographical in the planisphere. In crossing the river twelve men [p.213] are commanded to take each a stone from the midst of the river-bed, and erect them as a memorial of the miraculous passage. 'And they are there unto this day.' This, as a statement of literal fact, was calculated to mislead the explorers of Palestine. But its truth to the astronomical allegory may be verified by any one who cares to turn to the planisphere of the ceiling of Isis's temple brought from Denderahi. On the verge of the river of Aquarius and on the side near the sign of Pisces there is a constellation of twelve stars, the astral memorial of the crossing. The stones were erected as a monument in Gilgal, the circle of revolving or rolling round, the wheel-work of the celestial chariot, the kar-kar (Eg.), or karti, of the dual orbit, whose type is the cart; always a vehicle with two wheels. When the waters were crossed, the sun, or soul, or Asar had once more attained solid ground on the other side, where the Egyptians located their region of the eternal, called Tattu. Another name of the place was Smen, the region of the pleroma of eight, of which Taht, the moon-god, was lord. And in the same planisphere, close to the constellation of twelve stars, there is a representation of the full moon with eight figures in it. That is an image of Smen, where a luni-solar circle was completed, and the son established in the seat of the father.
The sun, it is said, 'has strangled the children of wickedness on the floor of those in Sesen.' Sesen is also named Hermopolis, the lunar region of the eight, here indicated by the moon. The eight figures are kneeling in the attitude of the condemned, with their hands bound behind them and ropes round their necks.
In the Mandan and Warau exodus, the stout old woman that stuck in the passage is doubtless the pregnant genetrix, whose name of Ta-urt denotes the great old mother; the passage being from her region in the north to a new point of beginning in the south, from the Sabean to the luni-solar circle of time. The typhonian genetrix took various forms of the stout old woman. The Laps, Finns, and Greenlanders have a pottle-paunched devil or demon which they invoke to go and suck the cows and consume the herds of their enemies, who is the stout old Typhon. The Japanese Kagura seems to be a form of the same kind, and to judge by its immense mouth it still preserves the hippopotamus-type of the typhonian Khebt.
In the Japanese mythology there is a fabulous or typical animal that is said to inhabit the waters and to be like a monkey. It is called a kappa. This is probably a form of the typhonian genetrix, who united the kafi, monkey, to the kheb, or hippopotamus, the water-horse, with the crocodile and lioness in her compound fourfold image.
An African tribe, the Karens, are reputed to have a devil who is [p.214] represented as floating through the air in the shape of an enormous stomach, and the hippopotamus goddess (the Great Bear), is the type of the Egyptian Typhon, who became the devil of their eschatology. She was portrayed as the great mother, the pregnant, with a big belly. This to all appearance is the huge stomach of Typhon.
The grapevine is likewise a landmark to be utilized in the 'Typology of the Tree.' The exodus from Egypt is marked by a change in the calendar of the year. 'This day came ye out in the month Abib.' 'Observe the month Abib and keep the Passover, for in the month of Abib the Lord thy God brought thee forth out of Egypt by night.' 'This month (Abib) shall be the beginning of months: it shall be the first month of the year to you.' The name Abib is always accompanied by the article the, as the Egyptians said the Taht, which was moveable, according to precession. The Aramaic, Assyrian, and Jewish calendars show there was a year that once began with the month Ab; the month Sebat being the seventh from Ab, and dedicated to the seven great gods. In Akkadian this month is called 'Ab-ab-gar.' It is now suggested that this is the month meant by the Jewish Abib. It corresponds to our July, and its zodiacal sign is Leo, and answers to the commencement of the Egyptian sacred year in July.
Talmudic writers say that Moses ascended the Mount Sinai in the month Elul—'The Lord said unto Moses in the month Elul, Go up unto me on the mountain; and Moses went up and received the second tablet at the end of forty days.' Elul answers to the moon of August, and it is said to have been in the third month from the going forth from Egypt that Moses went up into the Mount Sinai.
These reckonings cannot be made to agree with the month Nisan as a starting-point, although the month Abib is usually taken to be identical with Nisan.
The new beginning with Ab or Abib is the oldest commencement of the luni-solar year; it goes back to the Sothic year, the year of the Sun and Sirius. We take the Dog-star to be the link of connection and continuity between the earliest Sabean reckoning by the Great Bear, and the latest by the revolution of the sun. This point of commencement is marked by the rising of Sothis with the sun in the Lion, and this Egyptian year, the present writer concludes, was the re-beginning under Moses at the time of the exodus from the mythical Egypt. No beginnings were lost. The four corners of the first, the Sabean circle, remained fixed in the solar zodiac and imagery, as the Lion, the Bird, the Waterer, and Bull. In the year which opens with Ab, the sun was in the sign of the Bull at the time of the vernal equinox, or on the 14th Nisan. Now the latest date for this celestial position was 2300 BC, consequently such time cannot apply to the [p.215] actual exodus 'from' Egypt. When in the course of precession the sun had receded into the sign of Cancer, the month of celebration was Tammuz instead of Ab, and this will enable us to lay hold of corroborative matter.
In Israel the festival of the month Abib was to celebrate the deliverance from the monster Tamuzi, who had held them so long in lewd pastimes or cruel toils, from which this was now to be the feast of the Passover, established for an everlasting statute; at the beginning of the first day of the month Tammuz each year they lamented and wept for Tammuz. This is an exact parallel to the command given in Exodus and Deuteronomy for the month Abib to be the beginning of months and the first month of the year in which the feast of the Passover was to be kept, because the Lord had brought them out by night in the month Abib. Now, in Arabic, according to Castell, Tamuzi is the name given to the pharaoh who treated the Israelites so cruelly, and would not let them go.
The Jews kept two Passovers. In the Mishna it is asked, What is the difference between the Passover of Egypt and the Passover of succeeding generations? The Passover of Egypt was taken on the tenth day, and required the sprinkling with a bunch of hyssop on the lintel and the two side posts, and was eaten with haste in one night, but the Passover of succeeding generations existed the whole seven days.
The first Passover, that of Khebt, was celebrated during four days—the four ku of the Hawaiians—from the 10th to the 14th of the month. The numbers 10 and 4 are sacred for ever to the ancient founder, who is identified with them by name as Menat and Aft. The Passover of succeeding generations is solar—simply the Easter festival of the sun's crossing at the vernal equinox.
According to Plutarch's report of the Egyptian myth, Typhon was seven days in fleeing from the battle with Horus. The relations or narrative of the Jews, he says, were wrested into this fable, or, as may be added, vice versa. Apion asserts that the Jews fled from Egypt during six days, and rested on the seventh on account of the buboes. Justin relates that the Israelites fled and fasted for six days, and on arriving at Sinai Moses set apart the seventh day as the day of rest. In the Hebrew writings two different accounts are given of the origin of the day of rest, the seventh day or Sabbath. According to the fourth commandment the Sabbath was instituted to commemorate the coming out of Egypt. 'Remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and the Lord thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand, and by a stretched-out arm; therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the Sabbath [p.216] day.' But in the Book of Exodus the Sabbath is said to be a sign between the deity and the children of Israel for ever, because in 'Six days the Lord made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.' The six days' creation, with the rest on the seventh, and the six days' flight from Egypt, with its rest on the seventh, are identical with the flight of Typhon in the Egyptian myth, in which these various versions can be verified, but only as myth, not as history. Typhon fled on the back of an ass, and barely escaped with life. Two sons were afterwards born to Typhon, named Hierosolymus and Judaeus. Typhon on the ass constitutes Sut-Typhon. The two sons of Typhon correspond to Sut in the dual character implied by the name of Sebti or Suti, which was ultimately figured in the form of the double Anubis. The allegory with the secret meaning spoken of by Plutarch belongs to the mythos and the coming out of the celestial Egypt, in which the Sabbath of the six days' creation and of the ascent from Egypt will be shown to be identical.
We are told that the number of Israelites who went up out of Egypt with Moses was about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides children and a mixed multitude. The total number of the people, when it is a question of mouths to be fed, is given as six hundred thousand with no mention of children or a mixed multitude. And in the traditions of the Kabbalists, the number of the souls of the Israelites is six hundred thousand. Six hundred thousand souls were contained in the soul of the first man. Six hundred thousand was the number destined from the first and fulfilled at last. 'The soul of the first man,' says the Nishmath Adam, 'consisted of six hundred thousand souls twined together like so many threads; of these six hundred thousand there is never one wanting; which shows them to be the model of the upper chariot (a figure of the heavens) in which are to be found six hundred thousand sciences; as is well known to such as are acquainted with those sciences.' Another statement is that the number of souls is six hundred thousand, and the law is the root of the souls of the Israelites; and every verse in the law has six hundred thousand explanations, and every soul is formed specially of one explanation. This was the typical number belonging to the mythological astronomy, a 'model of the upper chariot' in which Jah rode upon the heavens; the number that always was, and was to be; the number therefore that came up out of Egypt in the Hebrew legend, who are surely the same Israelites in nature as in number. In the Chronicon Samaritanum, or 'Samaritan Joshua,' the same number is implied where Joshua as king wages war against two kings of Persia with 300,000 mounted men called 'half Israel.' In other legends the same number occurs as the six hundred [p.217] thousand beautiful angels, that sang around and encircled the tree of life in the centre of the celestial garden.
The rabbinical guph, the birthplace of souls, is the Hebrew וג rendered the back. But the back is the bekh, the place of birth called the hinder thigh, on account of the mode of bringing forth and producing animal-fashion. Hence, as seen in the Aramaic and Arabic, guy denotes the belly, the middle, the midst, the interior. It is the kep or khepsh (Eg.), i.e., finally the womb, the Hebrew qebah. One of its images was the gebia or kunda. The celestial guph is the Egyptian kep or khepsh of the north; the Egypt of the heavens and the 600,000 souls that came out of guph are identical with those that came out of Kheb or Egypt. On the other hand we are assured that, 'They were a few men in number, yea, very few, and strangers in it,' i.e., the land of Canaan, not in the land of Egypt. 'The Lord did not set his love upon you, nor choose you because ye were more in number than any people, for ye (were) the fewest of all people.' This has the look of the historical fact, but is at utter variance with the numbers given in the Exodus. People who were led or left as wanderers up and down a rugged sterile wilderness or desert place during forty years without wearing out their clothes, or their shoes waxing old, and who were fed all the while on manna rained down from heaven, never were either the denizens, inhabitants, or 'gipsies' of this world. 'Oh, but,' says the bibliolator, 'it was all done by miracle.' Miracle is the name substituted by the ignorant for mythical. The myth will explain the inexplicable miracle.
And now for a final proof:—The Book of Enoch, to quote its own words, is 'The book of the revolutions of the luminaries of heaven, according to their respective classes, their respective powers, their respective periods, their respective names, the places where they commence their progress (or the places of their nativity), and their respective months, which Uriel, the holy angel who was with me explained to me; he who conducts them. The whole account of them, according to every year of the world for ever, until a new work shall be effected, which will be eternal.' It relates solely to the Sabean, lunar, and solar cycles of time, from the circle of twenty-four hours to that of the great year of 26,000 years. From this the following chapters 84 to 89 are quoted:—
After this I saw another dream and explained it all to thee my son. Enoch arose and said to his son Mathusala: To thee my son will I speak, hear my word, and incline thine ear to the visionary dream of thy father. Before I married thy mother Edna, I saw a vision on my bed;
And behold a cow sprung forth from the earth;
And this cow was white.1
Afterwards a female heifer sprung forth; and it was with another heifer; one was black, and one was red.2
The black heifer then struck the red one and pursued it over the earth.3
From that period I could see nothing more of the red heifer: but the black one increased in bulk, and a female heifer came with him.
After this I saw that many cows proceeded forth, resembling him and following after him.
The first female young one also went out in the presence of the first cow; and sought the red heifer; but found him not.
And she lamented with a great lamentation while she was seeking him. Then I looked until that first cow came to her, from which time she became silent, and ceased to lament.
Afterwards she calved another white cow.
And again calved many cows and black heifers.
In my sleep also I perceived a white bull, which in like manner grew, and became a large white bull.
After him many white cows came forth resembling him.
And they began to calve many other white cows, which resembled them and followed each other.
Again I looked attentively (with my eyes) while sleeping, and surveyed heaven above.
And behold a single star fell from heaven.
Which being raised up, ate and fed among those cows.
After that I perceived other large and black cows; and behold all of them changed their stalls and pastures, while their young began to lament one with another. Again I looked in my vision, and surveyed heaven; when behold I saw many stars which descended, and projected themselves from heaven to where the first star was,
Into the midst of those young ones; while the cows were with them, feeding in the midst of them.
I looked at and observed them; when behold they all protruded their parts of shame like horses, and began to ascend the young cows, all of whom became pregnant and brought forth elephants, camels, and asses.
At these all the cows were alarmed and terrified; when they began biting with their teeth, swallowing and striking with their horns.
They began also to devour the cows; and behold all the children of the earth trembled, shook with terror at them, and suddenly fled away.
Again I perceived them, when they began to strike and to swallow each other; and the earth cried out. Then I raised my eyes a second time towards heaven, and saw in a vision, that, behold there came forth from heaven as it were the likeness of white men. One came forth from thence, and three with him.
Those three who came forth last seized me by my hand; and raising me up from the generations of the earth, elevated me to a high station.
Then they showed me a lofty tower on the earth, while every hill became diminished.4 And they said, remain here until thou perceivest what shall come upon those elephants, camels, and asses, upon the stars and upon all the cows.
1 White Cow—The
white cow in the tomb of Seti
represents the nocturnal heaven that gives birth to light, or the beings of
2 Red Heifer—The red heifer or arg roud was so great a mystery, says rabbinical tradition, that even the wise Solomon never fathomed it. In the chapter of transforming into a nycticorax or phoenix, the Osirian says, 'the thoughts of him who listens to words do not know when I am the red calc in the paintings.' That is, words may not express the depths of the mystery of the red heifer.
3 Cain and Abel. (According to Laurence.)
4 Tower—The tower of the seven stages called Babel.
Then I looked at that one of the four white men1 who came out first.
He seized the first star which fell down from heaven.
And binding it hand and foot, he cast it into a valley; a valley, narrow, deep, stupendous and gloomy.
Then one of them drew his sword, and gave it to the elephants, camels, and asses, who began to strike each other. And the whole earth shook on account of them.
And when I looked in the vision, behold one of those four angels, who came forth, hurled from heaven, collected together, and took all the great stars, whose parts of shame resembled those of horses; and binding them all hand and foot, cast them into the cavities of the earth.2
Then one of those four went to the white cows, and taught them a mystery. While the cow was trembling it was born, and became a man,3 and fabricated for himself a large ship. In this he dwelt, and three cows4 dwelt with him in that ship which covered them.
Again I lifted up my eyes towards heaven and saw a lofty roof. Above it were seven cataracts, which poured forth on a certain village much water.
Again I looked, and behold there were fountains open on the earth in that large village.
The water began to boil up, and rose over the earth; so that the village was not seen while its whole soil was covered with water.
Much water was over it, darkness and clouds. Then I surveyed the height of this water; and it was elevated above the village.
It flowed over the village and stood higher than the earth.
Then all the cows which were collected there while I looked on them were drowned, swallowed up, and destroyed in the water.
But the ship floated above it. All the cows, the elephants, the camels and the asses, were drowned on the earth, and all cattle. Nor could I perceive them.
Neither were they able to get out, but perished and sunk into the deep.
Again I looked in the vision until those cataracts from that lofty roof were removed, and the fountains of the earth became equalized, while other depths were opened;
Into which the water began to descend, until the dry ground appeared.
The ship remained on the earth; the darkness receded, and it became light.
Then the white cow which became a man, went out of the ship and the three cows with him.
One of the three cows was white, resembling that cow; one of them was red as blood; and one of them was black, and the white cow left them.
Then began wild beasts and birds to bring forth.
Of all these the different kinds assembled together, lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, wild boars, foxes, rabbits, and the hanzar,
The siset, the avest, kites, the phonkas, and ravens.
Then a white cow5 was born in the midst of them.
And they began to bite each other; when the white cow which was born in the midst of them brought forth a wild ass and a white cow at the same time, and after that many wild asses. Then the white cow6 which was born, brought forth a black wild sow and a white sheep.7
That wild sow also brought forth many swine:
1 Four white men. Probably the four superior gods
of the upper place. The four
genii of the four corners. In Egyptian the name of a spirit, akhu, also means
2 These are the seven stars of the Bear, or Water-horse, which were cast out as untrue timekeepers. Enoch in chapter 21 is shown these seven stars bound to ether in the abyss.
3 Noah. (Laurence.)
4 Shem, Ham, and Japhet. (Laurence.)
6 Isaac. (Laurence.)
7 Esau and Jacob. (Laurence.)
And that sheep brought forth twelve sheep.1
When those twelve sheep grew up, they delivered one of them2 to the asses.3
Again those asses delivered that sheep to the wolves;4
And he grew up in the midst of them.
Then the Lord brought the eleven other sheep that they might dwell and feed with him in the midst of the wolves.
They multiplied and there was abundance of pasture for them.
But the wolves began to frighten and oppress them, while they destroyed their young ones.
And they left their young in torrents of deep water.
Now the sheep began to cry out on account of their young, and fled for refuge to their Lord. One5 however which was saved, escaped, and went away to the wild asses.
I beheld the sheep moaning, crying, and petitioning their Lord.
With all their might, until the Lord of the sheep descended at their voice from his lofty habitation; went to them, and inspected them.
He called to that sheep which had secretly stolen away from the wolves, and told him to make the wolves understand that they were not to touch the sheep.
Then that sheep went to the wolves with the word of the Lord when another6 met him, and proceeded with him.
Both of them together entered the dwelling of the wolves and conversing with them made them understand that from thenceforwards they were not to touch the sheep.
Afterwards I perceived the wolves greatly prevailing over the sheep with their whole force. The sheep cried out and their Lord came to them.
He began to strike the wolves, who commenced a grievous lamentation; but the sheep were silent, nor from that time did they cry out.
I then looked at them until they departed from the wolves. The eyes of the wolves were blind who went out and followed them with all their might. But the Lord of the sheep proceeded with them, and conducted them.
All his sheep followed him.
His countenance was terrific and splendid, and glorious was his aspect. Yet the wolves began to follow the sheep, until they overtook them in a certain lake of water.7
Then that lake became divided the water standing up on both sides before their face.
And while their Lord was conducting them, he placed himself between them and the wolves,
The wolves however perceived not the sheep, but went into the midst of the lake, following them, and running after them into the lake of water.
But when they saw the Lord of the sheep they turned to fly from before his face.
Then the water of the lake returned, and that suddenly according to its nature.
It became full and was raised up, until it covered the wolves. And I saw that all of them which had followed the sheep perished, and were drowned.
But the sheep passed over this water, proceeding to a wilderness, which was without both water and grass. And they began to open their eyes and to see.
Then I beheld the Lord of the sheep inspecting them, and giving them water and grass.
The sheep already mentioned was proceeding with them, and conducting them.
And when he had ascended the top of a lofty rock, the Lord of the sheep sent him to them.
Afterwards I perceived their Lord standing before them, with an aspect terrific and severe.
And when they all beheld him they were frightened at his countenance.
All of them were alarmed and trembled. They cried out after that sheep; and to the other sheep who had been with him, and who was in the midst of them saying; We are not able to stand before our Lord, or to look upon him.
Then that sheep who conducted them went away, and ascended the top of the rock;
1 The Twelve Patriarchs. (Laurence.)
2 Joseph. (Laurence.)
3 Midianites. (Laurence.)
4 Egyptians. (Laurence.)
5 Moses. (Laurence.)
6 Aaron. (Laurence.)
7 The Red Sea. (Laurence.)
When the rest of the sheep began to grow blind, and to wander from the path which he had shown them; but he knew it not.
Their Lord however was moved with great indignation against them; and when that sheep had learned what had happened,
He descended from the top of the rock and coming to them found that there were many,
Which had become blind:
And had wandered from his path. As soon as they beheld him, they feared and trembled at his presence.
And became desirous of returning to their fold.
Then that sheep, taking with him other sheep, went to those which had wandered, And afterwards began to kill them. They were terrified at his countenance. Then he caused those who had wandered to return; who went back to their fold. I likewise saw there in the vision that this sheep became a man, built an house for the Lord of the sheep, and made them all stand in that house.
I perceived also that the sheep which proceeded to meet this sheep, their conductor, died. I saw too that all the great sheep perished, while smaller ones rose up in their place, entered into a pasture, and approached a river of water.1
Then that sheep, their conductor, who became a man, was separated from them and died.
All the sheep sought after him, and cried for him with bitter lamentation.
I likewise saw that they ceased to cry after that sheep, and passed over the river of water,
And that there arose other sheep, all of whom conducted them, instead of those who were dead, and who had previously conducted them.2
Then I saw that the sheep entered into a goodly place, and a territory delectable and glorious.
I saw also that they became satiated; that their house was in the midst of a delectable territory, and that sometimes their eyes were opened, and that sometimes they were blind; until another sheep arose and conducted them.3 He brought them all back and their eyes were opened.
Then dogs, foxes, and wild boars began to devour them, until again another sheep4 arose, the master of the flock, one of themselves, a ram, to conduct them. This ram began to butt on every side those dogs, foxes, and wild boars until they all perished.
But the former sheep opened his eyes, and saw the ram in the midst of them who had laid aside his glory.
And he began to strike the sheep, treading upon them and behaving himself without dignity.
Then their Lord sent the former sheep again to a still different sheep,5 and raised him up to be a ram, and to conduct them instead of that sheep who had laid aside his glory.
Going therefore to him and conversing with him alone, he raised up that ram and made him a prince and leader of the flock. All the time that the dogs,6 troubled the sheep.
The first ram paid respect to this latter ram.
Then the latter ram arose, and fled away from before his face. And I saw that those dogs caused the first ram to fall.
But the latter ram arose and conducted the smaller sheep.
That ram likewise begat many sheep and died.
Then there was a smaller sheep,7 a ram, instead of him, which became a prince and leader, conducting the flock.
And the sheep increased in size and multiplied, And all the dogs, foxes, and wild boars, feared and fled away from him.
That ram also struck and killed all the wild beasts so that they could not again prevail in the midst of the sheep, nor at any time ever snatch them away.
And that house was made large and wide; a lofty tower being built upon it by the sheep, for the Lord of the sheep.
The house was low, but the tower was elevated and very high.
1 The River Jordan. (Laurence.)
2 The Judges of Israel. (Laurence.)
3 Samuel. (Laurence.)
4 Saul. (Laurence.)
5 David. (Laurence.)
6 Philistines. (Laurence.)
7 Solomon. (Laurence.)
Then the Lord of the sheep stood upon that tower, and caused a full table to approach before him.
Again I saw that those sheep wandered, and went various ways, forsaking that their house,
And that their Lord called to some among them whom he sent to them.1
But these the sheep began to kill. And when one of them was saved from slaughter,2 he leaped and cried out against those who were desirous of killing him.
But the Lord of the sheep delivered him from their hands, and made him ascend to him and remain with him.
He sent also many others to them to testify, and with lamentations to exclaim against them.
Again I saw, when some of them forsook the house of their Lord and his tower; wandering on all sides and growing blind.
I saw that the Lord of the sheep made a great slaughter among them in their pasture, until they cried out to him in consequence of that slaughter. Then he departed from the place of his habitation, and left them in the power of lions, tigers, wolves and the zeebt, and in the power of foxes, and of every beast.
And the wild beasts began to tear them.
I saw too that he forsook the house of their fathers and their tower; giving them all into the power of lions to tear and devour them; into the power of every beast.
Then I began to cry out with all my might, imploring the Lord of the sheep, and showing him how the sheep were devoured by all the beasts of prey.
But he looked on in silence, rejoicing that they were devoured, swallowed up, and carried off; and leaving them in the power of every beast for food. He called also seventy shepherds, and resigned to them the care of the sheep, that they might overlook them.
Saying to them and to their associates; Every one of you henceforwards overlook the sheep and whatsoever I command you, do; and I will deliver them to you numbered.
I will tell you which of them shall be slain; these destroy; And he delivered the sheep to them;
Then he called to another and said: Understand, and watch everything which the shepherds shall do to these sheep; for many more of them shall perish than I have commanded.
Of every excess and slaughter, which the shepherds shall commit, there shall be an account; as, how many may have perished by my command, and how many they may have destroyed of their own heads.
Of all the destruction brought about by each of the shepherds, there shall be an account: and according to the number I will cause a recital to be made before me, how many they have destroyed of their own heads, and how many they have delivered up to destruction, that I may have this testimony against them; that I may know all their proceedings; and that delivering the sheep to them I may see what they will do; whether they will act as I have commanded them or not.
Of this however they shall be ignorant; neither shalt thou make any explanation to them; but there shall be an account of all the destruction done by them in their respective seasons. Then they began to kill and destroy more than it was commanded them.
And they left the sheep in the power of lions, so that very many of them were devoured and swallowed up by lions and tigers; and wild boars preyed upon them. That tower they burnt and overthrew that house.
Then I grieved extremely on account of the tower, and because the house of the sheep was overthrown.
Neither was I afterwards able to perceive whether they again entered that house.
The shepherds likewise, and their associates, delivered them to all the wild beasts, that they might devour them; each of them in his season, according to his number, was delivered up; each of them, one with another, was described in a book, how many of them one with another were destroyed, in a book.
More however than was ordered, every shepherd killed and destroyed.
Then I began to weep and was greatly indignant on account of the sheep.
In like manner also I saw in the vision him who wrote, how he wrote down one destroyed by the shepherd; every day. He ascended, remained, and exhibited
1 The Prophets. (Laurence.)
2 Elijah. (Laurence.)
[p.223] each of his books to the Lord of the sheep, containing all which they had done, and all which each of them had made away with;
And all which they had delivered up to destruction.
And he took the book up in his hands, read it, sea led it, and deposited it.
After this I saw shepherds overlooking for twelve hours.
And behold three of the sheep departed, arrived, went in; and began building all which was fallen down of that house.
But the wild boars' hindered them although they prevailed not.
Again they began to build as before, and raised up that tower which was called a lofty tower.
And again they began to place before the tower a table, with every impure and unclean kind of bread upon it.
Moreover also all the sheep were blind, and could not see; as were the shepherds likewise.
Thus were they delivered up to the shepherds for a great destruction, who trod them under foot, and devoured them.
Yet was their Lord silent, until all the sheep in the field were destroyed. The shepherds and the sheep were all mixed together; but they did not save them from the power of the beasts.
Then he who wrote the book ascended, exhibited it, and read it at the residence of the Lord of the sheep. He petitioned him for them, and prayed, pointing out every act of the shepherds, and testifying before him against them all. Then taking the book he deposited it with him: and departed.
And I observed during the time, that these thirty-seven shepherds,3 were overlooking, all of whom finished in their respective periods as the first. Others then received them into their hands, that they might overlook them in their respective periods, every shepherd in his own period.
Afterwards I saw in the vision, that all the birds of heaven arrived; eagles, the avest, kites and ravens. The eagle instructed them all.
They began to devour the sheep, to peck out their eyes, and to eat up their bodies.
The sheep then cried out; for their bodies were devoured by the birds.
I also cried out, and groaned in my sleep against that shepherd which overlooked the flock.
And I looked, while the sheep were eaten up by the dogs, by the eagles, and by the kites. They neither left them their body nor their skins, nor their muscles, until their bones alone remained; until their bones fell upon the ground. And the sheep became diminished.
I observed likewise during the time, that twenty-three shepherds were overlooking; who completed in their respective periods fifty-eight periods.
Then were small lambs born of those white sheep, who began to open their eyes and to see, crying out to the sheep.
The sheep however cried not out to them, neither did they hear what they uttered to them; but were deaf, blind, and obdurate in the greatest degree.
I saw in the vision that ravens flew down upon those lambs;
That they seized one of them; and that tearing the sheep in pieces, they devoured them.
I saw also, that horns grew upon those lambs; and that the ravens lighted down upon their horns.
I saw too that a large horn sprouted out on an animal among the sheep, and that their eyes were opened.
He looked at them. Their eyes were wide open; and he cried out to them.
Then the dabelat saw him; all of whom ran to him.
And besides this, all the eagles, the avest, the ravens and the kites, were still
1 Zerubbabel, Joshua and Nehemiah. (Laurence.)
2 The Samaritans. (Laurence.)
3 A supposed error for 35. See the 7th verse. The kings of Judah and Israel. (Laurence.)
4 The kings of Babylon, etc. (Laurence.)
[p.224] carrying off the sheep, flying down upon them, and devouring them. The sheep were silent, but the dabelat lamented and cried out.
Then the ravens contended, and struggled with them.
They wished among them to break his horn; but they prevailed not over him.
I looked on them until the shepherds, the eagles, the avest, and the kites came.
Who cried out to the ravens to break the horn of the dabelat; to contend with him; and to kill him. But he struggled with them, and cried out, that help might come to him.
Then I perceived that the man came who had written down the names of the shepherds, and who ascended up before the Lord of the sheep.
He brought assistance, and caused every one to see him descending to the help of the dabelat.
I perceived likewise that the Lord of the sheep came to them in wrath, while all those who saw him fled away; all fell down in his tabernacle before his face, while all the eagles, the avest, ravens, and kites assembled and brought with them' all the sheep of the field.
All came together, and strove to break the horn of the dabelat.
Then I saw that the man who wrote the book at the word of the Lord, opened the book of destruction, of that destruction which the last twelve shepherds1 wrought: and pointed out before the Lord of the sheep that they destroyed more than those who preceded them.
I saw also that the Lord of the sheep came to them, and taking in his hand the sceptre of his wrath seized the earth, which became rent asunder; while all the beasts and birds of heaven fell from the sheep, and sank into the earth, which closed over them.
I saw too that a large sword was given to the sheep, who went forth against all the beasts of the field to slay them.
But all the beasts and birds of heaven fled away from before their face.
And I saw a throne erected in a delectable land.
Upon this sat the Lord of the sheep, who received all the sealed books;
Which were opened before him.
Then the Lord called the first seven white ones, and commanded them to bring before him the first of the first stars which preceded the stars whose parts of shame resemble those of horses; the first star, which fell down first; and they brought them all before Him.
And He spoke to the man who wrote in his presence, who was one of the seven white ones, saying; Take those seventy shepherds to whom I delivered up the sheep, and who receiving them, killed more of them than I commanded. Behold I saw them all bound and all standing before Him. First came on the trial of the stars, which being judged and found guilty, went to the place of punishment. They thrust them into a place deep and full of flaming fire, and full of pillars of fire. Then the seventy shepherds were judged, and being found guilty were thrust into the flaming abyss.
At that time likewise I perceived that one abyss was thus opened in the midst of the earth, which was full of fire.
And to this were brought the blind sheep; which being judged and found guilty were all thrust into that abyss of fire on the earth and burnt.
The abyss was on the right of that house.
And I saw the sheep burning, and their bones consuming.
And I stood beholding Him immerge that ancient house, while they brought out its pillars every plant in it, and the ivory infolding it. They brought it out and deposited it in a place on the right side of the earth.
I saw also that the Lord of the sheep produced a new house, great and loftier than the former, which he bounded by the former circular spot. All its pillars were new, and its ivory new, as well as more abundant than the former ancient ivory, which he had brought out.
And while all the sheep which were left in the midst of it, all the beasts of the earth, and all the birds of heaven fell down and worshipped them, petitioning them, and obeying them in everything. Then those three who were clothed in white, and who holding me by my hand had before caused me to ascend, while the hand of him who spoke held me; raised me up, and placed me in the midst of the sheep, before the judgment took place.
1 The native princes of Judah after its delivery from the Syrian yoke. (Laurence.)
The sheep were all white with wool long and pure. Then all who had perished and had been destroyed, every beast of the field and every bird of heaven, assembled in that house; while the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy, because all were good, and came back again to his dwelling.
And I saw that they laid down the sword which had been given to the sheep, and returned it to his house, sealing it up in the presence of the Lord.
All the sheep would have been enclosed in that house, had it been capable of containing them, and the eyes of all were open, gazing on the good One; nor was there one among them who did not behold Him.
I likewise perceived that the house was large, wide, and extremely full. I saw too that a white cow was born, whose horns were great; and that all the beasts of the field and all the birds of heaven were alarmed at him, and entreated him at all times.
Then I saw that the nature of all of them was changed, and that they became white cows.
And that the first who was in the midst of them spoke, (or became a Word) when that Word became a large beast, upon the head of which were great and black horns;
While the Lord of the sheep rejoiced over them, and over all the cows.
I lay down in the midst of them; I awoke; and saw the whole. This is the vision which I saw, lying down and waking. Then I blessed the Lord of righteousness, and gave glory to Him.
(From the Book of Enoch, chaps. 84-89, translated by Archbishop Laurence.)*
*A pretended 'Book of Enoch' has been put forth anonymously by Dr. Kenealy, but it is of no value, either as a translation or as an original work.
This is written in the book of the revolutions of the luminaries of heaven, and belongs solely and absolutely to the astronomical mythology.
There is no sign that the Book of Enoch was ever included among the sacred writings of the Jews. It is referred to and quoted in the Zohar as a book known to the Kabbalists, but no claim is made nor clue afforded concerning its origin. Its existence in the Ethiopic was discovered by the traveller Bruce, who brought three copies of the work from Abyssinia, where it stands immediately before the Book of Job in the canonical scriptures of the Abyssinian church, one of which was deposited in the Bodleian library, Oxford, and from this Archbishop Laurence produced his version.
In whatsoever language the work ascribed to Enoch was first written, or whensoever it was last rewritten, the matter is most ancient. The messiah son, the manifestor of the Ancient of Days, appears in it as the child of the woman—the son of the woman sitting upon the throne of his glory, he who from the beginning existed in secret, and whose name was invoked before the sun or constellations were. That was as Sut-Typhon, the anush (Eg.), of the dog or wolf-dog type, which identifies the Hebrew anosh and Enoch with the Dog-star.
The earliest of all the manifestors of time in the mythologies were the genetrix (Great Bear) and her son Sut-Anush, or Anup, the Sabean Bar or Baal, who preceded the lunar and solar reckonings. 'Interpreter of Belus' Seneca designates Berosus, and Belus is called the 'Inventor of Sidereal Science' by Solinus and Pliny. He [p.226] was so as Baal of the Dog-star, Bar-Sutekh, the son of the mother. He was so in the same sense that the Hebrew Seth was the erector of the pillars described by Josephus.
Sut-Anush appears in Genesis as Enos, the son of Seth, at the time when men began to worship the Lord instead of or in addition to the lady. In the Samaritan version the older patriarchs die in the year of the flood, all except Enoch who is the typical announcer. That is right according to the true myth, and fatal to the false.
The Book of Enoch, so far as we have it extant, is the Kabbalist version of the same series and sequence of events that we find converted into human history in the Hebrew scriptures. It is genuine Kabbalah, not the vaporized and vague reflex known as the theoretical Kabbalah, which consists mainly of metaphysical speculations and mystical misinterpretations of mythology. This belongs to the practical Kabbalah, which means that it is astronomical, rather than eschatological, and the subject-matter is still verifiable in phenomena.
The Book of Enoch is, on its own showing, a 'Book of Parables' or allegories, secret things solely concerning the heavens, to be read by the 'characteristical signs;' a book that has been dropped from heaven gradually in the sense of having been distilled. There is no human history in it, none to be got out of it. And yet the supposed history of Israel from the commencement in Genesis is outlined in this quotation, and has been identified as such by learned divines. One of two things is sure. Either the Book of Enoch contains the Hebrew history in allegory, or the celestial allegory is the Hebrew history. The parallel is perfect. Nor is there any escape by sticking one's head in the earth and foolishly fancying that the writer of the Book of Enoch amused himself by transforming a Hebrew history into the celestial allegory and concealed its significance by leaving out all the personal names. On the contrary, it is the allegory which has been turned into later history. History may and does begin with mythology; but mythology does not commence with history. The Book of Enoch certainly contains the same characters as the sacred or secret history of the Jews, and as these belong to the astronomical allegory in the one book, that is good evidence of their being mythical in the other. There can be no doubt that the Book of Enoch is what it claims to be, the book of the revolutions of the heavenly bodies with no earthly relation to human history.
The white cow of the beginning takes us beyond the Hebrew records to the chamber of the white cow in the tomb of Seti I, the white cow of heaven, of the goddesses Neith and Hathor, who personated the bringer-forth, and the first uplifting of the firmament by Shu. The myth of the two brothers who were at enmity is worldwide, and of this the story of Cain and Abel is a version. The white men, the seven stars, Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japhet, Abrahatr [p.227] Isaac, Esau, and Jacob, the twelve patriarchs, Moses, the Red Sea, the Judges, David, Saul, and Solomon, are claimed on sufficient evidence to be mythical, and the same characters appear in this book as persons or personifications belonging to the celestial allegory. The seventy shepherds are the seventy princes or angels of the Kabbalah who descended to the earth when the tower of Babel was overthrown, who ruled the seventy divisions which followed the seven, whose seventy names are catalogued in the rabbinical writings.
It is said, 'He called also seventy shepherds and resigned to them the sheep that they might overlook them.' These seventy are composed of 35, 23, and 12. But the seventy who are twice mentioned have been changed into seventy-two, by the substitution of the number thirty-seven. Laurence characterizes this as an error, because thirty-five is the precise number of the kings of Judah and Israel, before the captivity. On the astronomical ground we see in these two numbers a rectification of the original total of seventy, and the intended substitution of the seventy-two according to the chart of the duo-decans in the solar zodiac.
The description ends as in the Book of Revelation with the prophesied restoration and with the new temple or temple of the new heavens, promised and expected at the end of the great year of precession and the going forth of the Messiah, son of the Ancient of Days, as the Word. It begins with the most ancient matter of the Old Testament and concludes with the fulfilment in the New, and vouches for both being the substance of the celestial allegory, which will be fully unfolded in the course of the present work.
The same misapprehension has occurred with some Egyptologists, in their readings of the myths in Egypt, as in our reading of the Hebrew report of them. Goodwin speaks of the origin of the myths as arising from the contests of two rival races of different extraction, those of Upper and Lower Egypt, whose conflict appears to have been perpetually renewed. The same mistake was made by George Smith in rendering the cuneiform tablets. So has it been with the interpreters of the Hindu writings. So must it be wherever there is a determination to see nothing but materials for history in the debris of mythology. So the author of Juventus Mundi still pursues one of the phantoms which will never condense into historic personality. They have had their time of apparent solidity in the density of our ignorance and the darkness of the past. But now is the day of their dispersion, for a light is dawning that will shine through and through them till their falsehood grows transparent to the truth.
This page last updated: 23/04/2014