[p.363]

A BOOK OF THE BEGINNINGS

 

SECTION 18

 

THE EGYPTIAN ORIGIN OF THE JEWS TRACED FROM THE MONUMENTS

 

'Nowhere do the inscriptions contain one syllable about the Israelites.'[1] That is the point blank assertion of one of the foremost transcribers from the monuments, who is also a devout bibliolater. It is perfectly true that they contain nothing direct for those who accept the Book of Exodus, and who think to find in Egypt a couple of millions of foreigners called Israelites, Hebrews, or Jews, as an ethnological entity entirely unknown to the Egyptians themselves. It was useless seeking for the Israelites on the monuments until we could get somewhat clear of the astronomical allegory, with its Egyptian myths turned into Hebrew miracles; its gods and leaders of the wars in heaven converted into historic personages.

The Hebrew books of the Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Joshua, and Judges are invaluable as a virgin mine of mythology; they are of the utmost importance as an aid in recovering the primeval types of Egyptian thought, which, in turn, will interpret the Hebrew writings and permit of their being understood, as they never have been, and never could be apart from their original purpose and manner of setting forth. For the Hebrews, who collected and preserved so much, have explained nothing. There is evidence enough to prove the types are Egyptian, and the people who brought them out of Egypt must have been more or less Egyptian in race, and of a religion that was Egyptian of the earliest and oldest kind.

Undoubtedly there is some very slight historic nucleus in the Hebrew narrative, but it has been so mixed with the myth that it is far easier to recover the celestial allegory with the aid of its correlatives than it is to restore the human history.

Josephus lets us know how the history was composed in accordance with the mythos. When recounting one of the Mosaic miracles he observes, 'Now as to these matters, every one of my readers may think as he pleases; but I am under a necessity of relating this [p.364] history as it is described in the sacred books,'[2] that is in the writings which were considered divine because they did not relate to human events.

If, as Bunsen asserts, history was born in that night when Moses led the people out of Egypt[3], it must have been stillborn, and no Hebraist or Egyptologist has ever been able to determine the date of birth. The monuments tell us but little of all that the Christian world has made such a fanatical fuss about. Egypt has told us nothing as yet, except that the Jews were indiscriminately mixed up with the Hekshus and Typhonians.

English Egyptologists might be namednot such however as Dr. Birch, the soundest and profoundest of them allwho have gone into Egypt and perused its monuments with the Bible for an infallible handbook, asking everybody and everything if they knew of such a person as Abraham (he who taught the Egyptians astronomy), or Jacob and his twelve sons, who went down there and grew into a multitude two millions strong? or a pharaoh, who was drowned in the Red Sea? or a Solomon, who married the daughter of a pharaoh? or the universal death, in one night, of the firstborn and flower of every family in Egypt? or the ten plagues? Surely they remembered the ten plagues, and the inferiority of the Egyptian gods to those of the Israelites, demonstrated by their inability to produce lice?[4] Yet so positively do the monuments deny all knowledge of these and many other things devoutly believed to be historical, that we may almost expect the imperturbable sphinx to shake its head in stony negation.

Brugsch has spent much valuable time in attempting to establish the history of the exodus according to the mythos; but Hebrew history cannot be satisfactorily made out of Egyptian myth, and the monuments in answering for the myth refuse to corroborate the history. Hence the statement, 'Nowhere do the inscriptions contain one syllable about the Israelites.'[5]

The Hebrews never were in Egypt in the current sense; never were other than a portion of the 'mixed multitude' congregated in the Tanite, Sethroite, and Heliopolitan nomes; a part of the people named and execrated as the foreigners, hekshus, aamu, aperu, menat, fenekh, or aati, whose Egyptian designations will not determine their ethnology.

As the latest results of ceaseless research it appears that the Hekshus times and ethnology are just as indefinite. It is now admitted by Egyptologists to be absolutely impossible to ascertain from the monumental records when the so-called Hekshus period began, how long it lasted, or at what date it ended. Here, however, the lacunae of the monuments are supplemented by the indefiniteness of the Hekshus name.

According to de Rouge[6], the Hekshus rule extended to 2,017 [p.365] years; whilst the art remains of the Hekshus periods discovered by Mariette[7] in his excavations are not Assyrian, not Phoenician, never foreign, nor anything other than Egyptian. As to the Hekshus names, Dr. Birch has remarked, 'They unfortunately throw no philological light on their origin. They are neither Semitic nor Aramaean, and would, except for other considerations, pass for good Egyptian pharaohs. They (the Hekshus) did not disturb the civilization.'[8] The final explanation is that the names and their bearers were Egyptian, and that the Hekshus reigns do not necessarily denote the conquests of Egypt by the foreigners, except in the religious sense. The leaders of the religious revolt were within the land and native to it, howsoever mixed the multitude of their followers. Herodotus affirms that the Ionians and Carians, whom he places in the time of Psammitichus, but who may have also belonged to the Tyrian camp at Memphis at an earlier periodwere 'the first people of a different language who settled in Egypt;' and when brought to this test, the 'different language' of the invaders does not appear in Egypt as the result of the Hekshus rule[9]. The common notion of the continual conquest of Egypt by the Hekshus kings, considered to be the rulers of foreign races, is almost entirely wrong. It is wholly wrong in the beginning and only partly right in the end. There has been the greatest difficulty in the minds of Egyptologists regarding the statements that the proud and powerful empire of the pharaohs should be continually overthrown and found prostrate at the feet of wandering nomads and tribes of herdsmen and cattle-keepers; nor was it true in the sense generally accepted.

According to the new reading of the data now offered, the Hekshus are not the ethnological enemies and invaders of Egypt, as they have been considered hitherto. The Hekshus were identical with the Shus-en-Har of pre-monumental times; their cult was indigenous and primeval, and had never ceased in the land, although it had. been frequently or partially suppressed. For a period, anterior to Mena, of 13,420 years, a date often mentioned in the inscriptions, they had worshipped the god Har, whether as Har-Sut or the Har Sun; the peculiar iniquity of their cult consisting in the god being the son of the mother, the oldest genetrix who was Ta-urt or Typhon, whereas the Osirians had established the divine fatherhood, and adored Osiris or Amen-Ra as generator. The duad of the mother and child had gone forth over the world as Sutekh and Astarte of Syria, Duzi and Ishtar, the Phoenician Baal and Asherah, Hebrew Moloch and Khivan, British Hu and Kêd, and many more that need not be named here as the subject will recur again; this duad in earliest Egypt was Sut-Typhon.

The beginning of mythology with the mother and boy is universal, and still survives in the virgin and child of Rome. The [p.366] sonship preceding the fatherhood sheds a light on the remark made by Proclus in his commentary on Plato's Parmenides, who says that in accordance with the theology of the Greeks 'even Jupiter and Dionysus are styled boys and youths.'[10] The first boy and his mother were Sut-Typhon. Apt, Khept, or Ta-urt is designated the 'great one who has given birth to the boy, companion of the great one who resides in Thebes, the great mother of Kamutf.'[11]

Those who repudiated and degraded the old mother still continued her type, or brought her on under other names. As evidence that she was prior to and was converted into Neith, the great mother, it may be pointed out that the sign read hat-nat, the 'House of Neith,' was frequently read hat-kheb, 'House of Kheb,' who was the hippopotamus goddess.

The old genetrix Ta-urt became Hes-Taurt or Isis-Taurt, the cow-headed, whence Ashtaroth; and in the Samaritan Pentateuch[12] Ash­taroth-karnaim is rendered by מינרק תינפע, (Gaphneith qarnaim), in which we have both Kheb and Neith, as in the goddess Hes-Taurt and as in the two names of the abode, the birthplace. On the granite altar of Turin[13] we find 'Isis in Pafet' or Pa-aft. Fet or aft signifies the four quarters, and pa is the house, pafet the abode of the four quarters, which, as the aft, apt, or abtu, was the place of the rebirth. This not only belonged to, it was personified by, the more ancient goddess Aft or Apt, the hippopotamus-type of the abode. With this pafet may be paralleled the Gaelic pabaidh[14].

The old Typhon is designated the 'mother of the fields of the ah-en-Ru,' i.e., the first creator and establisher of the heavens, and the 'Resident of the Abode of the Bier' (in Ursa Major); and in the astronomical ceilings of the Memnonium of Thebes, and the temples of Esna and Denderah, she is placed at the northern centre as the mother of the revolutions of the heavens, close to the cow Mehur, who gave birth to the sun. This addition of the cow Hes, as the solar (earlier lunar) genetrix, shows the addition of Hes to Ta-urt, whence Hes-taroth or Ashtaroth. At Ombos, Ta-urt and Sut-Nubti were the deities presiding over the months. Ta-urt is called the resident in the pure waters belonging to the abyssal heights of heaven, and regent of the gods[15]. Ta-urt is also visibly continued as a goddess with the eye on her head, as prototype of Meru, Tefnut, and others. She is visibly changing from the hippopotamus to the human form, and is portrayed as beauty and the beast in one image[16].

She bore the first Ar, Har, Bar, or Baal, the son. Har, as her son, was the earliest of the pharaohs and not Ra. There are pharaohs on the monuments before the introduction of the name of Ra. The name [p.367] of 'pharaoh' is derived from hat, the son of the mother, who, as Neith, earlier Typhon, gave birth to Helios, and not from Ra at all. The Har sun is constantly appealed to in contradistinction to Ra. 'I served the Horus (pharaoh) in his house,' says the servant of a pharaoh[17]. The har being before Rawe know of the introduction of the first name of Ra on the monumentsand the earlier son being the har (Horus) sun, the son of the mother and later Ar-Hes (Osiris), it follows that the first pharaohs, Mena, and others, were founded on the har. They were assimilated to the sun as Har-Makhu or the still earlier Sut-Har, and the pharaoh was P-har-Iu, the double Horus, or Horus of the two houses, who first appears as Sut-Har.*

* It should be explained that certain names of the gods are only epithet-titles such is that of Har-Makhu, the first form of whom was the star-god of both horizons, as Sut-Har, and the latest, the solar deity, Aten or Atum. The title of Har-Makhu is even applied to the planet Venus, as star of the double horizon.

There was an evil fact to face in the name of Sut-Har, as it identified the dog. In Coptic (en) Hōr, the star of the dog, is the name of the Dog-star. This is the Egyptian uhar for the dog. Uhar implies khuhar, and shows the dog to have been the earliest khart or har, the son of the mother. Such origins were annoying after the animal types had been made human in mythology and divine in eschatology! The pharaoh may have become the Har, and later Ra of the two solar houses (Iu), or the great house, as rendered by de Rouge[18], but primarily the pharaoh, was the Har-Iu, the coming son of a twofold nature, and of the Two (Iu) Houses. This was the Har of the Shus-en-Har and the Bar or Baal of the Hekshus, whether worshipped within Egypt or out of it.

The rulers of the Shus are called Heks. The hek was an Egyptian regent and governor. The Hek-Taui was prince of two worlds. This hek, as prince and regent, shows the title was founded on the sonship which preceded the fatherhood. The god Hak, a form of Harpocrates, proves the type and identifies the child of the mother solely, brought on as Har, the elder; Har, the child. The Hek-Shus were the worshippers of Hak, who survived as one of the Tum triad, the still earlier Kak, god of darkness, or, the invisible being when eschatologically rendered, the Amen of the Hekshus.

A striking illustration of the typhonian origin, or relationship of the god Atum, is cited by Renouf, without mentioning the monument. The four names of Sut, as god of Senu, Sut of Uau, Sut of Un, and Sut of Muru, are all clustered together in one inscription as children of the god Tum[19]. That is, when the solar fatherhood was established in Atum, Sut, the son of the genetrix, was given to him as the son of the father in a fourfold local form. Also the twin lion-gods assume the type of Sut-Horus when they are the supporters of Atum-Ra.

The tombs of the kings at Thebes, those in the valley of Biban-el­ [p.368] Muluk, are filled with imagery that connects the cults of Atum and Sut-Typhon, particularly the tomb of Seti I, the devoted to Sut; the one god of the Two Truths being represented by Tum and the goddess by Ma. The typology in these tombs is so entirely unique, so different from the imagery found elsewhere, as to have arrested and repaid profound attention.

The golden age of mythology was the time of Sut, who, as the renn, the child-god of the ancient mother, gave the name to Saturn; the first period of existence in Egypt is the golden age, and to that we owe the worldwide tradition of the age of gold. Sut-Nub is the golden Sut, and in consequence gold became accursed in the Osirian religion, because of its typhonian relationship. In the representations on the monuments from remote antiquity gold was already tarnished and considered at least a root of evil, on account of its symbolical character. Plutarch[20] tells us how at the feast of the sun the worshippers were prohibited from wearing gold. Sut was the primordial manifestor of the seven in Smen. Sut was the scribe of the antediluvian stelae in the Karuadic land. The papyrus collection of receipts for curing leprosy in the time of King Sapti, the fifth pharaoh of the First Dynasty, was enclosed in a writing-case under the feet of Sut (Anubis), who was thus acknowledged to be the lord of divine words, the divine scribe who preceded Taht.

A very early inscription contains invocations addressed to the Anubis of six different localities, i.e., Sut, in a sixfold form, considered topographically.

In the Egyptian Ritual the god Sut takes his turn with Horus as purifier of the soul[21]. He is 'god of the house, belonging to his houses, who informs the Bennu (a type of the resurrection) of the things of the gate.'[22] 'The great one shining with his body as a god is Sut, for Taht faces those who are among them in that band.'[23] This is possibly as the Sahu constellation, Orion. In the Magical Texts Sut is the creator god; 'Thy father is Sut; thy mother is Nu; they vivify thee.'[24]

The chief sign of nunter (nuter) is the stone adze (Â), one name of which is Anup, and this is a name of Sut, god of the Dog-star, the opener of the year. Sut was likewise called the opener; the adze being a type of the opener. In this instance the likeness or type (nun) of time (ter) is related to the opener of the year in heaven, to the birth of the child (nun) and to the inundation (nun), as the nunter, or nnuter. Sut gave his name to the south (Suten), and royalty was named after him in the image of the sonship. King Khufu, of the Fourth Dynasty, is a representative of the god Sut as the son, Mar-Sut, who was probably the god of the Shus-en-Har for thousands of years before the monuments begin for us.

[p.369]

Sut-Typhon was the divinity of Ka Hebes, the eleventh nome in Lower Egypt, and the Sethroite nome bears the name of Sut. Sut is one of the gods worshipped in the time of King Pepi, of the Sixth Dynasty, and occupies the place of Horus the son, with Osiris, Isis, and Nephthys. He appears twice on the same monument, and in each case the name has been partly erased. Ta-urt, whose name follows that of Sut, was worshipped as Kar-tek, the spark-holder in Pa-tek, the place of sparks; another goddess, whose name stands next to hers on the same monument, being that of Kar-tes, of Pa-tes, the flint-holder in the place of flint-weapons[25]. Tes, the name of the flint, also denotes the soul of self, and was continued as a title of the genetrix. Tuot, formerly Tuphium, repeats topographically the 'Taht formerly Sut' of the Ritual. It was here that Wilkinson copied a divinity, from whose head project the two ears of the ass or fenekh, which are typhonian[26]. These identify the figure with Sut, even though he has no name and his legend has been erased. The Tuphium is the maternal abode of Sut, the son.

There was a god, Sebt or Sapt, the full form of his name being Sebti. He is blended with Har of the east in Pa-Sapt-Har, the temple of Sapt-Har, apparently the pyramid-temple at Memphis[27]. This deity was depicted as a hawk with two upright feathers on his head. These equate with the two feathers of truth on the head of Sapt[28]. A pyramid also is one of his signs, and this reads Sapt or Sapti. Sapt, with the pyramid or triangle determinative, was copied by Wilkinson[29]. He is so little known that he has been called a foreign god. But the pyramid is the sign of Sebt, as Sothis, the Dog-star, and the two are connecting links between Sebti and Sut, and Sebti or Sapti is a form of the ancient Sut. The combination of Sut and Horus is well known[30], and it reappears in this Sapt-Har, of the temple pyramid of Memphis. The Anubis-jackal, which is also the symbol of Sap, serves to identify that divinity as a continued form of Sut-Anubis. As Sut is the earliest divine son, so Typhon, Teb, or Kep is the primal mother, who gave birth to the boy; Ta-urt being one of her titles. Aphroditopolis, the capital of the tenth nome in Upper Egypt, was the earlier tebu; Aphroditopolis, the capital of the twenty-second nome, was Tep-ah; Apollinopolis Magna, capital of the second nome, was Teb. These are all in Upper Egypt, and each is named from the old genetrix.

Apet, near Luxor, a principal quarter of Thebes, bears the name of the ancient mother, who personated the earliest Apt or Teb, the Crib or Ark of the divine child. On a Memphian tomb of the [p.370] Fourth Dynasty a lady is named Tebt, the female hippopotamus, and is therefore the namesake of the typhonian genetrix, the mother of Sut.

Apt, the reduced form of Khept, supplied the Egyptian language with its type-word for the angel, the messenger, especially the messenger of divine vengeance in the Book of the Dead. Ap means to manifest, declare, announce, make known openly, and Apt is the feminine manifestor, the angel or messenger who was the 'Living Word,' as goddess of the Great Bear, and of the fourfold type combining the hippopotamus, crocodile, kaf-monkey, and lioness.

The goddess Khut (a modified form of Khept) and Har-Khent-Khuti, were the deities of Athribis (Ha-ta-hir-ab), capital of the tenth nome of Lower Egypt. These were the oldest great mother and her son. The goddess Tut or Dood,* who was the mother of the great circle of the gods at Abydus, bears a name worn down from Tept. The same name is found in Dido, the Phoenician Astarte, who can be traced to Isis-Taurt, or Hestaroth.

* Dood. This modified form of tepht appears in the English 'Dud's-Well,' the tepht being the Well of Source, identical with Dyved. A festival called the Diud feast, held in the reign of Mary, is recorded thus 'On the 19th of October, 1566, Walter Macwalter beand callit and accusit of halding ane Idall feist, called the Diudfeist.'[31]

Enough to show the origin and continuity of Sut-Typhon in Egypt, where the worship never ceased, however much it was suppressed.

Few more precious relics of the past have been left to us out of Egypt than the account of Isis and Osiris assigned to Plutarch[32]. In this he observes: 'We have also another story told us by the Egyptians: how that once Apophis, brother to the sun, fell at variance with Jupiter, and made war upon him; but Jupiter, entering into an alliance with Osiris, did by his assistance overthrow his enemy in a pitched battle, and afterwards adopted him (Osiris) for his son, and gave him the name of Dionysus.'

'It is easy to show,' says Plutarch, 'that this fabulous relation borders also upon the verity of physical science.'[33] It is so without accepting his explanation.

One has to feel again and again that the matter is Manetho's[34], with added explanations. The present story is that of Sut-Horus, the god of the Sun-and-Sirius cycle, who unites the ass or gryphon-headed bird with the solar hawk, in a brotherhood of Sut and the sun. Sut is the later Apophis, the Sut-Apehpeh of the monuments, the Sut-Har of the Shus or Hekshus; the Har-Sut of the inscription of Khufu.

The history of religion in Egypt and of the Egyptian origin of Sut-Typhon is bound up with this story. It rightly relates the quarrel which rent the monuments, as being that of Sut-Horus (Sut as brother of the sun), and the Egyptian Amen-Ra, who was identified by the Greeks as Jupiter Amen, also the alliance of the Ammonians [p.371] with the Osirians against the followers of Sut-Har, of Sutekh, of Sebek and the ancient genetrix Typhon.

Again he says: 'They tell us that Typhon (Sut) made his escape from Horus in the shape of a crocodile.'[35] This shows the passage of Sut into Sebek, when Sut was separated from Har, and Sebek personated the solar Ra. In consequence of this quarrel and divorce of the sun and Sut, and the adoption of the crocodile type, he says there was a continual custom in the town of Apollo (Har) for every one on a set day to eat some part of a crocodile.

There has never been so good a history of what occurred in Egypt as this, which is recovered from the mythology.

The Shus-en-Har did not cease with Mena, and the monuments of Egypt are figuratively rent from bottom to top with the convulsions of two theologies contending for the supremacy; whole dynasties being effaced from the records because they were the maintainers of the ancient Typhonian Cult, the worship of the starry mother and son. Shus-en-Har, disk-worshippers or Hek-Shus, have all one meaning when interpreted according to the theology.

Khufu, the founder of the Great Pyramid, was, according to my reading of the ancient tie-sign found on his standard[36], and in the inscription referring to the Sphinx, 'a living Har-Sut,' i.e., he was assimilated to the divinity Sut-HarSut, the son of the old genetrix. Khept had been modified into Hat (har) as the current type, but she represented the goddess of the seven stars, Hathor's seven cows, and he, the king, was her living son Sut. He was the 'bull of the cows.' It was the religion which caused the bad repute of Khufu in later times among the Osirians, as reported by Herodotus, who says: 'One hundred and six years are reckoned (for the reigns of Khufu and Kefren), during which the Egyptians suffered all kinds of calamities, and for this length of time the temples were closed and never opened. From the hatred they bare them, the Egyptians are unwilling to mention their names, but call the pyramids after Phuition, a shepherd, who at that time kept his cattle in those parts.'[37] In this version the Hekshus king has become the later Shasu, identified with the graziers.

Philition probably contains the equivalent of P-har-iu; the plural being written with the alternative 'ti.' P-hal-ti would be a form of the double Horus, who constituted the earliest pharaoh founded on the Har sonship. The same root, as Al, enters into the name of Palestine, Philistines, and Pelasgi.

The Shus-en-Har were looked upon as temple-closers and enemies of the gods, because they only worshipped the duad of mother and son, and were the nearest approach to monotheists in the past. That is, they did not develop the early typology of the astronomical allegory or carry it into the eschatological region of thought. They [p.372] remained true to the one god as a male and the son of the mother. This particular type will be illustrated in a chapter on the virgin mother and her twin child.

The Shus-en-Har or Hekshus, probably had another return to power after the sixth dynasty, for there is a huge gap as if their works and records had been blown out of existence by the avengers who followed them in the eleventh dynasty. The monumental silence is mournfully eloquent with this interpretation of the facts. The track of the Typhonians is marked with rent and ruin, but not of their own making; they were not the destructives of Egypt. These were the Osirians and Ammonians, who sought to erase every sign of their presence; the men who have made of the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth dynasties a blank desert. These were the people who wrecked their monumental history to get rid of the traces of Typhon; these, and not the Hekshus, were the cause of the calamity we have still to deplore.

The Shus-en-Har, the Hekshus, and Sebekhepts were the worshippers of the child and mother as Sut-Typhon, and this was the cult that became dominant once more at the beginning of the thirteenth dynasty, which, if the astronomical chronology holds good, must have been about 2300 BC.

As the servants of Sebek, they equate with the Shus as servants of Har-Sut. The passage, 'Remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt,'[38] will in Egyptian identify the Hebrews with the Hekshus, the Shus-en-Har, the servants. Sebek (Kebek) is designated the youngest of the gods, and yet at Ombos he was the oldest form of Seb, or time. He was also identified as Har, the sustainer of the world. The Har, the youth of the god, was made manifest by the lamb, the young ram; the Sebekhept motherhood being represented as the abode of the lamb. This identifies the child of the virgin mother when the ancient star-god had been brought on as Sebek-Ra, in relation to the reckoning by solar time.

He was still the son of the typhonian genetrix, the old first mother of the gods. Sut and Typhon were the mother and son worshipped at Ombos, the shrine of Sebek-Ra. The goddess of the Great Bear is there distinguished as the mother of beginnings, the abode of birth and nursing; regent of the divinities of the meskhen, the gracious dandier. It is she who presides over the months with Sut-Nubti, and is called the 'Living Word.' The priest or worshipper of Sebek (or Sefekh), holds up in front of him a kind of instrument (possibly musical) containing seven wires, the number of Sefekh's name[39].

In the course of time the followers of this cult grew fewer and fewer in Egypt, and in the Hekshus revolts against the religion of the Osirians they found their natural allies in the worshippers of the mother and child outside of Egypt, who were continually invited to come over and help them, when they made another rush and rally [p.373] for the old religion. The Sebekhepts of the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth dynasties were Shus-en-Har, or Hekshus in the religious sense, no matter what compound they represented ethnologically. Their reigns were marked by the customary erasure of their names from the monuments, and the consequent blank in the history. How long they reigned is at present unknown, but the astronomical date of 2300 BC. for the beginning of the thirteenth dynasty may possibly lead to a closer computation of the period, and at the same time shed a little light on the subject of the Jews in Egypt.

The notion that Egypt was always invaded on these occasions by a foreign race which conquered the people and suppressed their national existence for hundreds of years together, is doomed to extinction. These conflicts were internal and caused by the rival religions, the Shus within were helped by the nomadic Shasus from without, both being the worshippers of the Egyptian Sut-Typhon, or the Syrian Sutekh and Astarte.

A tradition, extracted by Africanus from the work of Manetho, tells us that the Hekshus kings were Phoenicians; that is, the Fenekh[40]. But the fenekh is another type-name very difficult to identify ethnologically. In the Inscription of Shashankh I the conquered peoples of Edom and Judah are called 'the Fenekh,' and the 'Aamu of a distant land.' 'As to the Fenekh,' says Brugsch[41], 'I have a presentiment that we shall one day discover the evidence of their most intimate relationship with the Jews.' An inscription on the rock tablet of the twenty-second year of King Aahmes says: 'These stones were drawn by oxen, which were brought here, and given over to the foreign people of the Fenekh.'[42] Here the Fenekh are identified by Brugsch as the oldest representatives of the Phoenicians on Egyptian soil. It is easier, however, to identify the Fenekh as Typhonians than as a foreign race. The fenekh, an Abyssinian wolf-dog, was an ancient type of Sut, and this may have been the determinative of the name in the symbolic sense. The Typhonians were all treated as foreigners, whereas the Fenekh as Typhonians would not be named ethnologically. If the Fenekh are named symbolically they may be Phoenicians, Jews, or anything else in race so far as the mere sign goes. The Aamu, for example, can be shown to include various ethnological types. Aamu became a generic name for the Syro-Aramaic races, and there can be no doubt of its relation to the cow, hence the cowherd or shepherd was an Aamu. The young priestess of Aamu in the Creation by Ra[43], is a new form of the cow-headed Hathor, as especial goddess of the town of the cow, the young Hathor being of the heifer type, the golden calf of the Israelites. But the name is also a variant for the unclean and impure, i.e., the Typhonians, which shows the religious virus, but does not furnish a race-name. The hemi, as cow, wife, [p.374] female, seat, hinder-part, helps to identify theirs with the other typhonian names. The Aamu were also fishermen who dwelt by the lake Mareotis, and it is noticeable that these are the Aahti, and that the goddess Aahti combines the head of the calf with the body of the hippopotamus, and is a younger dual form of the ancient Typhon. The Aamu in the Metternich Tablet[44] are inhabitants of the water, determined by a fish and a crocodile.

The name of the Great Mother, as Ashtaroth in Hebrew, has the meaning of herds or flocks. She was the lady of flocks in the sense of plenty, the Dame Habond. Ashtaroth is Hes-Ta-urt, the typhonian cow, a form of which is found in Aahti. The Aamu were her herdsmen, cowherds, shus (servants) or shasu. They were the children of the old and Great Mother, whose earlier type was the water-cow, and later the land-cow. The water-cow of Typhon is a hidden element in the nickname of the Aamu as the cowherds, the adorers of the Aa-Mu, who was the old first genetrix. Aa-Mu reads 'the ancient mother,' and as the aa is the cow, and mu the water, the Aa-Mu is the water-cow or hippopotamus, the old Typhon, whence the Aamu are Typhonians from the first. By their types shall we know them. The general term of the 'shepherds' may be rendered by the aamu, shus, or the menat.

One Egyptian root-meaning of the word menat or menti is to go round. The collar goes round, and that is a menat. The doves, swallows, and pigeons wheel round and round, and they are the menti by name; to men, as in the English 'minnying,' being to perambulate, to go round. The first motion observed, imitated, and named was that of circle-making. The dove's name answers to Tef or Teb, which in Egyptian denotes movement in a circle. The planets and sailors, called bibbu in Assyrian, are named as the goers-round. This going round shows the menti were nomadic in their habits, whatsoever their race may have been; so were the an, who have been termed the wanderers.

The menat are the despised aat, lepers, pests, the abomination of Egypt, but not primarily because they were cattle-keepers. Men is the name of cattle, men-ment denotes herds of cattle. But, as with the shasu, the name has an earlier signification. These menat also bore the name of the Great Mother in her typhonian form, and were her worshippers. Menât (Menkat) is the old wet-nurse, represented by the breasts, the Egyptian form of Shadai. Jablonski says: 'There was a personification of Ta-urt under the name of Menuthis, who was worshipped in a town of the same name, the supposed wife of Typho.'[45] The 'wife of Typho' requires explanation. Plutarch calls Nephthys the wife of Typho[46]. But there is no male Typhon apart from Sut (unless we include Bes) who became the son and consort of Nephthys, in a [p.375] later phase of the myth, just as he became the son of Atum. Typhon is Ta-urt, Khepsh, Rerit, or Teb (or Menât even), the first and oldest genetrix portrayed as the suckler. Her children and worshippers were the detested menat. The orthodox Egyptians looked on them, as the fanatical Protestant does on the emasculated Mariolator. The name of the aati was hurled at them. The word signifies the unclean, the leprous, miserables, accursed. Aat is a name of the hinder-part, the back, and the eagle sign shows it was worn down from Afti, the name of the old Typhon, who was the hippopotamus as Apt, and the sow as Apht (at least the boar is Aph, and Apht is the feminine form), the earlier Khaft, Khept, and Khebt. The Khaft had become a name for the godless, the evil ones, and this wore down (through kat, the hinder-part) to aat, the name of the pests or Typhonians. So in the Maori, autaia denotes a pest, or the pest. Khept modifies into gat, German for the stern of a vessel, into houte, Manchu Tartar, for the poop of a ship, and the Egyptian utu or ut sign is the poop. The English cuddy is a small cabin under the poop at the stern of the ship; the Welsh cwt is the hinder-part; the Fijian kata is the hull, the lower part of two, corresponding to the hinder-part in other vessels of the name. Khept is one of those early words that become excremental, as it were, in language, and typical of all uncleanness. They have no such significance in their earliest form; but in the process of wearing down we have khat (Eg.) for the corse; chaddha, Hindustani, bubo; khuti (do.) scab; khiut, defilement and contamination; kutu, in Maori, Malayan, and Fijian, the louse. kotha, Sanskrit, a sort of leprosy; gaoid, Gaelic, disease; coth and gout, English, disease; kida, Fijian, epilepsy kato, Kabunga, itch; koto, Gadsaga, itch; ket, English, filth; kitta, Sanskrit, dirt; caid, Irish, filth and foulness; jad, Polish, virus, venom; yam, Zend, the 'sin of Yatu'; aadwa, Arabic, contagion, contagious disease; iadaa, to communicate disease; wata, pus, matter; oidos, Greek, a tumour; odazo, to itch; uwati, Swahili, a skin-disease; odieux, French, loathsome, odious. The total meaning of all these forms of one word was concentrated by the Osirians and Ammonians into the name of the aati, the Khefti, the people of the hinder-part, the Qodeshoth and Qodeshim, in Israel, from kat (behind, backward) and sh (Eg.) which denotes the place and act of going. The Qodeshim of Israel are denounced by the Hebrew writers in a way that warrants this derivation of the word.

A passage in The Koran[47] is said to have been revealed in reply to the Jews, who asserted that if a man accompanied with his wife after the manner of the Qodeshim he would produce a more witty child. In the same chapter Mohammad appears to have endorsed this 'survival' from the animal stage. On the other hand the Egyptians [p.376] adopted two crows for a type of connubial intercourse because they had advanced beyond the status of the Qodeshim.

The word aat also means the orphan, and this was intended to brand the Sut-Typhonians as the fatherless in the religious sense, because they only worshipped the mother and her child, the harlot and the bastard, as they were held to be by the Osirians. This typical taunt of the aat, the orphans, has the same force as 'the fatherless,' and the 'רזממ,' cast at the Christ in the Toledoth Jesu[48], as the earliest divine child, who was without a father.

The sign of the foreigners, the wicked, tells the same tale in the form of the utu, the poop, or stern of the vessel, it is still an ideograph of the hinder-part, and consequently a type of Typhon. The utu, or stern, is a sign of uti, the goddess of the north, who was a continuation of the ancient genetrix in that quarter. This sign on the monuments has sometimes been taken for the ethnological Yonias, or Ionians, identical with the Hebrew Javan and Hindi Javanas, Latin Juvenes, and Assyrian Kephenes, whereas it is an ideograph of the hinder-part, as the north, and of the Yonias or Typhonians in the religious sense, independently of the Hellenes or Ionians of Greece, and is an especial symbol of the Typhonians, who were Yonias as worshippers of the genetrix, whatsoever their race. The opprobrious determinative was always typhonian, but not necessarily ethnological. It was the sign of the place of going forth or out at the khepsh of birth. Then of the way of going out of Egypt towards the north, the ideograph of going abroad, and finally the type of the foreigners in a topographical or geographical sense. When this sign of the foreigners, the impure, the hinder-part, English aft, Egyptian kheft, is drawn in the scutcheon of Ra-Nahsi[49], it is not meant to indicate either the foreigner or the impure in the odious sense, but is simply the determinative of the nocturnal sun in the Akar, the hinder side of the north. One of the Sebek-hepts of the thirteenth dynasty is called Sebek-em-Saf[50]; that is, he who is from the hinder-part, the sun in the Ament, the typhonian solar son, who was Sebek-Ra.

The aati, menati, and aamu were charged by their opponents with beastly practices in their religious physiolatry.

Proclus in Timaeus[51], says: 'The Shepherds are analogous to the Powers that are arranged over the heads of animals, which in arcane narrations are said to be souls that are frustrated of the human intellect, but have a propensity towards animals.' The menat were special worshippers of the Great Mother Menât, the wet-nurse, who might be represented by the hippopotamus, the sow, the goat, the ass, or the later heifer. These were considered to be beast-worshippers, and [p.377] undoubtedly the female cult took repulsive forms; the religion was manifested by strange rites.

The subject of Sut-Typhon is the obscurest of the obscure, but the impurity and obscenity associated with the name does not, as commonly supposed, relate to the mere intercourse of the sexes. This did not constitute the mystery of immodesty, so frequently anathematized. The uncleanness, the secrecy, were related to the primitive physiological conceptions of creative source. The naked nature of the beginnings have nothing gross in them either to the savage or scientific mind, but are of absorbing interest to the student of the genesis of ideas, the meanings of the myths and religion of the mysteries.

The charge of performing unclean rites is distinctly brought by the Jewish writers against their own people. 'They shall no more offer their sacrifices unto devils, after whom they have gone a-whoring. This shall be a statute for ever unto them throughout their generations.'[52] The lashairim, rendered devils, are a particular kind of hairy goat known on the monuments as the serau, a goat-kind of sheep, which offered a type of biune being. The Jews continued the Mendisian worship after they had left Egypt. In the language of Egypt, says Herodotus[53], both a goat and the god Pan are called Mendes. He was right. Men is a name of the goat, and of Khem, the Egyptian Pan, who had earlier forms in Shu and Sut, the first men, or man, as the fecundator of the mother.

The Menat, the Typhonians, whose types of the genetrix were the female goat and the dove, are described by Diodorus in relation to this subject. He says 'There having arisen, in former days, a pestiferous disease in Egypt, the multitude attributed the cause of the evil to the deity; for a very great concourse of foreigners of every nation then dwelt in Egypt, who were addicted to strange rites in their worship, so that in consequence the due honours of the gods fell into disuse.'[54]

The word 'foreigners' here, if derived from Egyptian, does not preclude Egyptians from being among them, as menat had become a type name for the foreigner and for all that was held to be foreign to the Osirian and Ammonian religion. The Menat were Typhonians, all mixed up together as regards races; the origin of the name was religious, and the earliest type of the menat was Egyptian, or rather Ethiopic. For the roots of these matters we have to go a long way back. The uncleanness had its beginning in the earliest time and most primitive condition of the pre-man. No more effective evidence for the doctrine of development is anywhere to be found than in these dark rites of religion. A link between man and the beast was not merely preserved in them, but it was made sacred. This is a subject which can only be utilized by the evolutionist, and the main interest lies where it has never yet been soughtin the anthro- [p.378] pological and sociological point of view. The rabbis taught rightly that their typical man Adam, of the same name as the monkey udumu (Assyrian), had carnal knowledge of every tame or wild beast that he could dominate, and was not satisfied until Eve was made for him[55]. When we know what conditions we have come out from, and are still struggling out of on the upward way, we are for the first time in a position to speak of certain facts of the past, and to enunciate a doctrine of hope for the future, and, until we know what we have been we can form no fair estimate of what we are, or are to be. The first inflammatory or inspiring appeal made by nature to man was through the incitement of his sexual appetite, and this at first was indifferently fed before it was educated. What a portrait, for example, of the early mind and taste is presented by the hippopotamus being adopted as the primitive type of the genetrix, the Great Mother, the khep, khepsh, or uterus of creation. Size of the emblem positively supplies us with a measure of progress. Behemoth is first, in Ta-urt (Typhon), the primordial; then the cow, as Hes-Taurt, Hathor, Neith; the lioness, as Tefnut, Sekht, and Kef. The cat as Pasht; the vulture as Mut; the frog as Hekaall types of the mother. These types persisted when the feeling to be expressed belonged to the earliest form of religion, and they were the external images, answering to the internal feeling which was a desire for the Great Mother, to be consummated in sexual union at times with the aid of her living representatives, which were of necessity earlier than the woman-image of the divinity set up for later worship. Nothing can be more natural, however, than that the sexual feeling, being earliest, should be first directed and the object set forth should be the female. This worship, whether the type was animal or human, was continued by the Typhonians and Yonias of various races who were one in their religion. In the pictures of Khu-en-Aten, the disk-worshipper, the female, his wife, standing by his side, is portrayed in a state of nudity[56]. The author of Nile Gleanings discovered a portrait of Queen Tiy, of which he remarks, not without a touch of that modern consciousness which in its expression is at times indefinitely more indelicate than the nudity of nature, 'Her dress was quite open all the way down the front ... The lady does not appear to have worn any other dress. Prudishness was evidently not the fashion of the day.'[57] This nakedness of nature, with its primitive appeal, had also become an abomination to the Osirian and Ammonian, and was cast out as unclean. But instead of abusing the Jews (or menat) for what their laws reveal concerning the early religious mysteries, the evolutionist is deeply indebted to them for their contribution to this, the obscurest history of humanity.

Another typhonian type was the dove. The name of this bird in [p.379] Egyptian is menat, and it must have been an emblem of the primal genetrix as it bears her name, both as menat and the dove, or tef (Eg.), the Hebrew רות. The dove was the bird of breath or soul, the later ghost. An Egyptian statuette of the Nineteenth Dynasty shows a dove with a human head and wings extended over the bosom, typifying the breath or soul. It was a type of the goddess Hathor, in Egypt, and it brooded over the statue of the Syrian Juno at Hierapolis in the shape of a pigeon made of gold. To call it a solar bird has no significance. It was the image of the gestator, the bird of breath, and as such is held in the hand or on the sceptre of Hera in the act of visibly incarnating the soul of breath. It was the bird of the virgin mother who was the brooder, the generator of the soul when both truths were assigned to the genetrix. Hence the two turtle-doves of the Jewish offering, and hence also the dove of the Holy Ghost continued in the Christian iconography. The Jews charge the Samaritans not only with the worship of the dove, but also with a form of circumcision dedicated to the dove[58]. This was the dove that was synonymous with the sword, and the rite was the 'Reproach of Egypt.'

The Egyptian priest appointed to kill all the unclean animals was called a menui. This is significant.

The Menat appear by name on the monuments as a Sinaitic race[59]. Within Egypt the Menat are identifiable by the typhonian types, one of which is the dove, another the goat; the aamu, by the cow (including the water-cow); the aati, by the hinder-part, the seat, the image of Typhon: and it is by these typical names that we have to recover the Hebrews from the Egyptian monuments.

The only satisfactory ethnological designation for a people like the Hebrews must be derived from the religious rootage in mythology. In demonstrating the mythical origins it is not necessary to deny certain tribal arrangements of the Jews out of Egypt. But the name of the Israelites, as before explained, is derived from Isarel or Asharel, the Lord (El) of the ten tribes in Jeshurun; the ten who passed away because they were mythological, and were superseded by the twelve of the solar zodiac. Whatsoever historical fact may be found as a kind of parallel, the ten tribes are based on the ten who preceded The twelve in the celestial chart. In this connection the house of David belongs to the luni-solar reckoning of Taht by the number ten, and solar twelve; the two being added to complete the total. The severance under Rehoboam is, even according to Old Testament history, only a reversion to some previous order of things.

The 'Children of Israel' are the sons of the El of the Isar or Gashar, the ten tribes who became the twelve in the latest arrangement founded on the twelve signs and seventy-two divisions of the [p.380] solar zodiac. The earliest rendering of the name of the Hebrews[60] is as the (ירבע) gabari, identical with that of the Cabiri, who are a family (kab) of companions, watchers, or brethren; the first of these being the seven of the Great Bear, the children of the typhonian genetrix, the root of whose name, in Egyptian, is Kef, Kep, or Kheb, as in kafa, the fist; kef, force, might, the hinder-part; kep, Typhon, concealed place, cave, sanctuary, womb; kapu, the mystery of life; kheb, the hippopotamus. With the terminal ti, or khebt may signify the second, or dual Kheb; kepti, the two hands; kheptu, the two thighs; kabti, the two arms, two dancers, or two Bears. With the terminal sh, khepsh denotes the place, pool, uterus, or emaning mouth of Kheb in Khush, and afterwards in Egypt. Khepsh wears down to ash, and in this we have an equivalent of Eve, or Chavvah. In Jehovah we have Khefa, with the Hebrew terminal ה, the letter out of which all came, the sign of the feminine abode, the ah (Eg.) for house and womb.*

* Letter ה. The h or heta in Coptic has the numeral value of 8, the number of Smen the place of beginnings out of which all came.

The name of 'Jew' may also be traced finally to Jehovah, the Great Mother. The Arab name for the polestar, 'Joudi,' the 'Star of Joudi,' is a modified form of Khepti, as the goddess of the Great Bear. On another line the original khepsh, gevsh, or chavvach, had modified in Chinese, into the form ch'hoo, for the north pole. Khep or khef (Eg.), abrades into ap, af, au, and lastly into Io, the Egyptian I being a developed form of the a. On this line the name of the mother passes finally into that of the son, and intermediately we have the Hebrew והי (Jhv) as a name of the god, the mysterious and unmentionable one, whose nature was only communicated to the initiated, whether in Israel or among the Phoenicians and Greeks[61]. This is the divine son of a dual nature, who became the Io as Iu-sif, Iu-em-hept, and Ie-Apollo. The intermediate form of the spelling is applied to Joseph, ףסוהי in Psalms 81:5, and there only. With the vau retained, we have the name of the Jew, as in the French juif; the w in the word Jew represents a letter f, as in the English if, a name of the yew-tree. The Jews, then, are the ihvs, ivs, or ius. The beginning of the name of the Jew in Jehovah or khevah, the genetrix, and its final development in iu and ie, the son, the Iusu (or Jestis) is illustrated by the tradition in the first Toledoth Jesu, which relates that the unutterable and ineffable name of God was engraved on the cornerstone of the Temple. The mount of the four corners was typified by a stone. This is referred to by Enoch, who says: 'I surveyed the stone which supports the corners of the earth.'[62] This stone was discovered by David when he dug the foundations of the Temple, and was placed by him in the holy of holies. The name was stolen by the [p.381] Christ who entered the Temple and inserted the word in the flesh of his thigh; the name which enabled him to perform his miracles. In this legend we have a representation of the bringing on of the name.* The name of Iu (והי) shows the nature of the great mystery, as it means twin, and denotes a dual being that was both male and female in one, as Tammuz, Iu-sif, Duzi, and other hermaphrodite deities. Under cover of this the half-feminine nature of Ihv constantly escapes detection. The derivation of Ihv from Jhevah shows the correspondence of the etymology to the mythology. Ihv (seph) is the son of Ihevah, and we are now in a position to show how Ihv is an abbreviated form of Ihevah, and the god of the psalmist, who was the deliverer from Egypt, as Joseph, is the son (sif) of Ihevah, hence Ihevah-sif, Ihv-sif, or Joseph.

* This story is in the ושי תודלות רפס,  a work assumed by various writers to be a foul forgery[63], perpetrated for the purpose of blaspheming the name of Jesus. But this, with other stories in the same work, shows me that the Jesus intended belongs to the mythos, and has been mixed up with Jesu Ben-Panthera. Here let me say that I am greatly desirous of meeting with some Hebrew who is well-versed in the Talmud, Haggadoth, and oral traditions of his people.

Sut, as the Iu-sif, has been already identified by his type, the ass, named Iu, in the time of the Twelfth Dynasty. The mother and son worshipped by the Hebrews or Jews in Egypt were Sut-Typhon, the same dual deity as the Sutekh and Astarte of the kheta. The god who brought them out of Egypt, had, 'as it were the strength of an unicorn.' The rem here named is the rumakh of the hieroglyphics, the hippopotamus Typhon, the mighty beast portrayed in the planisphere, as dragging round the starry system, and literally lugging a third part of the stars of heaven up out of the Egypt (Khebt) of the north. This is the first mention of the unicorn in the Hebrew writings[64]. The passage is repeated in the next chapter: 'God brought him forth out of Egypt; he hath, as it were, the strength of an unicorn.'[65]

The unicorn is the type both of Sut, the son, and Typhon, the genetrix. One symbol of this dual divinity is a kind of antelope with a single hornthe unicorn of heraldry[66]. This is the type of Sut, the son, and by it we identify Joseph, whose 'horns are as the horns of unicorns.' The unicorn of Deut. 33:17 preceded the bullock of Au, and both are here given as symbols of the Iusif or Joseph. Amongst the most ancient things in Hebrew is the word םבי which stands for םבכ the yod representing a k-sound. Kabm (םבי or) has the meaning of being big-bellied and pregnant, and in this old unused word survives the name of the typhonian genetrix, the hippopotamus goddess Khebma, the procreant Great Mother. The word is applied to the brother-in-law, i.e., the brother of the husband, who was compelled by law to marry the widow of his deceased brother, in fulfilment of what is termed the Levirate[67]. This was a reliquary [p.382] bequest from the sociological stage described by Caesar[68] in Britain, where ten or a dozen men, fathers, sons, and brothers, had their wives in common, and kabbed together like the Cabiri above, the seven of one family, who were the sons of Khebma, and the primeval brothers-in-law, when the fatherhood was individually uncertain, but was acknowledged by the Cabiri, grouped together under one totem, who were desirous of perpetuating the family (kâbt, Eg., a family) name.

Sut-Typhon occurs by name[69] as a cousin of Aaron, the Hebrew El-zaphan being the rendering of the son of Typhon. The Hebrew writers are constantly complaining of the tendency of Israel to revert to the grosser, earliest type of deity, in Sut-Typhon, who is recognized by the monuments as the great divinity of the Syrian land. In two different accounts of the same transaction, it is writtenin the one[70], 'the anger of Jehovah was kindled against Israel, and he moved David against them to say, Go, number Israel and Judah:' in the other[71]: 'Satan (ןטש) stood up against Israel and provoked David to number Israel.' But there is no real discrepancy. The first form of Jehovah was the feminine Typhon, the later personification of all evil; and if a male divinity be meant, the earliest masculine deity of the Jews was Sut, the son of Typhon, the Lord as the Sabean Baal or Bar-Sutekh. In Egypt Sut was degraded to the position of the Apophis power of darkness, and the akhekh of evil, the natural opponent of the sun and the light; and the god, who had been united with Har, as Sut-Har, or Sut-Nubti, in the earlier typology, was afterwards transformed into the devil of theology. The same change occurred in the later Judaism. The ancient divinity, the god Sut, was converted into the apostate Satan, the adversary of souls. Nevertheless, Sut and Satan, deity and demon, were originally one and the same. Also this suggestion of numbering has a look of likeness to what we find in the Egyptian mythology, where Sut was prior to Taht as the numberer, the measurer, and calculator; and David, as is here maintained, is the Hebrew form of Taht. Sut was superseded by Taht, because he was not so true a reckoner as the god of luni-solar time, Sut (טש) meaning the one who has turned aside, deflected, or deviated from the straight path, and become unfaithful; hence the Apostate. Sut-Typhon, the mother and son, in El-Shadai, became the plural devil, as the shed or shedim[72], to whom the Israelites had sacrificed[73] and offered up their children, the Shad-Behemoth of Habakkuk[74].

Sut appears, in the Book of Job, among the sons of God. In this book he enacts the part of Sut in the Egyptian Ritual, where he is the adversary and accuser of souls, at the head of a company of accusers, when the deceased pass before the judgment seats. The [p.383] Chaldee paraphrast renders a passage in Job thus: 'There was (an appointed) day of severe judgment, a day of forgiveness of sins; and the hosts of angels came and stood before the Lord, and the Satan came also and stood in judgment before the Lord.'[75] This is a portrait of Sut in the Egyptian Judgment. It is quoted here to show how faithfully the Hebrew writings follow in the wake of Egypt regarding Sut-Typhon as divinity and devil.

Typhon was especially worshipped in Israel as the suckler who was represented by the sow. The Egyptian Rerit became the Assyrian Lilit, Arabian Halalath, and Hebrew Lilith, a succubus and demon of nocturnal pollutions in the Talmudic and Kabbalist legends. Naamah, the sister of Lamech, is likewise a form of the Lilith, who can be identified through the Phoenician goddess Ashthar-No'emâ, later Astronoe, whom the Greeks call Nemanun or Astronome, she who they say dwelt at Tyre in the sacred island of Asteria. The Paschal Chronicle identifies her with Astronome by means of the island and the star of Astarte, who will be shown to derive from Hes-Taurt and her star to be the constellation of Ursa Major, before the planet Venus became the type of the genetrix of the gods[76]. As Naamah she is the gracious, mild, tender, pleasant, melting, voluptuous; and we can see by the Egyptian nem, to be delicious, sweet, delightful, and to debauch and deprave, how the one character passed into the other[77]. She was so beautiful that the angels fell in love, and cohabited with her, the product of this union being certain devils called seduii[78]. The Lilith of rabbinical tradition is called Adam's first wife, who left him, and soared into the upper air. The lady has been badly abused by Jewish ignorance, and turned into one of the demons of divinity dethroned, the night-monster of Isaiah[79]; for theology, in trying to erase and obliterate the imagery of mythology, has scarified and blasted the face of the whole beautiful creation. But see how the symbols live! Rerit or Ta-urt (Typhon), the Great Mother, carries in her hands and rests upon a loop, the noose-sign of reproduction, an emblem of the bearing mother, bound up for nine months. And in Hebrew Lilith exists as תאלל lilath, the loop. This typhonian hieroglyphic was to be repeated 200 times in the tabernacle of the Lord[80]. In the hieroglyphics rer means a child, to dandle, and Rerit (Lilith) is the nurse and dandier of the child. In the rabbinical legends, Lilith has become the destroyer of little children. The hippopotamus, or rhinoceros, was also a type of Rerit or Lilith. This is the unicorn, and the single horn growing out of its nose is strongly marked in the portraits of Rerit, i.e., Lilith. In her demonhood she is supposed to obsess little children. Ben Sira states that 'when a child laughs in its sleep on the night of the Sabbath, or new [p.384] moon, they say that Lilith toys with it, and tickles it. And three times over the parents cry, "Begone, cursed Lilith," and each time they pat the child on the nose'[81]; the place of the horn, and seat of Lilith's power, hence the appropriate pat on the nose, to drive her out. Also Taruth (Hebrew), for the revolvers, is synonymous with her name, as Ta-urt, the genetrix of the seven revolving stars.

According to the rabbis, there is a demon who presides over the malady of blindness and the dizziness of delirium; his name is Shebriri (ירירבש). In the hieroglyphics, shefi is the demon, terrible, terrifying. Sheb is blind, and riri means to go, whirl, or be whirled round and round. This explains the demon Shebriri, who is only traditional in Hebrew. The name of the demon identifies it doubly with Typhon, who was, with Sheb (Kheb) and Reri (Rerit, later Lilit), the whirler-round.

Sut-Typhon is aimed at by Isaiah[82] as the Hilal (לליה), who had said: 'I will exalt my throne above the stars of God; I will sit also upon the mount of congregation in the thighs of the north.' It is a compound image. The divinity of the thighs of the north was the feminine Typhon, and her son was Baal-Zephon. Hilal-ben-Shachar is not one of the morning stars, but, as Sothis at its heliacal rising, had been of far more importance than either of these; no morning star can be connected with the north, as was Baal-Zephon or Sut-Typhon. This is Lucifer; and Lucifer, as the devil of theology, identifies the Sut or Satan of mythology. The word רחש also tends to identify the black Sut, as in Sut-har, Sut-Nahsi, or Sut-Nubti.

Rer (lal) is the child of Rerit, and hi (Eg.) means pollution, impurity. Hi-lal, as Egyptian, would denote the unclean son of the sow (Rerit), Sut, the son of Typhon.

There is no difficulty in identifying the Jews, Hebrews, or Israelites, with the cult and caste of the Sut-Typhonians, the aat, the menat, and aamu, within Egypt; but this, at the same time, is to disperse them there rather than to recover the ethnological autonomy of a Syrian people, ranging from one individual in Joseph to two millions at the time of their exode. Such a people is not to be found, simply because it never existed.

Brugsch-Bey gives the latest results, and ranges through the whole series of the monuments. He remarks:

'Some have very recently wished to recognize the Egyptian appellation of the Hebrews in the name of the so-called Aper, Apura, or Aperiu, the Erythraean people in the east of the nome of Heliopolis, in what is known as the "red country," or the "red mountain." According to the inscriptions the name of this people appears in connection with the breeding of horses and the art of horsemanship. In a historical narrative of the time of Tahtmes III the Apura are named as horsemen, or knights (senen), who mount their horses at the king's command. In another document of the time of Rameses III, long after the exodus of the Jews from Egypt, 2,083 Aperiu are introduced as settlers in Heliopolis with the words, [p.385] "Knights, sons of the kings, and noble lords (Marina) of the Aper, settled people, who dwell in this place." Under Rameses IV we again meet with Aper 800 in number, as inhabitants of foreign origin in the district of Ani, on the western shore of the Red Sea, in the neighbourhood of the modern Suez. These and similar data completely exclude all thought of the Hebrews, unless one is disposed to have recourse to suppositions and conjectures against the most explicit statements of the Biblical records.'[83]

Which is of course impossible with Brugsch, who is so simple a bibliolater that he takes the whole mass of mythology, mixed up with the slight human data, for unquestionable God's truth. The Jews had no such origin, no such unity, no such autonomy within, no such exit out of Egypt, as he assumes for them. Like others, he looks only for the ethnological entity and name, whereas the Typhonians of Egypt can only be found under their religious and symbolical names, because they were such a mixed multitude.

There was an order of Egyptian priests named the aperu, which being preparatory corresponded somewhat to the novices of a convent. Aperu means the consecrated, the preparers, and it is the name of the fillet worn by the apru. Also the use of the word in the Harris Papyrus[84] will serve to show that the apru were likewise preparers or makers of roads. 'Aperu' there signifies to lay out with roads, one road to fifty-three and a quarter acres being specified. One form of the aperu may have been the road-makers or navvies. Clearly then, the aperu as navvies will not distinguish the Hebrews ethnologically nor religiously, although some of those afterwards known as Hebrews may have rolled stones and prepared roads for Rameses. We shall have to fall back upon the mythological and astronomical Apru-iu in seeking an origin for the name.

The aperu mentioned in the time of Tahtmes III as being among the many tribes of the Upper Rutenu who had been captured at the taking of Megiddo (Magda) belong to two different apru, to judge by the two different determinatives of the greater and lesser bird[85]. These two apru de Rouge considered to be the two Ophras, situated in the land of Manasseh and Benjamin[86]. This is quoted on account of the dual sign. The name Aperu-iu has a dual ending with the iu added. In the Papyrus of Leyden[87] the name is spelt Apuiru-iu. In this inscription they are engaged in drawing stones for building a fortress of Rameses II. The text says, 'Now I have heard the message which my Lord made, saying: Give corn to the men and soldiers and Apuiru-iu who are drawing the stone for the great fortress of the palace of Rameses. I have given them their corn every month, according to the good instructions which my Lord has told me.'[88] The aperu-iu correspond by name to the dual sign of the different birds. Now there was a town or city named Aperu, in the Saitic or [p.386] Sutite nome, and Apru-Iu is the name of the double-house of Sut-Anubis. This is Sut at the crossing, the equinoctial Sut, answering to Atum, the equinoctial sun. Apheru or Apru then is a name of Sut-Anubis, and in the Annals of Rameses III[89] he is called Father Apheru by name.

In the seventeenth chapter of the Ritual, Father Aper, as Sut-Anup, is designated the 'Clean Crosser of the Place of Birth,'[90] i.e., in Apheru the place of the two equal roads. He is also the Ap-heru. Ap Matennu in person, the opener and guide of roads over the hill at the crossing.

The Hebrews derive their name from eber (רבע) rendered the crosser over; eber being the crosser, after whom the Abrahamites of the line of Isaac and Jacob are designated the םירבע, the Heberim, or with the Egyptian plural terminal, the Aperiu.

Eber, the crosser, is identical with Aper, the clean crosser, and Eber, the father, with Father Aper, and so we continue the typhonian origin and line of descent by means of Sut-Anubis, who is depicted in a dual form in the zodiac of Denderahi, at the equinoctial crossing facing both ways, and presiding over the apheru, or equal roads, as god of the crossing. The imagery is equinoctial versus the solstitial, and belongs to a reckoning different from that of the two heavens north and south. In relation to this, Sut reappears in the form of Anubis­Sapti or Sapt, lord of the east, with the sparrow-hawk head. Here we can connect Sut with the god Atum and the lion gods in the equinoctial myth. The Hebrew reckoning was equinoctial, whereas the Osirians held on to the solstitial. They kept the year equinoctially and, what was considered still worse, did not begin it with the spring equinox but with the autumn, with the moon at full in the ascending vernal signs and their sun-god the red Tum or black Ra-Nahsi, going down in the lower signs. It was in Apheru that Atum and Shu wore the four feathers of the four corners as an equinoctial sign. It was in Apheru, the place of the equal roads, and of Aper, the lord of the crossing and guide of the sun, that the gods at rest proclaimed the chiefs who belonged to the hall of the Two Truths, and told of Shu, son of the sun, and of Anhar, son of the sun in Apheru, the two established heads of roads resident in the empyreal region of Apheru. Thus the Aperu-iu of the double horizon can be identified with Sut and with Har-Makhu as Typhonians; the name equates with that of Sut-Anubis, as Apheru-iu the dual Anubis of the crossing, and guide of the two roads, and it is in this sense they may be one with the Hebrews in Egypt. Aperu-Iu really contains the double name of the Hebrews and the Ius or Jews, both of which are combined in the god Aper-Iu, the double Anubis. But the Aperiu remained in Egypt after the Jews had left. There were 2,083 or 2,093 of them settled in Heliopolis in the time of Rameses III, and 800 are [p.387] mentioned as being in Egypt in the time of Rameses IV. And why not? The mythical exodus is of no authority against the historic Egyptian monuments, and the Aperu or Hebrew was not primarily an ethnological name, any more than that of the Typhonians, the Aati, Menat, Aamu, or the Ius. Proof positive can be offered for the origin of the Jews being the Ius, as the worshippers of the coming son, and not a people named ethnologically. As before mentioned, after our Jews had left Egypt Rameses III built the temple of the Jews or of Judah in the north of An (On). He says in his address to his father Tum:

'I made thee a grand house on the north of An, constructed of eternal work, engraved in thy name, the house of millions of years of Rameses, ruler of An.'
'I made for thee the great western abode and the lake of thy mother Iusaas the ruler of An.'
'I made large boats for thy great daughters Iusaas (and) Nebhept.'[91]

This 'house of millions of years,' in the north of An, was known as the temple that stood on the Tel-el-Jahoudeh, the remains of which were lately in existence. This was the mound of the Jew, and the Jew of this temple was the god Iu, son of Iusaas, the Great Mother of the son whose worshippers were the Ius or Jews, no matter of what race, the same Jews theologically, who worshipped the god Hu, in Cornwall.

Josephus is right when he claims that his people were Hekshus[92]. They were not the Hekshus in his sense of the conquering Syrian kings, the subduers of Egypt, but they were of the Hekshus religion, that of the pre-monumental Shus-en-Har, the worshippers of the mother and son. Hekshus applied to the so-called shepherd kings was a nickname, the point of which lay in the word Shus meaning servants, and service. Josephus reports that Manetho in another book said the nation called Shepherds were also called Captives in the sacred books[93].

This is explained by the name of Shus for servants rather than by the later Shasu, the shepherds as graziers; hek (Eg.) being a ruler, a king, the Hek-shus are servant-rulers or in a sense captive-kings: hence the nickname. The original service was that of the Shus-en-Har; hence the point of the nickname. The ancient theocracy represented a government assumed to be divine, with no monarchy but that of the divinity, and the priests or judges were his or her lawgivers and representatives to the people. It is the oldest form of government in the world. It was the government of the Druids, of the Aztecs and North American Indians; the earliest everywhere. According to a tablet from Samneh in the time of Amenhept III, the same kind of government was found prevailing among the Cushites as is described in the Hebrew writings[94]. This was a theocracy. It is recorded that they were not ruled by kings but by [p.388] 'judges,' or, as is now suggested, they were Hekshus, the priest-rulers and priest-ruled people abominated as Sut-Typhonian by the orthodox pharaohs of the Egyptian monarchy. These always had their adherents within Egypt, and hence the wars of the Hekshus or Shepherd Kings. But the Jews in Egypt can no more be discriminated as Hekshus among Hekshus than the Hebrews among the Aperu-iu or Aamu, the Menat or the Fenekh; they were a part of the mixed multitude generally undistinguishable except as Typhonians and worshippers of Sut. Nor will the Hebrew records help us much they seldom reflect the monuments. They were primarily mythological, whereas the monuments are historical. They mainly contain the Egyptian mythology converted in later times into Hebrew history. If there had been a specially Jewish exodus the Exodus of these writings is still mythological. If there were such persons as father Abram and Jacob, and Joseph and Moses, the characters portrayed under these names are none the less mythological, for they were mythological from the first, and could not become historical with the after-touches of Esdras.

To begin with, there is a supposed prophecy made by the Lord to the Abram of the first covenant[95]. 'And He said unto Abram, Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in a land not theirs, and shall serve them, and they shall afflict them four hundred years,' and this length of time was identified with the 'fourth generation.'[96] But the prophecy of 400 years would not be historically fulfilled by the assumed sojourn in Egypt. 'Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt (was) 430 years, and it came to pass at the end of 430 years, even the selfsame day it came to pass, that all the hosts of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt.'[97] It is now too late to discuss the absurdity of the Lord literally talking in person to a man named Abram and making a false prophecy to the extent of thirty years, which is corrected to the day! Nor did the ancient prophecy relate to unforeseen events, but to the fulfilment of the time-cycles. The prophet was the nabi, the announcer. Sut-Nub or Anup was the typical announcer in Egypt, the first prophet of the year, also of a period extending to the length of a Sothiac cycle, and the learned in circle-craft were those who knew and announced the end of the various cycles of time. Their prophecies were safe, and sure to be fulfilled. But the ordinary notion of prophecy has no meaning in heaven or earth when applied to the sacred books. Here, for example, is an illustration of so-called prophecy, and its false interpretation by those who were entirely ignorant of the symbolical language, and its mode of conveying the hidden wisdom.

Isaiah relates how the Lord spoke to Ahaz, saying, 'Ask thee a sign of the Lord thy God; ask it either in the depth or in the height [p.389] above.' Ahaz declined. Therefore the Lord himself gave Ahaz a sign. Then follows the passage rendered in the English version, 'Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. Butter and honey shall he eat, that he may know to refuse the evil and choose the good. For, before the child shall know to refuse the evil and choose the good, the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.'[98] This in the heading is the promised Christ. Numberless volumes have been written to show that this was a messianic prophecy, and it was one of the cornerstones of Christology until it was supposed that the building could stand without it. Latterly it has been admitted more and more that the Virgin as conceiving or bearing the child then and there! Now this is a prophecy in the modern sense. The speaker foretells an event which he says will happen shortly. In doing so he uses the language of the elder prophets and the imagery which is still portrayed in the heavens. The Virgin Mother is extant as Virgo in the zodiac. Amanuel (לאונמע) is the coming son. Al (ar) has been sufficiently shown to mean the son. Ameni is an Egyptian proper name. There is a sepulchral inscription of one Ameni, of the Eleventh Dynasty[99]. Ameni or amenu (Eg.) signifies to come, or the coming one; the messiah of mythology, hence Amenu-El is the coming son.

The one who comes also brings, and this ameni (to come) supplies the French amener (to bring), amené (brought). Immanuel came annually and was conceived at the time of the summer solstice, as Har-pi-Khart, the child of the mother only. This was har the child who transformed and became the only begotten of the father, reborn at the time of the vernal equinox, as Har the younger, the Shiloh, the afterbirth, who was no longer the child but 'knew to refuse the evil and choose the good,' which the child Horus did not, because he was always infantile. One name of the child the consoler, the arm of the Lord, is ser; the Zend sarosh, Hebrew shiloh. Ser (Eg.) also signifies the anointing, and has the meaning of butter or cream, determined by some yellow substance. This is the typical butter and honey on which the child was nutrified. From summer solstice to spring equinox is nine months, and the two Horuses came forth from these two quarters, south and east, as it is written in Habakkuk[100]. 'God came from Teman, and the Holy One from Mount Paran.' But in the adjustment of the solar zodiac the Virgin Mother and the gestator (in Pisces) are but six signs apart. These two are in the lower and upper heaven, corresponding to the sign both in the 'depth and in the height above.'

In the zodiac of Denderahi the messiah prince, har the child, is stationed in the sign of the Scales. But the Arabians made their Mesaiel the protecting genius in the sign of Virgo, and Mesai-El is the same as Mes-Har, or Mesore, the name of the month in which [p.390] the child was conceived. This was the month of Tammuz in the Jewish-Aramaic calendar, corresponding roughly to June. In accordance with this allegory of the heavens the Hebrews held that there were two messiahs, or the Messiah who had two manifestations. One was to be born of the tribe of Judah, and a second of the tribe of Ephraimthat is, on the equinoctial sides of the zodiac as represented in some planispheres, and also in the signs of the Lion and the Bull, which were the signs of Judah and Ephraim. Certain Jewish traditions concerning the Messiah were gathered up in the fourteenth century by Rabbi Machir in his Avkath Rochel, and published in Hebrew and Latin by Hulsius[101], in which the messiahship is based on the physiological and astronomical number and period of nine months. Three kings are to conspire against the kingdom of God and His law during nine months. Also in the sixth sign a king is to rise in Rome and rule over the whole world, and lay waste and persecute Israel for the space of nine months. And, 'at the end of the nine months shall be revealed Messiah Ben Joseph, whose name shall be Nehemiah, the son of Chuziel, with the tribes of Ephraim, Manasseh, and Benjamin and part of the tribe of Gad.'[102]

The year began say in Mesore, our June 15th. Isis had then conceived, with the sun in the sign of Cancer. In three months or so she quickens, and Har the elder appears in the sign of the Scales. Six months after Har the younger is born with the entrance of the sun into Aries. The coming son or Amanuel was born every year of Virgo first, as the child fed on butter and honey, and reborn of the gestator Iu-sa-as, in the opposite sign. Thus according to the celestial pictures yet extant the statement is tantamount to saying, 'In less than six or at the utmost nine months the land that thou abhorrest shall be forsaken of both her kings.'[103] And that is all there ever was in the 'Prophecy.' It would have had the same meaning if the writer had said the child was to be born of nine virgins, as Heimdal of the Norse mythology was called the son of nine virgins, the nine who became the muses of Greece, and warmed the cauldron of Keridwen with their inspiring breath, nine breathers and three water-sirens represented the twelve months of the year.

The two women called the wives of Jacob, 'which two did build the house of Israel,' are identified with the Virgo and gestator of the zodiac, when it is said allusively to Ruth, 'Do thou worthily in Ephratah and proclaim thy name in Bethlehem.'[104] The prayer is: May she breed and bring forth; may she conceive like Isis (Virgo), and bring to birth like Nephthys; only the typical two divine sisters cited are Leah and Rachel (the mother of Joseph), and the two places are rendered according to the Hebrew. Bethlehem, the house of bread, [p.391] represents the house of Virgo who carries the corn, and Ephratah was the place where the messiah son, the seed, was brought forth annually for ever, he who was to be the 'peace,' i.e., the Iu-em-hept[105].

Egyptian may throw light on the Hebrew המלע (galmah), rendered a virgin, as applied to the pregnant and bearing mother of Isaiah 7:14. Kar represents gal as the round, circle, or course; kar also means to have, bear, carry; meh signifies to be full, complete, fulfilled. The course fulfilled by the galmah may be completed in puberty, by the marriageable maiden, or in the period of gestation. In the present instance the fulfiller of the course as the gestator is the galmah, the meht-den or mädchen[106].

The commentators have been, and still are, entirely ignorant of the astronomical Christology and the fundamental nature of the sacred writings. The 'prophecy' of Abram is just as surely astronomical, although not so easily explained. For this reason. We find the same date in the apocrypha[107], 'Behold the time shall come when these tokens which I have told thee shall come to pass, and the Bride shall appear, and she, coming forth, shall be seen that now is withdrawn from the earth.' For 'My son Jesus shall be revealed with those that be with him, and they that remain shall rejoice within 400 years. After these years shall my son Christ die, and all men shall have life, and the world shall be turned into the old silence seven days, like as in the former judgments.' This refers to a period of time apparently repeated every 400 years. 'And after seven days the world that yet awaketh not shall be raised up, and the earth shall restore those that are asleep in her,' and there is to be a judgment as at the end of former cycles. The seven days had the same meaning as those in the story told by Lucian[108], who relates that at the Temple of Hierapolis a man ascended one of the phalli (pillars) twice a year, and remained on the top of it watching and sleepless during seven days, as 'some suppose to keep in remembrance the Deluge of Deucalion', or the ending of a period which was thus symbolized. All such customs belong to the early mode of memorizing the reckonings of time and period. The time-cycle is shown by the 'four beasts' of Esdras[109], 'whom I made to reign in my world that the end of their times might come through them.' Also, these four belong to the four corners of the lion, scorpion, waterer, and bull, and therefore are, according to the present interpretation, the same as the four kings whom Abram overthrows and supersedes; they also correspond to the four generations of the 400 years. There is a period of 400 years assigned to Osiris in the lists, and one of 500 years to Seb. We cannot but suspect that the former period is related to the Sun-and-Sirius reckoning, and to the Iusu, or Jesus of the apocrypha, as a form of Serapis. [p.392] Can the Bride refer to Sothis-Isis? The star Sothis was called the 'Lady of the Beginning.' She gave birth to the new year, and was a celestial type of commencement. The bride is to appear again that now is withdrawn from the earth, and she coming forth shall be seen at the same time that Jesus, the coming son, is to be revealed. The prophecy of the apocrypha is certainly based on circle-craft, and contains the parable of a period of 400 years. The prophecy of 400 years belongs to the apocrypha, i.e., the secret writings in which the chronology related to the heavenly bodies in Khebt, and not to the Jews in Egypt.

It is different with the period of 430 years. This we are able to utilize by aid of the Tablet of 400 Years[110], discovered in the ruins of ancient Tanis, i.e., Pa-Rameses, which had been the more ancient Tanis or San, the Hebrew zoan, and was rebuilt or resuscitated by Rameses II. 'Marvellous things did he in the sight of their fathers in the land of Egypt, the field of Zoan.'[111] The zoan here mentioned is no doubt the Egyptian San, the place of the Tablet of 400 Years, only the writer has associated the topographical name with the mythical legends of the fathers and the parables of the astronomical allegory, and the 'dark sayings of old' which the fathers had told them, that they should make these marvels known from generation to generation. The tablet belongs to the reign of Rameses II, and the king is represented making an offering to the god Sut. The inscription runs thus: 'A gift of adoration to thy person, oh Sut, son of Nut, give thou a long time in thy service to the Prince Nomarch, royal scribe of the horses, superintendent of the fortress Taru.'[112] The dedicator is a prince, governor of the nome and the superintendent of the fortress of Rameses, within which the Hebrews are described as labouring when they built treasure cities at Pithom and Rameses. It relates that Rameses ordered a large tablet of stone to be made in the great name of his fathers for the sake of setting up the name of the father of his fathers, Seti I, called Ra-men-ma. Seti is named as the worshipper of Sut, and the monument is erected in the great name of Sut; the scene represents an offering to the god Sut in his human form wearing the hut, or white crown, and holding the ankh and uas symbols. Rameses is represented 'giving wine to his beloved that he may make him a giver of life.'[113]

It may be remarked that this monument contains good evidence that Rameses II was not that cruel persecutor of the Jews, or Typhonians, which some have declared him to have been. It appears from a tablet at Abusimbel, that he had chosen a wife from the hated worshippers of Sut, a daughter of the king of the khita, and that she adopted the name of Ra-maa-ur-neferu. He was himself a Sut-worshipper like his father Seti, if not so pronounced; he was a Hekshus [p.393] in religion, if not a descendant of the Hekshus by blood. He appears to claim descent from the Hekshus king Apehpeh, as the tablet was ordered to be erected in the great name of his fathers for the sake of setting up the name of the father of his fathers, and connecting the Setis with their divine prototype in Sut. Sut-Nub, the doubly powerful, is the style of the god Sut on the monuments, and this Hekshus king is assimilated to that god. The god Sut is the object of the celebration, as he was the deity worshipped by Seti I. The adorer of the god says: 'Hail to thee, Sut, son of Nut, Aa­pehpeh (or Apehti), in the boat of millions of years, overthrowing enemies before the boat of the sun.'[114] In this passage the Sun and Sirius (Sut) are combined, as in the dual image of Har-Sut, or Nubti. The 400th year of Sut-aa-pehti, the great double force, because of the combination of the Sun and Sirius, must be read as belonging to a Sun-and-Sirius cycle, the object being the divinity to whom the Setis were assimilated.

Karl Riel[115] has undertaken to adduce the proof that the date from the year 400 of King Nub relates to the introduction of the feast of a Sun-and-Sirius year in the year 1766, in which the fifteenth of Pachons of the vague year fell on the 15th of Taht, of the fixed year, or on the real normal day of the rising of Sirius. Be this as it may, the present writer thinks the main object of the journey recorded, and of the tablet ordered by Rameses, was to chronicle the year 400 of Sut-Nub for the sake of setting up the name of the divine father of the Setis, and of keeping the chronology of a Sun-and-Sirius cycle of 400 years; also, he is unable to dissociate from it the 400-year-period alluded to in the Books of Genesis and Esdras, which belongs to prophecy, i.e., to the astronomical allegory.

In the divine reigns[116] there is a period of 400 years assigned to Osiris; and if we could identify that, it might prove to be a cycle of the 'Bennu-Osiris,' 400 years in length. The same imagery which was applied to Osiris in the later cult belonged to Sut in the far earlier time; the name of Sothis is for ever identified with Sut, and here the period of 400 years assigned to Osiris agrees with a four-hundred year cycle of Sut or Sothis. 'Hail to thee, Sut-Apehpeh in the boat of millions of years, overthrowing enemies before the boat of the Sun, great are thy roarings,' is the salutation to Sut as Sothis, not to the bennu as the phoenix of Osiris. The Egyptian bennu or phoenix was the constellation in which Sothis or Sirius (the Dog-star) was the chief star. It is believed to have corresponded wholly or partly to the constellations Cygnus and the Eagle (Aquila); the Egyptian phoenix being the swan of the Greeks, the peacock of the Hindus (the bird of Saraswati and Kârtikéya, who are the Hindu bride and son), and the eagle of the Romans. [p.394] The phoenix was called the bennu of Osiris as the nycticorax, a bird with double plume at the back of the head. But it was also represented by other birds. Nor is its name derived from the bennu but from ankh the living, as in p'ankh and paneach (חנעפ) applied to Iu, the son, and to Joseph, both of whom personated a phoenix by name. This ankh was the oriental anka, which was also known as the roc (rukh or rook), and Simurgh, which identifies the anka with the rekh, another form of the phoenix found on the monuments; a determinative of the repas as types of time, as well as a spiritual emblem. Horapollo says[117], 'When the Egyptians would denote the great cyclical renovation they portray the phoenix bird, for when he is produced a renovation of things takes place, and he is produced in this manner. When the phoenix is about to die, he casts himself vehemently upon the ground, and is wounded by the blow, and from the ichor which flows from the wound another phoenix is produced; which, as soon as it is fledged, goes with its father to the city of the sun in Egypt; who, when he is come thither, dies in that place at the rising of the sun. After the death of his father, the young one departs again to his own country, and the priests of Egypt bury the phoenix that is dead.' Pliny had learned that the life of the phoenix was related to the great year of the cyclic renovation in which the stars and seasons returned once more to their primal places[118]. But he gives its period as one of 660 years. Tacitus informs us that opinions vary as to the number of years, the 'most common number being that of 500, though some make it 1,461,'[119] the length of the Sothiac cycle. 'It appears once in 500 years,' says Herodotus[120], and one phoenix period of 500 is certain. Lepsius has proved[121] that the Egyptians were acquainted with the precession of the equinoxes, which they calculated by a period of 1,500 years, or three phoenix cycles of 500 years each. This had to be combined with the Sothiac cycle of 1,461 years, and he has shown how this period of 500 years is the third part of an actual period within which a year of 365 days coincides with the true solar year of the latter years. Now, the great cycle of precession, called the great year, when calculated by that motion alone, consists in round (or cyclic) numbers, of fifty-two phoenixes of 500 years. But there is another motion of the orbit which works the contrary way and reduces the time in practice to about 21,000 years. If the Egyptians ascertained the length of their cycles by living through them, or if we credit them with as much mathematical skill and astronomical knowledge as the moderns possess with regard to these motions and cycles, they may have corrected the one motion by the other. The length of the great year, according to the second motion, is given at about 21,000 years; and whereas the 26,000 years contain fifty-two phoenixes of 500 years, the 21,000 contain fifty-two of 400 years each.

[p.395]

What is wanted, then, is a phoenix of 400 years, as the type of the period assigned to Osiris and Abram, Jesus with the bride (female Sothis?) and Sut. This may be found by the aid of Horapollo[122], who also tells us that when the Egyptians symbolized a man who had lived to a proper or good old age, they depicted a dying crow; for 'she lives an hundred years, according to the Egyptians; and one of their years consists of four of ours.' Here, then, is a phoenix of four hundred years represented by Horapollo's crow, which may stand for a kind of Bennu-Osiris of 400 years, the period assigned to Osiris in the divine dynasties. The crow, in English, is a form of the Egyptian phoenix, or rekh by name, as the rook. The hundred years, which contain four hundred, can be followed in the hieroglyphics by means of the square, on which the ter sign of time was sometimes placed, instead of the circular sign used for the reigns of kings, or ages of individuals. The 'proper age' of the phoenix, then, was one hundred tetra-eterid, identical with the four generations and four hundred years of Abram.

To represent the current year, says Horapollo[123], they depict (with the sign of the year) the fourth part of an arura, a measure of land of an hundred cubits; and when they would express a year, they say a quarter. Four of these quarters squared the fourfold year, just as does the added day of our leap-year. Thus the dying phoenix is identifiable with the dying crow or rook, typical of the proper age of 100 years of four years each, or of 400 years altogether; that is, of four generations of too years each.

The fourfold year mentioned by Horapollo belongs to the Sothic period, and the heliacal rising of Sothis being about one day later every four years, completes the cycle, 1,460 years, in 365 of these days. The Egyptians, in consequence, called the year of 365 days one-quarter of the fourfold year.

This phoenix would be in the position of those persons who are born on the 29th of February, and will affirm that they have a birthday only once in four years, and their years are of fourfold length, their reckoning being identical with that of the Egyptians; and if its day of rebirth be analogous to our 29th of February, its age will be the one hundred leap-years, or a hundred years of the squared kind.

The ancient phoenix went down into Egypt to die or be transformed into the young one at the time of the great cyclic renewal. The transformation takes place at On (Heliopolis), where the sun-god, Atum, ankh, or the phoenix, is changed into the son as Iu-em-hept, the Jesus of the apocrypha, who, in Esdras, is associated with the cycle of 400 years. Moreover, it was at On that Abram was reputed to have taught the Egyptians astronomy! The data agree exactly with the 400 years and the fourth generation of Abram's vision, seen when the sun went down. The seed of Abram are to serve in a land not theirs [p.396] Egypt is not namedand to issue forth again; Abram is to go to his fathers in peace, and be buried in a good old age, just like the aged phoenix of 400 years at the time of the great cyclic renovation. The cyclic renovation is the same in the prophecy of Esdras, where Jesus, the son, is to be revealed with 'those that be with him, and they that remain shall rejoice within 400 years? And the Bride shall appear.'[124]

There is a scholion on the Timaeus hitherto considered to be of a doubtful character, which led Biot to think the epagomenae or five intercalary days were introduced into the Egyptian calendar by Aseth, one of the shepherd kings[125]. Lepsius considers that if the scholion contains any fact at all it can only mean that king Aseth converted a lunar year of 354 days into a solar year of 360 days and then added the five intercalary days, as if Aseth were a Semite correcting the Semitic lunar year by the Egyptian solar reckonings[126]. But as Aseth is clearly one with Sut (Apehpeh) of the Tablet of 400 Years, the change in the calendar mentioned in the scholion, which cannot refer to the introduction of the five added days, does in all likelihood refer to the phoenix cycle of 400 years, by means of which the apsidal motion was allowed for in its relation to that of precession in the final adjustment of the reckonings resulting from the later observations of the heavens. In Genesis[127] the period of 400 years follows the wars of the four kings and the five kings, who are overthrown in the previous chapter.

There is an Egyptian legend which relates how Osiris in the 365th year of his reign came from Nubia accompanied by Horus to chase Sut-Typhon out of Egypt, by which we may understand that the perfect solar year of 365¼ days was made to supersede the Sun-and-Sirius year of 365 days. In the battle for supremacy Horus was aided by Taht, the lord of the luni-solar reckonings.

It is only in this our century of excavation that men have begun to dig and delve down to any depth of rootage, or to discover the real foundations of their knowledge, and in the theological domain the downward explorations have hardly begun. These time-cycles are the subject of 'prophecy' in Genesis, Daniel, or Esdras, and not future human history, or the fate of empires. The burning or transformation of the phoenix is paralleled in Esdras by the burning of the eagle. 'The whole body of the eagle was burnt, so that the earth was in great fear.'[128] This in the interpretation of the 'vision' is to be followed by the founding of a kingdom 'which shall be feared above all the kingdoms that were before it; in the same shall twelve kings reign, one after another; whereof the second shall have more time than any of the twelve; and this do the twelve wings signify, which thou sawest.'[129] Now if we take this to refer to the founding of a zodiac of twelve signs and the introduction of the year [p.397] or cycle, in which the quarter of a day was added to be calculated as one day in every four years, and we suppose that the one day was taken into the account in the second month of the year as it is in our February, then the second king may be said to have more time than any of the twelve, because the leap-year of fourfold length would be reckoned and dated by the month of his reign.

The whole subject has to be considered in a chapter on the 'Great Year,' but to my mind the present aspect of the cycle of 400 years at least suggests that the Sut-Typhoniansthe people, so to say, of the Great Bear and the Dog-starwho were the most learned astronomers of Egypt, and the builders of the Great Pyramid, were acquainted with the real length of the cycle of precession, and calculated it, as a period of fifty-two phoenixes of 500 years each, and that they also discovered the motion of the apsides, or longer axis of the earth's orbit,* which reduces the actual period of precession to some 21,000 years, or in round numbers, fifty-two phoenix cycles of 400 years each. That is near enough for the present purpose. It may be, however, that the Egyptians found out the length of their periods experimentally, by living through them, whereas the moderns can only calculate the total; and their practical observations would be more trustworthy than any other reckonings. For instance, not long since the distance of the sun from the earth had to be corrected from 95,000,000 miles to about 92,000,000; this may have a bearing on the calculation of the period of 20,984 years, and if the measurement of annual variation should be wrong by two-fifths of a second the number would come out as nearly as possible 20,802 years.

* 'The position of the longer axis of the earth's orbit is a point of great importance ... in fact, by the operation of causes hereafter to be explained, its position is subject to an extremely slow variation of about 12″ per annum to the eastward, and which, in the progress of an immensely long periodof no less than 20,984 yearscarries the axis of the orbit completely round the whole circumference of the ecliptic.'[130]

It is noticeable in this connection that Rameses placed on the ceiling of the Ramesseion an astronomical projection of the heavens supposed to represent his horoscope. In the inscription which accompanies it the star Sothis (the Dog-star) is said to appear heliacally, or just before sunrise at the commencement of the year, and thus seems to mark the period of a Sothiac cycle, which may have a bearing on the period of 400 years. Unfortunately the regnal year of Rameses is not given. Here and there we may obtain a date for the Hebrew traditions where we cannot for the history. The Jesus of Esdras was to manifest within 400 years. The seed of Abram were to be afflicted in a strange unnamed land during 400 years. They were led up out of that land by the deliverer Joseph. These belong to mythology, and may be related to a Sun-and-Sirius period of 400 years. The date of 400 years on the Tablet of San[131] is none the less historical because of any relation to Sut-Har, the Sun-and-Sirius. [p.398] Dates on the monuments can be trusted, whether they refer to human history or the celestial chronology; the Egyptians would as soon have thought of falsifying the time in heaven as of forging an historical chronology, or of recording fictitious dates. There remains the fact that Rameses II, the rebuilder of Tanis, has recorded a period of 400 years which had elapsed between the reign of King Sut-Apehpeh and some unspecified year of his own long reign. Sut-Apehpeh is probably the second Apepi, considered to have been the last of the Hekshus kings. According to the prophecy, the seed of Abram were to suffer during 400 years, and, according to the supposed history, they actually were in the land of bondage during 430 years dating from the time of Joseph's being sold to Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh. And there was a Christian tradition preserved by Syncellus, a tradition 'received by the whole world,' which affirmed that Joseph ruled the land of Egypt in the reign of King Apophis[132]. Here then is a look of history at first sight. Apophis we know, and the Tablet of San shows that he reigned 400 years[133] before the year of the record made by Rameses II. In Brugsch's account of Joseph in Egypt[134], the Hekshus king, Apophis, mentioned by the Manethonian and Christian tradition, is there; but what is wholly missing from the monuments is Joseph himself. Nor shall we find the Hebrew mythology on the monuments, in the shape of Egyptian history, the impossible converse of what we have found, that is, the Egyptian mythology reproduced in Hebrew as history. The Joseph who went down into Egypt in the time of the king Sut-Apehpeh, and led the Israelites up out of it 430 years afterwards[135], belongs to mythology, and is apparently related to some period of 400 years belonging to the bride and the son, as Joseph or Jesus, the Iusif or Iusu. The Tablet of San may enable us to utilize the date of 430 years. It is probable that some 430 years do lie between the reign of Sut-Apehpeh and the exodus of the Typhonians from Egypt after the death of Rameses II, in the reign of Seti Nekht. But the only interpretation of the facts at present possible is this. The Hebrew 'mixed multitude' in Egypt belonged to the most ancient religion, and were worshippers of the mother and son as Sut-Typhon. After the death or expulsion of Sut-Apehpeh, the last of the Hekshus, the Osirians and Ammonians returned to power, and, with the exception of the reigns of the Amenhepts III, and IV, the Typhonians had a bad time of it in Egypt.

'In their time,' says the tradition reported by Syncellus[136], 'Joseph ruled in Egypt,' that is in the time of the Hekshus of the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Dynasties. The tradition is undoubtedly right, only we have been all wrong about the particular Joseph. Enough, however, has now been said concerning the messiah son, who, as the one who comes and brings, was the Iu-sif of the mythos. [p.399] Sut was a form of the Iu-sif as well as Iu-em-hept and the Delphian Apollo. The ass, in the time of the Twelfth Dynasty, is named Iu; and this was a type of Sut, who was the Iu-sif of the ancient genetrix Typhon.

Sebek was a form of the Iu-sif, as well as Har-Makhu and Aten of the disk, who were each the Iu of the two horizons, as the son of the mother. Har-Sut and Sut Nubti were dual forms of the son Iu-sif. When King Apepi set up Sutekh for his lord, and worshipped no other god in the whole land, that was a form of the Iu-sif. Thus Joseph must have ruled in Egypt during several hundred years from the commencement of the Thirteenth Dynasty, at least until the time of Sut-Apehpeh, called the last of the Hekshus, as during this period the mother and her son were the sole divinities of the Sut-Typhonians, and these people considered themselves to be the worshippers of the one god. At Tel-Amarna, Aten is often called the one god; he is styled the one god living in truth. Also Kufu of the Fourth Dynasty, in personating the living Har-Sut, was the adorer of the one god, as the Iu-sif or son of the mother. The lacunae notwithstanding, it is apparent from the negotiation between Seken-en-ra of the Seventeenth Dynasty and the Hekshus King Apehpeh of Avaris, that a possible treaty between them was made contingent on Apepi's consenting to worship all the gods (elsewhere called the nine gods) of the whole land, with Amen-Ra at their head. But be was a worshipper of the one god, Sut, who took the dual forms of Sut-Anubis and Sut-Har, whose twin starry types were Sothis and Orion, or earlier the dog and the wolf. In the scene on the Tablet of San[137], Sut is the one god of the offering, the one god beloved of Rameses: only this one god was not the generator Amen or the father Osiris, but always the child Sut, son or dog of the mother; Har, son of the mother; Aten, son of the mother; Sebek, son of the mother, or Joseph, son of the mother. It was the same Joseph under the many names of Adon, Tammuz, Duzi, Baal, Sutekh, Khunsu, Iu-em-hept, Greek Ie, Jasius, and Jesus; the same Joseph who led the Israelites up out of Egypt; the same mythological character whether stellar, lunar, or solar, considered as the son of the mother who, as the coming one, was the Iu-sif by name. This was the only Joseph who ruled as Adon over all the land of Egypt in the time of the Hekshus King Apehpeh or Apophis.

After the reign of Apehpeh the religion again changed hands. Sut and his mother had to make way once more for the gods of the orthodox, and there arose a king 'who knew not Joseph,' i.e., who did not worship the Iu-sif or coming son. At which time the persecution of those who did so worship broke out afresh, whether they were called after the Iu, Jews; Aati, Menati or Sut-Typhonians; their period of bondage began, and lasted, so far as many of them were concerned, until there came the casting-out, called by the name of the [p.400] exodus. It was a long period of suffering for those who had been suppressed and enslaved in mines and quarries, and compelled to do all kinds of labour enforced by the whips of the taskmasters. The Jews belonged to that suffering and enslaved people on account of their religion, independently of race. They speak in their name because they were of them. The bondage dates itself from the time of the last of the Hekshus or Shepherd Kings until that of the exode, in the time of Seti-Nekht, which may have been, for anything known to the contrary, exactly a period of 430 years.

'Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph; and he said unto his people, Behold the children of the people of Israel are more and mightier than we. Come on, let us deal wisely with them, lest they multiply, and it come to pass that when there falleth out any war they join also unto our enemies and fight against us, and get them up out of the land, Therefore they did set over them taskmasters to afflict them with their burdens. And they built for Pharaoh treasure cities, Pithom and Rameses.'[138] This description of the Jews holding the balance of power in Egypt is true to the monuments, only the 'Jews' must be understood in the religious acceptation of the name. The children of Israel were the sons of El, Al, Ar or Har, who is the son, and Elyon the highest answers to the first Har or El, who was Sut.

The story of Joseph and the wife of Potiphar is mythological. It is the same that is found in the endeavour of Ishtar to seduce the solar god Izdubar, who repels her advances when she says 'Salute me, for I would marry thee.'[139] Various versions are extant. One of the most striking may be found in Lucian's account of the Syrian goddess[140]. In this Combabus (Joseph) is beloved by his master's wife; and knowing that he is to be left in charge over her during the master's absence, he cuts off a certain part of his body, and delivers it over to the king in a sealed box as a precious treasure to be kept until the monarch returns. The same solicitation occurs as in the case of Potiphar's wife; the young man, like Joseph, is proof against the lady's passion. She turns on him, and denounces him to her husband. Then the box is opened, and the innocence of Combabus established. The story relates primarily to the Iu-sif, or child of both sexes. 'I am a woman,' says Bata, 'even as thou art,' speaking as the infertile one, in the Egyptian Tale of the Two Brothers[141]. This tale contains a form of the mythos reduced to a romance, in which the younger brother performs the same act as Combabus, and cuts off his genitals and throws them into the water. It contains the same scene between the temptress and the youth as the Hebrew story; and the foiled lady also becomes the false informer; as does Potiphar's wife. The Egyptian papyrus containing the tale, now in the British Museum, was written by the scribe Anna, master of the rolls, and was [p.401] in the possession of Seti Mer-en-Ptah, the successor of Rameses II. This 'oldest romance in the world,' once proved to belong to mythology, can in nowise be claimed as a precious and important elucidation of the history of Joseph in Egypt in the sense adopted by Brugsch[142]. Nor can anything historical be based on the two dreams of the pharaoh in which the seven kine come up out of the river Nile; one group fat and the other lean, when the seven lean ones devour the seven fat kine or the seven full ears of corn that come up and are devoured by the seven thin and blasted ears. The imagery is Egyptian, zodiacal, and mythical. The seven ears of corn are borne by the goddess Isis, in the sign Virgo of an Egyptian planispherei. The great mother holds five ears in her hands and carries two on her head[143]. The seven cows were the seven mythical cows of Hathor, the cow-headed goddess. Both were types of plenty: both related to the Nile and the inundation. These visionary symbols are palpably portrayed on the monuments. In the Ritual the seven cows of Hathor are invoked by name. They give food and drink to the living (whom we call the dead), and feed the gods of the west; and the Osirian (deceased) prays these types of plenty to give him of their abundance. 'Give ye food and drink to the Osiris, feed him; give ye to him daily food and drink and all good things,'[144]an early form of 'Give us this day our daily bread'[145] is thus addressed to the seven cows of Hathor. The cow type of Hathor is a paranatellon of the Scales, the sign next to the virgin. The seven in relation to the inundation are as old as the Great Bear. The appearance of the seven cows is made prophetical, just as in Egyptian literature the seven cows, or as they are called the 'seven Hathors,' are the foretellers of events to come, the prototypes of the Greek Parcae and the Gahs of the Avesta. These seven prophetic Hathors attend the birth of children, and predict their future fate. They appear in the Tale of the Two Brothers, where they come to utter a prophecy with 'one mouth.' The seven years are likewise mentioned during which he brother remains infertile, and these are followed by the time of prosperity and plenty[146]. The 'Hathors from Pithom' are especially alluded to in an inscription in honour of Rameses II at Ipsambul[147].

Nor has the 'Bahr Iusef' any relation whatever to the supposed patriarch Joseph, whose name has been applied by the Arabs to explain the Egyptian Iu-sif. All the accounts of this canal show that it was made to retain the waters of the inundation; and the traditions connect it with the name of Mena. When the Nile was in flood a vast quantity of water was received into artificial lakes by means of the canal, and dammed off until required for later use. By these arrangements the inundation was doubled, which is exactly what the name of the Bahr Iusef tells us in Egyptian. Sefa [p.402] (Eg.) means to make humid; sefi, to liquefy; sefa is the inundation, and a name of its goddess. Iu means to duplicate, and the Iusef is literally the doubler of the inundation by name. This name is likewise repeated in another form. In the neighbourhood of the Libyan Basin, which was filled by the Bahr Iusef, it was called the Menhe or Menhi canal.

Hi (Eg.) is a canal of water, and the word means to inundate. Men (Eg.) denotes the fixing and placing, to remain, during. Thus the Menhi canal is the canal of the inundation, or of the water that was fixed to remain there until wanted. A men is the container of water, as a cask and a vase or jar. Both names say the same thing, which is altogether remote from the patriarch Joseph. If we take the hi or hiu of Menhi as the first syllable represented by the Arabic Iu in Iusef, it comes to the same conclusion. Hiu-sef signifies the canal of the inundation.

It was the Joseph of mythology who was in Egypt under the rule of Apophis the king, Sut-Apehpeh of the Tablet of San[148], four hundred years before the tablet was set up by Rameses II. The historical Joseph, if ever there was one, we shall have to seek elsewhere in another way.

We must now look back to the beginning of the 13th dynasty, when the reign of the Sebekhepts commenced, and the great confusion began, to continue during five dynasties. Here the theory of the foreign invasion and conquest of a thousand or two thousand years fails to bridge over the gulf, or fill it in.

'A considerable number of native kings must have reigned between the last king of the twelfth dynasty and the beginning of the foreign invasion. There are numerous inscriptions which prove that sovereigns powerful in the north of Egypt had extended their dominion to the heart of Nubia. The monuments of Thebes, Southern Egypt, and Nubia might be consistent with the hypothesis of a Hekshus kingdom in the north; but the presence of equally important monuments of the Sebekhepts at Bubastis and Tanis, kings whose names occupy an important place in the chamber of Karnak, would alone be sufficient to overthrow this hypothesis. There is in the Louvre a magnificent colossal statue in real granite of Sebekhept III, with reference to which M. de Rouge says, "A single statue of this excellence and of such a material shows clearly that the king who had it executed for the decoration of his temples or palaces had not yet suffered from the invasion of the Shepherds. It is evident that under his reign Egypt was still a great power, peacefully cultivating the Arts."'[149]

Yet it was the reign of Typhon, as proved by the worship of Sebek, the ancient god of darkness, who had escaped from the battle with Horus in the shape of a crocodile. My own reading of the facts is that at the beginning of the 13th dynasty only a religious revolution had occurred through Queen Sebek-nefer-Ra, who delighted to assume the character of the divine genetrix as mother of the son, i.e., the Virgin Mother, who alone produced the son from herself without the initial fatherhood, a role that was tempting to a woman who reigned alone. She was the continuer of Sebek as Ra. The Sebekhepts were no [p.403] doubt native kings, and some of them were treated as such. But when Seti the first, the devoted to Sut, singles out seven of them for special recognition or reverence, this act tends to show they also were worshippers of Sut-Typhon in the solar form of Sebek-Ra and his mother. Also the Hekshus king Apophis so far claimed a kinship in religion, if not in race, by having his own name engraved in hieroglyphics on the right shoulder of the colossal statue of Semenkhara-Mermesh, the 18th king of the 13th dynasty according to the royal Turin Papyrus[150]. This was more like laying a hand on that monarch's shoulder in token of friendship, than the act of an overthrower and destroyer.

But, with the restoration of Sut-Typhon under native kings, the 'invasion' and the strife had more or less begun. For the eternal conflict between Sut-Typhon and Osiris was being fought out continually on earth before it was transferred to the scenery of the heavens in the later rendering of the mythos, and Lower Egypt was the particular battlefield.

Sut had once been in possession of the whole land of Khentu in the south and Kheptu in the north; his star ruled in the one, his mother's in the other, and they were the Biune All, in the beginning with the goddess of the seven stars and her son the dog. Then other gods were evolved, Shu and Taht, Ptah and Osiris and Amen-Ra, and these began to chase Sut-Typhon from the land of their birththe driving out of Sut-Typhon being one of the prime causes of the colonization of the world. By degrees the Typhonians were crowded down to the northern extremities of Egypt, where the mixing of race with their co-religionists of Syria and other lands led them to look at times for help from their fellow-worshippers of the most ancient gods. At length the Hekshus, Aamu, Menat, Aati, are limited to a nome or two, so far as they are visibly congregated together; and at last the main body of them is confined to Avaris, where we find them under the ruler Apehpeh, called the last of the Hekshus kings.

'It came to pass,' says the scribe, Pentaur, 'when the land of Egypt was held by the impure (the Aati or Aamu) there was no lord-king (i.e., of the whole of Egypt); in the day, namely, when King Ra-skenen (Sekennenra) was ruler of the land of the south, the impure holding the district of Aamu (or of Sut-Ra), their chief (Uhi) King Apepi was in the palace of Uar (Avaris). The whole land paid homage to him with their manufactures in abundance, as well as with all the precious things of the inhabitants of the north. Now King Apepi set up Sutekh for his lord; he worshipped no other god in the whole land ... built him a temple of durable workmanship. It came to pass that while he rose up (to celebrate) a day of dedicating ... a temple to Sutekh, the prince (of the south) prepared to build a temple to the sun over against it (query, in rivalry with it?). Then it came to pass that King Apepi desired to ... King Ra-skenen ... the prince of the south. It came to pass a long time after this ...'

Four lines obliterated.

'...with him in case of his not consenting (to worship) all the gods which are in the whole land, (and to honour) Amen-Ra, king of the gods. It came to pass, many days after these things, that King Apepi sent a message to the prince [p.404] of the south. The messenger (being gone?) he called his wise men together to inform them. Then the messenger of King Apepi (journeyed) to the chief of the south; (when he was arrived) he stood in the presence of the chief of the south, who said to him this saying, viz., to the messenger of King Apepi, "What message dust thou bring to the south country? For what cause hast thou set out on this expedition?" Then the messenger answered him, "King Apepi sends to thee, saying he is about to go to the fountain of the castle, which is in the region of the south, seeing that has commissioned me to search day and night!"... The chief of the south replied to him, that he would do nothing hostile to him. The fact was he did not know how to send back (refuse?) the messenger of King Apepi. (Then the prince of the South) said to him "Behold thy lord, promised to"...'

Four lines obliterated.

'... Then the chief of the south called together the princes and great men, likewise all the officers and heads of ... and he told them all the history of the words of the message sent to him by King Apepi, before them (or according to order). Then they cried with one yoke, in anger, they did not wish to return a good answer, but a hostile one. King Apepi sent to ...'[151]

The people shut up in Avaris, who are called Aati or Aamu, are Typhonians first and foremost, whether invaders or not. The city of Avaris, says Manetho, was Typho's city, in accordance with the ancient theology[152]. It has been discovered by de Rouge[153] that Avaris, the residence of the last Hekshus king, was depicted as the house of the leg, written phonetically hat (house), uar (the leg). And the house of the leg is identical with the house of Typhon, when the imagery is interpreted.

The house of the leg is good Egyptian for the leg or thigh constellation, that is Ursa Major or Typhon. The leg or hinder thigh, the khepsh, denoted the north as the emaning uterus of creation. The city of Avaris in the north of Egypt, as house of the leg, represented the place of birth in the planisphere; and it was in the nome of Sut. Typhon was reported to be concealed in the bog of Serbonis, at the northernmost limit of the land[154]. Avaris is said to have been built by Saites or Sut.

In the religious revolt described by Pentaur, Ra-Apepi was king in Avaris, and ruled over the whole north of Egypt. It was in the time of Ra-Skenen who was the ruler in the south. We learn from the Inscription of Aahmes, a captain-general of marines, that he was present at the taking of Avaris. He says, 'We laid siege to Avaris,' 'we fought upon the canal of Patetku of Avaris.' 'We took Avaris.'[155]

After the reign of Ra-Apepi in Avaris, and the driving out of the Hekshus for the time being, another rush was made from the south, and the pests once more profaned the Ammonian gods with their hated presence. It is the same complaint as that of Pentaur, but refers to a later onset. Aahmes the captain served under Aahmes the first king of the 18th dynasty. In the religious sense Aahmes the pharaoh was a king who knew not Joseph, and the [p.405] Eighteenth Dynasty arose as the opponent and conqueror of the worshippers of Sutekh, or Sut the child, the typhonian Iusif. Aahmes married an Ethiopian woman, apparently the daughter of some royal house, possibly in relation to the war, in which he drove back the 'Pests of the south.' Through this queen Aahmes-Nefertari[156] the black race mounted the Egyptian throne.

The black blood appears to have wrought in favour of the typhonian religion; Sut was the god of the Nahsi, and the Aten sun was especially worshipped by the Ethiopians. It breaks out in the person of Amenhept III, whose mother was a black, and whose features show the Ethiopic type. The monarch introduced afresh the Aten disk of the sun, designated the Aten-Nefer, or youthful solar god. This, when rightly understood, was no new thing in Egypt. Among the servants of Sebek, in the Thirteenth Dynasty, there is a King Aiu, whose throne-name is Mer-nefer-Ra[157], the lover of the young sun-god, who was the lamb of the Sebekhepts and the solar child of the typhonian mother. He also was assimilated to the god as the son, the iu, who comes, and is the coming one for ever.

Among the kings, in the chamber of Karnak, who are later than the Thirteenth Dynasty, and earlier than the Eighteenth, there is one styled 'Neb-Aten-Nu-Ra.'[158] He too was lord of the Aten likeness of the sun, long before the time of the so-called disk-worshippers. The Aten sun, as mere disk, will tell us nothing without the doctrine of the cult. As the sun of the horizon, it is identical with Har-Makhu, a title given also to the orthodox gods. But the Aten disk was the emblem of the divine son, who was solely the seed of the woman; and the pharaoh assimilated to this type was a representative of the har-sun, the sonship of the divine genetrix, and not of the fatherhood; he imaged the unbegotten son of the mother, the son of the woman who is the messiah in the Book of Enoch[159].

Amenhept III is known to have married a woman who was evidently foreign, as she is painted of a fair colour, with pink-tinted fleshthe complexion given on the monuments to what are termed the Japhetic races, as opposed to dusky Ham. It is recorded on the scarabaei that her father's name was Iuaa and her mother's Tuaa. This lady, whose name was Taiu, appears to have had a marked influence on the course of religion and politics in Egypt. Some scarabaei, says Dr. Birch, dated in the eleventh year of this reign, foreshadow the religious revolution that was impending[160]. On the first of the month Athyr, the king had finished a large lake or basin, about 5,000 feet in length, and 1,000 feet in breadth, English [p.406] measure, and on the fifteenth of the month he held a festival, and launched on this lake the symbol of his worship, the boat of the solar disk, named Aten-nefru. This was the type of the young (nefer) sun-god, Aten or Adonis, the Iu-su or Iu-sif.

The mother of Amenhept III represented the boat, as the bearer or genetrix. Her style in the scutcheons is Mut-em-Ua, the mother as the solar boat. Or, as em-ua also means alone, she has the significant title of the mother alone; she who bore the Only One. In the temple of Ra, built by Amenhept at Luxor, she is proclaimed to be the bark that bears the sun. In this same temple there is a remarkable sculpture representing the incarnation, the annunciation, the conception, birth and adoration of the divine child, here born as Amenhept III, the son of Mut-em-Ua, or the mother alone. The scenes are portrayed on an inner wall of the holy of holies. The queen, being the earthly image of the mythical genetrix, gives birth to her child as the messiah-son. In the first scene Taht, the word, logos, or messenger, and tongue of the gods, announces the coming birth. In the second, Khneph, the spirit or divine breath, and Hathor, the cow-headed bearer of the sun, each takes the queen by the hand and holds the symbol of life, the ankh, to her mouth. This is the act of incarnation, which has a visible result in the swelling shape of the queen's figure[161]. In the Arabic traditions, Gabriel, whom the Persians designated the angel of revelations, is said to have breathed into the bosom of the virgin's shift, and caused conception[162]. Nef means breath, and Shu, the earlier god of breath, will be identified with Gabriel. In the third scene the queen is seated on the midwife's stool, and the child is born. In the fourth scene is depicted the adoration of the child, with three human figures behind the god Khneph. The child here born was representative of the Aten sun, the same as Adonis, Tammuz, or Duzi, considered to be the son of her who came from herself, the virgin mother. In the Great Harris Papyrus, Rameses III complains that the revolters and insurrectionists have made the gods in the human likeness, and Queen Mut-em-Ua and her son assumed the divine likeness, as the Mary and child-Christ of the Aten cult[163].

Queen Taiu wears a headdress and crown, from which seven gold wires spring and support seven small golden disks. These show her worship to have been akin to that of Sevekh-Ra, the sun as the Lord of the Seventh Day and the number seven; the sun that was said to 'cross in the Eye of Seven Cubits,' and who is adored at Ombos by the worshipper holding the instrument containing the seven wires.

In the British Museum there is a magnificent statue of Amenhept III, with the Libyan lips and Kushite type of face. On the back of [p.407] this a divine name has been changed. It was a name conjoined with Ra; for the Ra was left on the polished stone, as it was first written. We now know that the missing name must have been Aten, and with the substitution of m for t it was turned into Amen.

As it is usual to conclude that a woman was at the 'bottom of it all,' so in this instance it is surmised that Mut-em-Ua was a cause of the religious revolt under the Amenhepts III and IV. The Aten disk, the especial symbol of the Ethiopians, is a type of the same divinity as the Syrian and Hebrew Adon. It is a remarkable meeting-point of cross ways this, where stands the King Amenophis III of the dusky race, with his black mother on the one side and his fair wife on the other, both devout worshippers of Aten-Ra, on the typhonian line of descent.

Amenhept, like Tahtmes, had, in the language of the inscription[164], 'washed his heart,' as the Zulus speak of 'washing their spears,' and carried his conquests to the land of Naharain. He was a mighty warrior and hunter. The memorial scarabaei tell us that, on his hunting expedition in the land of Naharain, he had speared two lions with his own hand. At the temple of Soleb he is proclaimed conqueror of Naharina or Mesopotamia, Singara, Pattanà or Padan-Aram, and Assur or Assyria. Now a king's daughter, preciously adorned, was a portion of the tribute paid by the king of the Rutennu to Tahtmes III, in the year 32 of his reign; and my conjecture is that the fair wife of Amenhept was a portion of his Mesopotamian conquests. The great empire of the khita lay in the vast plain of Mesopotamia, or Naharain of the double river. The inscriptions often refer to the land of Naharain, in the neighbourhood of the upper Rutennu. This is the Aram-Naharaim, Aram of the two rivers mentioned in the Hebrew writingsthe land of the two streams, or double-stream land, that lay between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates.

Of all the peoples known to the past and named on the monuments, the Egyptians acknowledge the khita as the noblest, and rank them almost as their peers. They ate the 'great people,' and their land is the 'great country.' They are the Hittites of the Hebrew scriptures; their origin is one of the unsolved problems of history. But long ages before the rise of Babylon and Nineveh the ancient khita ruled in the most northern parts of the Syrian land, and their empire extends to a remote antiquity. The object of citing this is to suggest that the Aramean element in the Hebrew writings connected with the story of Abraham may be the result of the marriage of Amenhept with a daughter of the double-stream land of Naharain or Mesopotamia, who would thus be a Hittite. The name of the queen's father, recorded on the scarabaei, was Iuaa, and the name of her mother Tiuaa, the feminine form of the same. Iuaa is evidently derived from the god Iu, the coming one, and as aa [p.408] means born of or engendered, these appear to be named as the devotees of Iu, the dual son, who was Iu-em-hept at On, Ie at Delphi, Joseph in Israel, and the Jesus of the apocrypha. Iuaa, of Lower Egypt, would be Iuaa-Kheb. That is the nearest approach to an historical Jacob to be anywhere found on the monuments.*

* There is in the British Museum a blue porcelain cylinder for holding the stibium used in blackening the brows and eyelids, on which the names of Queen Taiiu and Amenhept III appear[165].

Amenhept III was followed by Amenhept IV, who has been supposed to have changed his name to Khu-en-Aten[166], the adorer of Aten. The latest researches, however, point to these two as being different persons. Khu-en-Aten changed the name of the city called after him, Khu-Aten, into Pa-Aten-Haru, the city of delight for the solar disk, or rather, the youthful sun-god, Adon, the lord. He appeared in public riding on the golden court-chariot, like the disk of the sun[167]. His scutcheon and style read like a hymn to the sun. 'In the horizon celebrate (ren) the splendour which is in the orb of Aten.'[168]

Khu-en-Aten was suckled by a nurse, who was the namesake of the queen-mother Taiu; she is styled the high nurse and nourishing mother of the god-like one. This would assimilate her to the character of one of the two divine sisters of the child. Her husband's name was Ai, or, in full, Aiu. Aiu was a priest or holy father (neter-ta), also the fan-bearer at the king's right hand, and overseer of the stud of brood mares; he was versed in the science of law, and has the title of the royal scribe of justice. Aiu and his wife Taiu were promoted so rapidly that their rise was the subject of gossip with the common people, whose comments are inscribed on the monuments. As Aiu was in the law, and is styled 'the royal scribe of justice,' he may have been a judge, that is a sep, and Aiu the judge, is Aiu-sep, or Joseph. The name of Iu-em-hept is also spelt with the variant Ai, or Aiu, and the ass is both Am and Iu.

If there be any historical Joseph to be found on the monuments it is in this Aiu as a Sep. He was the protégé of Amenhept III; and again, if there be anything historical in Joseph's asserted connection with the King Apophis, it may be identified, as Amenhept is likewise styled an A-peh-peh. In the title of Sut-Apehpeh on the Tablet of San, the double lion is the sign of Peh-Peh; but on his own scutcheon the name is written the same as that of the Apophis monster, the Apap, meaning the elevated. One A-peh-peh is therefore as good as another, for the name or title of Apophis. Aiu is a supposed worshipper of Amen, but this name in a case like the present proves nothing. Amen is but a title, without determining the theology. Amen was a title of Sebek, the typhonian sun-god. Amen-au, the hidden Au, is a god of the Sebek family of gods; Kak was an Amen, the hidden, unknown, or coming god, the Amenu- [p.409] el. Also Baal-Amen of the Phoenician theogony, according to the present reading, indicates the sun as the son (al) of the mother; whereas the Amen-Ra of later Egypt was the divine father. It is of more importance to know that Aiu is an Ar-mer-Maat, the beloved son of Truth, and that his sun is Khepr-Khepr-Ra, the sun of the double beetle, the two cherubs of the Hebrew mercy-seat, as shown by their appearance in the Egyptian sacred ark or portable temple[169]. This sign connects Aiu with the worship of Tum and Ma, and their Two Truths. Also the lions are used in proclaiming Aiu to be the son of Ma, beloved exceedingly. Here then, we have the Thummim of Ma and Atum, the beetles or cherubim, and the two lion-gods in a cluster.

On a monument of the thirtieth year of the reign of Amenhept A-peh-peh, the patron and promoter of Aiu, is represented as receiving the accounts of an extraordinarily great harvest from the storekeepers of Upper and Lower Egypt. In the tombs of Abydus were buried several 'overseers of the accounts of the corn placed in the royal granaries.' And again, sap (Eg.) means to examine and verify.

Brugsch[170] quotes a memorial stone of a contemporary family, which mentions that a certain Ha-Aai (Lord Aai, the equivalent of Adon in Hebrew), who was 'an overseer of the cutters of hieroglyphics' of his unnamed 'lord of the land,' had two sons, named Har-em-Hebi and Rameses. This looks as though Har-em-Hebt and Rameses I may have been the children of Am, the divine father and scribe of justice. Brugsch says, 'Whether Rameses I was the son, son-in-law, or brother of Haremhebi is as yet undecided. If say the brother, I am led to this as a possible supposition by the testimony of the memorial stone of a contemporary family, which mentions the brothers Haremhebi and Rameses among the sons of a certain Ha-Aai, an "overseer of the cutters of hieroglyphics" of his unnamed "lord of the land."'[171] Aiu, the overseer, examiner, and judge of the cutters of hieroglyphics, would be a sep, one of the Kem-Sep, and Aiu-sep is the equivalent of the Hebrew name of Joseph. If this Aiu, an overseer of the cutters of hieroglyphics, and father of Horus and Rameses, be the priest and Suten of the scutcheons, who became one of the heretic pharaohs, it will throw clear light on one of the obscurest parts of Egyptian history, for the reading of the facts would demand that Aiu should have become the husband also of the Queen Mut-em-Snatem, or Neit-em-Mut, and that she should have been the mother or stepmother, and not the wife, of Horus (Har-em-Hebi). Aiu was the protégé of Amenhept III, and the friend and right-hand man of Amenhept IV or Khu-en-Aten, and if there be a pharaoh on all the [p.410] monuments that agrees with the Hebrew story, this is the king, and Aiu is the man who was elevated to a seat at his side.

The account in Genesis[172] says Joseph was made an Adon over Egypt; so it is said of Har-em-Hebi. He was 'an Adon of the whole land for the duration of many years;' he was called to be 'the great lord in the king's house.' In the Egyptian collection at Leyden there is a monument on which he appears in the character of first official of the court. Lastly, the pharaoh being so pleased with him, he rose to the position of 'heir of the throne of the whole land,' and wore the royal crown of Egypt as the Horus of Manetho[173]. A similar description might be given of the elevation of Aiu by Khu­en-Aten, as he was not of the blood-royal, and the king had no sons.

The Hebrew writer relates that Pharaoh called Joseph, and said, 'See, I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. And he made him to ride in the second chariot which he had.'[174] This is perfectly consistent with the repa-ship. 'And they cried before him, Abrech, and he made him (ruler) over all the land of Egypt.'[175] In this passage the meaning has been missed, and 'ruler' has had to be inserted to make the sense. But if the word 'Abrech' be Egyptian, that would proclaim the ruler. Rek (Eg.) means to rule; it is the older form of the name of Rã. 'Ab' signifies the pure, pure one, the priest, the holy father. Ab-rek denotes the priest-ruler, literally his royal reverence. 'And he made him Abrech over all the land of Egypt' is the restored sense of the passage, and thus it would mean he made him the priest-ruler, or the priest as ruler over the land. Aiu is the holy father who was made an Adon, and who is the priest-king, the only Ab-rek or Neter-ta on all the known monuments who became a pharaoh in Egypt.

The wife of Khu-en-Aten, Nefer-tai-ta-Aten-Ra[176], had a sister, who appears on the monuments as Netem-Mut, supposed by Brugsch to have been the wife of Tut-ankh-Amen first and Har-em-Hebi afterwards[177]. But the fresh fact supplied by the statement respecting Aiu and his two sons, Horus and Rameses, suggests a new reading. On the statue of Turin, Netem-Mut or Mut-netem appears as a queen-mother beside Har-em-Hebi, as if he were her son. She places her left hand on the shoulder of the king. The inscription has been taken to celebrate a marriage between Mut and Horus, as it says, 'Then was Amen-Ra moved with joy, and he beheld (the king's daughter) and wished to unite her with himself. And, behold, he brought her to this prince, the crown prince, Har-em-Hebi; and all the divinities of the chamber of fire were full of ecstasy at his coronation.'[178] There is no word of a marriage of Netem-Mut with Har-em-Hebi. The joining with Amen in the divine marriage only denotes the change in religion [p.411] from the disk-worship, as in the case of Ankh-nes-pa-Aten, who became Ankh-nes-Amen.

First she was considered to be the daughter of Horus, by Champollion[179] and other writers; next his wife, by Lepsius[180] and Brugsch[181]. Dr. Birch, unsatisfied, asks, 'Was she the wife of the monarch, the divine father Am, and a daughter of one of the heretical kings or usurpers?'[182] That is what the latest discovery points to: If Aiu be the Ha-Aiu, who was father of Horus and Rameses, then it is almost certain that Netem-Mut was the second wife of Aiu, and the mother or stepmother of Horus and Rameses I.

Here the Hebrew version may contain a fact. The name of Joseph's wife, we are told, was Asenath. As (Eg.) means great, to be at rest, reposing. As-Neit is the great or reposing, i.e., enceinte, Neit-Neith as gestator. This is the character of Netem-Mut. Her name, written with the seed-pod, shows she represents the goddess as gestatorthe bearing mother. The determinative of as, reposer, is the knot borne by the brooding mother, Ta-urt (Thoueris).

Now in the legend preserved by Plutarch, most likely from Manetho, we are told that Thoueris (Ta-urt) was formerly attached to Typhon as his own concubine; but it was reported that as great numbers deserted daily and went over to Horus, Thoueris deserted also. This lady, according to other accounts, was called Aso. By that name she appears as aiding and abetting the conspiracy of Typhon against Osiris. Here she is called a certain queen of Ethiopia, whose name was Aso[183].

In Plutarch's narrative we also find Horus impeached by Typhon for being a bastard, but Hermes became his advocate, and Horus was judged legitimate by all the gods[184]. Either there is historic matter mingled with this report, or else Horus and Netem-Mut of the Turin Inscription are assimilated to the two characters of Aso and Horus in their desertion of Typhon[185]. The inscription derives Horus from the belly of Teb-em-Shef, as if he were of typhonian origin; but he 'made a divine shape in it.'

The inscription states that on the day the god made his peace offerings he brought them to that chief, the heir-apparent, dwelling in the two lands, Har-em-hebi; he went to the royal palace, he placed him before him, at the home of his 'great daughter.'* That is the daughter of the divinity who it is conjectured was the mother of Har-em-hebi and widow of Aiu, and who had fulfilled the part of Aso, and followed Horus in the change of religion from the worship of Aten to that of Amen-Ra.

* The word used is sheps, a variant of as the Great, in the maternal sense, as in Asenath.

Har-em-hebi appears in three different monuments in the British Museum, each belonging to the time when he was repa, or chosen [p.412] heir-apparent, before he ascended the throne as a pharaoh[186]. These reveal the fact that he was repa under a disk-worshipper of the Tum-Typhonian cult, or was one himself. He makes his invocation to the sun as Tum, who is said to grow young and be renewed as aten, the 'Divine Boy,' in the arms of his mother Hathor; the one god who begat and gave birth to himself, especially as the son of the Akar or hinder-part, and who is the one adored in the circle of all the other gods after the manner of Joseph in his dream. This is the language of the so-called disk-worship. The monument of Turin shows that Har-em-hebi, in becoming the pharaoh, had made his peace with Amen-Ra, the generator and father, and had changed into a persecutor of those who worshipped the mother and child only.

It is not necessary, however, to assume that Har-em-Hebi was the son of Netem-Mut. He may have been the son of Aiu by Taiu the first wife. Har-em-Hebi was not considered to be of royal birth; his tomb at Saqqara exhibits him without the cartouches of royalty[187].

It is possible that Aiu as a Sep may have been interfused with the Joseph of the mythos. Anyhow, this is all that the present writer is able to contribute towards the restoration of Joseph and Asenath, and it is more than has hitherto been recovered from the monuments.

Horus became the bitter enemy of the Typhonians and the worshippers of Aten-Ra. There was an exodus after his accession to the throne. The Hekshus, disk-worshippers and followers of Sut, had to flee, whether they were 'foreigners' in the ethnic or religious sense. He demolished their monuments, and made use of the stones with the inscriptions reversed and turned inwards for his own buildings.

The ecclesiastical writers make the exodus to be about this time, at the end of the 18th dynasty, but they place it in the (unknown) reign of Akhenchres, daughter of Horus.

Aiu's tomb in the typhonian valley of Biban-el-Muluk shows, by his portrait, that he belonged to the race of Kush or Phut. 'The catacomb of Aiu is of no great extent; the negro countenance of the king is the most remarkable object in it.'[188]

Neither on the present nor any other theory, except the astronomical, can Joseph and Moses be made contemporaries. But, if both were Hekshus kings at different intervals, and their fall was each time followed by an exode of the unclean Typhonians, it would be easy for a transcriber to class them together. Also we have to remember that the reporter for us is Josephus[189].

It must by this time be obvious that the one exodus of the Hebrew writings belongs to the mythos, and that when we come to historical facts there were several exodes of the Sut-Typhonians or Ius from Egypt. These facts are reflected on the monuments, where [p.413] the one grand exodus is resolved into three different expulsions, more or less known to Egyptian historians.

All the charges and objections made by Josephus against the statements of Manetho are falsely founded on the assumption that there was but the one exodus from Egypt, and that that occurred as described in the Book of the Exodus. Whereas Manetho[190], in the account headed 'Of the Shepherd Kings,' tells the story of the possession and fortifying of Avaris, and their expulsion therefrom when they were driven out by Aahmes, who has got mixed up with Tahtmes, both being named Sons of the moon; and he afterwards relates the story of the second possession of the city of Avaris, which had been 'left vacant by the shepherds,' and of the conspiracy and revolt of the lepers, under the leader and lawgiver Osarsiph of Heliopolis. These accounts include two exodes at least. Another exode followed the ascent of Horus to the throne, and Joseph-Peteseph can only be the human leader of revolt in this case as Aiu the son of Kush, or the Phutite. Josephus, on account of his theory, was compelled to lump together, or to complain that they were not lumped together, the different exodes distinguished by the Egyptian writers.

In his description of one expulsion under Moses, Manetho gives the number of outcasts at 80,000[191].

Chaeremon[192], in his version as reported by Josephus, calls Joseph and Moyses (Peteseph and Tisithen) the two leaders of 250,000 outcasts from Egypt. Now, as Manetho puts the number of outcasts at 80,000 the coupling together of Joseph and Moses is as obvious a lumping indiscriminately as is the making of Manetho's 80,000 into Chaeremon's 250,000.

According to Manetho, this exodus was caused through the king's desire for a sight of the gods[193]. On the other hand, Chaeremon ascribes it to the instigation of Isis, who appeared to the king in a dream; and he says that Phritiphantes was the chief mover, not Amenophis[194]. The quarrel of Josephus is that the Egyptians will not give a true account of the departure of the Hebrews from Egypt: Manetho, speaking of one batch, is charged with forgetting that he had already related their departure 518 years earlier.

Josephus is fusing the different exodes and expulsions in one, and in the name of his own people, all being dominated by the mythical exodus of the sacred writings. The Egyptian writers more or less distinguished between them. Also these writers never would own that 'our forefathers came into Egypt from another country.'[195] In both cases they were right. Here again Josephus read his history by means of the mythical descent of Jacob and his twelve sons; and the Egyptians were not so beguiled.

Two exodes will account for the increased number given by the later writer, as the result of two expulsions. Manetho traces one [p.414] expulsion to Amenophis, whom Josephus designates a 'fictitious king.'[196]

The 'fictitious king' was desirous of seeing the gods, as had been Horus, one of his predecessors in the kingdom. Horus then is the first king who desired to see the gods, and it was he who restored the gods when the heretics were driven out by him; this identifies the exodus of Josephus, when Manetho's 80,000 were expelled. Also Horus is the Bocchoris of Lysimachus[197]. The bak is the hawk of Horus; with this the name of Har-em-Hebi is written, and in the name Bak-Horus we have both the hawk and its meaning identified with the pharaoh.

Josephus, quoting from the Egyptiaca of Lysimachus of Alexandria, says, 'In the days of Bocchoris[198] the Jews, being leprous and scabby, fled to the temples, where they got their living by begging; and as their numbers were vast, there was scarcity in the land. Hereupon the king consulted an oracle, and was commanded to purge the country by expelling the Jews and drowning the lepers, whose presence was obnoxious to the sun. Those afflicted with leprosy were drowned, and the rest were driven out to perish in the desert. But a certain man named Moses led them into the country now called Judea, and founded the city of Hierosyla, which was in after-time called Hierosolyma'[199] (Jerusalem). In this account at least three different exodes are massed into one. For these supposed builders of Jerusalem were the exiles who were expelled by Aahmes from the city of Avaris, and they are classed with the emigrants who were driven out by Horus, and both are placed under Moses, who led the revolt in the time of the child of Seti-Mer-en-Ptah.

But if for the present purpose we identify the 80,000 exiles, named by Manetho, with the exode of Joseph (under Horus), the following expulsion, which we may term the Mosaic exodus, would possibly bring up the total number of the two to the 250,000 mentioned by Chaeremon.

The pharaoh called Amenophis, like Horus, had a longing to see the gods. These two being the restorers of the gods, which in each case had been thrown down, broken, or blackened over, their desire to see them is sufficiently explained by their wish to restore them to their former dignity. It is the complaint of Pentaur that Ra-Apepi rejected the gods of the whole land[200], and in the Great Harris Papyrus[201] it is said that the gods had been overthrown and lay on the ground; also, to judge by a phrase in the Turin Inscription, the statues of the gods, in the time of Khu-en-Aten and Aiu, were blackened over and put in mourning, or, as we say, blotted out[202]. The second king who desired to see the gods is told that if he would cast out the Hekshus, Aamu, Aat, Typhonians, worshippers of Sut and Aten, the impure and uncleanthe gods, with Amen-Ra at their head, would return.

[p.415]

There are at least three different exodes. One after the fall of Avaris, when the conquered Hekshus 'departed from Egypt with all their families and effects, in number not less than 240,000, and bent their way through the desert towards Syria.' These are said to have built a city, and named it Jerusalem[203]. Another expulsion occurred under Horus or Bocchoris; and a third in the time of Suti-Nekht. This is the particular exodus of the Jews associated with the name of Moses. The Hebrews, says the record, 'built for Pharaoh treasure cities (Miskanoth), Pithom and Rameses.'[204] Meskhenat is an Egyptian name for a temple, a sacred place, from the meskhen or cradle of new birth. It is noticeable that in the Annals of Rameses III the pharaoh speaks of all he has done in honour of the gods, especially the god Tum, and enumerates the presents he has conveyed as 'tributes given to thy splendid treasury in Pa-Tum,'[205] or Pithom. Rameses, as before said, was the ancient Tanis, the Hebrew Zoan, Targumic םנט where remains of the Hekshus[206] have been found, including the Tablet of 400 Years.*[207] Its restoration was begun by Rameses. The building of Rameses was continued under Men-Ptah, his thirteenth son, the pharaoh of the Jewish Exodus, as generally supposed by Egyptologists. This Men-Ptah was followed by his son Seti II, also called Men-Ptah or Mer-en-Ptah, and it was in the time of Men-Ptah, the father of Sethos (Seti-Rameses), that the circumstances occurred which led to the latest of these exodesthe one under Moses.

* A friend, to whom I am greatly indebted for assistance in proof-reading and other matters, remarks on this: 'Not so identified by recent writers. One argument against itthe exodus would then include crossing one branch of the Nile, and no such passage is mentioned.' What exodus? This is a good typical example of the way in which the mythical exodus makes everything wrong everywhere.

Manetho, as quoted by Josephus, recognizes two Men-Ptahs or Amenophises, though they are not both described as pharaohs. He says, 'This king (Amenophis) was desirous of beholding the gods, as Horus, one of his predecessors in the kingdom, had desired to do before him; and he communicated his wish to a priest of the same name with himself; Amenophis, the son of Papis, who seemed to partake of the divine nature, both in his wisdom and knowledge of futurity; and Amenophis returned him for answer, that it was in his power to behold the gods if he would clear the whole country of the lepers and other impure people that abounded in it.'[208] Here it may be observed that in the Egyptian the lepers and impure are the Aati and the Aamu. We know from their own accounts that the Jews were eaten up with leprosy, and may see in that fact good ethnic evidence for their being of the ancient African stock. But these terms of the Aati and the impure are by no means limited to the disease of [p.416] leprosy. The Aati were the moral lepers, the accursed as Typhonian heretics, the practitioners of dark rites, which the Egyptians associated with the origin of leprosy and other diseases.

'Well pleased with this information, the king gathered together out of Egypt all that laboured under any defect in body, to the number of 80,000, and sent them to the quarries which are on the eastern side of the Nile, that they might work in them, and be separated from the rest of the Egyptians.* There were among them some learned priests, who were affected with leprosy; and Amenophis, the wise man and prophet, fearful lest the vengeance of the gods should fall both on himself and on the king if it should appear that violence had been offered them, added this also, in a prophetic spirit, that certain people would come to the assistance of these unclean persons and subdue Egypt, and hold possession of it for thirteen years. These tidings, however, he dared not communicate to the king, but left in writing an account of what should come to pass, and then destroyed himself; at which the king was fearfully distressed.

* An acknowledgment that they also were Egyptians.

When those who had been sent to work in the quarries had continued for some time in that miserable state, the king was petitioned to set apart for their habitation and protection the city of Avaris, which had been left vacant by the shepherds, and he granted them their desire.

Now this city, according to the ancient theology, was Typho's city. But when they had taken possession of the city, and found it well adapted for a revolt, they appointed for themselves a ruler from among the priests of Heliopolis (On), one whose name was Osarsiph, and they bound themselves by oath that they would be obedient to him in all things. Csarsiph then in the first place enacted this lawthat they should neither worship the gods, nor abstain from any of those sacred animals which the Egyptians held in veneration, but sacrifice and slay them all; and that they should connect themselves with none but such as were of that confederacy.

When he had made such laws as these, and many others of a tendency directly in opposition to the customs of the Egyptians, he gave orders that they should employ the multitude in rebuilding the walls about the city, and hold themselves in readiness for war with Amenophis the king. He then took into his counsels some others of the priests and polluted persons, sent ambassadors to the city called Jerusalem, to the shepherds who had been expelled by Tahtmosis; and he informed them of the position of his affairs, and requested them to come up unanimously to his assistance in this war against Egypt. He also promised, in the first place, to reinstate them in their ancient city and country, Avaris, and provide a plentiful maintenance for their host, and fight for them as occasion might require; and assured them that he would easily reduce the country under their dominion. The shepherds received the message with the greatest joy, and quickly mustered, to the number of 200,000 men, and came up to Avaris. Now Amenophis, the king of Egypt, when he was informed of their invasion, was in great consternation, remembering the prophecy of Amenophis, the son of Papis. And he assembled the armies of the Egyptians; and having consulted with the leaders, he commanded the sacred animals to be brought to him, especially those which were held in more particular veneration in the temples; and he forthwith charged the priests to conceal the images of their gods with the utmost care. Moreover, he placed his son Sethos, who was also called Rameses from his father Rampses, being then but five years old, under the protection of a faithful adherent, and marched with the rest of the Egyptians, being 300,000 warriors, against the enemy, who advanced to meet him; but he did not attack them, thinking it would be to wage war against the gods, but returned, and came again to Memphis, where he took Apis and other sacred animals he had sent for, and returned immediately into Ethiopia, together with all his army and all the multitude of the Egyptians for the king of Ethiopia was under obligations to him. He was therefore kindly received by the king, who took care of all the multitude that was with him, while the country supplied what was necessary for their subsistence. He also allotted to him cities and villages during his exile, which was to continue from its beginning, during the predestined thirteen years. Moreover, he pitched a camp for an Ethiopian army upon the borders of Egypt, as a protection to King Amenophis.

In the meantime, while such was the state of things in Ethiopia, the people of [p.417] Jerusalem, who had come down with the unclean of the Egyptians, treated the inhabitants with such barbarity, that those who witnessed their horrible wickedness believed that their joint sway was more execrable than that which the shepherds had formerly exercised alone. For they not only set fire to the cities and villages, but committed every kind of sacrilege, and destroyed the images of the gods, and wasted and fed upon those sacred animals that were worshipped, and having compelled the priests and prophets to kill and sacrifice those animals, they cast them naked out of the country. It is said also that the priest who ordained their polity and laws was born at Heliopolis, and his name was Osarsiph, from Osiris, the god of Heliopolis; but when he went over to these people his name was changed, and he was called Moyses.'[209]

The time was that of Seti-Men-Ptah, when Seti-Nekht-Mer-Amen was but five years old. Seti was himself the 'devoted to Sut,' and probably Typhonian at heart, which may account for his cowardly conduct; he would not wage war against his own gods to save his own country, which shows the virus of the genuine theological bite.

Now it is recorded in the Annals of the Rameses III who followed Seti-Nekht, that at this time there was a great disturbance or revolution in Egypt; for many years there was no mastermind or hand, and for a time the country belonged to the governors of cities, one massacring another. To be more particular, the narrative runs:

'Thus saith the king Ra-user-ma-Mer-Amen; long may he live! Listen to what I tell you of my worthy works which I performed as king of mortals.

The land of Kami had fallen into confusion; every one was doing as he liked; they had no superior for many years who had supremacy over the rest. Other events came afterwards; distressing years!

Aarsu or Arusu, a Kharu (was hailed) among them as chief.

He placed the whole country in subjection under him. He assembled his companions. Then were abused the things done to the gods as (if) for men. No offerings were made in the interior of the temples. The gods were overthrown; they lay upon the ground. He did according to his wish and plan.'[210]

The writer then describes the overthrow of Arusu and his confederates by the king Seti-Nekht, who was like the war-god Sut in his wrath. He adjusted the whole land, which had been in insurrection. He slaughtered the abominable who were in the land, and purified the great throne of Egypt. He was the living ruler of both countries. He took pains to rectify what had been perverted. Each one again recognized his brother, who had been separated as by a wall. He set up temples, with divine supplies for offerings to the company of gods, the Nine, according to the regulations, and sent the last fragments of the opposition flying into Palestine. This is the very picture drawn by Manetho, and painted by another hand. The same confederacy and revolt are described, and Arusu and Osarsiph are one and the same man. This has been suggested by Dr. Eisenlohr, but he attained [p.418] no firm conclusion in consequence of the obstruction of the Hebrew mythos[211].

Time, scene, circumstances and persons are identical and identifiable; and if an historic Moses is anywhere to be found on the Egyptian monuments, it must be in this character of Arusu-Osarsiph. The name may be read Arsu, Arisu, Arius or Aruas, Ars being the consonantal root. This name we find connected with Moses, in an account of the exodus from Egypt to Sinai, cited from Justin out of Trogus Pompeius, who says Moses was the son of Joseph, and 'After the death of Moses his son Aruas was made priest for celebrating the rites which they brought from Egypt, and soon after created king.'[212] All we have to do with here is the name of Aruas given to the son of Moses, which is the same as that of the leader of the revolt in Egypt.

But, says Manetho[213], 'the name (of Moses) was Osarsiph,' and he is careful to explain that it is derived from Osiris. Sif (Eg.) is the son, su being a worn down form of the word. Osarsif will read the son of Asar (Osiris): but a more important interpretation is possible. It may read Osiris as the son in contradistinction to the father. This was the oldest form of the god; it was the child-Christ of Egyptian theology, and would assimilate Osarsif to the first Horus-Har, the child, the elder, the lotus-borne, the child produced by the mother below, the child of the virgin Neith; the child drawn forth from the waters and the mud of the mother-source itself. Ar means the typical, the fundamental (the first and elder Har), or the river, the water-source which preceded the breath. Su is the child. Also the one mythological type dominates, correlates, and explicates all the three names, Osar-sif (Osarsu), Arsu, and Messu.

For it is intended to identify the Arsu of the Great Harris Papyrus, not only with the Osarsiph of Manetho, but also with the Messu who emerges at this time as a heretic pharaoh on the monuments, and as their sole possible historic Moses. Josephus says Moses was named Mouses because mou in Egyptian means water[214]. Mu is water, and su is the child. Thus musu, like aru-su, is the child of the water, or the river-born, that is the first Horus called Harpocrates. Osarsif, as Osiris the child, is the Aru-su.

The Hebrew record asserts that the Egyptian princess called the child Moses because she drew him out of the water. Now the typical child of Egyptian mythology was the water-born; was drawn out of the water. So ancient is the imagery of this subject, that the ideograph of su, the child, is the water-reed. Mes has the meaning of a product of the river. Thus messu (Eg.) is not only the water-born, but may be read the child (su) produced from or by the river; hence messu the child born of the water. Brugsch finds the very spot in the Nile at which the little ark landed. 'Is it by accident,' he asks[215], [p.419] 'or by divine providence that, in the reign of Rameses III, about 100 years after the death of his ancestor, the great Sesostris, a place is mentioned in Middle Egypt which bears the name of the great Jewish legislator?' 'It is called T-en-Moshê, the island of Moses, or the riverbank of Moses. It lay on the eastern side of the river, near the city of the heretic king Khu-en-Aten. The place still existed in the time of the Romans; those who describe Egypt at that time designate it, with a mistaken apprehension of its true meaning, as Musae, or Musôn, as if it had some connection with the Greek Muses.' So grateful are we for the least look of corroboration of anything in the Hebrew story, and so jealous lest it should prove to be mythical! He does not give the signs, but Ta-en-mes (or mesh) also reads the soil (as island or bank) which was the product of the river, agreeing with the name of the child who was drawn out of the water. Unfortunately this might name any portion of land or soil (ta) produced by the river as Mesi. There is an island of Moshe or Mosha, belonging to the British, to the south of the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb. Still Messu the typical child, the elder Horus, was Egyptian, and doubtless had his island, localized in the Nile, as the place where the divine sister watched over her brother, the water-born. In the case of the child Horus, 'His sister took care of him by dissipating his enemies, repelling (bad) luck, she sends forth her voice by the virtues of her mouth; wise of tongue, no word of hers fails.'[216] The child of the waters, found in the little ark, belongs to mythology in general. It is Hebrew and Egyptian, Assyrian and Maori, and mythical wherever it may be found. The ark was represented in Egypt by the boat of papyrus-reed, but its earlier form was the lotus on which the child-Horus is portrayed as ascending, and kneeling with the finger pointing to his mouth.

The lotus sprang from the mud, and the child was fabled as born in the mud of the marshes. The mud, as product of the river, is the Mes of Mesr or Mitzr. Messu is the child of this mes in the same sense as was the land of Mesr; and a child or person named Messu would be the namesake and representative of the child Horus, born of the waters or the mud of the primordial source, and therefore identical by name with Osarsif and Arsu.

Plutarch[217] mentions this child of the waters, who was said to have been dropped into the water and drowned. This was he who had divine honours paid to him at feast and festival as Maneros, the dead Horus, who was represented by the black doll, the men image of death or second life. Others, however, say the boy was named Palestinus, or Pelusias, and that the city of that name was so called from him, it having been built by the goddess (Isis).

Pelusium, the 'City of Mud,' was, like the child of the river, the [p.420] product and deposit of the Nile. Musu, Moshé, or Messu would be named after the child of the waters, who was the Mes-ar or Mes-ur of the month Mesore; the firstborn, the elder-born, the water-born; the new-birth coinciding with that of the inundation.

It can be shown how Messu is the exact equivalent of Arsu, if we hold fast by the type. Messu is the child produced by the waters; aur, aru, or ar (Eg.) means the river, and arusu or aru reads the child of the riverthe exact equivalent of Messu, the product of the river, the celestial Nile. In the Hebrew version the child was to be called mashu (השמ or)[218] because he had been drawn out of the water. This is the literalization of the myth. Arsu and Messu are identifiable as one, because of the mythical child, and both with the city and the land of mud as the product of the Nile.

Whether Moses is or is not one with the Messu who was governor of Ethiopia, the Hebrew traditions go far to connect him with that country. Moses as an Egyptian general against the Ethiopians is omitted from the Hebrew scriptures, which are chiefly occupied with the mythical Moses (Mau-shu), and he is therefore all the likelier to be real on that account. Stephen[219] testifies to his being not only a scribe, learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians, but as mighty in deeds.

'One of my waking dreams,' said Livingstone, 'is that the legendary tales about Moses coming up into Lower Ethiopia with Merr, his foster-mother, and founding a city which he called Meroë, may have a substratum of fact. I dream of discovering some monumental relics of Meroë.'[220] The monuments answer for a Messu of Ethiopia, who lived at the proper time for an historical Moses, and he may be the very man.

The tradition referred to is mentioned by Artabanus, who, in his account of the Jews, says that after the death of the pharaoh Mempsathenoth, his son Palmanothes was very severe towards the Jews. This king had a daughter whose name was Merrhis who was married to a King Chenephres, then reigning in Memphis, for at that time there were several kings in Egypt. Merrhis was barren, and she brought up a child of the Jews, and named it Mouses. When he arrived at manhood he was called among the Greeks Musaeus[221]. Mer-res was the Nile-goddess of the south, already identified with Miriam.

Josephus relates that Moses, at the head of an Egyptian army, was seen and beloved by Tharvis, the daughter of the Ethiopian king, and that she became his wife[222]. Tharvis, being one by name with Thoueris or Ta-urt, identifies the lady, whether she be human or divine, with the typhonian genetrix. These belong to the mythos; but we also learn from the inscription on the Tablet of 400 Years[223], [p.421] found at San, that in erecting the statue there was a grand deputation, which included the repa, or heir-apparent; the superintendent of the nome; the fan-bearer at the king's right hand; the leader of the foreign legions, and captain of the foreigners; the constable of Khetam, together with various priests and scribesthe royal scribe of the cavalry, the processional priest of Ba-neb-tat (Mendes), the high priest of the god Sut, the officer of Buto, the ruler of the Two Countries, the superintendent of the priests of all the gods, Seti, justified son of the prince, and among the rest was the royal scribe and master of the horse who was the child of the lady Taa, the singer of the sun, or sun-gad, and his name is 'Para-Messu,' which reads 'Messu of the temple' (pa) of Ra, or Messu who was a priest of Ra. His mother was a priestess and glorifier of the solar divinity, and Messu is named as belonging to the temple[224]. Para-Messu is a proper name: the as-image denotes a ruling personage, and he is described as the child of the lady Taa, who is the priestess of the solar god Ra. Para-Messu is Messu of the house of Ra, and the name shows the child of the temple, and has the look of the child consecrated or adopted for the divine service; therefore he may have been adopted by Taa, and so called her child. There is nothing in the inscription to clash with the Hebrew story of the adopted child. Moreover, it is a most remarkable thing to characterize the royal scribe and master of the horse, as the child of Taa, the 'singer of the sun.' It seems to echo the story of the adoption, or to be used in some sense which could not be open to the suspicion of bastardy.

It is now suggested that this Messu, the royal scribe and master of the horse, may have been the same officer that we find in the scutcheons at the end of the nineteenth dynasty[225], who was a prince of Ethiopia and a royal scribe.

'Prince of Ethiopia' was a title of the repa and heir to the throne of the pharaoh. This Messu may only have been the governor of Kush, or he may also have been the repa as heir-apparent to the throne adopted by a childless Pharaoh. The prayer of Si-ptah, for children to inherit the throne, possibly points to his own childlessness. In that case we see one reason why Messu ascended the throne. Also it is possible that the priestess Taa, the singer of the sun, may have become that Tā-seser, the queen of Si-ptah, and co-regent with him, whose name is found inscribed with his own on a number of monuments; and yet they do not appear in the hieroglyphic genealogies, nor in any other contemporary succession[226].

In an inscription at Silsilis, a prayer is offered that their children may inherit the throne, which phraseology is remarked upon by Rosellini as strange and altogether un-pharaonic[227].

[p.422]

The tomb of Si-ptah was taken possession of by Seti-Nekht, who had his scutcheons erased, and treated him as one of the heretic usurpers of the throne, which needed purification after their hated presence.

Osburn states that Tā-seser, whom he confounds with the Thoueris of Manetho, had been devoted to the service of the gods in an especial manner, according to a prevailing custom of the princesses of Egypt, and was one of the Πάλλαχες of the Greek historians. These were the consorts or concubines of the god. Tā-seser was a priestess, and appears by the reliefs on the tombs to have been consecrated to Hathor and Neith[228].

If the name of the Seser for the ruler was added to that of Taa on assuming the throne-title, that would turn Taa the priestess into the Tāa-seser, whence Tā-seser. Seser is the word for rule, and Ta­seser would be the ruler Ta; the feminine Caesar.

A secret significance may be suspected in the name of Messu's wife, Queen Bakt-ur-Nru[229]. Bakt is the worshipper in the sense of servant; ur means the chief, principal, and in the case of a queen it may be the royal or anointed. Nru is the name of the vulture. This then was literally the chief or royal servant of the vulture. Typically she was the worshipper and therefore the royal representative of the great mother whose emblem is the vulture of Mut. The Egyptians according to Horapollo[230] symbolized the mother by a vulture, because there is no male in this race of creatures; a statement which has to be interpreted by the typology. The vulture had been a sign of the virgin Neith, when the mother alone was looked upon as the producer of the child before the fatherhood was established. But the older, the typhonian vulture was a black, foul bird, named the neh, continued from the time when the genetrix was of a negroid complexion and type, and her children were the Nahsi. If this bird had been depicted as the vulture signified, it would have doomed the monument. On the other hand, and as an obverse side to the same fact, the adorers of the disk and the Typhonians avoided the orthodox vulture, and used the cubit sign rather than the bird for their phonetic m.

This assimilates Bakt-ur-nru to Ta-urt or Thoueris, the old mother, whose name would be written T-ur-Mut; and, according to Josephus, Moses was saved from the waters by Thermuthis, who adopted him as her son, she being childless[231]. This would also assimilate Moses to the mythical child of the typhonian genetrix, whilst Bakt-ur-nru, the consort of Messu, is the chief servant of the ancient mother who first bore the boy. The servant (bakt) supplies another note of [p.423] recognition. The Shus-en-Har, the Hekshus and Sebekhepts, all called themselves the servants of their god.*

* The vulture-type of maternity, the naru or narau, denotes the family, and in Maori ngare is the hard form of the word, meaning family and blood relations. This form has persisted in the Hebrew רענ, which represents the Maori ngare, and signifies the young, and to bear, and it appears also in the Albanian nieri, Zend nairi, for woman, and nare, in Sanskrit, which supplies a type-word for the human family in general.

Both Amen-Messu and Si-ptah are said to have come from the same town. The standard name of Si-ptah is Sha-en-Kheb, raised or born at Kheb; whilst an inscription at Gurneh, ascribed to Amen-Messu, states that the king was brought up by the goddess Isis at Ha-Kheb. But as Ha-Kheb permutes with Ha-Neith the mythical abode of birth; and as Horus the divine child was born at Kheb, and reborn in Tattu, it has no great topographical value. Both may have been merely assimilated to Horus in Kheb. Ha-Kheb however, as before shown, belongs to the mother who was older than Neith. Stories told of the child of mythology, the young sun-god, with a secret interpretation, were afterwards transferred to and narrated of the hero as actual occurrences, and the character of the miraculous child of the waters is thus formed and fitted to fulfil the historical character of Arsu, Messu, or Moses. For example, the name of Arsu furnished another meeting-point in mythology for the historical and mythical child. Arsu or Ars is some divine personage in the Ritual[232]. 'Thou hast hailed Ars (or Arsu) from the conductors of heaven,' is said in the 'chapter of Going in the Boat of the Sun,' of some mystical personage. Shu as Anhar is the conductor of heaven by name; and the god of two names and dual form answering to the plural 'conductors of heaven,' Shu-Anhar, is called the Young Elder, the double force and double abode of Ra, and Har-Sekti, the Lord dwelling in the divine barge of the sun[233]. 'Thou hast hailed Arsu from the conductors of heaven,' points to the water-born, the Aru-su Harpocrates, as he is called the 'great god,' and yet it is said of him, 'His faults and defects are the same' as those of the speaker. That is, they were human; har, the child, being the mortal form of the solar son. This will show how the name of a real person now known from the monuments as Arsu would lend itself to being fused and assimilated with Arsu the typical son; Arsu the river-born. It is possible that the Arsu of the boat may be meant for Ma-shu, as he is the Egyptian Mars, the Greek Ares or Ars, the war-god. Arsu (Ares) is mentioned by Hermapion[234] in an inscription translated from the obelisk of Rameses. There is a deity copied by Wilkinson, who says he 'may be a character of Osiris. I have only met with him at Philae.'[235] He is a war-god and the son as lord of the two worlds. He wears the headdress worn by Sebek of Thebes, by Ptah-Sekari, and by [p.424] Harpocrates. All turns on the sonship here, because the character is really pre-paternal. Kebek, the oldest form of Seb, was the son. This Egyptian war-god is apparently the same as Resp. A typhonian form of the sonship was continued in Resp, as is shown by the ornament worn on his head in place of the sacred asp. Resp is considered by Egyptologists to be a Syrian deity; but Syria originated nothing; the types are always traceable to Egypt or the Africa beyond. He is portrayed on a monument in the British Museum standing on one side of the goddess Kên, the Hebrew Kivan, the naked Venus, with Khem-Horus on the other. The goddess herself stands on the back of a lion-leoparded, the type of Mashu or Anhar. Resp has an emblem on his head, like that on the top of an Anubis-staff. This identifies him with Sut, and the group contains the typical four, as in Moses, Hur, Aaron, and Miriam, or Shu, Har, Sut, and Kivan, or Hapi (Kafi), Kabhsnuf, Suttef and Amset, the four rams, the four genii of the four quarters permanently fixed as the lion, scorpion, waterer, and bull.

There is an extant monument in the Mayer Collection of Antiquities, Liverpool, a large stone of libation, which has on it the name and titles of Amen Messu, his divine style of Ra-men-ma-Setp-en-ra having been written and erased twice over. On this monument he is celebrated as a miracle-worker. It is said that the king established both countries, and that he was 'Great in miracles at Thebes;'[236] a hint which proved most suggestive to the Hebrew writers, who followed it out fully, by identifying Moses with Arsu the god and with Resp.

There is also a Messu mentioned in the papyrus, Anastasi I, who was an Egyptian scholar, a Suten or scribe, and a Mohar, who was employed in affairs of state and war by Rameses II. Dr. Lauth is inclined to recognize Moses in this man[237]. The objection raised by Pleyte[238], that the style of this Messu is Ptah-Messu, seems to me to be of little weight. Seti II is both a Mer-Amen and a Mer-n-Ptah[239]. Also, the assumption of the name of Ptah may have been in relation to Si-ptah, husband of Ta-seser, who was the adopter of the child Moses, if there be any truth whatever in the story of his adoption by a daughter of Ra. Be this as it may, there was a Messu, as prince of Ethiopia, a royal scribe; who, if Repa, is visibly on his way to the throne; and a Messu did ascend the throne who was for some time a ruler in Egypt, if not the ruler of Egypt. After his death the tomb of this Messu was treated as that of a usurper.

The Hebrews call Moses the child of the river. Mu-su is the child of the water; Messu the child, the product of the river, and Aru-su is the river-child till these can be correlated under one mythological type. The river of the child is always the Nile. Surely then this child of the river must be the Egyptian king known to the Greeks by the name of Nilus?

[p.425]

Dicaearchus, the historian who wrote the Life of Greece and treated of Egypt in its remoter times, as may be learned from a fragment in the scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius[240], dates the rule of Nilus as being 2,500 years from Sesonchosis (or Sesortosis), and 436 years prior to the first Olympiad. This gives the date of 1212 BC for the time of Nilus, whose rule was obviously chronicled as a remarkable event, so remarkable, indeed, as to date an epoch for the Greek historian. Nilus is identifiable with Arusu and Messu by means of the river, and the only corresponding name on the monuments is that of Messu, Amen-Messu, the heretic king. The Nile is the Aru, Hebrew Iar. With the plural article prefixed this is Naiaru (Nile); with the masculine article it would be Paru, the Phuro of Eratosthenes[241], who thus wrote the name of the Nile. With the feminine article, or prefix tu, the river-born is Tu-aru, and this is now claimed to be the meaning of the name of Thuoris given in the list of Manetho as the last ruler of the 19th dynasty[242]. The s may or may not be merely the Greek terminal. If Egyptian, the name contains the elements of Tu-aru-su, the river-child, who was Nilus, Messu, or Arusu. Either way the river-name is there as it is in Nilus.

From religious affinity the Greeks would take great interest in this able leader, who rose from the ranks and occupied the throne of the pharaohs.

The Lacedaemonians held themselves to be of the same family as the Caphtorim of Palestine; hence their surmise that they were related to the Jews. 'It is found in writing that the Lacedaemonians and Jews are brethren, and that they are of the stock of Abraham.'[243] It is noticeable that the Lacedaemonian king who found this in the records and sent the message to the High-Priest Onias, was called Areus, the same name as that of Arsu or Aruas. When we substitute religion instead of race as our correlating principle we shall read the past more clearly. The Caphtorim date from Khef or Khepsh, the hinder-part. Abram was the sun of the hinder-part. The inhabitants of Sais were very friendly to the Athenians, to whom also they said they were, after a certain manner, allied[244]. This relationship of the Yonias was expressed by Hesychius, who intimates that his countrymen were Hellenes in respect to certain wisdom which they possessed[245]. Hellen, the founder of the Greeks, says Cassiodorus[246], delivered many excellent things concerning the alphabet, describing its composition and virtues in an exceedingly subtle narration, insomuch that the great importance of letters may be traced to the beginning of things. In this description Hellen takes the place of the British Kéd, the personified Tree of Knowledge, whose branches were letters, and Typhon, who was the 'Living Word'. Callisthenes[247] and Phanodemus[248] relate that the Athenians were [p.426] the fathers of the Saitae. But Theopompus, on the contrary, affirms that they were a colony of the Saitae[249]. Eusebius chronicles the tradition of the arrival of Cadmus with a company of the Saitae, who founded Athens and Boeotian Thebes. They were of Egypt, but he thought they came last from Sidon[250].

Diodorus relates that the most illustrious and able of the exiles came into Greece under the conduct of celebrated leaders, of whom the most renowned were Danaus and Cadmus[251]. But the greater number went into the country now called Judea, which was in those times entirely desert. The leader of this colony was Moses as he is called, a man very remarkable for his wisdom and great valour. In this account the Greek and Hebrew exodes are fused together, whether mythical or historical. It was the exodus of the Ionians as Sut-Typhonians, and the theological classification is before the ethnical. The one exodus which, like the deluge, was universal, is entirely mythical, and belongs to the astronomical allegory. But there were various exodes and expulsions from Egypt, and those of the Ionians are mixed with those of the Ius or Jews, on account of the religious and literary origins. The Saitae are the Sut-Typhonians, the Yonias, Ionians, the worshippers of the mother and childthe oldest and most universal cult in the world, Sabean at first under Sut and the genetrix, and afterwards solar under Helios. Ius, Ionians, and Hindi Yavanians had one origin in religion, and that religion, as is here contended, was the oldest cult of Egypt and of Arusu, leader of the revolt, is designated a Kharu, and this Brugsch identifies as a Phoenician[252]. It is possible, however, that he was a Carian, and this would constitute another link of connection between the Hebrews and Greeks, the Ius and Ionians. According to Herodotus, it was with the aid of the Carians and Ionians that Psammitichus made himself master of all Egypt[253]. He further says of them, 'All the Carians that are settled in Egypt cut their foreheads with knives and this show themselves to be foreigners.'[254] Also 'They show an ancient temple of Jupiter-Carius, at Mylasa, which the Mysians and Lydians share, as kinsmen to the Carians, for they say that Lydus and Mysus were brothers to Car.'[255] Jupiter-Carius is the sun in the Akar, like the god exhibited to Moses; the kar being the lower, northern, hinder-part. Herodotus identifies these Carians with the Ionians of the camp at Memphis.

The 'Proteus' of Herodotus is a form of Nilus. 'There is to this day,' he says, 'an enclosure sacred to him (Proteus) at Memphis, called the Tyrian camp. In this enclosure of Proteus is a temple which is called after the foreign Venus; and I conjecture that this is the temple of Helen, the daughter of Tyndarus, both because I have heard that [p.427] Helen lived with Proteus, and also because it is named from the foreign Venus, for of all the other temples of Venus none is anywhere called by the name of foreign.'[256] The historian then introduces his story of Helen, with which we have no present concern. The 'foreign' Venus is known to us as the naked goddess Kên, the Hebrew Kivan. 'Foreign' is identical with the impure, the naked goddess. Proteus, the sea-born, the child of the waters, would be an equivalent name for Arsu or Messu of Egypt. Homer calls Proteus Egyptian[257], and Diodorus calls Proteus Nileus[258], from whom the Nile took its name; it having previously been Egyptus. It is now suggested that the Osarsiph of Manetho was the Arusu of the Great Harris Papyrus and the Messu of the scutcheons; and that he was the Nileus of Dicaearchus[259], the Proteus of Herodotus[260], possibly a Phoenician (Kharu), and probably a Carian.

But if Aiu be the Egyptian original of an historic Joseph, and Arsu­Messu of a real Moses, they could not have personally conducted an exodus, as their place of sepulchre was prepared, and they were both buried, and had had their grave-chambers violated in the dreary ravine lying apart in a westward offshoot of the Biban-el-Muluk, Thebes, where we find in the tombs the very imagery carried out of Egypt into the Syrian lands. The black god Iu was represented there. The celebration of the lion-gods was discovered there. The inscription concerning the Creation by Ra, and the adoption of Shu, Sun of Nun, as his chief minister, was found there, in the cow-chamber of the tomb of Seti I[261].

Which then of these three exodes was the Jewish exodus? Neither, in one sense; each and all of them in the other. First, the biblical exodus is founded on the mythical coming forth from the Egypt of the astronomical allegory. This we have to let go altogether, with the legends belonging to it. Then we are for the first time prepared to face the facts and interpret the monuments which have never yet been proved untrustworthy. No approach to any such series of deliberate falsifications of dates as was made by the early Christian chronologers, to bring the lists of Manetho into harmony with what they considered to be the divinely revealed data of 'Holy Writ,' can ever be charged against the Egyptians.

Nor is there the least reason to doubt what the Egyptian writers have told us on the subject. Hitherto this has been judged by a Jewish history chiefly drawn from the mythological astronomy. The monuments can know nothing of the Jews in accordance with the biblical story of their Genesis or Exodus. They can tell us something of the religious origins, but little or nothing of the ethnological. Egypt knows the 'mixed multitude' of Typhonians, the Shus, the Aamu, the Aati, the Aperiu, and other names of the detested worshippers of Sut. The great exodus of Egypt is figured as the [p.428] fleeing of Sut-Typhon out of it, riding on an ass. That is the symbolical mode of depicting the exit of the worshippers. They are described as going forth under the twin brothers, Judaeus and Hierosolymus, personifications answering by name to the land of Judea and the city of Jerusalem.

The two brothers of mythology are a dual manifestation of one deity, as in the double Horus, Har-Makhu, Sut-Har, or the dual Anubis; and this duality is expressed by Iu (Eg.), the name of the ass, and therefore of Sut. Sut is dual as dog and wolf; Sut-Anush, Sut-Har, and as Sut-Anubis; and the twins of Typhon are Judaeus and Hierosolymus, or Sut north and south. As the name of the ass and the son is Iu, the Sut-worshippers are the Ius, or the Jews, and the exodus of Typhon on the ass, named Iu, is the exodus of the Ius or Jews of the earliest, i.e., religious, naming. These were the Jews as worshippers of the son of the genetrix, who was Iu the Sabean, and afterwards the solar son.

From the passage of the Sabean into the solar sonship traceable in Israel, the duality of Iu-Sut points to Sut-Har, the Sun-and-Sirius god, Sut-Nubti, or Sut-Apeh-peh. And in that case Hierosolymus is the har of Salem, the Lord of Peace, after whom the city was named.

Jerusalem, the City of Peace, was no doubt the place of the mythical Melchizedek, the king of Salem, whom we can identify with Sutekh, the god of the khita, Sutekh or Sydik the ruler, whence Melchizedek. But that migration must have occurred when the country of Syria and Palestine was first peopled by the Sut-Typhonians and Hekshus, whom we identify with the pre-monumental Shus-en-Har.

Herodotus had learned that the Syrians of Palestine, whom he couples with the Phoenicians, had dwelt in old times by the Red Sea[262]. They also were Erythreans whom Brugsch considers to be the Aperu-iu[263]. These Phoenicians, as they themselves say, anciently dwelt on the Red Sea, and having crossed over from there they settled on the sea-coast of Syria; this part of Syria, and the whole as far as Egypt, is called Palestine[264].

This was exactly what had occurred from the earliest times; and it must not be forgotten that the name of Phoenicia itself as Kheft was identical with that of Lower Egypt, named as the country to the north or hinder part north, and the two peoples must have got mixed up in the rendering of the one name by other nations.

In the name of the khita we find the further continuation of Kheft beyond Phoenicia. Kheft modifies into khet. Kheft is the Egyptian name of the north, and khet signifies going northward. The khita went northward from Egypt, and are found seated in the northern parts of Syria. The name is probably an abraded form of khefta or khefti, just as Derketo contains a modified form of Kheft. Their [p.429] deities were Sutekh and Astarte. Sutekh is Sut the child (khe) in Egyptian, and Astarte is derived from the Isis-Taurt of Egypt, that is the most ancient genetrix Ta-urt in her lunar and cow-headed secondary type. These were worshippers of the one God known to mythology as Sut, the son of Typhon; later Astarte or Nephthys, and the still later Nutthe god known as Sut-Har to the Egyptians of pre-monumental times, called the Shus-en-Har.

So ancient was the movement northward of the Sut-Typhonians from Egypt that Kittim is mentioned[265] as a son of Javan, one of five who went forth, and amongst whom 'the isles of the Gentiles were divided in their lands, every one after his tongue.'

Kittim is the plural of the khita or kettai, the emigrants who went farther north in their first name of the Japheti (kheft); and in the second or modified form of the name, as the khita, ketti or kittim. In this sense, Arkite, one of the sons of Canaan, is called 'Chetteus' by Josephus[266]. The same writer also mentions the Judaeans (or Juda­deans), who were a nation of western Ethiopians from Judadas, who descended from Canaan, the fourth son of Ham[267]. Judadas, one of two sons, is evidently identical with the Judah of the tradition reported by Plutarch[268] and Tacitus[269], who, with his brother Hierosolymus, headed an exodus from Egypt into Palestine, settled in Judea, and founded the city of Jerusalem.

Cottus is named as one of the three leaders of the Titans, i.e., ethnically they who were of the typhonian religion. According to Sallust, who quotes the Punic Books of Hiempsal, the aboriginal possessors of Africa were the Gaetulians (and Libyans), a rough nomadic race, who fed on flesh and on the pasturage of the ground like cattle[270].

The Jews of the Bible can be identified according to their religion, but not by their race. Tacitus shows how the confusion of race with religion entered into what he had heard of the Jews. 'It is said that the Jews escaped from the island of Crete at the time when Saturn (Sut-Typhon) was driven from his throne by the violence of Jupiter (the Egyptian Amen), and that they settled in the extreme parts of Lybia. A memorial of this fact is supposed to be found in their name.'[271] But he follows the derivation of the Judaean name from that of Ida, the well-known mountain in Crete, which name is itself derivable from Kheft. He likewise reports an exodus from Egypt in the reign of Isis, when that country was relieved by an emigration of the people into the neighbouring countries under the conduct of Hierosolymus and Judah[272]. He continues: 'Many consider them to be the progeny of the Ethiopians (Ethiopum Prolem), who were impelled by fear, and by the hatred manifested against them, to change their settlements in the reign of king [p.430] Cepheus (Ma-Shu); while it is sometimes asserted that they are a heterogeneous band from Assyria, a race without a country, who made themselves masters of a portion of Egypt, and afterwards occupied cities of their own in the Hebrew territories, and the parts bordering on Syria. Others, ascribing to the Jews an illustrious origin, say the Solymi a nation celebrated in the poetry of Homer, called the city which they built Hierosolyma from their own name.'[273]

Tacitus makes the time of the flight from Egypt the same as that given to Typhon on the ass. He says, 'They pursued their journey for six days without intermission, and on the seventh, having expelled the natives, they took possession of the country, where they built their city and dedicated their temple.'[274] This agrees with the reason assigned for keeping the seventh day as a Sabbath[275], because of the coming out of Egypt, 'therefore the Lord thy God commanded thee to keep the Sabbath day.'

Polemo, the Platonic philosopher, who died about 273, and who was the writer of historical works now lost, is quoted by Africanus and cited by Eusebius[276] who observes: 'Some of the Greeks likewise relate that Moses flourished in those times.' Polemo, in the first book of his Egyptian Histories[277], says: 'In the reign of Apis, the son of Pharonaeus, a portion of the Egyptian army deserted from Egypt and took up their habitation in that part of Syria which is called Palestine, not far from Arabia.' And Eusebius asserts, 'These were the very men who went out with Moses.'[278] Both are claimed to be the exodus of the Jews, as they were in a sense, but not the Jews of the biblical exodus. The backward blending of the Jews with the Hekshus by Josephus identifies the relations of the Jews with the two sons of Typhon begotten in Palestine and Judea[279].

In the Talmud it is written, 'A Rabbi once said the daughter of Pharaoh (she who adopted Moses) was an Israelite.' 'How can that be?' 'Because she believed in the unity of God.'[280] If for unity we read bi-unity, or the unity of the two-one, there is a profound sense in the statement. The worshippers of this deity whose name is finally expressed by the letters 'Iu' as an Egyptian name for the divine duality and an Assyrian name for the god, as it was in the title of Iu-sif, Iu-em-hept, or 'Neb-iu,' a title of Osiris; Iu, the twin totality of the son, and afterwards of the Iu-piter, were Ius independently of race or place. In this sense Iuaa, the father of Queen Taiu, was a Jew by name, and a born Jew, or worshipper of Iu.

The account quoted from Lysimachus[281] shows that the Typhonians were named as Jews, or the Jewish people, but not from the land of Judea; and it implies that the land of Judea was named from the outcast Jews of Egypt. In like manner Typhon goes out of Egypt to beget the two sons, one of whom is Judaeus.

[p.431]

The city of Tel-el Jahoudeh, which stood near to Memphis, was the city of the mound or mount of the Jew; but the name was not meant to be ethnological. The worshippers of 'Iu,' whether as the dual Sut, Sut-Horus, the ass-headed Iu, the bull-headed Iu, or lu-em­hept, were all Jews according to the religious origins, but they were Egyptians also by race, and the roots of the race must have gone the deepest, just as the religion was the oldest in Egypt.

Jahoudeh, in Egypt, was not named from the Jews of Syria, supposed to have entered Egypt as the twelve sons of Jacob. There is a land of Judea, or Oude, in India, and the Burmese planisphere shows a country of Jahudia in the heavens. These were named after the divinity Iu, whether in heaven or earth, whose worshippers were Jews in the primal, that is religious, sense. The beginning was with the star of Joudi, the Great Mother in the north, and her son Iu, the Ass.

According to the data and the view of the present writer, no better description of the entrance of the biblical Jews into a visible existence could be given than that of Celsus[282], the well-informed Roman, in the Word of Truth (άληθής λογος). He says, twice over: 'The Jews were a tribe of Egyptians who revolted from the established religion.' The Jews were 'a colony of revolted Egyptian slaves who settled in a corner of Palestine.' It is because they were Egyptians in Lower Egypt, an undistinguishable part of the mixed multitude there congregated, that they have not been known and could not be discreted as a separate race. They were identical in religion with the Shus-en-Har and Sut-Typhonians within Egypt; with the Khita of Syria, the Phoenicians, the Judeans of Ethiopia, the Judeans of Crete, the Jews or Hus of Cornwall, the Ionians, Yavanas, or Kivanas of Greece and India.

The Hindus, who call the people of the western world Yavanas[283], are still naming them from the hinder-part, as the west, according to the solar reckoning, which followed the north of the earlier Sabean typology. The Yavanas, Ionians, Gevim, or Japhetic people were first named from the north, and later from the west, the hippopotamus being the representative of the genetrix in the north, the lioness in the west, as shown by the two different hind quarters.

Ezekiel[284] tells Israel that her makvrah (הרוכמ)in the margin, her 'cutting out' or habitation (in Egyptian, the equivalent Ma-khepr would mean the place of transformation or change into some second phase) was in the land of Canaan; and 'as for thy nativity, in the day thou wert born thy umbilical cord was not severed.' The child was still attached to the parental body. 'Thy mother was a Hittite,' identifies them with the Khita of Syria, or it goes farther back to the parent of all in Kheft, the ancient genetrix in Egypt; the Amorite father also leads back to Ham [p.432] the Kamite. They must have been a motley medley from the first. Their dispersion in the present is but the obverse image of their mixture compounded in Egypt, where the marriage of Amen­hept III, of the Ethiopic features, with the fair Queen Taiu, daughter of Iuaa, was typical of the intermixture of dark and light, Ethiopian and Syrian, that went on continually between the Sut-Typhoniansa mixture still further continued in the Syrian land with the people of the earlier exodes.

On the ground that Iu represents the name of Jew, it might be argued that Iuaa was the Jew named from the divine Iu, the son who comes; and that his wife's name of Tuaa, or Tiuaa, denoted the Jewess Iuaa, with the feminine article prefixed. The daughter's name written lêê (Taiu) and êê (Tiiu)[285] may signify the bearer or the reproducer (ti) of Iu the sif, who would be the Hebrew Joseph. This is not to be despised as a possible nucleus for a beginning on a particular line deriving from Mesopotamia and the Hittite race. 'Thy mother was a Hittite,' and Queen Taiu is the daughter of Iuaa and Tiuaa, the male and female Jews. It would account for the two currents, one from Egypt and one from Aram, which meet in the Abramic and Mosaic renderings of the same original mythos. On the religious line of descent the Jews are as old as Iu (the ass), the dual son of Typhon, the genetrix whose type was the star Joudi, and on the ethnical line they might rightly claim to be not only affiliated to the exiles of the later revolts, the Hekshus and the emigrants during the reign of Isis; not only to be a branch of the Egyptian vine, for there must be a rootage beyond the branch that struck deep in the Ethiopian and Upper African soil long before it fructified in the alluvial land of the Nile; they might go back and back, and claim kindred at last with the black Jews of India who emigrated with the original complexion of the African progenitors of the Egyptians.

The missionary, Dr. Buchanan, records in his travels in India, that he himself found sixty-five different settlements of black Jews in India[286]. These belonged to the earliest ירמא or Camry. They had gone forth wearing the colour of Kam, the colour of the black ass-headed Sut, and therefore of Iu, and kept it; they must have been indefinitely older than the Pentateuch, and consequently were found to be without the five books of the Jews. The cloud of mystery that overshadows their origin is partly due to the darkness of those progenitors whom the Jews were not proud to acknowledge. With a streak of the lighter Hittite complexion among them they were Canaanites of the black type ages before they entered and were merged with the Syrian Canaanites who had preceded them in the land.

[p.433]

Tacitus, in speaking of the Jews, calls them Ethiopum Prolem[287], and the well known lines of Choerilusa contemporary of Herodotusdescribe the Solymi in almost Ethiopian colours[288]. It is this immense past as Egyptians and Ethiopians which accounts for their persistency of type, and also for that fearful state of leprosy which was a bequest of the African blood.

As a race-name, the Apru or Hebrew agrees with that of the Danakil, who call themselves the Apru or Afru, a still earlier form of the word. The Danakil are a different people to the Dongolawy, who are Nubians, yet the two names, word for word, are one, and the Nubians are still black. The Apru or Afru point backward to the Kafru or Kaffir, the black people of Africa, the land (ka) of the Afru or Kaffirs. With which may be compared the Ethiopum Prolem of Tacitus, and the Jududaeus, or western Ethiopians, of Josephus.

There can be no doubt that such records and commentaries as we have found assigned to Sut, Shu, and Taht, and deposited in the Temple at On, were amongst the 1,100 books attributed to Taht by Iamblicus[289]; the 20,000 ascribed to him by Seleucus[290]; the 36,500 assigned to this scribe of the gods by Manetho[291]; or we should not have had the tenth chapter of the Hebrew Genesis. In this chapter[292] we find the immediate descendants of Noah, the sons of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, are 'divided in their lands every one after his tongue,' and the dispersion of language has already taken place, yet the eleventh chapter opens with the statement, 'And the whole earth was of one language and of one speech.' So confusedly have the ancient fragments been huddled together. The second statement is made as an introduction to the Babel myth, and the destruction of the Tower of Seven Stages in one myth is equivalent to the ending called a deluge in the other. The Hebrew writers usually class the sons of Noah as Shem, Ham, and Japheth. But in this tenth chapter[293] the order is Japheth, Ham, and Shem. Japheth, as representative of the north, Khepsh or Kush, should be first according to Egyptian naming, from the celestial beginning in the north. Kam (Ham) belongs to the south, and these two are the Khamit and Khebt, the dual and permutable names of Egypt and the heavens north and south, the celestial being primordial. Japheth represents the north by name, and Kam the south; Khebma, the name of the genetrix, being the original of both Kheb and Kam, which, with the dual terminal, become both Khebti and Kamit. The Hebrew Japheth has been identified with Kheft as the north, and, in accordance with this naming, Homer places the Greek Iapetos at the uttermost boundary of earth and sea, where the depths of Tartarus lie around them, and they have no refreshment from the rays of the [p.434] supernal sun[294]. That is, in the north, as the abyss. The division by three, following the introduction of the solar triad, is represented by the addition of Shem. In Egyptian the equivalent sem is the name of the tall double-plume of the solar god placed on him by the Sems, the twin lion-gods, as servants of the sun of the east and west, the daily sun, the sun of the Semites. Sem-pi-Khart or Semphucrates (Greek) was a solar god as the sun of the west.

The three names of Shem, Ham, and Japheth stand for the division of the world into three parts, as represented by Herodotus, who says, 'I will show that neither the Greeks nor the Ionians know how to reckon when they assert that the whole earth consists of three divisions, Europe, Asia, and Libya.'[295] This was the true division in the planisphere, consisting of south, and north, with east and west as the equinoctial centre; Kam, Khept and Sem are the true names. Kam is the first, as representative of the black race, with its dwelling-place in the south. Sem is the representative of the red man, the Adam or Edom, Egyptian Atum. He is midmost. Japheth represents the north. The division is by north and south, Khept and Kamit (or Khentu); the two heavens of the earliest celestial chart made in or beyond Ethiopia, with the equinoctial division added and placed between the solstitial two. Shem is said to be the father of all the children of Eber, and Shem represents the sun of the equinox, which was personified by Atum in Egypt, the wearer of the double crown of the crossing. Abram is called the Hebrew on the occasion of his war with Chedorlaomer, when the solar zodiac is completely established, as it was under Atum. If for Eber the crosser we date from the crossing, that is, the equinoxes, we get to the fundamental meaning of the names of Shem and Eber in the astronomical allegory.

The Aperiu, who dwelt to the east of Heliopolis in the red country and the red mountain, also date from this midmost heaven of the three. The red land of An represented the boundary of the two lands north and south. This middle division introduces the red man, the red Adam, the red sun Atum, in place of the Black Sut-Nahsi, the black Sut-Har, the black Af and Kak and Khebek of the earlier race. In this wise the facts are reflected in the heavens. The red Atum typifies the red race which followed the black race of Kam and Kush, Khaf and Kheb, the race of the ruti or the red. This change had already been wrought out in Egypt, in pre-monumental times.

There is no such thing as a beginning with the mythical Noah, and the mythical triad; one of which, Ham, was black; one, Japheth, white; and one, Shem, a nondescript. This triadic or hundredfold difference of hue is an after-result. Black, bronze, red, yellow, and white races are ethnological facts now at one end of the ages, but so [p.435] coloured were never grouped together in one ark, or housed in one tent, or born of one womb. The facts were accomplished, the divergence of complexion was already made, when this mixture of myth and ethnology was written; hence the simplicity of the endeavour to account for the difference by starting with it! Possibly those who have steadfastly refused to accept the ape as an ancestor may fall back gratefully on the black man for a progenitor.

The Hebrew writers place Shem first among the sons of Noah, but Shem as a name is a modified form of Kam. Shem is the Hebrew name for the sun, and in Egyptian Shem denotes heat and flame, and comes from the earlier Kâm or Kvm. Let us see what light the sun will shed on this relationship of Kam and Shem when the name is applied to it. For the name of Kam is found in many groups of languages, especially the African and Carib groups. The sun is kam in Ghagar; ghama, in Pakhya; gama, Darahi and Denwar; caame, Saraveca; kamoi, Atoria; kamu, Mawakwa; kamuhu, Guinau; kamu, Woyawai; kamo, Wapisiana; camui, Uacuambeu; camu, Barree; camui, Baniwa; kiumuk, Chemmesyan; kamiss, New Ireland; hikhem, Pumpokolsk; nkombe, Mpongwe; De-kombi, Kisama; skeemai, Apatsh; kamoi, Tarakai; komaru, Maori. Kam went round the world before Shem was created. This name begins with Egyptian gipsy (ghagar), and crosses to the Gabun, the Carib, the Yeniseian, Baniwa, Nepalese, Atna, North American, Papuan, and Australian groups of languages.

Shem in the triadic division, which followed 'the flood,' occupies the centre, and represents the sun of the horizon, the division by east and west, especially of the west, called Sem, the place of beginning in the Jewish solar year to this day; hence the relation to Atum, the red sun, the setting sun of the underworld who transformed into the youthful 'Iu' on the horizon of the east. This was a new point of departure, in which Shem and Atum (Adam) came uppermost and appeared as the first, whereas they belonged to the later creation of Ra that followed the lunar creation of Taht and the Sabean creations of Shu and of Sut and his mother.

When Trogus Pompeius says the origin of the Jews was from Damascus, whence Queen Semiramis sprang[296], that is perfectly identifiable in the typology of the mythos as the seat of Tum in the heavens, the celestial birthplace of the Iu. Damascus is named from this place of rebirth, where Tum transformed into his own son Iu-em-hept. The old Arabic name of the city is Meseq, and Dum Meseq is the Syrian form. Meseq is the Egyptian meska, the cradle of the son. Tum-Meska is the cradle, and Tum-Sakh the shrine, of Tum or Atum as Iu; hence Damascus as birthplace of the Jews and their coming messiah. Again, Semi-rami (Eg.) reads the likeness of the fish, and this is found as the mermaid form of the genetrix in the [p.436] sign of the fishes (An or On), where the Great Mother brought forth as Atergatis, Semiramis or Iusāas, the Meska of Tum personified. This was the sole origin of the Jews in Damascus.

Now this birth and origin in Pisces as the place of the vernal equinox can by no possibility belong to the entrance of the colure into that sign 255 BC, and it looks as if we should have to go back at least 21,000 more years (or 26,000 according to one reckoning) for the beginning of the typology and imagery brought on by the mythology.

My own conclusion is that the people known to us as the Jews had a ramification of rootage in Egypt extending to the pre-monumental times, and when they came out into Syria there was among them a fundamental basis of the oldest blood in the men of a race that was at least as ancient as the typhonian religion, although it is not possible to define the proportions in which the Kamite and so-called Semite were mixed in Lower Egypt.

The Hebrew prophets sometimes speak with a sense of the primordial unity of the Jews, and their dispersion over the earth, which can be followed in the religious but not in the later ethnological sense. The remnants of the people who were the outcasts of the whole world, who were to be gathered from the four corners of the earth, from Assyria, from Egypt, Pathros and Kush, Elam and Shinar, and Hamath and the islands of the sea[297], were not merely a people dispersed from Palestine. These were the earliest JewsJews not in the current acceptation of the name, but as the children of Sut-Typhon, the biune being whose name and nature were finally indicated by the Iu or Hu of Egypt, the Ihu (והי) of the Hebrews, the IAO of the Phoenicians, Egypto-gnostics, and Greeks; the Ie (Delphian Apollo); the Assyrian Iu; the Mexican and Maori Ao; Toda Au; Coptic Hoou; Lewchew Joh; Apatsh Hah; Dakota Iau; Manx Jee; Cornish Jew, British Hu or Iau, the younger; the Eewu of Nicobar Islands; Hu of Whydah; Hoho of Dahome, the divinity of Twins; Iao, the Hawaiian Jupiter; Mangaian Io; the ΑΩ of the Book of Revelation; Jeye, a name of Krishna; Etruscan Aius Locutus; and many more. The Iu that began as the most ancient genetrix and ended as the Ju-pater; the Iu, as their son, uniting both natures in one; He who was for ever the 'Coming One,' and whose name contains the very expression used in the New Testament where we translate 'Art thou he that should come, or do we look for another?'[298]

From the first there is a monotheistic look in the typhonian religion. It begins with the worship of the genetrix of the gods, the goddess of the Seven Stars, who is one in the beginning. Her son, Sut, the primordial male, is one god, although he has two manifestations in Sut-Anush, two types personated in Sut-Har, the one god with two heads. Sut-Har passes into Har-Makhu, a god of the disk-worship, who becomes twy-form in Atum. But whether dual [p.437] or triadic, Sabean or solar, Sut or Aten, there is a look of oneness about this divinity, because he was the son of the mother, the Iu-sif, or Iusu, or Jesus. The Aten-disk was a type of oneness, and the disk-worshippers reverenced it with the fervour of a modern physicist. But this monotheism cannot be understood apart from its rootage in phenomena where we find no relation whatever to a supposed conception or revelation of the one god. Moreover Iu signifies the coming one with a twin manifestation, without determining the phenomenon represented. The biune being may be a star-god, a moon-god, or a sun-god; he may image the duality of Sebti (Sothis), or Regulus the lawgiver, of Tahuti the lunar-god, or the solar Iu-em-hept. The Iu may be Sut, with the ass (Ju) for his type; or Au, with the calf; or Iao Sabaoth (Bacchus); or Ao, with the paps; or Iu-em-hept, in the long garment; or Shu, the young-elder; or Khunsu, with the twin image of sun and moon. He began as Sut of the Dog-star and wolf, and ended as the solar Iu, the Ao, the first and the last, of the Book of Revelation.

In this way. The perfect solar time was the latest of the seven cycles discovered, and hence the solar god as the Iao-Sabaoth is the god of the seven of the solar cult. Sevekh has the name of seven. Iu-em-hept is also named as the god Seven; heft meaning no. 7 as well as peace. The EBΔOMH festival of the Greeks, held on the seventh day of the lunar month, was celebrated in honour of Apollo, to whom all seventh days were sacred, because he was born of Latona on the seventh day[299], or was the seventh of the planetary gods. The gnostic Chnuphis is likewise a form of Iao-Sabaoth, and has the typical seven rays in token of his being the seventh god of the planetary group. The Sabean and solar gods of the no. 7 are still distinguishable. The seventh day of Sut or Saturn is Saturday; the seventh day of the solar god is Sunday. But the worshippers of Sebek-Ra would keep their Sabbath on the day of Sut. In this cult the no. 7 was that of the typhonian genetrix and her first son Sut, whose planetary type was Saturn, and who was brought on as the solar god of the no. 7, under the type of the lamb (Ab-Ra), in the time of the 13th dynasty, who is continued as the lamb with the seven stars in the Book of Revelation and in the typology of the Roman catacombs. From Jehovah-Elohim, goddess of the seven stars, to Iu-em-hept, is the range of time from the year of the Great Bear to the year of the sun as the seventh of the planetary types. Thus the AO or IU was the first and the last, the alpha and omega, who became the Jesus as Iu the Son, and Joseph as the expected messiah of the Jews, also the Jupiter or biune parent of the Romans.

When the foundations of mythology have been thoroughly [p.438] examined, and the 'heavens' taken to pieces and reconstituted to ascertain the nature of their formation and typology, it will be seen how remote from the primary facts are the conclusions of Egyptologists like de Rouge and Paul Pierret[300], who hold that the Egyptian religion was originally monotheistic in the modern sense of a conception and a worship of the one male divinity, and that polytheism resulted from clothing the one god in many symbols. Such a view is but the result of reading backwards; this can be amply demonstrated. Their method of abstracting an idea of the one god in the beginning from the writings of four thousand yearsand no one knows how much longer even than thatindependently of the origin of ideas in phenomena, or their place in point of time, is tantamount to filching it.

Beginning with a concept of cause, personated in the One God, simply has no meaning; there was no such beginning. The Egyptian eternal, teata, is founded on the establishment of cycle and circle; the everlasting is based on the four corners imaged by the fourfold tat of Ptah and Osiris, just as the proverbial four times is the synonym of 'for ever.' The word of words, nuter (or nunter), expressive of divinity personified as god or goddess, has no other fundamental meaning than a type of time. Nu, or nun, denotes the type, image, likeness; and ter is the time or season. The ideographs alone place us on firm ground underfoot, with our backs against a wall of granite.

Later abstract meanings got out of or read into such words as nuter and teta do not reach the origins. When the Coptic translators of the Bible rendered their idea of God by nuter, the word had attained to a place of primacy; it expressed the first, and the first is the divine; but the type of time and renewal was first, was divine, and the two earliest types of time and renewal stelled in heaven were the Great Bear, Typhon, and the Dog-star, Sut. Still, the Typhonians, starting on the single line from the motherhood and her son, Sut, did appear to be monotheistic compared with their opponents. The process of the Ammonians and Osirians was to evolve the one god in Ra from all the rest that preceded him, as personifications of phenomena, and make his predecessors to appear as his manifestations; his seventy-five names, as they are designated. So the Hebrew writers endeavoured to make their language conform to this look of singleness by reading the plural Elohim in the singular number, by making the dual Aloah a form of the one god, by fusing Shadai and E1-Shadai, and by claiming to worship the one alone, whether the name be Jehovah, Elohim, Shadai, Adonai, Jah, or any other of more than thirty names or titles. In either case the origins can only be found in phenomena. The One God was Sut of the Dog-star; Sut-Anush as the dog and wolf (Seth and Anush in the Hebrew), who became Sut-Har under his Sun-and- [p.439] Sirius type; Saturn (Sut, the renn or child) in his first planetary type; Kebek, or Kak, in the solar phase; and, finally, Iu as the sun of both horizons, or the equinox, who was the Iu-su son of Tum and Iusaas. Sut in the south was the child of the mother, her dog. In the east, or at the place of the equinoctial crossing in Apherueast and westhe was represented as the parent who became 'Father Aper' in Egyptian and 'Father Eber' in Hebrew. Shem, 'the brother of Japheth the elder,' was 'the father of all the children of Eber,'[301] and these two fathers were the Sem-Sun of the West and Sut of the crossing, who had been at first combined under the dual type of Sut-Horus. Sem (Eg.) means to join two together and combine them in one, and this combination was expressed in the Hebrew Joseph and the Egyptian Sut-Horus and in Jesus.

The origin and evolution of the idea of an Eternal Being as a male can be traced by its mythologic types. First was the Iu, the one who for ever comes and becomes; the divine youth, the son of the mother, the eternal boy, the universal lad[302]. Next is the Being who is, and ever continues to be; and, lastly, the Being who inferentially was and has been for ever. Thus was developed the idea of him who was, and is, and is to be. The Jews, as before said, continued the worship of the Iu as the ever-coming one. The coming was the becoming, and the mode of becoming was expressed by transformation or transfiguration of the old into the young. A definition of the cause of change in everything that changes is given in the formula, 'Khepra khlenti khep khet neb em-khet Khepra-sen.' This has been rendered, 'the becoming which is in the becoming of all things when they become;' but it might be varied, according to the doctrine of becoming by transformation, and made 'the becoming which is in the transfiguration of all things when they transmute;' for there is no reason why this philosophy of Khepra should not have included the modern doctrine of the conservation, correlation, and transmutation of force.

This coming or becoming one in person was the Iu of the mythos, and to him the believers among the Jews, who were ignorant of the true doctrines, had learned to look for a deliverer from the yoke of the Roman rule; and Josephus informs us that during the siege of Jerusalem by Titus the defenders watched for the huge stones being hurled in by the Roman engines of war, and, when they descried one on its way, they cried aloud in their own language, 'The Son cometh!'[303] This, in the Hebrew or Chaldee, used by Josephus in his first version for the Jews, would probably be הלע־רב־ה (Ha-bar-Galah), the same word that is used in the texts: 'He that dasheth in pieces is come up;'[304] 'The breaker is come up.'[305]

It has been said that many will here look for a mystery, as though the meaning were that the Son of God now came to take vengeance [p.440] on the sins of the Jewish nation[306]. For myself; the expression contains a stroke of humour that is Carlylean in its ghastly grimness. There is but one name and form of the son that is synonymous with the stone. This is Bar, the earliest son, who was the Iu or coming one of mythology, and his name of Sut means a stone. The stone was his especial type. He is called Stone-head and Stone-arm in the Ritual. As Bar-Sutekh he was the destroyer. Bar was likewise the Babylonian Bel, the breaker and destroyer alluded to by the Hebrew writer[307] as wielder of the 'hammer of the whole earth.' The stone of Bar-Sut belongs to the stone-age, and is the adze (neter) of Sut, the Anup of the hieroglyphics. Bar, the son and stone in one, identifies the Sabean son of the typhonian genetrix. And when the 'coming one' takes shape as Bar the destroyer and his weapon of stone, it elicits a ringing yell of derision for those who had perverted the doctrine of the Saviour-Son, and looked forward to His coming as a possible reality. The son, the coming one, had come at last.

Iu had an earlier feminine form in Io, the white wanderer of the heavensthe lunar goddess, Io. According to Eustathius[308], Io, in the language of the Argives, was the moon. Io being feminine and lunar was first. She wandered until her child was born, and Hermes, as the male moon-god, set her free. On the feminine side Io goes back to Af, Aft, Apt, Khef, Khept, or Khepsh, the typhonian genetrix who was the mother of the Iu, whether Sabean or solar, and also of the Jews. This Iu of mythology still comes and goes in popular belief as the wandering Jew[309] of fable and romance, whose figure yet retains something of the personality of the Iu, or Jew, who was cyclic, and born of cycles, and so was for ever the coming one, continuing to come. The popular notion of this wanderer is that he has an illness which is incurable, and at the end of every hundred years he falls into an ecstasy; out of this he returns each time in the same state of youth he was in when Jesus bade him wander till he himself should come again[310]. This identifies the Jew with the personification of periodicity and the Eternal Youth. Also, he is still the wise sage, like Iu-em-Hept, and wears the purple robe of wisdom; still the healer, like Aesculapius. The name Iu or Iao supplied a verb, meaning to heal, well known in the mysteries of ancient theosophy, as well as in common medicine. The Jew was said to have been converted and baptized under the name of Joseph, which is yet another link in identification of the undying, unresting Jew with the ever-coming Iu. The age of the Jew at the time of his transformation is also given as about thirty years; the age of the Messiah as Khem-Horus; the age of Joseph when he went out over all the land of Egypt; the age of Jesus[311] when he assumed the messiahship. The name of [p.441] Cartaphilus assigned to him[312] seems to include a form of Horus, the khart (child) who became Horus the youth. How the old legends have been made to lie against these wanderers of the world, the Ius or Jews, whose consequent fate it has been to follow on earth the restless track of their prototypes in the heavens as wanderers for ever; goaded on like Io; persecuted like the wandering Jew of the fable, for refusing to let the Christ rest on his doorstep; and seldom sympathized with, except under false pretences, and with sinister intent to convert them to a belief that the lying legends are the latest revelation of eternal truth!

 

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This page last updated: 26/04/2014