Hitherto Assyriologists have seldom ventured beyond the Hebrew and the so-called Ugrian languages in search of help. Within the limits of the writer's knowledge they have made no appeal to the Egyptian in those difficulties which have furnished the present opportunity. Either consciously or unconsciously, Assyriologists appear to have been so influenced by the Aryan theory of the source of languages, that they have never looked to Egypt for the origins which, be it understood, are too ancient and primal to include the grammar extant today. The vocabulary will now be supplemented with further evidence to show that the matter of language, typology and mythology, was the same in Babylonia and Akkad as in Egypt.

Nothing could better illustrate the depth at which Egyptian underlies the Semitic formation of language than the Assyrian verb basu, to be[1]. This, when bottomed, is found to contain the Egyptian ba and sef (or shep) blended in one word. Ba (Eg.) means to be, with the special sense of being a soul. As already explained, this later form of ba was a deposit from pa and paf, the soul of breath, named from the ghost as the gust, paf (Eg.) being both breath and a gust of wind. The earliest being was founded on breathing, whence paf, pa, later ba, signified to be a living (i.e., breathing) soul; the pa were human beings, and the parent as breather of being was the bat (Eg.) of the ar (child, and to make) the vater, pater, and father.

It is admitted that the Assyrian su is an equivalent of the Hebrew אוה, but we only recover the full force of both words by aid of the vau. Thus su represents suf, and suf the Egyptian shep, which has the meaning of to be and to be unperceived. Sheps is [p.458] to conceive, as the woman conceives the child in the womb; to be figured in concealment in the shepsh (modified khepsh), and Hebrew שמח, the uterus. Ba-su thus contains the elements of ba, to be, to be a soul; and shep, which describes the mode and place of becoming so, in the first abode of being, recognized as the mother, the conceiver, and shaper of the soul or image of life, which, in another aspect, is called the shep or sheb. Su (Ass.) also implies the su or sif in Egyptian; the shape, the person, the child. Sif is the child of either sex. Ba-sif is to be, and a child, and ba-su is an equivalent, generalized with the meaning 'to be.' This tends to show that usabsi, 'he caused to exist,' or to be, is not necessarily derived from basiy as sheps (shepsi or shepsa) has the meaning of to conceive, figure, and bring forth, the mother being the bringer-forth and producer of the child in consonance with the earliest cognition. Shep-si (Eg.) would equally signify to be the child, or cause the child to be. It is on the line of shep only that we shall find the Hebrew הוה to vivify, breathe, quicken into life. As previously explained[2], the two primates paf and kep (Eg.) express the Two Truths of breath and blood (the mystical water of life), the fundamental factors of being. Kep is the mystery in relation to the water, the fertilization of the red Nile, and gives the name to red as a colour in the Dravidian kavi for red ochre. On this line of life we have the Hebrew אוח, for life; Russian givoy, living; Welsh chwyf, a motion of life, swelling, as in pregnancy; Old German, qveh; Slavonic, schwa; Lithuanian, gwyas; Maori, hapu, to be pregnant; Sanskrit, jive; Dravidian, jiva; Vayu, i'vi, to be swelling. On the other line are fof, Gaelic, to swell; faob, Gaelic, swelling; pepo, Swahili, a spirit; paba (Eg.) the soul; pevah (Heb.), to breathe; pabo, Welsh, the producer of life; bhava, Sanskrit, being, becoming, existing; pefu (Xhosa Kaffir), breath or soul, as in perfumlo, the soul of man; bobon, African Nki, a spirit, or God; bab (Eg.), to exhale; bube, Galla, breath or wind; worn down forms being found in the Tamil afa, breath: Greek, fuo; Amoy, boe, to be, not yet; and Zend bu, to be. Both hev and shep are modified on two different lines of derivation from khef or kep. Khep (Eg.) means to generate, exist, cause to be, by turning liquid into solid, as Khepra, the creator by transformation, does in the pictures at Biban-el-Muluk, or, as the genetrix did in sheps, to conceive; Hebrew שוג, to curdle, clot, lump (like butter in the churn), draw and bind together. Kep (Eg.) is the name of that mystery of heat and fermentation in which the spirit of life is evolved from matter in the matrix of the mater, who was the Egyptian Kefa and the Hebrew Chavvah, or הוהי, as the feminine creator. The Assyrian basu contains both of these Egyptian roots reduced and combined to form one word.

The verb rilu, used in the second Akhemenian in the sense of [p.459] writing, is, says an Assyrian scholar, purely Ugrian, as the Magyar iro shows. But vain are all such certifications with Egypt omitted. The ru or rui (Eg.) is the reed-pen and paint of the scribe; ru (Eg.) likewise denotes the written word, the chapter, or discourse. Rilu contains both elements. The reed ru appears in the Hindustani baru, the reed from which pens are made, and the Polish pioro for the pen. This ru also occurs in the Assyrian zakaru, to record. Sakha (Eg.) is to write, depict, portray, and ru is the pen or the record, whence skharu for the picture, portrait, or record. Moreover, riru (Eg.) means to traverse, go round and round, as in the Ogham circle, or the circular writing continued to a late time at Cambridge for diplomas; and the Ogham writing is the ruru or rilu in this sense of being circular, whence the roll. No matter how late the Oghams may have been repeated, nothing is earlier than their foundation in the circle, the first writing or 'ret'-ing in stone, with the digital alphabet. The first writer or incisor, however, did not use the reed-pen but the graver, and rut is to engrave, figure, retain the form in stone. Whence shetrut from shet to work, prepare (the stone), and rut to engrave. The writer was then the rut, a mason or stone-cutter and polisher. This ret is the Cornish roath, to form and figure; and rhythia, to rub; the reed is also named from this root. But the word write implies a form beginning with k, which turns rut into kart, the earlier name of the mason or stone-cutter, and of the Hebrew stylus or graver, the chart used for inscribing. The kart (Eg.), kartum, or rekhi-khet (ιερογραμματεύς), was the cutter of hieroglyphics. The name of writing as cutting in stone is synonymous with that of the karti, kaldi, and Celtae, and the kart as mason and as race modifies into the rut. The Magyar iro goes back to kiro, the Egyptian kheru for speech, utterance, expression, or cutting in stone by the kart or kar-natr. Iro in Japanese is accent, which answers to the cutting and carving, to emphasize the form.

In Assyrian the kan is the reed-sign of writing, and the name of the volume, as in the kan-magarri, a book of worship or prayers. In the hieroglyphics the kan (ken) is the sculptor-scribe's chisel, also the cartouche, in which inscriptions were cut, together with the ivory and bone, the hard and enduring material used for carving; the kannu being the simple inscriptions, titles, or names inscribed on the kan, by the kan, with the kan. Then the kan became the reed (English cane) for writing. This shows the earliest application of the word kan afterwards applied to the written volume. The kana as reed passes into the kan as book, and that this was made of papyrus-reed may be gathered from the fact that in the Egyptian kanana, for pulp, we catch the kan midway in its passage between the papyrus-reed and the papyrus made from the reed. [p.460] The 'rakrak sha libbi kani' rendered 'membranes from the interior of reeds,'[3] and 'rakraku' found elsewhere, obviously indicating papyrus, are derived from the Egyptian rekh, to bleach, full, purify, make white, and that gives the process of preparing the paper from the pulp, or kanana in Egyptian. We still produce paper from bleached rag, and paper in Arabic keeps the name of urak. In the African Timne the book is named areka. The Hebrew irek, white, only indicates complexion; Egyptian naming goes to origin. Sha or shu (Eg.) is papyrus, book, or paper, and one of the 'su' signs is the papyrus root.

The Akkadian ideograph of writing in general is read alal. It was pronounced alal when preceded by the determinative for wood. From alal came the Assyrian alallu. One equivalent for alal or alala is bunnu. Bunnu in Egyptian is palm-wood. The beni is a palm-branch, and it has the graver's chisel for determinative which shows that it was used for incising signs, letters, and dates. The palm-branch, beni, was the register of Taht, the divine scribe, who carries it in one hand, with the stylus in the other.

The engraved inscriptions, tablets, or printed bricks of Elam and Medea are called in Akkadian dubba, Assyrian duppu. The earliest form of these is the brick; the brick in Egyptian is teb, and as the word is also applied to the seal-ring (teb) for stamping, this indicates the superseded engraving on bricks. The teb or dip is extant in the Ritual[4], 'Open my mouth, says Ptah, with his book, (or brick) made of mud, fashioning the mouths of the gods by it.' The Egyptian teb, a brick, and afterwards a seal, is the root not only of the Akkadian tablet, but of the English 'tab,' an affixed mark, table, and tablet, the means of recording. The Akkadian dub and English tab are both from Egypt, their relationship has nothing to do with accidental coincidence.*

* Duba, in Mandingo, and dubana in Soso (African), is ink. Dubh, in Gaelic, duibhe, Irish, is ink, as the black. The descending scale of words, which is a result of superseded types, is well illustrated by this word. Teb is the brick and seal-ring in Egypt; dubba, the engraved brick, in Akkad; dips, Cypriote, a statue. In Manchu Tartar, tebou means reckoning, to keep an account. Dubbi is the African Galla name for a history; tippani, Sanskrit, a gloss, a scholion; duby, Polish, an idle tale; Latin, dubia; and in Irish, dubhe is a lie. This is an exact analogy to the descent of Tep (Typhon) from first to last.

Another Akkadian form of the word or name of the inscribed tablet is dikh. Tekh (Eg.) denotes stones of memorial, as the obelisk (tekhn), and therefore engraved stones. Also the tekar is the graver; tek means to cleave, adhere, fix; and tekh is a name of Taht, the penman and recorder of the gods. Now Taht followed Sut as manifestor of the eight great gods, and so far back as we can see the materials for writing are known in Egypt, but teb, the engraved seal and brick, and tekh, the stone, the graver, and the god, take us [p.461] still farther into this boundless backward past of the great motherland to Sut, who inscribed the records on the stelae, and to Typhon, who was the tongue of the still earlier expression, as goddess of the Great Bear. For example, Sefekh, the name of the goddess of writing, abrades into sekh, for writing, the writer, the scribe. In Coptic sagi is the tongue, and as speech preceded writing the tongue was the earlier type of utterance. Sefekh's name is determined by two tongues[5], and in the Ritual[6], the woman (Sefekh?) says, 'I am the tongue or the writer.' As Ta-urt she could only put out her tongue for a type of the 'living word.' To denote speech, says Horapollo they depict a tongue[7]. Sefekh-Sekh deposits the English saghe for speech; saig, a wise saying, and the words saw and say; our saying being equivalent to writing in Egyptian. We shall find Sefekh later in the Akkadian Sakh-Magana.

The Assyrian name of the crocodile is given as namsukha. In Egyptian it is emsuh, em (ma) and nam are both signs of water. Suh (Eg.) is the egg, and kha (Eg.) is the fish. Thus namsukha is named in Egyptian as the fish not only of the waters, but also of the egg, the essential distinction of the crocodile considered as a fish. The syllable 'nam' however is susceptible of another rendering; it means to repeat, renew, reproduce. So interpreted, the namsukha is the fish which is reproduced from the egg; a typical Egyptian expression for the beginning. The Arabic temsah, the crocodile, repeats the form of tem reproduced, and sub the egg. The name of the namsuh fish (kha) was worn down in Egyptian to emsuh.

The god Ninib is called 'Nin Kattin barzil,' rendered by 'the lord of the coat of iron.' 'Kattin,' says the translator[8], must be the Hebrew ןתכ (katen) a coat: which would only describe the war-god as a deity in armour. But the Egyptian katen means an image, similitude, a likeness, and this would make Nin to be the god whose likeness is iron! That stamps the antique, effective figure, more like those nearnesses to nature which they used to coin.

Of the Assyrian itlu, a warrior, Norris observes, 'The primitive meaning of the word seems to be "noble," and if Attila be a Hunnish name the connection may be admitted. Even the German edel might be allied, as we have some Germanic roots in Akkadian, though the resemblance is probably fortuitous.'[9] This was written by a scholar of whom it has been said that his linguistic knowledge was so universal he knew language rather than languages. Nothing could better mark the prevailing unsuspiciousness of the African origins which has to account for so much assumed fortuitousness.

In Egyptian atai is the noble, the chief; at is the prince, and taru is the hero, the unrivalled warrior. The at as prince and [p.462] heir-apparent is the ar (son) royal or divine, whence Adar, the god or the edel. The Assyrian itlu has the same significance as the Hebrew ithr, a noble, a distinguished one, and both are represented by the Egyptian taru, for the warrior, the unrivalled hero. Ta and at often permute. The itlu as the strong, hard, unbending, agrees with taru (Eg.), the name for the pike, as a war-weapon. Taru (Eg.) to bruise, afflict and obliterate, is represented in Arabic by aatl, to treat with great violence; udlawie, Polish, to strangle or choke; odol, Basque, blood; atale, Egbele, (African) blood; dra, Fijian, blood; dirra, Hindustani, a scourge, and thir, English, to strike dead; dula, Galla, destruction; tolu, French Romance, to be destroyed, annihilated; tail, English, slaughter; tall, Arabic, shedding blood with impunity. The cognates are found in a hundred languages. The itlu as the noble warrior is at one end and the Attila type of the bloody scourge at the other, and both meet in the Egyptian taru, the hero alone, and the afflicter and exterminator of men, according to the character and the work of the warrior.

The same writer remarks of the title kasar, a king, and the Greek Καισαρ; 'The resemblance is curious. I hardly venture to suggest any connection, but the word might have been borrowed from the Greeks, the name was recorded historically five centuries BC, and was no doubt known much earlier.'[10]

Sar, in the style of the Assyrian kings, constantly follows the monarch's name as a royal title, and, as in Egyptian, is a worn down form. Usur, to protect, is identical with user (Eg), to support, defend, and maintain; the user sceptre being the symbol of protecting and sustaining power. So the Assyrian nasaru, to protect, represents the work of the Egyptian nasru, who is the superintendent, overseer, governor or victor, and the sar answers to the sen (Eg.), chief, head.

User is an earlier suser for the regulator and arranger, found also in susru, a surname of Anu as the founder, with a still earlier form in khuser, from khes, to found, build, construct, make a road; the first user being the consonantal khuser, as the sign of power, valour, to sustain and maintain, to rule. This root yields the Akkadian gisuru, as wood and beam for bridges, and gisru (Ass.), the strong, the mighty; both meanings being typified by the user (khusr), sceptre of backbone. Khusr also furnishes the Arabic wazir, for the sustaining and supporting; Hindustani, gazir, the hero; Greek kaisir, and Latin caesar. In the time of the Third Dynasty the original khesr had become the seser. The vizier and nasr both imply different prefixes to a form found in tser (Hebrew tzer, Russian tsar), as the earlier rock-type of sustaining and protecting power.

In 'Bel-Sar-usur,' meaning Bel protect the sar, or king, the word [p.463] usur is a verb, so is khesr (Eg.), to disperse, dissipate and make clear, answering to the Assyrian kazir, the restorer. But usur is invoked in the fragment of an old ritual, as the 'Striker of Fortresses,' 'who has opened the hostile land like a whirlwind.' He is also addressed by the name of Khammu[11]. In Egyptian, khemu has the same meaning of victorious, prevailing power.

Us is a title applied to the king in the cuneiform. 'Us agga' is used in old Akkadian inscriptions in the sense of the powerful male. Us (Eg.) means large, vast, extended. As is great, august, noble, the type of supreme rule. Su (Eg.) is royal, the style of the king. Rubu, again, is found to signify a lord or prince. Rubu-mi is the full style, but the value of mi is not ascertained. In the hieroglyphics the repa is a governor, lord, or prince. Ma (Eg.), the equivalent of mi, makes it the true repa. Seb is called the ma-repa of the gods. The title is applied to the repeaters of the time-cycles, Seb being chief; Virgo, the lady, another; the phoenix another; Repit, the goddess of harvest, another.

The repa is the lord, and Repit the lady of repetition. Repat is the lady of heaven, the constellation Virgo. With the l instead of r the word is lubat, a title of Jupiter. Saturn also is called Lubat-Sukus. Indeed, all seven of the planets are designated Lubat by the Chaldeans as the repeaters of periods. Rubatu is the Assyrian for a queen, or the lady of the gods, and in the Ritual Rubata appears as the mystical cow, a primordial shape of the Repat, the lady of heaven[12].

The Egyptian and Babylonian kings were crowned as rulers over the four countries, the four quarters, typical of the whole, as the four posts typify the bedstead, and the four corners, the house, or as aft (Eg.), the number four and the four quarters, is also the abode. Now the term 'kiprat arba' of the inscriptions seems to me to be doubly related to this formula of four. Sargon is said to have conquered the 'kiprat arba' of Syria. Naramsin is called king of the 'kiprat arba.'[13] This has been rendered the 'Four Races.' The name 'kiprat arba', says Smith[13], was probably given to the Syrians on account of there being four races or principal states in that region, and he supports this by pointing to a similar division in Genesis, where Aram has four sons, Uz, Hul, Gether, and Mash[14]. Kiprati (Ass.), however, does not merely mean races or regions, it relates to the four quarters. In Egyptian, rut means the race, and the four kab, where stood the four kabbirs, are the four corners. The kings of Egypt and Assyria were proclaimed to be lords of the four corners or quarters, as the synonym of the whole earth, and at the coronation of the pharaoh four birds were let fly towards the four corners. The kebruti would be the men of the four quarters, without implying four different races. Keb-ruti would also denote [p.464] the several corners, or the four without the arba; these were the four corners of the mount of the four supports of heaven, represented by Khibur (Hebron), and other sacred hills[15]. Arba does but repeat the four.

As we see in the Hebrew the terminal oth corresponds to aft (Eg.) for number four, the four corners, and thus interpreted the Assyrian kiprati, and Hebrew kaphereth, answer to kab-r-aft or khepr-aft, the four corners of the kabbirs, and of Khepra, the circle-clasper, in the place of joining and unifying. This enables us to refound in phenomena.

The light to be derived from Egypt will save the cuneiform scholar much groping among the Akkadian ideographs. The variants of the character id for the hand, supply a particular case in point[16]. An ideographic id obviously represents the Egyptian it, to figure, paint, portray, with the hand of the artist for determinative. The hand, id, it should be premised, was the earliest kind of comb, with the digits for its teeth, and as the m and p permute khep (Eg.), the hand is identical with khem or comb. Kame is an English name for the comb. In Egyptian, khept is the doubled hand or fist, and the terminal ti (two) makes the khep dual; thus khepti is two hands, as kabti is two arms or hands. Khemti for number ten, is the equivalent of khepti, both hands. The genetrix as khepti, is thus the two hands of creation. The two hands as khebti are a double kame or comb; and the double-toothed comb was an especial ideograph of the motherhood. It is found on the tombs of the lurs as a sign of the female sex; it is carried by the mermaid, who impersonates the Two Truths of the water and the breath of being.

In Assyrian the hand is katu, an abraded form of khept (Eg.) which wears down to id, the Hebrew yod, and Ashanti idu, for number ten. This id in a most ancient form, as shown by a tablet in the British Museum[17], presents the picture of a double-toothed comb, a sign of maternity. The id, with the value of number ten, is the representative of khepti and khemti, the two hands and ten fingers. The double comb, then, was an image of the two hands, and of the goddess Khept, or Apt, who in the first, the hippopotamus form, had no hands, but had four feet. Now the id sign has an equivalent in ner, a foot. So the kaph (Hebrew) is both hand and foot. Hand and foot are thus a form of khepti, the latest form of which is id, the Hebrew yod for no. 10 or two hands.

The id, or hand, will show us in Egyptian how the sign, which is also connected with kar, may have a real relationship, as kar (Eg.) is the name of the claw, meaning to seize, lay hold, or claw hold; and the claw is an earlier form of the hand. [p.465] Another curious equivalent of id, is a figure with four knobs. These correspond to the four feet of the genetrix whose name of Apt also signifies the four corners of the first celestial circle or square, that of khepsh or the Great Bear. The id in this shape bears the likeness of the kam, or comb, of the crocodile's tail with four points, worn by the typhonian genetrix. The same sign signifies power, and Kefa is power and puissance in person. It likewise expresses the idea of the throne and seat, and the old goddess was the seat, represented by the hinder-part, the seat or throne being a type of the bearer. It is also found as place in the Proto-Medic inscriptions of the Akhemenides. It (Eg.) is place, and a name of heaven. Finally, the character attains unity, and is an ideograph of one. That one is the old genetrix who was one as the Great Bear, the bearer, and bringer-forth; one as the seat; one as the place, the uterus; dual as the two bears, or the two hands, when the human figure was applied; fourfold and four-footed as the hippopotamus of the four quarters; ten-fingered, as the two hands, the equivalent of which was the double comb. The comb is a reminder that the nit still bears the name of the genetrix as Neith.

There is a meeting-point between Egyptian and Assyrian in the name of the moon as idu or itu, the same as the name of the hand. Uti, the lunar god, is Taht or Tut, and tut (Eg.) is a name for the hand; Uti or Tahuti (Tut) was the hand (as well as the speech or logos of the gods), he being the measurer and weigher, and uti has the value of number five. It (Eg.) means to figure forth with the hand. This connection of the hand and moon under one name will enable us to read the typology of Job's saying[18], that if he beheld the moon walking in brightness and his heart was secretly enticed, he did not kiss his hand, or די, as the true lunarite would have done. The moon as idu was equivalent to the hand, because it reshaped its orb of light.

Considerable evidence of common origin might be adduced by means of the different words derived from the same ideographic type. Kaf, for the hand, wears down to su in Akkadian, and su in Egyptian is the word for no. 5. Rekh or lekh (Eg.) means to know, reckon, keep account: the knowers were the rekhi. In Akkadian, likku names the dog and the lion, two types of the rekh, or Regulus as the Dog-star and lion-god.

The cuneiform sign for number ten () is a square or wedge-shaped adaptation of the Egyptian ideograph for ten, formed from the two hands clasped together and cut off at the wrists.

The ideograph of king used in the Elamite and other texts, was pronounced issep in Akkadian.

In the hieroglyphics the ideograph of the great, noble, ruler is the as throne, with the ruler seated. A variant of the same image reads sheps or seps. The sep likewise is a throne. Another form [p.466] of the name of the throne is the asep, aseb, or as-but, the feminine type. The asep as the throne is the Elamite issep which as as-sep reads the great throne, the fitting ideograph for the king.

In quoting the as-but as the full form of the royal seat, it may be noted that the Mandingo negroes designate the house by the name of 'house-belly,' the belly-house being the womb, and as (Eg.) is the house, chamber, abode; the but is the belly, so that as-but is literally the belly-house or womb, the but or beth of As, Hes, Isis, the divine abode.

The particular ideogram which expresses the name of Akkad is formed by doubling that of the verb bur, to rise, swell, tumefy. This is the Egyptian bua to well, boil, bubble up. Bur-bur denotes ebullition. Bur-bur (Eg.) means the cap, top, roof; and supreme point of height, the summit. Ber-ber, the summits, is a name of Akkad, and akhut (Eg.) is the height above the horizon, the place of sunrise or the resurrection (khut, the mount of the east).

A cross is the symbol of the old Anu of the Assyrian mythology, and annu is the Egyptian place of the crossing and equinox, also of Anit (Neith) who brings forth the child of the crossing.

Certain emblems of the gods Shamash and Marduk are named limazi, rendered cherubim by Smith[19]. One form of the Hebrew cherub was the Egyptian khepr, the beetle (or two beetles) stationed at the point of recommencement in the solstitial year. Khereb (Eg.) is the model primeval type, first form and figure of the beginning. The Assyrian and Babylonian beginning was equinoctial from the time when the spring equinox was in the Fishes. This is the meaning of the fish of Hea and of Oannes. Thus the fish was their khereb, this, in case there is authority for translating the Babylonian limazi by the Hebrew cherubim. Rem (Eg.) is the fish, and asi are the statues. The fish-statues are pre-eminently the Assyrian types of beginning instead of the beetles and the bears, or hippopotamus. The fish was sacred to Marduk who personates the fish of Hea. The fish (or fishes) is at the point of commencement, the place of the seven gods in the Assyrian zodiac; Pisces being the sign of the seven great gods, rem in Akkadian is a point of beginning which is in the fish, rem, or fishes, rem-rem (Eg.). Therefore it may be inferred that this beginning in and with the fish is typified by the limazi, or rem-asi, as the fish-statues. The fish is a khereb in the sense of a primary type and model figure of the commencement.

The sign tak, says the Rev. W. Houghton, is a very puzzling character[20]. It is rendered by the Assyrian abnu, a stone, although none of the ancient forms have any likeness to a stone. Now the Egyptian abn is a wall, with the usual sign of the enclosure, rampart, or fortress. Teka is a boundary, and to fix. The god Tekh is the measurer and limit-fixer of earth and heaven. The tekht are the masons and stones for building. May not the Akkadian tak be explained by [p.467] the Egyptian teka and abn, the sign of a boundary wall, an enclosure, or rampart? Ak, Akkadian, to build, with the Egyptian article tu as prefix, forms the word tak, which is obviously related to building. Ak, to build, may not appear in Egyptian as the name for building, which is at, but we find akh, to work, to perform. Also one of the oldest kinds of building was wattling with branches, twigs, and reeds, and the earlier sign of ak, to build, as described by Rawlinson[21], contains a picture of reed-matting. Matted reeds are wattled or twisted together, and the idea is conveyed by ak (Eg.), to twist, to make a rope or cable, therefore to wattle or make reed-matting as a primitive kind of building. The Irish tochars were wattle-work.

It may be noted that the Egyptian ideograph of the wall is the determinative of sapti, to construct, and the wall or rampart by name is sebti, whilst the Akkadian sign[22] that denotes brick and brickwork also determines the month Sivan, the month of brick-making. In Akkadian the month Sivan is munga, and in Egyptian munka (or menka) is the name of pottery, utensils, things made, and the word means to make, form, work, build. Munga, for the brick-making corresponds to menka, for making pottery or other things of earth.

The Assyrian rabu, a prince, represents the repa (Eg.), the prince and heir-apparent of the throne of Ra. The rabu was represented by a sceptre, a staff, or a beam of wood. Standing by itself, says Professor Sayce, the sign would be the sceptre carried by the prince, and hence the prince himself[23]. So in the hieroglyphics the kherp is both the prince, his majesty, and the sceptre of his authority, and this kherp is a form of the rep or repa, the prince, or branch in an archaic Babylonian form a hand is added to show that the staff-sceptre was carried in the hand. So in the hieroglyphics the ser for chief ruler, denoted by the hand holding the wooden pet sceptre, is the determinative of ser, the chief one, the kherp; and ser is a worn down form of user and keser, or khuser.

Kheb, Kefa, or Kufa, is the name of the genetrix as the enceinte bearer of the child represented by the water-horse. This type, like those of the cow, fish, and frog, was adopted before boats were used to cross the waters. Ta-urt, a name of the northern Kefa, is the chariot when this was the womb. Khept wears down into aft, another name of the bearer, as the hippopotamus. Teb is also one of her names.

When boats were built we find the earliest type-names were derived from the ancient genetrix. The kabni (Eg.) is a vessel, a ship, the cabin of the English vessel. The ubo in Ibu, and evu in Adampe, is a canoe; the kpero, African Kiambo, a canoe; cabarr, Scotch, a lighter; cayvar, English, a kind of ship; keffer, German, a light boat. From teb comes the teba or ark, and the tub, an English name for an old ship, the tavio, Fiji, part of a canoe; [p.468] tapa, Hindustani, a kind of boat; tabo, Portuguese, a ship. Ship and skiff are forms of the name of kheb; and one of the most primitive boats, was the womb-shaped skiff still used on the lower Tigris and Euphrates, found depicted on ancient Assyrian sculptures. This round hive-like vessel is called the 'kefa,' and still retains the name of the first bearer of the waters.

'Enclosed in a box' is given on the tablets as the equivalent of 'Nu-u-Hu.' This, says the translator, will afford us a new meaning for the name of Noah, and perhaps the derivation of the word[24]. Unfortunately for the suggestion, this enclosure of Noah, according to the hieroglyphics, might have been nnuh, a rope-noose, to twist and tie, as this is one of the signs of enclosing, and is really a form of the ark itself, a determinative of ark, to surround, envelop, enclose, to appoint a limit, fix by decree, the end of a period. The noose of Ta-urt was, so to say, the first form of the ark enclosure. This enclosure of Noah (or Num) may also be a water-vase, can, or khen, a house, or a box even, with which the god Num's name is written as a phonetic nu, ideographic Num[25]. The meaning of Nu-u-Hu does not start from the box interpreted by the ark of Noah. But more of this when we come to the deluge.

In the deluge mythos one of the birds sent out of the ark, rendered the raven, is named 'a-ri-hi.' Ribi is identical with ray in raven. The original of both may be found in the phoenix bird, a determinative of repa or repat. The phoenix repa, ribi, or raven, is the type of the cycle repeated by one period passing or transforming into another, represented by the consuming phoenix or repa re-arising from its own ashes. The Bennu-Osiris was a form of the phoenix of the year, the symbolical bird of return and renewal. Such is the nature of the ribi or repa wherever found.

The scarabaeus that rolled up its seed in excrementi, and was taken by the Egyptians for a type of the Creator, may be seen in the drawings from the tombs of Biban-el-Muluk busily employed in seizing the seed as it issues from the source, and transforming it into living souls. Thus Khepra the Creator, as generator, is pictured as the 'seizer of seed.'

The earliest form of the sign of Cancer in Egyptian zodiacs is the beetle, the emblem of Khepra-Ra, who, at Biban-el-Muluk is portrayed as the seizer of seed; Khepra in the abraded form of kér means to seize with the claws, as did the scarab.

Now the Akkadian name of the month Tammuz (June) is Su-kul­na, 'seizer of seed,' and its zodiacal sign is Cancer, the scarab Khepra of the Egyptians. The seizer of seed then, in the occult sense, who is portrayed in the zodiac as the beetle, is reproduced by the Akkadian name of the month, Su-kul­na.

The year in the Aramaic-Akkadian calendar began with the [p.469] month Nissanu, the month of the equinox, the crossing and coming out of Annu, when the sun left the fish-sign of An, the place of the Babylonian seven great gods. Nas (Eg.) corresponds to the Assyrian Nisu for up-lifting, up-rising; the nusa being a pedestal for elevating. Nas also means out of, and as the year began with the sun's up-rising out of Annu, this seems to be the likeliest origin for the name of the month Nissanu. The names for the month of July (roughly) and January in this calendar are Abu and Sabahu (Aramaic, Ab and Sebat), and the names point to their having been the first and seventh months of a year corresponding to the Egyptian sacred year which began with the month Taht (July 20), a Sothic year preceding the solar with the commencement at the vernal equinox.

In the Inscription of Khorsabad, the king relates that he has placed between the doors of the temple four kubur on Nirgalli; 'towards the four celestial regions I turned their front.'[26] The twin-lions of the horizon, the rehiu or ruti are an Egyptian type; they supported the sun at the equinoctial level. The four kubur are a form of the four kabari, the four companions of the four quarters. The keb (Eg.) is a lord of the angle; kab is the corner; an denotes the companions, guards, keepers; the four kabari were the genii of the four quarters, ape-headed, jackal-headed, bird-headed, and human-headed. Oppert describes the passage on the Nirgallu as very difficult, and says the 'Name of Nergal does not interfere with the object.'[27] The gallu, in Assyrian, are a class of evil spirits. Nir (Eg.) means victory and to vanquish. The Nirgallu were probably typical of victory over evil spirits. One of Nirgal's types was the cock, a bird of dawn, at whose warning crow the evil spirits were supposed to vanish. The Egyptian nir (nar) is a vulture, as the sign of victory or vanquishing.

It is said of evil spirits, or demons, that they devour men like kimi. This word is rendered in Akkadian by ku. These ku, or kimi, have been translated sparrows, but the khemi of the hieroglyphics is a quail, and this is probably the kimi of the tablets. The khu is another hieroglyphic bird of return, though different from the quail. The hieroglyphic khu is the symbol of a spirit. It was a bird of passage and periodic return, and, therefore, of prophecy. Nam (Eg.) means to announce and proclaim. The Akkadians had their nam-khu, the foretelling or prophet-bird, supposed to be a species of swallow.

In the deluge tablet the word ruki is an epithet applied to Xisuthrus, as denizen of that other world to which he has gone[28]. Ruki has been rendered remote. Xisuthrus had emigrated to a country where he dwells in the company of the gods. He is in spirit-world, and in Egyptian rukh is the pure soul; the rukhi are the holy spirits, the wise and pure intelligences, whether here or in [p.470] spirit-world. The rukhi, as pure spirits, are shown to be immortal by the phoenix sign of resurrection, and Xisuthrus as a ruki, is considered to be one of these.

In the creation legends two kinds of beings are spoken of, called the Admi and Sarku. The one are a people of darkness, the other of light. Both are entirely mythical, and neither is ethnological, therefore we need not enter into the discussion of the light and dark races on human grounds. The dark people are also called nisi-zalmat-kakkadi. In one of the syllabaries, says Boscawen[29], we find the ideograph for corpse, pagru, accompanied by the signs for black, and rendered in the Assyrian by adamatu, and in the later inscriptions we find admu used for men instead of the ordinary word nisu;* again, the same sign occurs accompanied by the ideograph for white, and is rendered by the Assyrian sarku, a word meaning light. In the Kutha Tablet, says the same writer, which contains the earliest of all the creation legends, there is a curious use of two different words for men who are placed in opposition to one another, as though indicating a similar difference to that in the case of the admi and sarku. In one instance they are men with the bodies of birds of the field, and human beings with the faces of ravens. Here, the imagery, being Egyptian, concerns us. For these are imaged according to the typical birds of light and darkness, of life and death, of the upper and the under world. 'I went in as a hawk; I came out as a phoenix,' expresses the typical transformation in the Ritual. The hawk, the bird of light, belongs to the ascending sun or spirits of light. The phoenix or nycticorax is a bird of darkness; with us it is the owl. This is represented by the black bird of night, the raven. Khu (Eg.) is light, spirit, the bird of light and spirit. Sar, as in Assyrian, denotes the chief or head. The sar-khu would be the chief spirits. The raven and the corpse ideograph equate with the black doll-symbol, not of death but of the shades below, or of life in the shades, which is a variant of the tie, the symbol of life in the light.

* In Persian, also, admi signifies man, homo; adam, in Lughman; adam, Curali (Lesgian); adma, Adaiel.

Atum alone amongst the gods has the black doll image for one of his signs. He is the great god of the dark, and judge of the dead in the netherworld. It has now to be suggested that the admi, the dark beings, and the raven-headed, belong to the realm of Atum, the sun of the Hades; and that the sarku, the other bird-headed people, are the children of light, as in the Egyptian mythology. The sun-god, Tammuz, is identical with Atum, through Adonis, the sun who descends into the lower world, where he is sought for by Ishtar. Atum was the earlier Aten or Adon, the child of the mother, who became the creative father of a later worship, and as such is the progenitor of the Admi, or Adamic race of mythical beings, the men of [p.471] earth (the red earth), as the earth is a form of the lower of two heavens, or the midmost of three regions.

In the Akkadian cuneiform the ideographic sign which renders the idea of god and heaven is a star (4). The star in Egypt is a hieroglyphic of heaven as the tep. Tep is the upper, the southern heaven, and the lower heaven is the tept or tepht. This modifies into tuaut, and is written with the star for tua or tep. The night-heaven is the lower of two, the tepht; hence the sign of the star has the value of tep, the heaven, determined by the duplicative t for tepht and tuaut.

Un, the period, the hour, is written with a star. So the year was signified by a star, the star Sebti or Sothis, the dual of Seb, the duplicator of time.

An early figure of the zodiac was that of the human body, the head being in the sign where the sun rose at the time of the spring equinox; the feet in the sign preceding. The head of Osiris, whose body was represented as divided into various parts, was supposed to be in Abtu, the point of commencement in the circle. This human image of the zodiac will explain the expressions employed in the astronomical and astrological tablets of Babylon, such as 'from the first day of Nisan to the thirtieth day of Ve-Adar, head-and-tail completely, such a one lives,' or 'head-and-tail to head-and-tail completely, so-and-so goes to destruction;'[30] this, like the human type of the zodiac, being a figure of totality.*

* Possibly this type of head-and-tail was also illustrated in the transfer of authority, when the English father presented his son-in-law with one of his daughter's shoes on the wedding-day, and the husband struck the wife a blow on the head with the shoe, showing that she was his, head-and-foot, or completely?

In the Babylonian creation Anu is said to select certain stars as measuring stars, and regulators of time and period called 'period stars.' A list of seven of these is given[31] named the 'Measures.' The proper name is tamsil and the determinative denotes a sheep or flock. These were the shepherding stars of the celestial flock. Sil, or ser (Eg.), means to regulate, dispose, arrange, be at the head. The ser is also the name of the builder's measuring-line. The guiding-stars and timekeepers were known by the name of the Disposers. Tam, in Akkadian, is a day, but the word tamsil is the amsil formed with the t prefix, and t-am is the equivalent of am-t (Eg.). Am is written with the cross sign, and is a figure of crossing, like tek of the tekani (decani), or stars that crossed every ten days. Amt means in the middle of; that is, in the mid-heaven, the centre at the moment of culmination, the transit or crossing. In the calendar of astronomical observations found in the royal tombs of the twentieth dynasty, the crossing stars are described in seven different positions portrayed by means of the human figure, thus: 1left shoulder; 2left ear; 3left eye; 4in the middle; 5right eye; [p.472] 6right ear; 7right shoulder. This chart of the seven positions, and measure of seven degrees, will probably be found to be connected with the Akkadian tamsil, and the seven measures of starry time. The first tamsil, whether as constellation or crossing-stars, were the seven stars of Ursa Major, the seven of the Chinese bushel measure, and the seven in number still dominates in the measure by seven vertical lines being drawn to determine the passage of the stars[32]. As so often iterated, for the sake of saving the reader the trouble of continual cross reference, the Great Bear constellation was depicted as the typhonian goddess of gestation, the hippopotamus, one of whose names is Teb. The star Dubhe, in the Great Bear, still preserves the name of Teb or Typhon in heaven. Also tabi is an Egyptian name of the bear. The Assyrian name of the bear is dabu, and this is applied to the constellation Kakabu dabi, the star of the Bear. But the difficulty of Assyriologists has been to determine the nature of the animal when the name was used. For instance, the word sakh is the Akkadian equivalent for the Assyrian dabu, and one translator finds the name to be more appropriate to the hippopotamus than to the bear; another doubtfully suggests the beaver, and each without reference to those Egyptian things which determine the names. The teb was the hippopotamus of Egypt, and the name was afterwards given to the bear, or rather the bear followed the water-horse as the image of the bearing mother, Teb. The Akkadian name of the bear is sakh, and in Egyptian sakh denotes the illuminator and enlightener. Sâhu (sakhu) also means to perambulate, go round, a revolving group of stars. Orion, for instance, is a sahu or sakhu. But the seven stars constituted the first sakhu. These, with Sirius added, are the eight signified by the eight-pointed star of Sut as before explained.

In Egyptian the number seven in one form is written sefekh, in another sekhef. My own conclusion is that these resolve into sef or kef with the value of number five, or the hand, which with the terminal ti signifies number seven, as sebti, hepti or khepti, and that the name of the goddess Seven (read Sefekh) really denotes the secondary form of sef or khef, needing the two horns or tongues, as the ti to make the full sign of number seven.

Skhef will deposit both sef and khef as types for number seven skhef and sefkh will modify and meet in sekhu with the passing of f into u. Here alone, in Egyptian, do we unearth a root or type-word for a particular form of the seven found in schuh, Norway gipsy; sik, Arago, (Papuan); tsook, Skwali; tseek-wah, Skitte­gats; huisca, Guajiquiro; shakoee, Yankton (Sioux); shahko, Winebago; shakopi, Dakota; seigbe, Khotovzi (Yeniseian); sqwithi, Mingrelian; s'kit, Lazic; isgwit, Suanic; s'widi, Georgian; Targumic, zgtha (אתגז), synonymous with gaish for a group of (seven?) stars; seacht, Irish; seachd, Scotch; shiaght, [p.473] Manx, which latter modify into seyth, Cornish, and saith, Welsh. Sekhf then is probably the older form of sakhu and sâhu, the constellation which is identified by the Akkadian sakh as the seven stars or the sevenfold-star of the Bear. Nor is this the only form of the seven or seventh to be found under the name, for sakus was the Assyrian kaivanu, the Hebrew ןויכ Kivan, the star of Israel which has been mixed up with the male Saturn; Lubatu sakus being a title of Saturn. Sakus as the planet Seven agrees with this derivation of sakh for the seven stars, whilst the seven and seventh of sakhu and sakus afford good evidence that the earlier typical sakhu or sâhu (Eg.) was the constellation of seven stars, and that all these are forms of the word skhf for number seven.

The Bear is also named Sakh-Khussu, in Assyrian Russu. In Egyptian khus means the turner back or returning one, and rus signifies to rise up, watch, and be vigilant. The seven stars of the Bear were the earliest revolvers and watchers, the illuminators of the mind's eye of the first observers. The Bear is likewise designated, in Akkadian, sakh-sika. Sika (Eg.) means to drag and draw with the leg for determinative, and the Bear is the constellation of the hinder thigh. Sika (Eg.) is also the plough, another name of the same constellation. Further, the Bear is called Sakh-Maganna, and Magan or Makan has been identified as Egypt, or the ship-region. The Bear of Egypt is the hippopotamus, the Egyptian type of the goddess of the seven stars. The pregnant hippopotamus, the bearer of the waters, was the primordial ark; she was Teb, the living Teba; before boats were built she was the ship of the north.

Ma-Khan (Eg.) means the bearer of the waters, and when the Egyptians could build a boat they named it the makhan, from ma, water (or the mother), and khan, to carry, bear, transport, navigate. The makhennu is the boat of souls, and the primordial image of this in heaven was the group of seven stars, whose khenit or sailors were the seven Cabiri, of the Sakh-Maganna, the bearer as the Bear. The proof of this is furnished by the seven spirits of the Great Bear being called the planks in the boat of souls, which is the makhehnu. The mundane type of the boat appears in the magana (Tasmanian), the name of the mons veneris or uterus, the primordial makhen as the boat of the living. In the Kiwomi and Coehetimi dialects maichana is the name for number seven, which illustrates the interchange of the original type-names. In the same way maganna as the name of Egypt equates with khebt which also has the value of number seven, from khep the hand, and ti, two, whence hepti for no.7.

In the Chaldean creation[33] it is said of the god, 'He made the year into quarters,' and the word for quarters is mizrata, sometimes written mizriti; the etymology is uncertain. Mest (Eg.) represents the Hebrew mitz in Mitzraim, and is the birthplace; ret or rat is to repeat, be repeated, several. Mest-rat yields the divisions of the [p.474] birthplace, and these were the four quarters. Mazzaroth then is first-named from the birthplace of the beginning, formed of the four quarters of the Great Bear, where we find the star Mizar in the tail or Mest-ru. Moreover the Hebrew terminal in תורזמ, represents the aft (Eg.) of the four quarters, and Mitzr-aft is the Mitzr of the four quarters, which belonged either to the constellation or the circle of the Great Bear before Mazzaroth had been extended to the circle of the signs and the four quarters of the solar zodiac. The moon is said to complete its hours (make its dual lunation) in arbati miskriti, or four quarters[34]. The division of the circle of the constellation into quarters is marked in the Umazzir for 'He divided' the year into the twelve months. The Maz-arta, a watch, was then derived from the division of the night or circle of the stars into quarters. A watch was a piece of time long before it was a timepiece.

In one of the twelve romances of mythology, as the Assyrian version of the ancient legends may be termed, in the sixth tablet of the story of Izdubar[35], the god Anu is described as creating a bull at the request of Ishtar, who is desirous of being revenged on the solar hero who resisted her blandishments. Ishtar with her two attendants (a form of the two divine sisters) leads the bull against the city of Erech. With this bull Izdubar and his companion Heabani struggle; Heabani holding it by the head and tail, while Izdubar pierces the animal with his sword. This subject is represented on the cylinders where we see the god or hero fighting with the bull. Sometimes two persons are seen in conflict with two bull-beings, and these two bulls correspond to the double-headed bull of Egypt, whose mythology will help us here as elsewhere.

The bull, like the crocodile of the west, was made into an image of the swallower, the mouth of Hades, the Kr-p-Ru, Kherp-ru, or Cerberus. The earth that swallows up the sun and the souls in the west is described in certain passages of the Book of Hades as a two-headed bull which swallowed them in the west to reproduce them in the east[36]. 'Honour to the soul which was swallowed by the double bull,' says the same text, 'the god (Ra) rests in what he has created.' The mummies standing waiting in their porch cry to the sun-god, 'Open the earth! Traverse Hades and sky! Dissipate our darkness! O Ra, come to us! The earth is open to Ra.' The swallowing earth being typified by the bull will serve to explain the subject of Mithras slaying the bull, which it was impossible to read until we knew what it was the bull represented. The bull being also a well known symbol of the sun, and Mithras a solar god, it was impossible to see how Mithras, the sun personified, could be slaying the sun. The Egyptian symbolism explains both the Assyrian and the Mithraic. The sun is in Scorpio[37], but he enters the underworld as the destined [p.475] conqueror of the devouring Earth, or comes into conflict with the bulli. The great mountain of Mul-Gelal, the glory of the mountains, the mountain of the west where the sun set, is said in an Akkadian inscription[38] to lie like a buffalo in repose. That will serve for an image of the bull, the earlier cow of the west, or crocodile, or whale. In the Akkadian Magical Texts the gate of Hades is kept by the bull who is invoked, 'Oh bull, very great bull, which opens to the interior. The entrance to the tomb is thy act; the lady with the magic wand[39]Nin-gis-zida, a title of the goddess Nin-ki-galfashioned thee for eternity.' The station is at the boundaries, the limits which fix the division between heaven and earth, where the sun entered the underworld of the souls, the mouth of the swallower, whether considered as an animal, a fish, or the gaping grave.

A passage is quoted by Lenormant from the inscriptions to this effect, 'afterwards they lead the bull into the Bit-Mummutu,' with the remark, 'It seems to me that it is connected with the word mummu, chaos, Hebrew המהמ, confusion; it would then be the abode of confusion, the state of chaos, which is a very suitable name for the gloomy and infernal region.'[40] But as the Akkadian name of Hades, Gi-umuna, is identical with the Egyptian Ki-amen, the hidden land of the interior, and as the mamit can be identified as the mummy-type, the Hebrew תוממ, it seems more probable that the Bit­-Mummutu is the house of the dead, who are called the mum (or mummies) in Egyptian. Also the mum or mam (Eg.), a name for the crossing or passage, precedes the form of am for the west or mouth of the Ament. The bull is a personification of the swallowing earth, hence an emblem at the gate of the mummy-house of Hades.

A curious figure is mentioned on the tablets and called the assinnu. In the descent of Ishtar to Hades the god Hea creates a sort of phantom figure, or he takes the figure assinnu, breathes life into it, and sends it on an errand to Hades. Talbot rendered the Assinnu by the 'figure of a man of clay,'[41] Lenormant by the 'phantom of a black man.'[42] But the Assinnu is comparatively common. We have it in the English scin of the dead, a phantom; also swyn in Welsh, as a charm; zona, Cornish, to charm; the tseen, Chinese, a demon; the asna, Sanskrit, a demon; aasan or usun, Arabic, a typical image or idol; sona, Biafada (African), an idol or sacred image; and ziney, Wolof (African), for the devil. The hieroglyphics will show us the character, shape, and colour of the image. Ssenu means a typical figure. San is an image, and the word signifies to charm, preserve, and save. Ssenu and sena mean to breathe, and the ssenu is an image of breath. Possibly the Assyrian as-sinnu includes the as (Eg.) as statue or type, and sena for breath or breathing. The [p.476] sennu itself is a black statue, and as an image of breath or a breathing image it is a variant of the noose sign of life. The Assinnu was black; it is called Namir and Khamir. Na is coloured or black in Egyptian. The Na people, or Nahsi, are negroid, and kham is also black.

The black Assinnu then is identical with the black doll of the hieroglyphics, which is an image of life in the underworld, or, as we say, of death, the shadow of life, hence its blackness. The sennu is portrayed by the side of Atum, the god of the lower world, who equates with Hea in the male solar triad.

On the death of a righteous man they 'bring a khisibta from the heavenly treasury; they bring a sisbu from their lofty storehouse; into the precious khisibta they pour bright liquor. That righteous man, may he now rise on high! May he be bright as that sisbu; like pure silver may his garment be shining white.'[43] The sisbu agrees with the ssheba (Eg.), a life-giving image, the mummy-figure which was carried round at the feast when the guests were told to look on it as the type of immortality, and rejoice because they also were immortal. Sesh (Eg.) means to pass, and ba is to be or become a soul, hence the ssheba. Khis­ibta renders the Egyptian khesbet for blue, the lapis lazuli symbol of heaven and of eternal truth. Khesbet or khisba is lapis lazuli, the hard blue stone and image of solid heaven, the throne of Ra in the highest heaven, like the Hebrew 'paved work of a sapphire stone, as it were the body of heaven in its clearness.'[44] This was the foundation-stone of the other world, the stepping-stone of the southern height at the threshold of the door of heaven.

A variant of khesbet for lapis lazuli is khebst (Eg.). The true lapis lazuli was the khesbet-ma; the khesbt was inferior, artificial, made of earth. In the Inscription of Khorsabad, the king says he placed the dunu (offerings, tributes) or tablets, some of which were khibsti, made of earth[45]. On these he wrote the glory of the gods. This was the unreal (kheb, false) lapis lazuli referred to in the Ritual.

Assyriologists have found a mysterious sacred image, mentioned on the tablets, called the mamit or mamitu, the nature of which has caused much perplexity. It is spoken of as a shape of salvation descending from the midst of the heavenly abyss, the 'Mamit, mamit, treasure which passeth not away.' It imaged 'the one deity who never fails or passes away.' Covenants were apparently sworn and pledges taken on the mamit. It was placed as is the cross in the hands of the dying to drive away evil spirits[46], but what the image was is unknown. 'It was certainly some great mystery, but of what nature has not yet been explained.' An oath taken on the mamit was equivalent to the English 'corporal oath,' [p.477] which, according to Paley[47], meant an oath taken on the corporale or linen cloth which surrounded the sacred host, the corpus domini or mummy of the Lord; and to become perjured by breaking the oath is, in English, to be mam-sworn.

The Egyptian mummy figure was the type of the karast, the embalmed corpse of the dead, and in another aspect an image of the resurrection. The Assyrians had their corporale or corpse-cloth, and in one of the magical charms instructions are given to take a white cloth and cover the mamit with it, and then place the mamit in the sick man's right hand; a black cloth is to be wrapped round the sick man's left handthe white and black cloth still preserved in the English palland then all the evil spirits and the sins which he has committed will quit their hold of him; it is said to be a mystery that God and man are unable to explain. So in the Ritual we read, 'Inexplicable is the Sem-Sem, it is the greatest of secrets,'[48] and this relates to the re-genesis for the next life which was typified by the mummy image. Sem-Sem is the equivalent of shabti the duplicated image (sem). The relation of the mamit to the dead is suggested by the name and office of the Assyrian divinity Mamitu, the goddess of fate, who is the determiner of death.

The hieroglyphics will help us as usual, for the mamit belongs to Egypt, and the name may be derived in one of two ways. Ma (Eg.) denotes the likeness, and mat is dead. The Ma-mat is thus the image in death, or mummy-type. The Egyptian name of the mummy is mum, the dead. It means to figure forth, picture, image, typify. This it is a reduced form of kheft, the image itself, and sheft, to fashion. Mum-it or mum-ta renders the image or type of the dead; the present image of the life that is past, the symbol of saving, or being preserved on a physical plane and thence an eschatological emblem of salvation for the soul. Iti (Ass.) means a thing which supports and upholds as did the mamit-type in death. In Egyptian, the word mamit would also read literally the dead in heaven (it); the mum being transformed into a spiritual body. In the Ritual the dead or the truly livingfor the evil alone are the deadare called mummies, just as are the dead on earth. Mam, in Hebrew, to be lacking, deficient, agrees with the Egyptian mum, for the dead; the terminal תו or תוא denotes the sign of recognition, and the תוממ is the name for the corpse as the image of the dead, and the state of lying dead[49]. This is an equivalent for the Assyrian mamit.

Mampus in Malayan means the dead, and mum (Eg.) is represented (by permutation) in Swahili by mfu, a dead person; by mba in Nso, and mpambe in Marauri, for an idol or divinity. In this relationship the root mm makes very touching revelations in the Maori tongue where the Egyptian mum for pitch is found in mimiha, bitumen, with which the mum or dead were mummified. Mimiti [p.478] means dried up or desiccated. Memeha is to be dissolved, to pass away. Momoe is keeping the eyes closed, and being constantly drowsy; moemoea, means to dream; mamao, to be afar off; very distant; and mamae denotes the beginning of feeling in pain.

The word mamit came to denote a curse and signify a form of incantation, but this was on account of the mamit, as thing and type being an image of the dead and token of the hereafter, to which an appeal was made in consecration or execration, blessing, cursing or in covenanting.

The practice of embalming the dead with such perfection as in Egypt necessitates an immense past. It originated in a desire to retain the likeness of life in death, and is at the origin of what is termed ancestor-worship, the true ancestor being, as before suggested, the body or mummy. The cult, as interpreted by Egyptian thought and imagery, does not imply the worship of father and mother or the ancestors of the race so much as the setting up of the alter ego or other self. The shab-image is the figure or shape of the embalmed dead, and shabti means the double or duplicate of self.

The shab or shabti, the sepulchral shape or likeness, may be followed universally in language under these names. In Zulu Kaffir, sobi means the likeness; sham, in Hindustani; the shape in English, a picture or likeness; havel, Cornish; efel, Welsh, denote the likeness. It was the likeness in death, and in Irish, sab, esbha, and iobadh are names of death; shabim in Arabic, is death; seben in Ethiopic; sebin, Chaldee. The say, Hindustani, is the dead body, the corpse or mummy. The shab image is represented by the Ozino, African Igu, an idol; isiafa, Abadsa, idol. Isaf, Arabic, an image to which sacrifices were offered in front of the Kaaba; the azab, Hebrew, idols; sabaru (Akk.), an image. In Fijian the sava is a god's house, and the sauvatu, a stone set up or marked as a sign of taboo. In Persian the sipad is an angel, and the Arabic sabihat are the souls of the faithful. Zeppel, Circassian, signifies eternal. The shab image was a teacher of the eternal, and in Sanskrit the spiritual teacher is an ishva. Abtu (Eg.), the likeness, is a modified form of shabtu, and the Dahome ofodu is an idol or divinity. Abadi, Swahili, means always; ebedi, Turkish, eternal, everlasting; abid, Arabic, perpetual; abad, Malayan, eternity. When this type of transformation and continuity was carried round at the Egyptian carousal, they drank healths, as it were, to the image of their other selves in spirit-life, their double, and toasted each other to their immortality.

In Assyrian, sheber or sipar means to send a heavenly message, and the mamit is the shep or shed, an image of life to come, a life-giving image; it is called an embodied messenger of heaven. The mamit is also called the 'sapar sa sima la likri sakba mamita,'[50] rendered 'the jewel whose price cannot be valued is the sakba, [p.479] otherwise called the mamita.' Again, it is called the 'Sakba! Sakba, jewel ne'er departing!' That is the Egyptian shab in the earlier form of skab, determined by the same mummy-type. Skab means the double, like shabti, or to double and reflect, from kab, double, with the causative prefix s.

Another Akkadian name for the mamit is nambaru, which read by the Egyptian nam, the second, and pau, appearance or manifestation, shows the application to another, renewed (nam) life. Baru in Assyrian means half, answering to par, one-half of the solar house. So read, nam-baru would indicate the other half or the second life. The mamit is also called salmitu, salam being to save; the itu as in mamitu remains to express the image or sign of upholding and saving. Still another Akkadian name is the nam-niru. Niru (Eg.) signifies victory, and to vanquish; nam means to accompany and guide. So Anup (Eg.) was the companion and guide of souls. 'A concealed wanderer he passes through the land.'[51] The an (Eg.) are the wanderers. In this sense Anup is the guide of the wanderers who threaded the unknown ways of the dark, the underworld, and reappeared in heaven. The next guide was Taht. Here it is the human image of the second life. This agrees with the nature of the figure held in the hands of the sick and dying, as the cross of Christ has so often been clasped for a visible and tangible object of adoration and faith. The god who could be clutched in the death-grasp was a saviour indeed, and the mamit type, the karast, was the risen Christ of the ancient religion. This type of immortality was the one god with a message for men beyond those of the time-reckoners, the stars, moon, and sun, and in the Akkadian hymns it is called the Only God. In clutching the mamit the dying were going by touch, and laying hold of the god Touch. Now the image of this god is the oldest form of the type afterwards modified in the mummy set upright, or laid out full length. It is a sitting figure, similar to that of the Palaeolithic men in the burial of their dead; whereas the mummy represents the dead stretched out at full-length.

For the mummy eidolon is connected with the god Sa, Ka, or Kak, called Touch. Kak is our 'Chache blind man,' who proceeds by the sense of touch in his dark condition. So Kak went through the underworld like the 'Blind Horus.' The god Kak was the completer of the circle through the underworld; he cabled or bridged the waters through the 'bend of the great void,' and the ka image and type of personal identity was represented by the mummy figure as the god of Touch, the god to touch, the deity of the dark who was clung to in the darkness of death, the human image or ka being moulded after the type of the sun out of sight.

Sa is a modified name of the mummy, as well as the deity called [p.480] Touch; also the sa is an amulet or talisman, and signifies protection and aid. Sa is an Egyptian name for the soul. This shows the mamit, as sa, was used for a charm or amulet in Egypt, an image of the personal identity, palpable, and appealing to the sense of Touch or feeling in the physical sense, 'true as touch,' as we find it to have been in Akkad. Sem-Sem (Eg.), the mystery of the re-genesis, also means Touch.

The god was also eaten. Kaka (kak, ka, or sa) signifies to eat, and names the divinity that could be touched and eaten as a primitive method of taking possession in a double sense. The mummy image represented the corpus domini of the Egyptians, the karast or Christ of their creed; the corpse of flesh and type of spirit in one, as expressed by the Latin corpus; hence it was the shabti or double. In presence of this image their feasts became sacramental, eucharistic, and the Greek name for the sacrament is derived from the karast. In Icelandic the corpus domini is the husl, and to housel is to give the corpus domini or sacrament of the supper. In English the housle, in Scotch the hoozle or ousel, is the sacrament of the eucharist, and this is administered in the act of houseling. In Egyptian hus is to celebrate, and the word is related to a purification which is intimately connected with the doctrine of the bloody sacrifice belonging to the ancient cult. Usha means to feed, and to doctor or heal; whilst usht signifies propitiation, absolution, and acquittal, the exact equivalent of being ouseled or houseled. In Manchu Tartar hisalambi denotes the custom of making the libation and pouring out of wine in presence of the corpse. These things have to be traced beyond their reappearance in Greece and Rome for us to ascertain anything of their origins.

In the Assyrian library, or collection of sacred books, a catalogue of which has been found, the kan-mamiti followed the book of the soul's descent into the Hades. This answers to the first chapter of the Ritual. What is commonly called the Book of the Dead is the Book of the Mummy. The name both of the dead and the mummy is mum. One form of the mummy figure is the tat image, and amongst the first words spoken by the deceased on entering the underworld on his way to join the companions of Osiris are words of exultation that he preserves his identity. On the day of his funeral he proclaims that he is tat, or the tat which when interpreted means that he retains his image, his mummy, still intact, and is a type of the eternal (tat), and represents in spirit that persistence of type sought to be made permanent above ground by embalmment of the body and binding it up with a linen bandage at times one thousand yards in length and woven without seam! Tat is not only the flesh and bone, but the eternal substance, and the type of this was the mummy tat, or mum-at, then mamit. Consequently this is the Book of the Mamit, the 'Kan Mamiti.' The 'Kan Mamiti' means the papyrus of the mamit, i.e., [p.481] of the mam-it or divine dead. This was buried in Egyptian tombs along with the mummy; hence the papyri from which has been recovered the Egyptian Ritual or papyrus of the mummy, the 'Kan-Mamiti.' With the Swiss, the mammi is a doll. We have the mam met in English as an image, a puppet, a doll, an idol, the doll being the final form of the idol. The mammet is an image dressed up, and belongs to mumming. It has been absurdly supposed to mean Mahomet. But Mahomet did not, neither did Mahometanism, introduce the mumming of our Christmas mummers. The mumming image of transformation was especially illustrated in the English mummery, in which the sexes and every individual player were transformed[52]. And so perfectly is the mum or mamit meaning enshrined in English as the type of transformation, that another Egyptian image, the beetle, is called mum; the beetle that was the symbol of Khepra, signifying the transformer and transformation. 'I have seen the city of New Nineveh and Julius Caesar acted by mammets.'[53] 'And where I meet your mammet gods, I'll swinge 'em and kick 'em into puddles.'[54]

The babe is the name of a child's mammet[55], a toy in human fashion. The bable or bauble was the fool's mammet, a grotesque human figurethe head of a staff, a puppet. Philologically the puppet and bab, or bauble, are the same. Baby in the north of England is used to signify a child's picture. The bab, baby, or mammet was often made of rags, and called baby-clouts, just as was the mamit of the Aztecs and Quiches. The mummy image likewise reads tesas, that is the enveloped form, or a type, from tes, to tie up, encase, coil, and as, the statue or image. Tes is the very self in person; so that the mummy image, as tesas, is the statue of oneself; which the mummy was. Now the 'enveloped majesty,' or tied-up bundle of the Quiches was obviously the mummy, shab or tesas of Egypt and the mamit of the Assyrians.

When the four great progenitors of the race passed away, the legend says they left behind them that which was to keep them in everlasting remembrance. They called their wives, sons, and friends around them, took their leave, and said, 'Remember us well. Never let us pass out of your memory.' The aged fathers, having given their last counsels to those they were leaving behind, now sang once more the old sweet song, kamucu, which means 'we see.' This they had sung of old in the first mythical sunrise of the world, 'when the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy,' as they shone rejoicing in the primeval dawn, and now, with sore hearts, they sang the old sad song again, while the light was fading from their dying eyes. The new sun rose with its internal light, and they sang the kamucu with its annunciatory 'we see.' Then came the change, [p.482] and the old men were not. But in their place there was a great bundle. This was never unfolded, nor on rolling it over and over could any seam be found. So it was called the 'enveloped majesty,' which is identical in meaning with the Egyptian tesas: it was made a memorial of these fathers, and held to be very dear and precious in the sight of all. This story relates the origin of the mummy, and connects that type with the ancestors, as in the so-called ancestor-worship. The robe without a seam was represented in Egypt by the bandage without a join, with which the mummy was coiled round and encased as a type of the eternal, the seamless robe of the primitive karast.

Brasseur de Bourbourg observes[56], that the Toltec custom was to preserve the relics of their heroes. The bones were bound up with precious stones in a bundle of stuff called Tlaquimilolli. These bundles were tied up for eternity, to be placed at the end of the sanctuary (the holy of holies), and preserved there as objects of religious reverence. The Quiches used to burn incense before this emblem of the enveloped majesty. 'One of these bundles was given up to the Christians by a Tlascaltec some time after the conquest. It was reported to contain the remains of Camaxtli, the chief god of Tlascala. The native historian, Camargo, describes it as follows: "When the bundle was undone in which were found the ashes of the idol, Camaxthi, a mass of fair hair was also found, together with an emerald; and of these ashes a paste had been made by mixing with them the blood of children who had been sacrificed."'[57]

Here the green stone, the uat (Eg.), was the same type of renewal as the jade stone placed in the tombs of the men of the Palaeolithic age; and the image was a mamit or symbol of the mam (Eg.), the dead which had taken on a divine nature through the preserved mummy being a type of immortality. This tends to show that as the first nature of the Eternal was that of Time, so the earliest idea of immortality was based on the physical fact of embalming or preserving the bodily image intact, to establish a continuity after death, and puts an altogether new aspect on the making of images in the worship of ancestors, the beginning being with the figure present rather than with the departed spirit. The most rudimentary form of this religious instinct in man would be the desire to keep the dead in memory, and the yearning to live on beyond the visible sphere. But the physical comes first, and so we have the spirit or soul of man called by the name of and portrayed as the mummy or mamit, Whether it has any relation or not to the name of Camaxtli, kama (Eg.) is the dead, and khat, the body, shut up and sealed.

It has been remarked by Geiger that in almost all cases the words for body are taken from the dead body or corpse[58]. Σωμα [p.483] as had been observed by Aristarchus[59], is used by Homer for the dead body only, and he asks, 'Whence this eccentricity of language, to start from the notion of the corpse in order to name the human body itself?' But language did not begin with the Greek, and Soma is the Egyptian sama, the shape, image, and representative sign. It is our 'same' or 'similar.' The determinative of sama is the mummy. Sa means the person, the self, and ma is like, according to; whence sama, the likeness. Thus the Greek sama for the dead body is named as the likeness or representative sign of the living, based on the mummy, and Homer is right according to the hieroglyphics. Body, as before explained, represents puti (Eg.), the image, figure, shape, form, type; the corp, or kherp (Eg.), is a model or first figure, embodied, and the mum-type of the dead is the earliest form of the męme or self; the Latin memet for me, myself.

The old Caribs worshipped an inferior kind of deity that was imaged as a zemi. The zemi, in Swahili, is a departed spirit; and at Zanzibar and in Uganda the spirits of the departed are called mu-zimmu. Mu (Eg.) denotes the dead. The Egyptian shemau are typhonian genii, an early kind of spirits. Sem (Eg.) being the representative sign, the likeness, the mummy-type, the zemi would be the image of the dead, whether as mamit or as a spiritthe likeness preserved in death. The earlier khema (Eg.) are the dead; the later shema, or sem, denotes the similitude figured as the mummy.

According to Peter Martyr, the Maya images or idols of the supposed lesser gods were called zemes (plural); 'Zemes which are the images of their familiar and domestic spirits.'[60] The god Zamna, they say, was the inventor of names and letters. He came from the west and was represented in the form of a hand called kab-ul, the 'working hand,' and worshipped at Cozumel under the sign of a cross, named Vahomche[61]. Sam (Eg.) is the representative sign, to memorize and remember, emblem or image. Sem denotes the west. Semhi is the left band; also the west, as am, was imaged by the cross. The zema here is likewise the representative image in death. Moreover we find the mummy-type by name in the mumah of the Quiches, who had small subterranean chapels in which they concealed little images, as the Egyptians hid their shabti or sepulchral figures in the serdab or dark passage of the underworld, the tomb. These were identified with the spirits of the departed. The sanctuaries of the god of the road who presided over these idols were called mumah[62].

Mum (Eg.) is the dead, the mummy, and ah means the house. Such chapels and sanctuaries were manifestly mummy-houses, or Bit-Mummu. In Egypt the mamit or mummy figure, called the shabti, the double of the dead, was not a personal portrait of the living, but a generalized type. Hence the shabti, a bearded image of the male, [p.484] was likewise the representative of both sexes, used indifferently for the male or the female. The type was of prior importance to the individual likeness, and the type of re-arising or re-erecting was essentially masculine, founded on the star or sun that re-arose from the world of the dead. As the sun this was the pubescent, hairy sheru, Horus the younger, the adult, the homme fait, the Khem-Horus whose emblem of erection was typical of the resurrection. Thus the rising again of both sexes came to be figured in the masculine phase, and by means of the male emblems, including the beard. The second life being founded on the image of the second, or re-arising sun, will explain the bearded shabti found in the tombs with the mummy of the female.

In one of the Bushman 'fables,' it is the feather of the male ostrich only that transforms into the young bird of the resurrection. 'All other mortal things die outright, except the male ostrich and the moon; these two revive again.'[63] In the Egyptian mythology the moon is reborn as Taht in the masculine image.

In an account of Easter Island, J. L. Palmer[64] says of the symbolical wooden images carved by the natives; 'Be it noted that one distinguishing feature is a small tuft of hair which is represented on the chin for both sexes.' These images thus repeat the bearded shabti, with their tuft on the chin for both sexes. The resurrection being typified by the masculine attributes, and the pubescent being the second of two phases, led to the later notion attributed to the Turks, amongst others, that women of themselves have no souls.

It is the same with the New Zealand image carried by the natives, called a tiki. This is worn as a memorial of the dead; but it has a generalized character, and one tiki will serve a whole congregation of friends who gather round it to weep and wail over it in memory of their own dead friends. Like the shabti, it is not a personal portrait. In fact some New Zealanders who were in London a while since explained that the tikis were usually made with three fingers only, so that they should not be the image of any one in particular[65]. The primitive tiki was a type of the dead ancestors or friends, but not of the single individual.

The 'owl-head vases' found in the Greek tombs by Dr. Schliemann may be interpreted by means of the hieroglyphics and in relation to the dead[66].

The vase with female breasts is a dual type of the genetrix, the suckler, the nurse whose blessings, like those of the Hebrew shadai, were of the 'breast and the womb.' The vase hes is an image of Isis with which her name is written, hes or as denotes the secreting part [p.485] of the body, the breast or womb. The vase with breasts represents the two characters and two truths of the motherhood. Hesmen denotes the menstrual purification, and the hesmeni is a natron vase or layer.

The tomb of Queen Ta-Seser in the valley of Biban-el-Muluk, contains a chamber, the walls of which are illumined with a large collection of exquisitely designed and coloured vases representing gold, silver, and porphyry. It is a long distance from the owl-headed vase to the delicate imagery of this gorgeous chamber, but the ideograph remains the same.

The vase found in the graves of the American mound-builders, and the pitcher placed on the top of the pile raised over the cairn of the African Bongos, have the same significance as the owl-headed vase in Greece.

Under the name of the hent, the vase is one with the matrix; and hent also means rites and consecration. The vase hen is likewise an ideograph of tribute, and signifies to bring as tribute. In this sense we may read the cups cut in the stones of Britain. Fas, in Egyptian denotes some kind of food determined by the image of the female bearer, with a vase or modius carried on her head as the bringer, and the Egyptian form of the word vase is bas.

The owl is a very ancient type; it was extant under the fourth dynasty, but was superseded by other forms of the nycticorax or phoenix. As a phonetic mu it still bears the name of the mother, and of the tomb, the chamber, the womb. As an ideograph it had the value of mmu or mum, the name of the dead, the mummy. , the name of truth and to see, is often written mma. The owl is a bird of night that sees in the dark, hence its adoption as a type of the genetrix who reproduced with the tomb for her womb, the mother earth. Hence, likewise, the goggle-eyes of the owl-vases, which represent the seer in the dark. The absence of a mouth in these figures also shows the 'mum' (silent) or mummy type. The vase is a form of the funeral urn, and in the name of the urn survives that of the renn (Eg.), the nurse who was rennut, the virgin mother, and renn the nursling. Renn means to dandle, nurse the child with the figure of the renn (mother) offering her breast to the renn (nursling). The urn-vase with the breasts continued that image of the mother of life in the underworld.

In the Aztec and Maya myths the great or original vase, as Akbal or Huecomitl, is as conspicuous a symbol of the water of life as in the monuments of Egypt or the Greek tombs. In Peru it was an important figure, known by the name of Tiki. Tekh in the hieroglyphics signifies a supply of liquid, of drink, of wine, with the vase for determinative. The same idea of the wet-nurse was conveyed by the woman with breasts, portrayed in the burial-caves of Europe. Menâ (Eg.) is both the wet-nurse and the vase or jar; as Menkat she [p.486] holds two vases in her hands, and was the vase-maker, the earliest potteress and creator.

The hill of Hissarlik contains the hes in its name; that is the vase, the abode, seat, and Isis in one word. Ser (Eg.) means the sacred hill, the place of burial and rebirth in the 'Ser Hill' and rock of the horizon. Lik in many languages relates to the dead and the resting-place, as in leco or lego, Greek, to lay asleep; lechi or lechos, the bed, or couch; lochos or locho, a lair, a place for lying in wait; llech, Welsh, a cover and hiding-place; Latin, loci, a sepulchre; English lic, a tomb or burial-place; Chinese leigh, the lofty hill, the summit. The hill was the first lik, or ark of the living and the dead. Hence the typical burial-place in the Ritual. The mountain-land as the ur-ka, ar-ka or aru-ka (Eg.), the land of the lofty region, supplied the first form of the ark in the cave or the circle on the mount; the Ark on Ararat safe from the waters and easily defended. This preceded the ark-cities like eruk and rhagae, which were built on the model of the ark or aru-ka, whence the lik in Hissarlik. An earlier form of the word may be found in kesserlock, the name of one of the bone-caverns of the cavemen, near Thayingen, in Switzerland; and kes or kas (Eg.) is the name of the coffin, to embalm and bury.

The cuneiform determinative of things celestial or divine, as a monogram, reads Ilu, god or goddess, and the phonetic value of the character is n. An is the Akkadian sign for heaven, and with the pronunciation of dingir, for God, it is also used as an invocation or incantation. So is the Egyptian n, which denotes the heaven, firmament, space between. Nu signifies come, descend. In Akkadian as in Egyptian, nu is no, not, the sign of negation; and the same word denotes the image, or to image. So the nu monogram for zalam (Ass.) signifies an image or picture. Nu (Eg.) is the earlier nun (from nnu), the type, likeness, portrait, and nu-nu is the little boy, the ninny, who might be the 'tiny boy' of the song with the refrain of 'Hey ninny-nonny.' The nunu as child is the elder Horus, who was always the child, the little one, the nursling and ninny of the mother, because in him was typified the sun born at the summer solstice, the negative one of the two Horuses. So nun, the water, is the negative of the Two Truths in relation to nef, the breath. The Egyptian nunu furnishes the Assyrian Ninus, the divine child of Semiramis. Moreover the divine style of nuter is applied to the gods in Assyrian. In the Annals of Assur-Banipal[67] the bulls are called 'Ili-natruti.' 'I tore away the bulls, the Ili-Natruti of the treasures of the temples of Elam.' These were some kind of protecting divinities. Nuter is the Egyptian name of the divinity. The plural in uti cannot be limited to two. As before shown, the number expressed the nature of the Pleroma. Uti (Eg.) is a form of no. 5[68] and of [p.487] Taht. Now Taht is also the representative of eight, as manifestor of the seven, which makes it probable that the typical Iluti are eight in number, the Natruti being the same. Eight talismanic figures in solid bronze were placed by one of the Babylonian kings, Nergal-sar­usur, at the doors of the sacred pyramid in Babylon, to guard and keep them against the wicked ones.

A form of the symbolic figure of eight, a variant of the eight-rayed star of Assur and of Sut-Har, and of the eight-looped sign of the eight Nnu, is found among the ancient Akkadian ideographs as:


This is a compound type of the abode and deity. According to one interpretation it denotes the divine germ within the womb, and involves the idea of pregnancy. Professor Sayce thinks it points to the high estimation in which the mother was held in the Akkadian family, she being as it were the deity of the house[69].

It is the emblem of the child, who, as the eighth, was manifestor of the seven whether as Assur or Sut, and likewise of the genetrix of the seven stars, who was both one and seven in one as Kep, Sefekh, or Hathor, in Egypt; the goddess of the seven stars and the habitation of the god as the child of the mother. Ishtar in Babylonia was a goddess of the seven stars, and one of her emblems is an eight-rayed star. This figure of eight is its equivalent, and here it is placed within the great mother in token of the promised seed, her child who comes and is her manifestor. It has exactly the same value as the eight-rayed star of Buddha or of the Christ in the Roman catacombs.

Anu was a deity identical with the Greek Aeon, the Egyptian Heh, the Phoenician and Hebrew Ulom, the aeonian, expressive of ever by repetition, by the age, saeculum, or cycle. This shows the an (Eg.), to repeat, to be periodic. He was the 'Ancient of Days,' in this sense of the repeater of time, the 'old Anu.' The names of the old Anu and the young Ninus of Assyria are both derivable from the Egyptian hannu, the youth, the bringer or contributor, in relation to the primordial element of life, the water. Nen (Eg.) is the young child, the ninny, the glow or dawn, and the inundation, the type of periodic time. The name of Hannu contains both han and nen, hence their identity; and when Han was reduced to An, it named the fish, the Oan of the Babylonian mythos. An (Eg.) signifies repetition, periodicity, corresponding still to nen. This, however, is a secondary phase: in Egypt the first nen was of a feminine nature, out of which came the Assyrian nin for both lord and lady.

In the Akkadian mythology Nin-dara represents the nocturnal sun of a system in which utu is the diurnal sun, the god in the height. This is the Egyptian hut, the solar disk on wings, an emblem of Hu; Hak, [p.488] or Kak, the god in the darkness being the form of Tum in the Hades.

Nin-dara, like Atum, is the judge of the dead in the lower world, and is called 'Nin-dara, lord, son of Mul-la, measure, and judge' who is addressed as 'Nin-dara, lord, son of Mul-la, decide the fate.' Dara, the eternal, is represented by teru (Eg.), the total, whole, the dual All.

Marduk, a form of Silik-mulu-khi, is called the mediator; an office attributed to Mithra. The word mediator has the later sense of intercessor, but this was not a primary meaning. The mediator was the intermediate one; therefore the messenger. Hea, the father, hidden in the abyss, sends his son into the world as the newly born star or sun from the deep; and this makes him a divine messenger, a form of the word, the intermediate one between the father-god and men. He is the friend who crosses a gulf otherwise fixed and impassable. Silik crosses the waters in the ship of Hea, which carried the sun and the souls of the dead who are brought back to life by him. To him, as the crosser, it is said, 'To thee is the steep bank of the pit of the ocean.'[70] The Akkadian name of Silik-mulu-khi denotes the distributor of good. Ser (Eg.) means to distribute, to console, be the comforter. As the divine messenger, his insignia of office is a reed. The reed of the messenger implies the pen. So Taht, the speech, tongue, word, revealer and messenger of the gods, carries the reed-pen. This reed is probably found in a variant of Silik-mulu-khi's name. 'His name,' says Lenormant, 'sometimes has variations of which we cannot understand the sense, such as Silik-ri-mulu.'[71] The ru or rut is the Egyptian reed, a reed-pen of the scribe.

Another name of Marduk is Su, and this also is the reed, as well as the son, in Egyptian. The reed (rui) identifies the messenger as the penman, and the Akkadian can be read by the Egyptian hieroglyphics. Taht, the lunar deity, messenger and manifestor of the gods, is the son of Num (Khneph), the deity of the Ark and the deep; the same relationship as that of Silik to Hea (Assyrian Nuah), but the latter appears to be the solar son. He says, in one hymn, 'I am the warrior, the eldest son of Hea, his messenger;'[72] this answers to Har-Makheru, as son of Osiris. But the reed-symbol of this messenger witnesses to an interesting adaptation of Taht's insignia to the solar myth.

The name of Nin-gar, the pilot of heaven, is rendered by Lenormant, with a query, 'Master of the helm?'[73] The pilot and helm are indissolubly united in the modern mind. But before, the rudder was the paddle, which served to guide and propel the boat. The paddle or oar with which the passage was made is the kheru (Eg.). In Assyrian the passage or course itself is the garru; and in Akkadian [p.489] the khar-ru is the deep. The boat-oar is a symbol of Har-Makheru, the pilot of the divine bark of the gods, and the ideograph of his title.

The paddle, kher, was turned into a sceptre, called the kherp. Kherp signifies a sceptre and a paddle, to be first, surpassing, consecrated, and to steer. Kher, the paddle, is the same word as kher, majesty. Kherp, the paddle sceptre, also reads, His Majesty. In one of the Akkadian Magical Texts the god Nin-gar is invoked, 'Come, Nin-si-gar, great pilot of heaven, thrusting forward thy sublime tree, thy lance.'[74] He is invoked in favour of the king, and in connection with one of the insignia of royalty, a 'weapon which causes terror, which wounds for majesty, the weapon which is raised, which is projectile, by the side of majesty.' Now as Nin-gar answers to the lord Har, pilot of the gods, or rather the paddle of their boat, for so he was described (whence the paddle sign of makheru), it would seem as if Nin-gar was the pilot as lord of the paddle or oar, like Horus, gar or khar representing the earlier form of Har in both languages; and that the Akkadians had the paddle-image of dividing and cleaving a way turned into a weapon of war and an emblem of majesty. In addition to the kher and kherp, the user also is both oar and sceptre in the hieroglyphics; and the paddle sign kher also reads tet, speech, the word. Two names of the logos, khar and tet, are thus written with the oar or paddle.

Har-Makheru is the risen Christ of Egyptian theology, the fulfiller, confirmer, and completer, identical with the fulfiller of prophecy in the Christian scheme. He is the true word, or the word made truth, from ma, truth, kheru, the word. In Har-Makheru the Word (logos) became truth. This title of Horus is the name of the Assyrian god of dreams, Makher, and the meaning of makheru is most happily applied to a god of dreaming and foretelling in sleep. In the one instance it is the word made truth, in the other, the causer of good dreams to come true. The dreamer prays, 'May the dream I dreamed be confirmed; the dream I dreamed to happiness turn. May Makher, the god of dreams, settle on my head.'[75] These are the words of the dreamer, and they accord to Makher the identical character of Har-Makheru, the fulfiller, confirmer, the one who makes the word come true, personified as the Word made Truth. Makhir (Ass.), equal or an equal, is a synonym of the name of Har-Makheru, the god of the equinox or level of the double horizon. Mak-Ru is a title of the divinity Marduk. Further, an Assyrian standard measure of capacity is named the Makaru. The ma (Eg.) is a measure, and kheru means due or just. Also the name of magru or makhru has been read as a title of the intercalary month Ve-Adar, which was the means of making the reckoning come right and true; the month consecrated to Assur, who is thus a form of the Har-Makheru. [p.490] In the Egyptian mythology the sun of the lower hemisphere is god of the waters of the abyss. This deity in the Tum triad is Kak, the worn down form of Kebek, the crocodile-headed god of the waters, when the crocodile was the type of the sun that crossed the deep. One name of this sun is afa title given to Num, called the lord of the inundation. In af and Kak, modified Hak, we have the two Hebrew names of the same deity rendered Jahveh and JachJahveh who is praised by the name of Jach (הּי)which two names are derived from khevekh as the original form of Sevekh, Suchos, Kebek, Kak, Jahveh, Jah, Jay, and Af.

In Psalms 29:3 Jahveh is celebrated as the thunderer, the god of the waters, who was Af (Num) in Egypt, and who sat upon the flood. His voice is said to shake the wilderness of Kadesh[76]. Kadesh, read as Egyptian, is the wilderness or desert land. Ka is land, an inner region; tesh is red. The tesh or tshr is the desert, as the red land. Lord of the red land (or Ka tesh) was a title of the Egyptian pharaoh. The lord of the psalmist[77] is he who sits upon the flood. The flood here is mabul (לובמ), the special name of Noah's flood; not used for any other flooding, overflowing, or waters, for which the Hebrew has seven other names. In Egyptian ma and meh interchange; and meh is the abyss of the mythical waters, also a name of the north, where the zodiacal waters are placed. Bul or ber (Eg.) means to boil up and well forth. 'I make the waters, and the meh­ura comes into being,' says the god, in a papyrus at Turin[78]. This was the primordial abyss in the north, the place of the bursting forth of Mabul. Meh-ura is the flood and the great water also called the cow in the Ritual[79]. So that whatever be the meaning of Noah's flood, we must look to the parent language for an explanation. In the monuments, Af (Num) is the lord of the floods, and he is pictured sitting on the flood.

In the Belmore Collection[80], British Museum, this deity of the deluge may be seen sitting on his throne (the hes, seat), and this has the flowing waters hieroglyphically portrayed as his seat. Num sits on the flood as a king for ever. In the Hebrew writings we read, 'The earth is the Lord's; he hath founded it upon the seas, and established it upon the floods.'[81] 'The voice of the Lord is upon the waters; the Lord is upon many waters. The Lord sitteth upon the flood.'[82] 'The waters saw Thee, O God, the waters saw Thee; they were afraid: the depths also were troubled.'[83] 'Thy way is in the sea, and Thy path is in the great waters.'[84] The waters and the flood are the same that Num is seen sitting on; they are his seat. The seat is the hes. The hes is likewise a liquid, as in hesmen, and the name of Isis; in hes meet the water, the seat, and the mother-source personified. Hes was the seat and throne of Osiris.


The hes with the waters is the throne of Num, and these waters constitute the seat and throne of the Lord of Israel. Af (Num) is the image of this god of the waters, as lord of frogs. Also his types include the goat-kind of ram as the Sun that entered the waters in the sign of the Sea-goat, and emerged in the sign of the Ram. Kebek the crocodile-headed, is a yet earlier type of the Af-Ra, or sun of the deep.

Jahveh-Jach, who is identical with Af-Hak, the sun in the three water-signs and crosser of the abyss, is the divinity known in the Assyrian mythology under the various names (so read) of Nuah, Yav, Enki, Zi-Kia, Hea, and others. He is represented by the fish, as was the Egyptian lower sun by the crocodile. The fish was earlier than the boat, but when the boat is built Hea has his ark of the waters like Af (Num) and Hak, in which the gods and the souls that are saved cross over the otherwise impassable abyss. This vessel is described with details hitherto inexplicable; every part of it has a term of magical significance[85]. With this the ninety-ninth chapter of the Egyptian Ritual should be paralleled and compared, as in that, each part of the boat, the makhennu of the dead, demands its name of the spirit seeking admission for the voyage; and it is necessary that the name of every part should be known. The Assyrian Yav is designated the 'Inundator of the lands of enemies.'[86] 'To the god Yav, who confers the fertilizing rain upon my land, his house in Borsippa I built.'[87] 'The god Yav, establisher of fertility in my land, Bit Num-Kan, as his temple in Babylon I built.'[88] Num, like the Egyptian neb, is the lord; kan is the fish, the earlier form of the khan (Eg.) for the canoe, and this was a house of the fish-god Hea, or Yav, the Gal-Kana-Abzu, the great fish of the abyss.

In the Yoruba mythology, Iye is a region of the earth or lower heaven, out of which the sun issues forth, and is reborn from his burial-place. In the Celtic mythology, Ifuren is the Hades. Afa is the Dahoman god of wisdom, who corresponds to Hea. One reading of Yav's or Hea's name is Yem[89], which connects him with the waters. Ivm or ium (םוי) is an epithet of the god Jah, synonymous with the name of day. In Egyptian, iuma is the name of the sea. The sea is so called from its tidal motion expressed by Iu, to come, ma being the water; and as ma, or mau, means light, and to see, iuma is also the coming of light. So Ium denotes the god as the one who comes, the same as Iu-em-hept, or the Chaldean Imi, who brings the fertilizing rain.

Now the Samoyedes worship a supreme god whom they call Num, and whose other name is Juma[90]; the god who is known in Finnish mythology as Jumala, god of the Iuma, the waters, the abyss, and [p.492] identical with Num and Yav. 'Tell me where is Num (Jumala),' said Castrén to 'an old Samoyede sailor when walking with him beside the sea.' He pointed to the dark waters and said, 'He is there.' Num had retained his character as deity of the Iuma; hence his name of Jumala. Juma-la is Juma-Ra, the sun of the waters, as was Nuni-Ra in the deep. The Assyrian title of Num-Kan reappears as the Magar Nam-Khan, a name of the sun; nam is the sun in the Limbu language; and in Australia Nambajandi is the lord of heaven, and nabageena is a name of the sun; nom, African Yam, God; nvama, African Melon, God; nyama, African Nhalmoe, God; nvambe, African Diwala, God; num, Khotovsi, God; neamh, Gaelic, heaven; nvama, Melon, heaven; nami, a title of Vishnu; nume, Portuguese and Italian, deity; nuhm, Arabian, divinity; neoma, Chinese, God; nemon, Irish Druidical, deity; nab, Akkadian, divinity; nuebe, African Mbofia, divine image; nobu, Erromango, God; naf, Welsh, the Lord; nep, Scandinavian, God.

Num (Neb or Nef) in Egypt does not appear under the fish-type; but, in the African languages, nime, Dsuku; nyab, Mbofon, and nvab in Udati, are names of the alligator. Nebi (Eg.) means to swim and float, as the lower sun did, under one water-type or the other.

The num or yem sun of the underworld is also related by both names to the cannibals of Africa, the nyam-nyam of later travellersthe Yem-Yem or cannibals, described by Hornemann as being south of the Kano and the Niger, and the Jum-Jums, a cannibal race adjoining the Niger, who were accustomed to consign their dead in rude coffins to the waters[91]. The Am-Am (Eg.) are the devourers; devouring demons of Hades. N'am (Eg.) would indicate the devourers of the water. Nam (Eg.) is the water; nvam in Dselana; nyiam, Guresa; nyima, Gurma. Nyam, Pati, means greedy, gluttonous; niam or nyama, in Fulah, to eat or devour. Nyama, Swahili, is flesh; nyama, Zulu, a piece of raw flesh. The earliest nyam-nyam were the devourers of raw flesh. Among the typical devourers under this name are the nime or nimye, Dsuka, an alligator; nome, Bidsogo, serpent; namu, Gurma, scorpion; noama, Koama, scorpion; nem and nimr, the leopard. One typhonian type of the sun of the underworld was the crocodile, a devourer; and one of the Am-Am or Nyam-Nyam, as the devourer of the waters, is Sevekh, the capturer. Namm (Eg.) also means to destroy.

Sacrifices were offered to this sun of night and the deep, who was a cannibal god of the cannibals, to be propitiated or appealed to with offerings of human flesh and blood, which were made to the crocodile, serpent, leopard, or the water, as the representatives of the divinity of the world's darkness. Language still retains the typology, and the typology reflects the mental condition of the early children of the night, who were putting forth their feelers through the gloom [p.493] in search of the absent light, impersonated as Num, Kak, Af or Sevekh-Ra in Egypt, Hea or Yav in Assyria, Kolpia in Phoenicia, and Yav or Iach with the Hebrews.

The solar Al is not an uncommon name. Al, in Persian and Hindustani, is the sun; afa, in the African Doai and N'godsin, is the sun; afa in Yagusa, iphe in Puka, and Avi in Sanskrit, is the same sun-god as the Egyptian Af, Dahome Afa, the Assyrian Yav, and Hebrew והי.

The Af-Ra, sun of the lower firmament, the breather amid the waters, has the same relation to Khnef, or Num, as the gnostic Ab-ra-xas has to the solar Chnuphis; and here, likewise, the divinity is named Iao. Af-Ra will explain Abraxas, and prove the continuity of the myth and symbols of expression from the earliest times to those of the supposed heretics, who brought on the typology. Af-ra becomes ab-ra, and kas (Eg.) denotes some talismanic kind of stone.

The name is found written 'Aeresses' on a Roman gemAbresses numen (for nomen); dai (for dei)[92]. The Egyptian kas also reads sas; kasm, or sasm, is an emerald, or other green stone. Sas also means a six-sided block of stone, the cube of Anu, the Ses-ru. The Ab-ra-Sas (or Abraxas) is originally the cube-stone of the Ab-Ra. For this reason: the number six denotes the establishing of upper and lower, in addition to the four cardinal points when the earth was discovered to be a globe; and the three regions, together with the triad of solar gods, were founded, on the sun below, upon, and over the horizon. Ses (Eg.) means to breathe, reach land, and respire, as did the god of nef or breath, the sun that crossed the abyss.

In the later documents of the Chaldean theology it is affirmed that in the beginning was the existing Being begotten of the abyss and Tiamat. The name of this supreme and primordial Being, the old original god One, is 'Auv-Kinuv,' who was worshipped under that name by Nebuchadnezzar. Lenormant renders 'Auv-Kinuv' as the Existing Being[93]. Some of the more recent developments of the ancient doctrines, as in the works of the Gnostics and Kabbalists, contain the most ancient matter in a more diffused form, the myth having been philosophized, or the personal divinity made merely doctrinal. So far from Auv-Kinuv originating in a development of recent date it is a survival and reproduction from the very earliest undated times. Philosophical or doctrinal applications do not suffice to give a new origin to the most ancient ideas, characters, or names. Kinuv equates with khnef and enuv (Akk.), for the Lord, and with neb (Eg.), the lord, who was Af-Khnef. Nor does [p.494] the ancient god lose personal identity or place in the system established by being vaporized into the Existing Being of the beginning in Apsu with the mother Tiamat. Auv-Kinuv is a personification, in character, local position, and birth from the abyss, and, even in name, to be identified with the old original god of the Thebaid, Num or Khnef, the Chnuphis of the Gnostics.

Khnef was the 'breath of those who are in the firmament,' i.e., souls, and he presided over the abyss of the waters. Vishnu lying beneath the watersi, and breathing umbilically[94], is the true representative of Khnef, or Auv-Kinuv, the Existing Being who could breathe under water, and was therefore superhuman, and whose chief image was the sun passing through the lower void of the circle.

Af-Khnef, it is now suggested, is the Egyptian original of the Auv-Kinuv of the Chaldean Gnostics and the Chnuphis of the gems, and that from him in his dual character sprang the gods Yav (Hea) and Anu; the one being identified with Af, by means of the name, and the serpent Heft which is the type of Hea, or is Hea as a modified form of Hefa; the other, with Khnef or Nef, which in Egyptian becomes Nu, Na, or Anu. The cross of Anu is equivalent to the Ram sign of the crossing, one of the twin ideographs of Khnef, who was the god One of the Thebaid, as was Auv-Kinuv of the later Chaldean theology. Khnef is old enough in Egypt to be called the father of Taht and Ptah. My own belief is that Num (Khnef), the god of breath in a solar form, was a continuation of the star-god Nem, now identified by the lion-type as Shu, the still earlier god of breath or spirit, the 'spirit which moved on the face of the waters' by starlight, before the luni-solar time was registered or the Af-Ra was personified.

The Phoenician god of beginnings, named Kolpia, is the same at root. He is the consort of Baau, the void. Bau is a name of Dav-Kina, goddess of the netherworld, and consort of Hea. Num presides over the void called Bau. Kolpia is called the wind. Nef is breath. The name has been rendered by Bochart Kol-phi-Jah, 'voice of the mouth of God as Jah'[95]. Roth reads it Kol-Pia'h, the 'voice of breath.'[96] But as it is the god of breath, the beginner of the abyss, identifiable as Nef, and therefore of the Egyptian genesis, the name will be Egyptian too. We accept the terminal ia as equivalent to Jah, Ahu, Hea, Yav, and Af, the lower sun or Af-Ra, the deity of the deep, but with a totally different derivation for kolp. This is the Egyptian kherp, a name of the first, principal, chief, the paddle or oar (to steer) of the gods, also called the majesty. Kolpia is Kherp-Iu, Kherp-Yah, the Af-Ra.

Aku, the Akkadian name of the moon, reads A-Khu. A (Eg.) is the moon; khu is a light, also a title. Akhu was worn down to aahu (Eg.) for the name of the moon and the moon-god. Both [p.495] forms are extant with the article prefixed in the two names of Taht and Tekh, the lunar god, whose duality is expressed by Tahuti, the bearer and reckoner of the dual light.

The god Aku was considered to be the type of royalty, the first divine monarch that reigned[97]. As is the Akkadian type, such is the signification of the name in Egyptian. Akhu means the illustrious, illuminating, noble, honourable, virtuous, magnificent, their highnesses. Another identification with Taht occurs in an invocation to the spirit of Hur-Ki (an Akkadian name of the moon-god), 'who makes his talismanic ship cross the river.' Says Taht, 'I am the great workman who founded the Ark of Sekari on the stocks;'[98] and he claims the first bark to have been lunar. The allusion is to a myth unknown to Assyriology[99].

Tutu is a name found on the tablets. Tutu is called the generator and restorer of the gods, the progenitor of gods and men.

Tut, in Egyptian, is a name for the type of the generator; it is the male member. And Taht (or Tut) is the generator personified; one of his titles being the begetter of Osiris. Taht was the lord of smen, the place of establishing the gods, as the establisher of the circle and of the son in the place of the father. Tutu is said to 'speak' before the king. Tut (Eg) means speech, to speak, utter, be the tongue or mouth of utterance, which Taht was as the lunar word or logos of the gods. Thus the Assyrian tutu agrees with the Egyptian in two meanings. A divine personage, ubara-tutu, is called the father of Duzi, or Tamzi, the son and husband of Ishtar. Tamzi is the young solar god who opened the year in the month of Tammuz or Mesore, and is identical with the elder, the child Horus. Uba is also the name of an Egyptian deity.

Ubara-tutu appears as the father of the builder of the Ark, against the coming deluge. Ubara, in Akkadian, is the glow of the descending (setting) sun, which was personified as Tamzi. If we read Tu-tu as the duplicate root meaning to descend, then Ubara-Tutu would be Tamzi and not his father! Whereas Tutu is the father. Tamzi was born at the summer solstice, as the young child, the dwarf, deformed and maimed in his lower members. In the earliest solar myth he was carried across the waters by the great mother herself, in her various natural types of the womb of the hippopotamus, the belly of the fish, or the sow, or the flower of the lotus. Thus, when boats were built, the lotus was an early model. The ark, teba, takes the name of one form of the genetrix, and the sekht another. Ubara-Tutu suggests the building of the ark in which the sun-god made the passage.

Now in the first chapter of the Ritual, Taht shows us how he preceded Ptah as the builder of the ark. There is a personal identification of Taht the god with the tat image of founding and type of [p.496] duration. One form of the tat symbol is a kind of fourfold pillar-cross, the figure of the four quarters and corners on which the luni­solar circle was established; this was set up in Tattu, the eternal region, when the sun or the soul had crossed. Taht, the deity, identifies himself in person with the tat image which is also set up by Ptah. He proclaims, 'I am Tat, the son of Tat, conceived in Tat, born in Tat.'[100] He is the lunar establisher; Ptah, the solar. Taht further claims to be the workman of the gods.

He says[101], 'I am the great workman who made the ark of Sekari on the stocks.' He asserts himself to be the builder of the ark of Ptah; that is, he gives priority to the lunar ark, and states that he built it; and there can be no doubt that the lunar zodiac preceded the solar. The Assyrian Tutu and Egyptian Taht are not one and the same deity; but the application of tut to establish, to beget, be the father, is the same; and Taht was the lunar establisher, who built the boat which was afterwards the solar bark of Ptah. Also in the Babylonian cosmogony the moon was first created in a verifiable way, whilst the sun is said to be the child of the moon.

In the 'Chapter made on the sixth day of the month, the day of being conducted in the boat of the sun,' it is said of the sun being towed along through the lower world, and 'Stopping the dissolution of the leg of the firmament' where it grows weak; 'Seb and Nu are delighted in their hearts, repeating the nameGrowing light, the beauty of the sun in its light, is in its being an image for the great inundator, the father of the gods,'[102] which aptly describes the sun-god as the glow, and the passage makes this to be the living likeness of the father of the gods, one form of whom is Ubara-Tutu. Now the Egyptian father of the gods is Seb (a modified form of Sebti or Sut), and according to Berosus[103] it was the god Kronus (Seb) who appeared to Xisuthrus in a vision and gave him warning of the great flood that was coming to destroy mankind. It was Kronus (time) who gave him instructions to build a ship. This tends to identify Tutu as the father of the gods who is Seb in the Egyptian mythos.

The Egyptian tat-image is a type of the four corners on which the circle was founded. This fourfold ideograph of Tattu, the everlasting, is reproduced in the Tetrapolis of Izdubar, composed of Babilu, Uruk, Surippak, and Nipur, which corresponds to the biblical Tetrapolis of Nimrod. The tat of Ptah was a fourfold pillar, and Ptah was designated the 'Workman of the gods.' In the Legend of Ishtar and Izdubar[104] the goddess is charged with transforming the workman into a pillar and setting him in the midst of the desert, i.e., at the boundary.

The hero of the Chaldean deluge, according to Berosus and the Greeks, was named Xisuthrus[105], and he appears as the Sisithes of Lucian[106]. Sisit is an Egyptian word meaning flame; and it seems probable that it enters into the name of Izdubar. Smith at first [p.497] rendered Izdubar by Sisit[107], without showing its significance in Egyptian. Nor is it found unabraded either in Akkadian or Assyrian. Bar is fire. Sisit-bar or Sistu-Bar would denote the flame of fire, and bar also means height, the supreme fire, not the setting glow. Now the older Akkadian star-god of fire, Bilgi, is continued in Izdubar as solar god, and bar not only means fire, but as Bar-Sutekh (Eg.) was the god of the fire of the Dog-star. Sisit-bar would thus denote the flame of bar or Bilgi; the name Sistubar would then modify into Izdubar.

Izdubar is undoubtedly the sun; and his twelve legends, like the twelve labours of Herakles, relate to the solar passage through the twelve signs. Hea-Bani becomes his helpmate in his labours, and assists him in slaying the swallowing bull, a type of the all-devouring earth considered as the grave. Hea-Bani figures on the seals and gems as a satyr having a human body, with the horns and legs of a goat-like creature. He is the Assyrian form of the Greek Pan and the Roman Faunus. The square-cut ears of Pan are similar to those of the fenekh, the square-eared Abyssinian wolf-dog, a type of Bar-Typhon; and the name of panax is letter for letter the same as fenekh; so is the Irish fainche, a name of the fox, another type of Sut. Also the volume known in Sweden as Fan's Bibel (Devil's Bible) has a portrait of Fan for its frontispiece[108]. This is a hideous ape, green and hairy, probably the ape of the Wagner legends, Anerhahn. Baal-Ian (ןעי־לצב) is the name of a Phoenician god answering to the Greek Pan. Pan is Aan with the masculine article prefixed, and the Aan is Pan; or rather Pan is Aan (Eg.), which word, with the full consonant, is Fan. But the ape kafi (later hapi), is finally traceable as one of the types of Shu, two of whose names are Anhar and Aan, an equivalent for Anerhahn. In the four genii, Anup (jackal) represents Sut, and the ape Shu. Therefore Pan, Fan the Aan (monkey), is founded on Shu, called the son of Ra, as Bani is the son of Hea. Shu, in one of his more ancient characters, was the 'god provided with two horns,' 'in that name which is thine of smiting Double-Horns,'[109] and this was likewise a type of Bacchus.

Hea-Bani, the friend and companion of the solar Izdubar, the co­conqueror with him of the swallowing monster, which was the bull form of the Apophis, corresponds to Shu, the great assistant and supporter of Ra in the celestial allegory, who 'overthrows the wicked far from his father;' who pierces Apophis and repels the monster as the crocodile. The bowman of the gods is possibly intended in the description of Hea-Bani's descent to the underworld, represented as his death. The mourning Izdubar says, 'Mit pa-na a-na irzituv la-ta-na-sik'—'thou dost not take the bow from the ground; the earth has taken and hidden him:' the same earth which is personified by the Bull that is conquered by Izdubar [p.498] and Hea-Bani, in combination, or Ra and Shu, or Jah and Joshua, in the war that goes on for ever. It is in the ninth of the Twelve Legends of Izdubar that the sun-god bewails* the fate of Hea-Bani, enfolded by the mother Earth and covered with her darkness; the tenth and eleventh tablets answer to the sun in the water-signs Capricorn and Aquarius, and relate to the story and characters of the Chaldean deluge; and in the twelfth legend (and tablet) Hea-Bani is raised again from the dead or the underworld at the place of re-emergence, the An of the Egyptian mythos, or the horizon corresponding to the Temple of Bel[110].

* K. 3060. In the translation of the fragment by  Boscawen, Hea-Bani is said to be struck to the ground by Mikic and Tambukku[111], of whose names nothing is known. In Egyptian, makmau means to strangle and steal, or kidnap. Tem denotes negation, to terrify, swoop, subdue, shut up; and beka is to depress, set down, naked. It may be in relation to Tambukku as the Naspu, the stupefiers, the deadly narcotizers, that tambak is the name used in Egypt for a peculiar species of Persian tobacco.

Cuneiform scholars have not gathered much matter respecting the genetrix and the son in the oldest, that is the star-type of the Great Bear and Dog-star. Still these, the true tests of age, are extant, although greatly obscured or effaced by time and the later retouching.

'Primus Assuriorum regnavit Saturnus quem Assurii Deum nominavere Saturnum''First of the Assyrians reigned Saturn whom the Assyrians named God.'[112] Saturn in his planetary character is but secondary; the first of the name was Sut, the child, renn or khe, i.e., Sut-Renn or Sutekh, the god of the Dog-star. This was the primordial god. Now an earlier name of Assur has been given as Ashet, or Sut, who was the first ar (har), the son. Ashet is a variant of the name of Set or Sut, as in Aseth. The great gods are seven in number, and Assur stands alone. This is shown in the dedication of the months. The month Adar (twelfth) was dedicated to the seven great gods, and the incidental month, Ve-Adar, to Assur. The seven, with the eighth as manifestor, were phenomenally the same as those of Egypt, with Sut for the manifestor, the planetary application being later.

The Assyrian god Nebo is in some respects identical with the Egyptian deity Taht, as Hermanubis; Taht, the interpreter of the gods, the divinity of learning and literature. Nebo is the god of wisdom, learning and letters. He is designated the Supreme Intelligence; also he is god of the planet Mercury, which connects him with the Greek Hermes. But the rootage must be sought in Sut-Anubis who is sometimes blended with Taht in the process of bringing on the types. Anubis, Anup, or Nub is a secondary and a duplicated form of Sut, also found in the Hebrew Seth-Anosh, or Anosh as the son of Seth, and in the dog and wolf types; anush (Eg.) being a name of the wolf. Anup is he who announces, as the voice, word, or messenger of the cycle. Anup is the primordial prophet; and Anup passes [p.499] into the name for the prophet, Nabi or Nebo. Anubis the announcer prophesied the rise of the Nile by his heliacal rising; and the spring, by his heliacal setting. As Apuat, the double guide of ways, Anup is also identical with Nebo at the morning and evening gate of souls. Nabach (Heb.) means to bark, to howl as a dog; and Sut-Anup was a type of the Dog-star. The dog's bark was an early form of prophecy. The Armenian nabog and Arabian nabuk imply the dog or jackal that howled in the dark and prophesied. When the dog, ape, or jackal type was changed for the human form, it was still continued in the hairy man, the Samson whose strength lay in his hair; this is a readable mode of continuing the type, and the statues of Nebo show him with a robe reaching from the breast downwards, and with very long beard and hair.

Sut-Anubis could hardly be portrayed at first as the scribe of the gods; he belonged to a time prior to the invention of writing. He was the voice of the gods however, as the dog, the ass, jackal, and wolf, each of which was an image of the proclaimer. But when the Anosh was continued in the lunar form, we have the writer, the scribe of the gods. Sak, in Akkadian, is a name or title of Nebo as god of the stylus and letters. In Egyptian, skha or saakh means to write, writing, depict, represent, influence, illumine; and the skha is a scribe, the typical man of letters. Immediately after the time of Mena, however, Sut-Anubis is the recognized divinity of the writings in Egypt.

The god who particularly presides over the river Tigris is named Ztak, and in one of the Akkadian Magical Hymns he is called 'the god Ztak, the great messenger, the supreme ensnarer amongst the gods, like the god of the heights,'[113] or, in the Assyrian, 'who has begotten him.' Whether the same deity or not, Ztak the ensnarer of the waters equates with Sevekh the ensnarer, whose type is the crocodile, and whose name signifies the catcher, capturer, or ensnarer. Sevekh (or Khebek) and Sutekh are children (khe, the child) of the genetrix Typhon, the one solar, the other stellar. Ztak's consort is the Nin-Muk, lady of building, or the building, that is, the abode. Muk (Akk.) denotes building. The maeka (Hindustani) is the maternal mansion, and magha (Sanskrit) the typical abode. A fuller form of the name of muk is found in menga, the month of brick-making, and therefore of menkha (Eg.), the brick-maker, which tends to identify her with makha (Eg.), whose full name is menka or menkat, the feminine potter, worker, creator, and builder, who holds forth the two vases in her hands. The two vases, as types of the Two Truths, image the womb and breast. The breast of menkat passed into the long breast-shaped vase of that name, with nipple-like stand. The other became the orc or womb-shaped vase of Egypt and Greece.


Also menka, in the reduced form of mensa, for the city of pots, or pottery, occurs on the granite altar of Turin[114] as a place of Hathor. Menkat, the potter and shaper of earth, whether as bricks or vases, supplies the name for ware (earthenware) in the Hebrew magchah and magchoth[115]. The living representative of the potteress and the shaper, as the womb, is still extant in the female maker of the Craggan in Lewis. The name of Menkat, as previously shown, deposits Menat, Maat, Makat, Maka, Maya, and Ma, together with the goddesses personified under those names, which include the Irish Macha, Hindu and Greek Maya, Phoenician Mōt, and Assyrian Nin-Muk. Here the triliteral word is first, and the monosyllabic is last; Ma being the latest form of the original Menkha. Ma, to measure, is the earlier makha (Eg.), to measure, and menkat is the yet earlier measurer. This is shown by the Menkat vase, a type of liquid measure; and the vase represents the sign of measure, as the tekhu, an instrument corresponding to our needle of the balance (makha), for measuring weights, in which case the vase of menkat becomes the vase of Ma.

Met (Coptic) and ment (Eg.) denote no. 10, and in the Hoopah language minch-la, for no. 10, preserves the triliteral form of Men and Ma.

In Sanskrit, maki signifies the twin creators, the originators of all beings, otherwise called heaven and earth. In Chinese the beginning, that which is primordial, is called meng. In the Maori, the twins are mahanga. So mahanga, the snare, answers to mena (i.e., menka, Eg.), for the collar; and in Irish the collar, bracelet, or anything worn on the neck or arm, is a muince, a form of manacle or manicae in English, the munger is a horse-collar. The reduced form is again shown in makh (Eg.), to be ripe; the prior form in maonga, Maori, to be ripe. So the makh, or muk, of many languages, is minge, in English gipsy, for the womb, and mionacre in Gaelic for the internal parts, whence came the expression for our common origin in the one mould, 'We were all mung up in the same trough.' Munge, English for the mouth (the Maori mangai, mouth), deposits both mun and mug for the mouth, just as menka becomes mena, and macha, the intermediate link being extant in Khahing, as machha, for the typical old woman or mother, which shows by the accent the original manchha, who becomes the make, English spouse or mate; mice, Swahili, a wife; and makau, Maori, a spouse.

The primeval goddess and mother of the gods is named zikum, a variant of which is zigara. A fragment of an ancient Akkadian poem, containing the primordial imagery of all mythology, tells of the tree in Eridu, the celestial birthplace, which is the same tree that is the type of source in the Egyptian mythos, from which Nupe or Hathor pours the water of life. 'In Eridu, a dark pine grew,' and 'its [p.501] shrine (was) the couch of mother Zikum; like a forest spread its shade; there was not (any) who entered not within it. It was the seat of the mighty, the mother, begetter of Anu. Within it also was Tammuz.'[116] Zikum, who is here personified as the one Great Mother, is identical with the Egyptian sekhem, a name of the shrine itself. Tammuz, called Duzi, the only one, in Akkadian, is born in this shrine. In the Ritual, one form of Horus, the son, is 'Har who dwells in sekhem,' or 'Horus who dwells in the shrine,' the secret, shut-place, the feminine creatory. A kind of sistrum-mirror, the symbol of reflecting and reproducing, is also named the sekhem, the looking-glass being a well-known emblem of the genetrix, following the 'Eye,' called the 'Mother of the Gods.'

Davkina, the consort of Hea, is the goddess of the deep. She represents the bau, baut, or void, personified in the Phoenician Great Mother Beuth, who was the goddess of Byblus, and in Buto, the Greek form of Sekht or Pekht. The Egyptian bau is the void, the hole of the tomb, over which Num is said to preside. Tefnut is a form of Pekht, the lioness-headed goddess. Tef means to drip, spit, evacuate, menstruate; like Davkina, she is a goddess of primeval source, as moisture, which is finally blood; hence Davkina is Damkina, and dam is blood. So tef (Eg.), to drop, is determined by the flower of blood. Kena, in Assyrian, as in many other languages, denotes the feminine abode. The first tef, day, or dam was the old Typhon.

At this point we are compelled to make another digression. As already intimated, one object of the present work is to interpret the primitive history and sociology from their reflections in the mirror of mythology and symbolism. The ancients preserved the past in their own way.

A Chinese sage tells us that, 'Antiquity was illumined by a clear light, of which scarcely a ray has come down to us. We think the ancients were in darkness, only because we see them through the thick clouds from which we have ourselves emerged. Man is a child born at midnight; when he sees the sun rise, he thinks that yesterday never existed.'[117] There is some truth in this; but it is easily misconstrued, because the children, waking from their own darkness, and finding gleams of an earlier light in the world after a while, have said it was direct from heaven; the light of revelation no longer vouchsafed to them, and in their ignorance have held it to be divine and solely the divine. Naturally interpreted, it was the starlight that precedes the day. Nor has the light of the remotest past been lostnot one ray of ithowever ignorant we may be of the process of preservation, any more than the rays of sunlight which were gathered up in the coal deposits millions of years ago for the fuel of today. To me it seems that nothing has been lost, and the depths of the human consciousness are mental mines as permanent as those of earth. But the way in [p.502] which the stereotyping has been effected independently of us gives one an awful insight into the taciturnity of the Eternal.

One method of preserving the past was by giving different names to the same things, to be used by the two sexes. The custom was current among the North American Indians, the Kaffirs, in their custom of Hlonipa, and the Caribs. The latter hold that each one of them has a good spirit-attendant for his divinity, whom he calls Isheiri; that is the divine name used by the males. But the name used by the women for their attendant-spirits is shemun, or chemun. This can be interpreted by Egyptian mythology.

The earliest deities on the monuments are the smen, the eight (founded on the seven stars or seven spirits of the Great Bear and the Dog-star) great gods in smen or Am-Chemun. The eight smen, who were the first determiners of time and period, became the eight gods of the primitive cult, and the eight spirits in a later phase; the seven with the manifestor or messiah-son, the Asar or Isheiri of the male nature; otherwise the seven cows and their bull, who says (in the Ritual), 'When I am the bull of the cows, I am at the upper pads of the heavens,' i.e., in the south[118]. They were the most ancient gods of chaos and night. These became the 'spirits' of various races and peoples; they belonged to the worship of the genetrix, and being so old were afterwards degraded. Thus in Egyptian the khemu (shemau) were a questionable class of spirits, and the shemau are typhonian genii. The smen were typhonian and first, and their worship is preserved in this curious custom of the Carib women still calling on the shemun spirits, whilst the men call upon isheiri, a name which looks like that of the son of the mother, the sheri, or pubescent youth, known as hesiri or asar in Egypt; Assur in Assyria; Arthur, in Britain; and by other names of the son who was his own father, when he became the husband of his mother.

The first creation and reckoning of time belonging to smen, the smen as the eight, the two as mother and son, terminates with the deluge, called in the Hebrew version the deluge of Noah. The seven are represented by the seven patriarchs of one list, ending with Lamech, who produces the triad of sons, as does Noah in the list of ten patriarchs. The seven have but one origin wherever found, or whatsoever they may be called, whether the seven spirits of the Bear, as in the Ritual; the seven Elohim, sons of God, Cabiri, Khnemu, Hohgates, Rishis, or what not; and in the fourth chapter of Genesis the seven of Eve, or Ursa Major, are followed, and the eight smen are complete in Seth, who is the father of the Anosh, the manifestor, the Anush (Eg.), or Sut-Anup. These in one list are the predecessors of the deluge; and all the earliest history, sociology, and legendary lore of mythology and typology belong to this period of time and mode of reckoning. For example, all the earliest human transactions [p.503] in the world, related in myth and tradition, belong to the time of the goddess of the seven stars, whose manifestor was the eighth; Sut in the Sabean cult and Taht in the lunar. Thus, it is said by Tacitus, 'The Jews escaped from the island of Crete at the time when Saturn (Sut, the child) was driven from his throne by Jupiter;'[119] which, when interpreted, was when the worship of the son of the mother was superseded by that of the father, the Ju-pater, and men had personified the male parent in heaven. The same writer remarks, 'Some say that in the reign of Isis there was an emigration from Egypt into the adjacent lands.' The first appearance of Isis is as Hes-Taurt, the cow-headed genetrix, who followed the hippopotamus-goddess of the seven stars; she was the lunar genetrix, who continued the old Sabean mother, Typhon. This identifies a time in the astronomical chronicles. Both the star and lunar mythos were pre-solar. Further, Tacitus reports that many considered the Jews to be Ethiopians, who were impelled by fear and by the hatred manifested against them to change their settlements in the reign of King Kepheus[120]. As we have seen, Kepheus (or Cepheus) was an ancient star-god, represented in a dual character by the constellation of that name, and by the star Cor Leonis, and by the two lions of Egypt, or Shu and Anhar, the Moses and Joshua of the Jews.

The primitive Chaldeans and Babylonians were known to the Greeks by the names of Chaldeans and Kephenes. The Kephenes were synonymous with Ethiopians. They were descended from King Kepheus. Dicaearchus says the Chaldeans were first called Kephenes from King Kepheus[121]. 'Before (the time of) King Kepheus,' says Hellanicus[122], 'there were some Chaldees who extended beyond Babylon, as far as Choche,' and Diodorus Siculus calls the Chaldees the most ancient Babylonians[123]. Kepheus is identified with Kush, called the begetter of Nimrod[124]. Kush, as before shown, is the Egyptian Khepsh, the north, as the hinder part; and in the planisphere Kepheus is the king of Ethiopia or Kush. Thus Kush is not a person, but a quarter, the Egyptian Khepsh, and Kepheus is its monarch.

In the Greek traditions of Kepheus and the Kephenes, Perseus plays a prominent part; and in the celestial allegory Perseus is the son-in-law of Cassiopeia, queen of Ethiopia, or khepsh (שוכ), the khepsh and khebm (kâm) of the beginning belonging to the oldest genetrix, and to the north as the birthplace. Kepheus must have been a son of the typhonian genetrix, continued as Hathor, but he introduced a new regime as a male lawgiver.

In the tenth chapter of Genesis, the black race of Ham and Kush are placed before the Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. Nimrod, the typical progenitor of these peoples, is the founder of Babel, Erech, Akkad, and Kalneh[125]. Nimrod, as affirmed by Berosus, was the [p.504] first that ever bore the title of a shepherd king[126], and Cepheus, as Regulus, is the shepherd-king of the heavenly flock, the star Sib-zi­anna[127], a name of Regulus and of Mars, who was also the planetary type of Cepheus (Shu) in Egypt.

In speaking of the naming of Northern Ethiopia in the first chapter, it might have been pointed out that the birthplace of Bacchus was Mount Nyssa, which, says Herodotus, is 'above Egypt in Ethiopia.'[128] Nsa (Eg.) is a name of the north, like khepsh, and of the birthplace in the beginning, the hinder quarter; and this furnishes another proof of the namers of Northern Ethiopia being further south at the time of the naming.

According to Anacreon, Aithiopais, or the son of Aethiops, was a surname of Bacchus[129]. Aethiops is identical with Kush, the parent of the Ethiopians; and Bacchus is a form of Shu or Cepheus, with whom we are about to identify Nimrod and the Kephenes, who are so named after Kepheus, the star-god. The Cepheus meant is the king of the celestial Ethiopia, khepsh, the north, not a human progenitor of the people. The name of the north is also an element in the mapping out of the land; the Kephenes and Chaldees having been a dual form of the ancient people of the empire, the earliest Kephenes were probably seated in the north.

The Jerusalem Targum renders the statement of Genesis 10, respecting Nimrod, the mighty hunter, by saying, 'He was mighty in hunting and in sin before the Lord; for he was a hunter of the sons of men, in their languages.'[130]

The dispersion of language will be shown to represent figuratively the naming of places in the planisphere, which entered a second phase under Kepheus or Nimrod. There can be no difficulty in identifying Nimrod as Shu or Kepheus, Egyptian Kafi.

The eight gods ruled in Am-Smen before the lifting of the solar firmament; Shu, who is portrayed in the act of supporting the celestial vault, is designated the elevator of heaven. In the Egyptian creation, Shu separated the earth and the waters in two masses, and excited the hostility of the evil powers[131]. This creative act was afterwards attributed to Ptah in his name of 'Let-the-earth-be.' Shu was portrayed as a hunter, with his dogs; but there is more than the hunter in the Hebrew word דיצ, which means properly a catcher[132], and agrees with the Egyptian tsat, or sett, a noose, to catch, to catch in and with the noose. This sett, noose or tie, is carried in the hand as the special type of Cepheus (Shu), and identifies him with the Hebrew דיצ, rendered the hunter, but which should be the capturer, as shown by the hieroglyphical sign.

In the Syriac, Arabic, and Septuagint versions, Nimrod is called the giant; the name of Shu also signifies to extend, to elongate; and [p.505] in the Magic Papyrus[133], Shu (Kafi) appears as a giant, the giant of seven cubits.

Nimrod began to be a 'Gibor' in the earth. Kafi is a name of Shu, the Greek Cepheus. Kef (Eg.) means force, might, puissance, and Shu bears the ideograph of this might and force in the rump of the lion on his head. He is the image of the רבג of Genesis[134], the lord of force. This sign of force is the determinative of the word nem, meaning force, to force back, turn back by force, as the sun is said to be forced along by the conducting of Shu[135]. Nemrut is a name found on the monuments. There were three princes of the name of Kem-rut or Nimrod in the Twenty-First Dynasty, one of whom was conquered by the Ethiopian ruler Pankhi. A Nimrod, the father of Sheshank I, Twenty-Second Dynasty, is supposed to have been of Libyan race. The name has been derived by Brugsch, from Nimr-at, the son of the leopard[136]; but it has been overlooked that nimr, for the leopard, is represented in the hieroglyphics by kem, the spotted skin. Nimr, the Semitic name of the leopard, is written in Assyrian Ni-im-ru. In Egyptian ru is the lion; the twin-lions are the ruti, the two ru. One of the two lions is a leopard or leopard-catthe maneless lion.

Shu, the lion of the sun, transforms into the leopard or cat, and becomes the lion-leopard of heraldry. That is the Assyrian nimru[137]. Nem-Ru (Eg.), determined by the spotted skin, is the leopard-lion. Also kem means the second, and nem-ru is the second lion of the leopard-cat type. The kim-ru, then, is the leopard named as the second lion; the second of the twin ruti is Nem-Ruti. In Arabic nimarat is the plural or dual form of the leopard's name, corresponding to nemruti. Shu, as Anhar, or Cepheus with the khept sign of Nem carried on his head, is the Nem-ruti, the second, the leopard of the two lions or Mau; whence the name of Nimrod may be derived as Egyptian. When the Osirian in the Ritual[138] exclaims, 'I am the two lion (or dawn) gods, the second of the sun, Tum in the lower country,' that is equivalent to his saying, in this very sense, 'I am Nimrod.' Nem is the second (the spotted skin), the twin-lions are the Ruti, and Anhar in this character is the Kem-rut or Nimrod.

Another meeting-point between Shu and Nimrod can be found in the statement of the Paschal Chronicle[139], where the Mysians are said to be descended from Nimrod; 'Nebrod, the huntsman and giant, from whom came the Mysiatis.' Lydia formed a part of the same kingdom of Pergamos as Mysia. Mysia bears the name of Mashu. and Lydia of the Ludi or Ruti. This will explain why names of the mythical monarchs, Nimrod and Assur, have not been discovered on the bricks of the cities assigned to them. They were characters, personifications, not persons, belonging to the heavens, and therefore [p.506] divinities. Hence, while their names remained as human or ethnic titles, the real characters were continued as gods under other names.

Although they work without the present clue to his mythological nature, Assyriologists have asserted that Amarud, Marduk, and Silik-mulu-khi are names or titles of Nimrod. Among other names of the god Marduk, Amarud, or Nimrod collected by Norris, is that of Su[140], the equivalent of Shu in Egyptian. Shu has the meaning of light, and the god Shu is also called the light of the sun; he was the lamp of Ra that showed the position of the invisible sun. Light, splendour, the brilliant, is a meaning assigned to Am-Ar (Akk.); so am (Eg.) is splendour and light. Mar signifies the youthful, splendid, the red; a name especially applicable to Mars, and to that planet only, which was assigned to Shu as his planetary type. For it should be explained that when the length of the planetary cycles was made out new names were created. But the new phenomena were also assigned to the more ancient divinities. In this way the genetrix of the seven stars was made the lunar goddess as Hes-taurt (Ishtar), and Venus was assigned to her in the two characters called the two divine sisters, Venus below and Venus above the horizon, by which the two truths and aspects of the motherhood were likewise expressed. Thus the types of the Great Mother were Ursa Major, the Moon and Venus. Mars was given to Shu (Cepheus); Jupiter to the dual parent who had been the earlier son of a dual naturein Egypt Ptah; Mercury denotes a Sabean form of Taht, and Saturn is the planet of Sut. Assyriologists who identify Marduk with Jupiter, and Jupiter with Nimrod, are entirely wrong. Mar, the Red, is Mars. The Mar in Marduk, and Amar in Amarud, no doubt represent the Egyptian maharu, the youth, the young hero, the warrior who was Mars as the planetary type, and Nimrod (Cepheus-Shu), as the hunter, the shepherd, the lawgiver and king of Kush.

Merodach, at Babylon, is described by Diodorus as represented by a figure that was 'standing and walking.'[141] This is the portrait of Anhar (Cepheus), who is depicted in a marching attitude, with the noose-sign of capture in his hand. The same character is given to the god called Silik-mulu-khi, who says of himself, 'I am he who marches before Hea; I am the warrior, the eldest son of Hea, his messenger.'[142] The god Marduk, the marcher, is found to be accompanied by four dogs. It is said, on one of the mythological tablets, 'The god Ukkalu, the god Akkumu, the god Iksuda and the god Iltebu, are the four names of the dogs of Marduk.'[143] The 'dogs of Shu,' the 'dogs following Shu,' the 'Punishers of Shu,' are to be found in the Ritual, although the number is not given; these are the dogs that hunt with the capturer. The 'dogs following Shu' [p.507] apparently implies the legend of Actaeon, who was torn in pieces by his own dogs; and in the story of Ishtar and Izdubar[144], the goddess is charged with loving the 'king of the land,' and with transforming him into a leopard, whereupon his own dogs tore him piecemeal. Kepheus was the king of Kush, and as Shu he was the lion-god who made his transformation into the leopard-cata change here attributed to the sorceries of Ishtar.

Silik-mulu-khi is the messenger of Hea, who revealed to man the will and knowledge of the god. He is called the 'Great lord of the country, king of the countries, eldest son of Hea, who bringest back (into their periodical movements) heaven and earth. Thou art the favourable giant: to thee is the sublime bank of the pit of the ocean.'[145] Exactly the same change of character takes place with Nimrod, Amarud, or Marduk as with the ancient star-god Shu in Egyptian mythology, where he who was a far earlier god than Ra becomes the son of the sun-god as Shu-si-Ra in a later creation, called by the name of Ra. So Marduk and Silik-mulu-khi, two forms of Nimrod, are each represented as being the son of Hea after the establishment of the solar triad of Hea, Bel, and Anu.

It must have been a curious discovery when men found out and individualized the fatherhood on earth, and this fact is reflected in the setting up of the fatherhood in heaven, which was for the first time established under the solar regime; and the father was Atum in Egypt Hea in Assyria, or Abraham in Israel. After which, the earlier god, who originated as the child of the mother, is called the son of the father. When Ra, the sun, had become the father of the gods, the fatherhood was extended to the past. He is then said to 'Create his name as lord of all the gods;'[146] the name being identical with the sonship as a type of manifestation. They made much of this discovery or individualization of the male parentage by which they had found the father in heaven, whom they enthroned above the ancient genetrix until the name, the renn, the child of both, came to supersede the father and mother in the later stage of theology.

In the Assyrian mythology the 'supreme name' is a secret with which Hea alone, the divine father, is acquainted. He says to his phantom messenger whom he sends to Hades for the release of Ishtar, 'Awe her (Nin-ki-gal) with the name.' 'Silik-mulu-khi, as the son of Hea, is his name.'[147] Hence the magical incantations represent Hea as teaching the name to his son; but it is unuttered, because he and the name are synonymous. And the reason why this secret of the name rests with Hea is because he impersonates the divine fatherhood. Ra is described as the god who covers his limbs with names. This doctrine is echoed in the Divine Pymander. 'For this reason he hath all names, because he is the one father; and therefore he hath [p.508] no name, because he is the father.'[148] The name was the manifestor, the Anosh, the son; hence the manifestations were identical with the names. We see the way toward this doctrine of the fatherhood in the self-effacement of the father at the birth of his son, and the sinking of his own personal name in that of the son; the doctrine of smen (Eg.), or the setting up of the son in place of the father.

The supreme secret taught by Hea, the god of learning, to his son, when he makes his appeal to his father, is called 'the Number.' Numbers were a mode of invocation and conjuration. Amongst these, seven is pre-eminent. But there is a secret in Egyptian, connected with the origin of numbers and reckoning; with the two hands and with the ten moons of gestation. No. 10 is likewise related to the son, possibly on account of the ten moons of gestation. Har, the name of the son of the mother, has been found to mean no. 10 in Egyptian; and the type-name of the son of the mother as Assur or Ashar, also stands for no. 10, as asar in Hebrew; ashar, Arabic; sar, Syriac; asser, Gafat; ashur, Tigré; assir, Hurur; assur, Arkiko; ashiri, Kaffa.

Khemt, the Egyptian name for no. 3, has also been found with the value of no. 10. To be khemt is to attain adultship and become the homme fait, the sherau of thirty years, or thrice ten. Har and khemt for no. 10 thus meet in the son, who was called Khem-Horus on attaining maturity, as the pubescent virile god in the character of the begetter. The son, therefore, represented the number as he did the name. He was the repeater, and the number ten is the type of repetition and renewal.

In his 'Secret Sermon on the Mount of Regeneration,' Hermes tells his son Tat that 'The number ten, O son, is the begotten of souls; life and light are united where the number of unity is born of the spirit. Therefore, according to reason, unity hath the number often, and the number of ten hath unity.'[149]

In the Chaldean Kabbalah the gods are each designated by a number, in a series that ranges from one to sixty. A tablet in the library of Nineveh gives a list of the chief gods, together with the mystical number of each. The subject will be discussed in the 'Typology of Number.'[150] The same system was extant in Egypt, where Taht is the lord of the no. 8, and Shu, or Su, bears the name of the no. 5, and Aft of the no. 4. The later name and number are founded on the four quarters. Each was established in phenomena as these were mastered and personified. The tat emblem, designed by Taht and given to Ptah, is an image of the four quarters. The four-legged hippopotamus and the couch were likewise types of Apt and the four quarters; also the stone hewn four-square. When they added the upper and lower heaven to the four cardinal points the cube was adopted as the six-sided type of support for the foundation of things, [p.509] as the tat was the type of the four quarters. The Egyptian ses for no. 6, supplies the Assyrian sos, and the six-sided block or cube is a ses. As an emblem of supporting and maintaining power, this also becomes a seser, following that of the head and backbone of the same name. Now Anu, when raised to the supreme seat, is called the god One, the god whose number is one; and yet he is at the same time identified with the no. 6, as the sign of the single stroke also stands for the sos cycle of sixty years. The formula of the Templars in their worship of Mete was, that the root of the divinity was one and seven. That of Anu was one and six. The sole foundation for one and seven is the Great Bear. The foundation of the fourfold one is that of the four quarters; and of the six-one, the cube of the heavens, the seser. Anu was designated the sesru, the founder and sustainer, when the heavens were formed according to the cube-block of the stone building, when the upper and lower heavens were added to south, north, east, and west, and a luni-solar month was formed with six divisions of five days each. The ancient mysteries are very simple in their nature, when understood; our ignorance has made them appear profound, whereas they are only profoundly simple.

As with the gods and the phenomena which they typify, so is it with the localities, scenery, and imagery of the other world; the world of the astronomical allegory rendered eschatologically, divided into the upper and the nether halves, which range in one reckoning from solstice to solsticethese having once been the long and the short of it allor from equinox to equinox.

Tiamat, the personification of primordial source as the water of the abyss, is the same as the Tavthe of Damascus and the Tha-VathOmoroka of Berosus, the name being identical through the permutation of m and v[151]. Tavthe is the same word as the Hebrew tophet, the place of the dead and unclean things represented by the valley of Hinnom. But the first tophet, or tavthe, was the hell of waters, and with this agrees the Hebrew םוהת (tahvm) for the deep[152], which, at the time of the deluge, was depicted as bursting forth with its overwhelming waters and reproducing chaos. Tahvm, as a plural form, is the equivalent of tepht (Eg.), the lower tep or primal point of commencement. Tepht is identical with the seven provinces of Dyved that were submerged by the deluge, the cause of which is thus addressed: 'Seithenin, stand thou forth and behold the billowy rows. The sea has covered the plain of Gwydneu.'[153] The tepht is still extant in Dept-ford on the Thames. Tiamat, Tavthe, Tophet, Tahvm, and Dyved are all one, and the original is the tepht (Eg.), the abyss, cave, hole of source, the entrance called a door, a valve, and the hole of a snake. This was the passage of the lower heaven first figured as the earth when it was not yet known that the earth was a globe; hence the hole of the worm and the snake; the mud of [p.510] the eel; the baut of the grave; the waters of the Tebt (Topht), the hippopotamus-type of the genetrix before the stars, the moon, and sun could be imaged as passing through a void of clear space below corresponding to the vault above.

The Assyrian Beth-zida, or Tzida, the temple of life, repeats the Egyptian tes, or Tsui-ta, the deep, the abyss of all beginning, the place of the waters. Tes (Eg), the very self, the concealed, indwelling, enveloped soul of self, becomes the Assyrian tzi for the inhering spirit of life; and as locality the tsuita is equivalent to tzida. Zuge is the name of the 'Void of procreative Nature,' i.e., the uterus of creation. This, in Egyptian sekha, a shrine, a gate, was worn down to sesh, the place of opening and issuing forth; the nest, the lotus, the house of preparation (sesht), the secret place of mystery, ferment, combustion, and generative power in general. Sesht means alcohol, a first form of spirit. As saakh it denotes a spirit of illumination and enlightening or inspiring influence. Egyptian will people the Assyrian void with tangible meanings.

The zuge or sekha is personified as zikum, under the tree-type of the producer. The saqamah (המקש), in Hebrew, identifies the tree of zikum with the sycamore or sycamine, in which the type passes by name into English. The saguma, in the African Gura, is a house; the skemma, Icelandic, a store-house. The tree-shrine of zikum, in Eridu, like the Egyptian tree of life, the ash, in the pool of Persea, also stood in the pool of the Two Waters of the waterer as Hea. Here was the place of new birth for the sun every spring, in Eridu. The birthplace and place of new birth is also called the meskhen. Para is likewise a name of the abode of birth, the Pa, house of Ra. The whole of this scenery is crowded into a line found on one of the conesthe seed-symbol.

In the Inscription of Rim-Agu, he is denominated 'lord of Bit-Parra, Mizken of ancient Eridu,'[154] who keeps the religious festivals. He is lord of the solar house in Para, the place of new birth in Eridu, that is of the terrestrial copy of the imagery set in the heavens by the Egyptians, the Mizken or Meskhen being a type equivalent to the producing tree, the shrine or womb of the great mother herself, who brought forth in Eridu as Zikum.

The 'Pal-bi-Ri,' or the temple of the great gods, built in the beginning, was a title of the city of Assur[155]. This Smith did not understand. It is the primitive pal or par. In the hieroglyphics the ideographic house of the sun is the par, phonetic pa, the birthplace. Pa-ra was the sacred name of Heliopolis. The pa was a palace, and the first palace and paradise was the pal or par which, in Akkadian, is the sexual part of woman, the Egyptian par; pir, Gond, sexual part, belly; per, English gipsy, belly; por, Armenian; bar, Hungarian; prut, Malay; bayar, Canarese, for the belly [p.511] or womb; Irish, bru, the womb, as the abode of birth. From this pa or pal comes the palat (Ass.), the family and the race. The temple of the god Assur, and of the great gods, built in the beginning, is also found in the Fijian burr, the god's house and name of a temple. It is noticeable too that the Assyrian palu, a life or lifetime, is paralleled by the Fijian bula, for life and to live.

The Assyrian 'Happy Fields' are the same as the Egyptian Elysium of the Aahru. The 'Land of the silver sky' is one with the upper heaven typified by the hut, the white silver crown; the summit of this region was at the place of the summer solstice, where the eye was full at midsummer, and the spirit is at peace in the abode of the blessed. The netherworld not only includes the same scenery as the Egyptian, together with the great hall of justice; it is likewise described in the same terms, in the Descent of Ishtar into Hades, or Bit-Edi, which is also designated the 'house of no return,' 'the house men enter but cannot leave, the road men go but cannot return.'[156] In the solemn festal hymn of the Egyptians, which is probably alluded to by Herodotus[157], it is written, 'Ye go to the place whence they (the dead) return not; feast in tranquillity, seeing that there is no one who carries away his goods with him. Yea, behold, none who goes thither comes back again.'[158]

The land of no-return is spoken of in the Song of the Harper[159]. Bit-Edi answers to the Egyptian Aati, the place of souls in the hinder quarter, the Hades, the name of which is derived from kheft. The Assyrian Hades is called Edi or Bit-Edi, the house of assembly. The Egyptian aa-t is the original of the Greek Hades and Russian ad, the place of spirits. The aa-t denotes an abode of souls. There is also a region, in the Assyrian underworld, corresponding to the seven provinces of Dyved, the seven caves, the seven islands, and other forms of the seven found in the eschatological netherlands.

In one of the cuneiform texts the seven gates of Hades are spoken of as the seven doors (dalti) of the underworld[160]. So the house of Osiris, in the Hades of the Egyptian Ritual, contains seven halls and seven staircases[161]. Seven walls encircle a central place as the heart of all. The seven, with the centre, correspond to the region of the eight, smen or sesennu, in the Ritualthe seven, with Sut or Taht as the eighth, for their manifestor. This is the terui, circumference, and the Troy of the British and Greek mythos. At the centre is placed the palace of justice, in which the judge of the dead sits on his throne to deliver judgment and execute justice. This is the palace of Nin-ki­gal, the great goddess of Justice, who in this character equates with Ma, the Egyptian goddess of Truth and Justice, to whom the Hall of the dual Truth is assigned. In this place of the Hall of the Two [p.512] Truths was the Pool of the Two Truths, Shuma, otherwise called the Pool of Persea (the Tree of Life), from which the water of life welled forth. So in the Assyrian locality of the judgment hall at the centre of the seven circles arose the stream of the water of life[162], which in another phase was accounted the water of death.

'Bit-anna' is frequently referred to in the inscriptions, but whether Anna should be read god or goddess has not been always determined. A 'shrine of Anna was built on the mound near Bit-Zida, and dedicated to the moon-god, Sin, as his templeBit-ti-anna, his temple.'[163] Oppert renders this the 'Temple of the Assizes of Oannes.'[164] A temple of the assizes would be the judgment hall of the Egyptian Annu. Bit-ti rendered by Egyptian is the double-house, that is the Hall of the Two Truths and of the Assizes. Anna, as Annu, is a place here, not a person; neither the gracious goddess nor the Fish-Man, but the region of the Hall of the Two Truths, the judgment hall where the Assizes took place, and the moon-god as An, a form of Taht, registered the dooms of the righteous and the rejected. Bit-ti-anna, the temple dedicated to Sin, is in accordance with the dual house in Annu as the lunar type. There were three typesthe solar, lunar and stellar, or Heliopolis, Hermopolis, and the double holy house of Anup the star-god, one of whose images is the wolf, Sab, Assyrian Zibi; and Bit-ti-anna was on the mound near Bit-ziba[165], just as in the Ritual and in the zodiac the double holy house of Anup, in Abti, is found next to the Hall of Two Truths in Annu. Apparently the two houses are the same below as those that were figured by the Egyptians in the heaven above.

The parent language will show us that the name of Babylon does not merely mean the 'gate of God'. It is true the gate became a sign of enclosing, and thus of an enclosure; but bab, the gate, is in too late a sense. The Egyptian shows us an earlier meaning in bab, to turn, circle, go round, revolve in a circle, the names of a whirlpool and a whirlwind; baba, a collar, a chain, a hole; bubu, drops and beads, which are round; baba, the Great Bear, the revolving constellation. Bebr is the Egyptian for Babel. The babels were round towers; and the city of Babylon, like all the olden places, was round, walled round, as we say. Bab-ili was not only the gate of the gods, it was a circle, a kar, as its Egyptian name of kar, Hebrew kir, implies. According to the customary way of writing the name as Bab-il-Ra[166], it was at one time the circle of the sun-god, although the solar cult was not primary, and Babili, the circle of the gods, was the earlier appellative. Bab, as the circle, is corroborated by the name of the Bibbu, given to sailors and to the seven Lubat, the planets, the revolvers, or gods of the orbit. Babylon below was a copy of the circle above. The [p.513] same root enters into Byblus, of which we are told, 'After these events Kronus builds a wall round about his habitation, and founds Byblus, the first city in Phoenicia:'[167] which shows that Byblus was founded on the circle. The bab was as ancient as the circular mounds. Another syllable ka, as in ka-dimirra, is rendered Gate of God. But the ka is the mouth, as the door of the body, the Egyptian kha and kep, the uterus and emaning mouth. The gate of the goddess or mother is the primary sense, verifiable in nature.

E-Ki, an ancient name of Babylon, means the mound-city, or more literally the habitation of the hollow mound, which relates it to the circular type of the mound-builders, who began with the earth and ended with brick and stone; the mount with the cefn or cave in it being a still earlier form of the E-Ki, and the swelling gestator, the first great house, the earliest. The Elamite and Hebrew gan, signifying an enclosure, is the Egyptian khan, earlier cefn, gophen, kafn, or kivan, and khent (Eg.) with the feminine terminal.

The oldest name of Babylon is the Akkadian tintir, which has no known equivalent. In Egyptian ten is the elevated seat, the throne, and teru denotes the circumference, the circle, the Troy, a form of sesun, the region of the eight gods. Ten-Teru reads the 'throne of this circle' or 'circumference,' the type of Am-Smen. From this we derive the Tentyris or Denderah of Egypt as identical with Tentir or Babylon. Ten-Teru is literally the seat of the Troy-circle, that of the Great Bear and Dog-star, the eight stars, who became the seven great gods with Assur in Assyria. Denderah was the great seat of Hathor, the lunar form of the genetrix, whose number eight associates her with the eight gods. The seat and circle were the same in Tentir as in Tentyris, and both were the circles of time, one type of which was the Babel-tower of seven stages with the seat at the top, corresponding to the seven-circled enclosure of the British Troy portrayed on the stones, which was extant before the building of Trinovantum.

Ka-Dingira, an Akkadian name of Bab-ili or Bab-ilâni, is also extant in Africa as Tenkur (in the Ethiopic Inscription of Nastosenen[168]), better known as Dongolah. Kir or kar is equivalent to teru, for the circle; kar (Ass.) being a fortressto be walled round. Thus Ten Kur or Dingira is also the seat in the circle, the circular seat, synonymous with the Bab of El, the circle of the gods, the Bab-ilu or Babylon, which is the equivalent of Bab-Ilium, Ilium and Troas being interchangeable names of Troy, where the seat of the circle was Mount Ida or Kheft. The first forms of the Great Mother as of the circle or pleroma of eight gods was stellar. The second, with Hathor as genetrix was lunar; and tingal the name of the moon in Tamul, tingalu, in Tulu and Canarese, represent the Egyptian or Ethiopic tenkur and Akkadian dingira. In Egyptian ten is the half-moon, the fortnight, and kar denotes [p.514] orbit or course. In this, the lunar stage, the circle would be that of the double or divided lunation represented by Ishtar as 'Goddess Fifteen,' and the eight gods in Sesennu who followed the eight of Am-Smen.

In the Inscription of Sennacherib, the king in speaking of his fourth campaign says, 'On my return, Assur-nadin-sumi, my eldest son brought up at my knees, I seated upon the throne of his kingdom; all the land of Leshan and Akkad I entrusted to him.'[169] Leshan and Akkad are also referred to in the Inscription on Bellino's Cylinder[170]. Apparently the old names are coupled together, as Leshan and Akkad for Sumer and Akkad. In this naming, the Sumerian folk-title is related in some way to the language, and the ideographic group expresses the language of some thing or act. Oppert reads it, the 'language of worship.'[171] Lenormant renders it the 'language of those sitting,'[172] from a sign having the meaning of to put, to place, intransitively to sit. A better term is still in use for the 'squatters;' to be placed, to sit, to squat, opposed to Nomadic. We have now to seek for the meeting-point of the language of the squatters and the name of the Sumeri.

The laws of language tend to show us that the so-called Semitic origins are Kamitic, and we have to take that step backwards which language took forwards when the k of Kam was transformed into the s of Sam, and the Kamite became known as the Semite or Sumerian. The race of Kam had passed out of the Nomadic condition in Egypt if nowhere else in Africa, before the ka-sign was modified into the sa. The phonetic s was not extant at the time the Maori migrated from the common centre, but it was when the Akkadians branched off from the parent stock; and, but for the evolution of the sa from ka, there would have been no Semite or Sumeri. The tip of the crocodile's tail is the sign of kam, black. This is found to read sam in later language[173]. Also sam as well as kam must have continued to signify black, for smat is to blacken the eyebrow with stibium, and sam is total darkness. One meaning of sam (Eg.) is to remain in a place and dwell, or to settle in one locality; and sam, to assemble, flock together, herd, and form guilds, as did the Egyptian fishermen, called the sami. The samat are the common multitude, the Semites in a primal sense. Sam, to dwell, be located, fixed, has also the form skam, to remain, dwell, make a full stop. And skam only adds the s, for the person, anyone, signified by Kam: thus in Egyptian sam or sem has two earlier forms in kam and skam. Kam has the same meaning of remaining, dwelling, camping, as sam and skam. Sam can be traced back to kam; the Samite is the Kamite in the second stage, and the language of the squatters, the earliest settlers, is that of the [p.515] Sumeri, as the people who first stayed, remained, settled, in the Sumerian land.

The Semitic name has its parallel in a title of the Egyptian lion-gods in the solar and second stage, when they had become the servants of the sunthey who had existed before the solar god was born. The sem or sems is a title of the lion-gods relating to their secondary status as ministers of the sun. In this stage they are equinoctial gods of the horizon and of the east and west. Sem is also a name of the double solar plumes belonging to the sun of the east and west. The khept sign then placed on the head of Anhar is that of the hinder-part west, he who had represented the north and south as the king of Khepsh and as Regulus the lawgiver.

'The Sons of Kam were Kush, Mitzraim, Phut, and Kanaan, and Kush begat Nimrod, and the beginning of his kingdom was Babel, Erekh, Akkad, and Kalneh in the land of Shinar.'[174] As the letters n and m are continually equivalents, Shinar and Sumir are possibly interchangeable names for the same country. Shinar is the total land of the four cities, and, in Egyptian, sem and shen have the same meaning of two or twin. Shen is two or double. Sem is the double plume, the circle, the twin-total of the heaven divided at first as the north and south. In this sense Sumeri would be synonymous with Shen-gar, the twin-circle. Later the twin-land, the land of the two streams, or the double land of north and south, would be added to, as Sumir with Akkad, and finally become Sumir and Akkad; Sumir remaining the land of the settlers and the people of the original tongue, the land that was again divided into the four quarters, represented by the four typical cities which constituted the Tetrapolis of Nimrod.

The imagery can be best read in heaven first. The sons of Japheth are seven in number; the sons of Gomer and Javan form a second seven. These belong to the circle of the seven stars. The sons of Ham are four. These correspond to the four quarters in the heaven above, which had their likeness in Ethiopia, Egypt, Lybia, and Canaan, with Kam (Khebma) and Japhet (Khept) beyond all. Then we are told that Nimrod became a Gibor in the earth. In Egyptian, the keb is a lord of the corner, and the four lords or genii are the keb-ari or kab-ari. Nimrod became one of these. The same meaning enters into the Hebrew gibul, to bound as with a border, coast, or other limit. The plural gubulim, Phoenician, denotes the quarter or quarters. Nimrod became one of the four kubur which king Sargon had imaged in front of the four celestial regions or four quarters. The earliest figure of the four quarters is the fourfold apt; the later form of khebt. These four were typified by the hippopotamus, lion, crocodile and monkey, the four corners of Khepsh or the Bear. Next followed the four quarters of Nimrod, probably [p.516] marked for us by the great stars Regulus, Antares, Fomalhaut, and Aldebaran.

Persian legends relate how Nimrod formed the project of being borne up to heaven by four immense birds, called Ker-Kes, in an ark or coffer. In Egyptian, ker is the claw, and means to seize with the claw, lay hold, embrace: khes signifies to found, build, and construct. The Ker-Kes would thus denote the bird-shaped type of the circle-founder, a form of whom is personified in the Hindu Garuda.

The ark or coffer is an image of the four corners, the earliest being that of the Great Bear. This was represented as the coffin of Osiris; and the four genii, human-headed, ape-headed, jackal-headed, and bird-headed, stood at the four corners of it, these being four of the seven spirits in Ursa Major. The primitive Ark was that of the goddess who united in herself the four types which are the originals of all the fours belonging to the four cardinal points.

It is noticeable that the bird is not included in her quaternary. Yet there came a time when the bird was introduced, and this apparently by Anhar (Nimrod) as god of the four corners. Anhar is depicted in the human form, also as the lion and the monkey (kafi), whilst his name of Shu signifies the feather which stands for the bird. The bird as the winged type would take the lead in lifting up the ark in which Nimrod was to be borne aloft; hence the four immense birds, or Ker-Kes, that carried the ark. Shu carries in his hand the ark-sign in the noose or tie which had previously belonged to the ancient mother.

Nimrod of the four quarters answers to a Semite derivation of his name. Nem of the ruti, the leopard of the twin-lions, was the Nimrod of the two divisions, north and south, Cepheus and Regulus; but in the later form, and in both Hebrew and Assyrian, the leopard is nimr, and, as already shown, the terminal תו (uth)later דוrepresents the Egyptian fut for the four quarters, as in kanphoth, and nimroth is the leopard of the four quarters, the later d-sound being unknown in the hieroglyphics.

Anhar-Nimrod, the great gibor, the elevator of the heaven founded on the four corners, became the angel Gabriel. The Mohammedan legends call him the chief of four favoured angels and the spirit of truth. The feather of Truth belongs to (Ma) Shu. In the legends of the middle ages Gabriel is the second of the seven great spirits who stand before the throne of God; and in the Ritual the ape-headed kapi or kafi is the second of the seven great spirits, and the kafi is a type of Shu-Anhar. This is the original of Nimrod, chief of the four kabirs or corner-keepers, whose Tetrapolis above was the model of his Tetrapolis in the Plain of Shinar.

In like manner, tradition asserts that the city of Joppa was built by Kepheus, king of the Ethiopians, and was his seat before the deluge. [p.517] Joppa is the modified[175] form of Keppa; pa (Eg.) is the city, and kafi (Eg.) is Cepheus or Shu. This marks a stage in naming from the astral mythology, with many applications to places lying north.

In Arabic and Hebrew legends 350 kings are said to sit before Nimrod to serve him, and this number, with the four genii of his Tetrapolis added, would represent the number of days in a lunar year. In another version the kings that appear as his ministers are said to be 365; the number of days in the solar year without the quarter of a day being added[176]. The traditions of Nimrod also mention a period of 400 years during which he suffered in consequence of his having made war on Abraham, and insolently boasted that he was the lord of all[177]. The death of Nimrod is dated in a Syrian calendar[178], the 8th of the month Tammuz, and on the 17th of the same month the Jews kept their fast or festival in memory of the first tablets of the law which were broken by Moses on Sinai, i.e., in both cases when the solar year was established with the beginning at the time of the summer solstice, and the spring equinox occurred in the sign of the Ram.

The Hebrew form of the word רענש, with the ayin hard, implies the earlier spelling as Shingar or Shinkar. Kar (Eg.) is a land, district, or country, determined by the dual hill; shen or sen being two, Shen­kar would be the double land, corresponding to the twin-total found in sem. The country of Sinkar, coupled with that of Assur, is mentioned on Egyptian monuments of the Eighteenth Dynasty, which agrees with the Singara of Ptolemy[179] and other of the Greek writers. Sen-kar or Shen-kar then is named and known in Egyptian, where it means the double land, with the additional application of kar, the circle; and the naming would be in accordance with the mapping-out of the celestial lands by north and south, as in Mitzraim or Khebti, the dual Kheb. Shinkar was the dual land that Nimrod subdivided into the four quarters on which his kingdom was founded, and the name lives on in Senkerah.

A title of the kings of the ancient Chaldean empire was Ungal kiengi ki Akkad: 'king of Kiengi with Akkad.' The meaning of kiengi has exercised Assyriologists. Lenormant sees in it the country as plain[180], opposed to Akkad as mountainan expression to be paralleled with that of Sumeri u Akkadi in Assyrian inscriptions. Kiengi or kingi is an Akkadian word, rendered in Assyrian by matuv, the country. In Swahili, inchi means the country; iniku, in the African Opanda, and eniku in Igu, mean a forest district, or the bush. In Murundo, eanga is a farm; heang (Chinese), a village; yung (Chinese), a wall for defence, a little city. It is a most ancient, primitive, and widespread title, found in the Assyrian nago for a district; onco (Portuguese), a hill; yang (Chinese), a [p.518] deep recess in the hills; cnoc (Irish), a hill; Chinese, chung, king, chang, or heang, a hill; kuanku, African Mandingo, a mountain; kongku, Lohorong, a mountain. The first builder of a city in the Hebrew Genesis, chanock (ףונח), has a kindred name. It has already been quoted as a type-name for the circles of the dead: the vinge (Chinese), a circle. Cingo, in Latin, is to environ, engirdle round; ank (Eg.), to clasp round; anhu (Eg.), to envelope, surround, girdle, encircle. But there is another ankh, as in the English hank, a body of people confederated, and this in Egyptian signifies the natives, aborigines, or those who are indigenous to the district or country. Now ki itself denotes the country, land, locality; and ankh (Eg.) means the native of a district. The perfect word is found in the Maori, kainga, an encampment, bivouac, place of abode, country, and home.

When Nimrod went forth, and the Kushite migration occurred, it was made into the land of Singar, not primarily into Akkad; and the first-named beginning of the Kushite kingdom was Babel, which, so far as it goes, identifies Babylon. Kiengi, the country of the natives, the district of the ancestral race, the motherland, is the equivalent of Sumeri or Sameri, the country of the first settlers, squatters, or colonists from the land of Kush. Sameri and Skameri commence, ethnologically as well as philologically, as the Kameri, who were therefore a branch of the black race from Africa.

The Semite came from the Kamite; and the Kamite was the created (kâm, to create) race from Khebma, the most ancient genetrix in mythology.

Assyriologists are accustomed at present to look to Akkad as earlier than Babylonia, whereas the titles of Kiengi ki Akkad, Sumeri u Akkadi, mat Sumeri u mat Akkadi, always place Akkad last, and make it subsidiary or additional. It is true the most ancient things yet discovered are Akkadian, but these may have remained as slough and drift from the old race that went on growing, shedding, and renewing its life and language in later forms.

In Kam or Kush, the black race of the Ethiopic centre, was the primeval parentage. The name was continued by Kam in Egypt. Kush, Mizraim, Phut, and Kanaan represent the four branches in four different directions; and Nimrod is the typical leader into SumeriNimrod the son of Kush, of the black race. The mirror of mythology shows the Kamite or Kushite to answer ethnically to the celestial son of Kush, the typical black under each name. And if the name of Sumeri was borne by the people as well as the land, they would be the Kamari of that country; identical by name with the Kamari of India, the Cymry of Britain, and the Kumites of Australia, who have yet to be brought in.

In the bas-reliefs of Susiana there is portrayed a type of race almost purely negroid[181]. Part of the marshy region round the Persian Gulf [p.519] was inhabited by people who were nearly black. A remnant of these are yet extant in the lemluns, whom the French traveller, Texier[182], has described, and who are allied as an anthropological type to the Bisharis on the border of Upper Egypt. Lenormant suggests that they probably spoke that 'language of the fishermen' which is mentioned in Assyrian documents as being a dialect different from those of Akkad and Assur[183]. Which further suggests that the Lemluns retain the name of the Fishermen. Rem (Eg.) is the fish, people, natives; and ren, is to name, or a name. Rem-ren is the Fish-name, or the Fisherman by name.

The poet Dionysius Perigetes, in his description of the southern Σκυθαι of India, mentions that to the west of the source of the Indus dwell the Ωριτας. These Oritae may now be claimed by name as a form of the Auritae in the Old Egyptian Chronicle[184]. Thus we have the Afridi in Afghanistan, the Oritae in the Caucasus, the Auritae princes in Egypt; and the earliest form of the name is to be found in the Kafruti of the black race.

Berosus tells us that there were in Babylonia originally many men of a strange or barbarian race (άλλοεθνεις), who inhabited Chaldea and who lived in a savage state after the manner of animals[185]. This answers to the Kam-ruti spoken of as the uncivilized race, the savages of the later Egyptians, who belonged themselves to the original Kam-ruti, the race of Kam. These were the men of the Palaeolithic age, the sons of Kheb, Kam, and Kush (Khebma and Khepsh), the genetrix of the human race, who as goddess of the Great Bear was the primordial bringer-forth, first figured in heaven by a people who were then to the south of Ethiopiathe feminine Adam or Atum, who appears in the Ethiopic portion of the Ritual as the mother-goddess of Time[186]. They carried out the same names as the people of Japhet or Khept (Kéd), who went out into the isles of the north and into the northern parts of India. The Gutium, a people found in the north of Mesopotamia, also answer to the Japhetithe Catti or Ketti of the north, as in Caithness and other countries named from the birthplace. The Gutium are identical by name with the Kefti or Japheti, with another plural terminal added to the Egyptian. From the one root found in the khef or kheb we derive khepsh (Eg.), khebt (Eg.), japhet and gevim (Heb.), gotium (Assyrian), ketti or catti and ked (British). Nor is the Sumeri name the only representative of the Kamari and Cymry in Babylonia (speaking generally).

The Gimirrai are also found in the north-east of Assyria in the eighth century BC, and in the time of Essarhaddon, who fought with them. These have been supposed to be the Cimmerioi of Homer[187], but the country of the 'cloud-capped Cimmerioi' was celestial, with various mundane applications. Wherever found, the name implies the [p.520] people who went north in relation to the cardinal points themselves, or to the north of the particular country inhabited. For example, enormous underground habitations were extant about cumae and the Auvernian Lake, the name of which place is identical with the cwm or coomb of Britain, and the mound-like gamm of the Laps, which have become the dwellings of the elves and dwarfs. These were called Argillae, and were the reputed homes of the 'Cimmerians who dwelt in darkness.' The cave and khem, gamin, or cam are synonymous, whether applied to the uterus, to a hole in the earth, or the void of the underworld. The people of the same names must have gone forth while the centre, called Kush or Ethiopia, was far up in the dark land towards the equatorial regions of Africa. They were followed by the later wave of the Kaldi, when the place of emanation was lower down in the kars of the two Egypts, corresponding in Asia to the Celtae who followed the Cymry over Europe, the men of the Neolithic age, who were the karti, as the carvers, stone-polishers, and masons (the karti and rekhi), the cultivators of the earth (kar, Eg., to dig, farm, garden), the buriers and embalmers of their dead in the kar and karas; the circle-makers (kar, to curve; karrt, circles and zones), the metal-workers or furnace-men (kara, the smith, karr, the furnace); the sailors (karuru, boats), as well as the people of the twin kars, or Egypt Upper and Lower, an image of which still exists with us by name in the cart, the typical two-wheeled vehiclean equivalent type for the names of the kaldi and Celtae as the karti of dual Egypt whose name was derived from the earlier karuti and earliest kafruti.

The cradle of the Akkadian race was the 'Mountain of the World;' that 'Mount of the Congregation in the thighs of the north' which can be identified by the hieroglyphic khepsh, the thigh of Typhon. The first mount of mythology was the mount of the seven stars, seven steps, seven stages, seven caves, which represented the celestial north as the birthplace of the initial motion and the beginning of time. This starting-point in heaven above is the one original for the many copies found on the earth below. Ararat and Urardhu are the same as the mount of mythology in the north, the hinder-part of the heavens. The type of both can be identified with the north, the back side of the heavens, and the name of the mount in the Egyptian artu for the buttock, and arrtu, the ascent. Artu, the buttock, is equivalent to khebt or khepsh for the hinder thigh; and arurut, the hieroglyphic staircase, is the Egyptian form of the Hebrew Ararat and Akkadian Urdhu. In the solar adjustment of the starry imagery this mount of the north became the mount of the east; but that was later. The Akkadians date from Urdhti, the district of the northern mountain of the world. Mythologically interpreted, that is the mount of the Great Bear, the goddess Urt (Ta-urt), the mount of the four corners called meru, or the mesru, still earlier [p.521] mitzru or mestru, identified as the celestial Mazar and Mazaroth, the region of the Great Bear, marked by the star Mizar in its tail, to denote the mest (Eg.) of the birthplace.

Urdhu, the name of the mount represents Ur-tu (Eg.), and the tu is the mount, the rock, and the cave. Ur means the great, oldest, chief, principal, first. Thus, Urtu, as mount, bears the name of Urt, or Ta-urt, who is the genetrix and goddess of the mount in the north, the enceinte (Ta) Urt, whose image typified the very primitive crib and cradle (Apt) of the human race, or the time-births which began in the mountain of the north, urdhu, arrarat, or urrtu, afterwards called the birthplace of man, in all the oldest mythologies; the full form of whose name (Urt) is rerit (or Ururat), the sow, the hippopotamus, the Great Bear.*

* After this section had been prepared for press, the following notice appeared in the Athenaeum, July 24, 1880: 'In an essay on the peoples and languages of Africa contained in the elaborate introduction to his Nubian Grammar, which has just appeared in German, Professor Lepsius maintains that the early Babylonian civilization was imported from Egypt.' ... 'The tradition of the Babylonian priests that their country was one colonized and civilized from the South Sea cannot be expressed in plainer language; and this alone overthrows the hypothesis, untenable in every respect, although still pretty commonly accepted, that the Babylonian mode of writing, together with all the higher civilization of Babylon resting thereon, as well as the higher culture of its priests, is derived from a so-called Turanian people, from regions which at the time of the author of the genealogical tables {in Genesis} were still so unknown and barbarous that he excluded them from the civilized world. In the oldest times within the memory of men we know only of one advanced culture, of only one mode of writing, and of only one literary development, viz., those of Egypt; and we know of only one contemporary people which could have had knowledge of this culture, appropriated its results, and conveyed them to other nationsthis was the Kushites, the masters of the Erythraean Sea to its furthest limits. It was by them that Babylonia was colonized and fertilized with Egyptian culture. And it is thus only that the thorough-going correspondence between Babylonian knowledge and institutions and the Egyptian ones becomes intelligible. The pictorial writing forming the basis of the cuneiform characters is unmistakably only a species of the hieroglyphics; the astronomy of Babylon is only a development of that of Egypt; its unit of measure, that is, the royal or architectural ell of 0'525 is completely identical with that of Egypt, which we find described on the walls up to the fourth millennium BC; its architecture, that is to say, its temples as well as its pyramids and obelisks, is an imperfect imitation of Egyptian originals; and so with the other arts. At every step we meet in Babylonia with the traces of the Egyptian models ...'[188]





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