The author of Rude Stone Monuments[1] appears to me to darken counsel merely and deepen the superficies of the subject only in his search after a theory to account for them. He sees that the architecture of Stonehenge is primeval, and that it ought, according to the laws of evolution, to belong to a time and an art antecedent to that of the great temples of Egypt and India! Yet he does not dare to apply the law of evolution to these structures, and has no doubt that the rude erections are degenerate copies of the more perfect originals.

This is parallel with saying that the poetry of Caedmon is a lowly imitation of the work of Tennyson. There never was a crasser instance of not only putting the cart before the horse and riding backwards, but of flogging the cart to make it go that way. He admits, however, that the names are everywhere the great difficulty. And as Max Muller says of Cornwall, 'Where every village and field, every cottage and hill bear names that are neither English, nor Norman, nor Latin, it is difficult not to feel that the Keltic element has been something real and permanent in the history of the British Isles.'[2] Gradually these names will yield up the dead past to live again as Egyptian. Left without likeness in the classical languages, our names of rivers, for example, have been felt to be unfathomable.

The Egyptian name of water as an element is uat, the same as that of the goddess Uati. Uat is the English wet, and our word water is the Egyptian uat-ur, which is also applied to the ocean, as the Great Uat or wet. Uat (Eg.) for water shows the element in a dual aspect, necessary to note; the word signifies blue-green, and water unites the two colours of earth and heaven in one, as blue-green.

We shall find however that all elementary naming from the Egyptian origin is divine, that is, mystical, that is, finally, physiological. [p.181] For example, the Celtic uisge is a type-name for water, and at the same time it supplies a title for the spirit-water, the water of life, as whiskey. This comes from a first origin. Uat means both heat and wet, both elements being represented by the genetrix Uati; they are the Two Truths of the Water of Life from which the name of whiskey is derived, in accordance with its spirituous nature. Uskh or sekh (Eg.), the liquid, has a still earlier form in khekh, a fluid determined in one aspect by the sign of bleeding. Blood was the primal suck, on which the child was nursed, the first water of life. Heat or spirit was a secondary element. These are represented by khep, uat, and sekht. Khekh has the meaning of blood and spirit, the Two Truths of being imaged by the spirit-water of life.

The Egyptian hes and usesh mean evacuation. Uka is the water of the inundation. We have the river Ise near Wellingborough, Isis at Oxford, the Ash in Hertfordshire, the Iz in Bedfordshire, the Usc in Buckinghamshire, Guash in Rutland, Ouse in Bedfordshire, various Usks and Esks, the Esky in Sligo, the Eskle in Herefordshire, Esthwaite and Easdale waters; these, together with the Axe, Ox, Ux, and Ex, the Isca, the Welsh Wysg, a current, and Gaelic Uisge, for water, the Wisk, the Wash, and other variants, are all derived from this root. The Gaelic and Erse Uisge, however, is a worn down form of the Welsh Wysg and this again has a prior existence in Gwysg, at least the Gwy is an earlier spelling of Wy for water. Wysg is the name of a current. This points to a prefix corresponding to khi (Eg.), to extend, expand, elongate, and run with great rapidity. Khi-sekh (Eg.) would denote the current, as in Wysg, and the w constantly represents a k. Khi-khi (Eg.) is the original of quick, and the Khi-sk, Gwysg or Wysg is the rapid-running water.

The Welsh name of the river called Esk is the Wysg, and this points to a rapid or spreading water as the primary type of the rivers so named. The Wysg takes the English forms of Guash (compare gush) in Rutland, the Washburn in Yorkshire, and the Wash. Washes are outlets in the seashore, and in the fen­country large spaces left at intervals between the river banks, for floods to expand in, are named washes. Wash, Gwash, Gwysg are represented in Egyptian by the word Kash, to water, spread, be in flood, inundate.

The French rivers in the high Alps, the Gy, the Gull, the Guisave, and the Guiers, the Guer in Brittany, the Giron and Gers are probably named from their movement; they are the goers, as our go is a form of the khu or khi, to go, and make go, quick.

The geyser is named from the same root khi (Eg), to rise up, elongate, spread with great rapidity. And as khu or khi is spirit, whiskey is the khi-sekh or spirit-water, the spirit in this case being analogous to the motion and go of the rapid waters.


An old Irish glossary[3] says, 'Bior and an and dobar (are) the three names of the Water of the World.' This shows their naming goes back to the mystical one of water with two aspects found in the Pool of Two Truths, and in the name of Uat(i). The duad may be expressed by bi-or. An represents the Egyptian han or nen, the primordial water identified as the bringer in the beginning. Dobar, dovar, or dur answers to tee-er or tep-er, as the water of the commencement, the first water. Tobar (Irish) is a well, and the teph (Eg.) was the Well of Source. Also tebu (Eg.) means to draw water, and the tober water is drawn from the well.

An (han) was the celestial water and the well-water was below. These were two aspects of the bi-or or dual water, of the Pool of Two Truths, the Water of Life that made flesh in one form and fermented into spirit in the other. This will be illustrated in a chapter on the typology of the Two Truths, both of which were at first assigned to the motherhood.

In passing it may be noted that in two Egyptian names of water we find synonyms of Yes and No. Ia is water, to wash, purify, whiten, and the word means yes, and assuredly. Ia is the positive of water, and with this agrees the English ea, and yea. Nu is water, and the word means not, negative, negation, the English no.

Also ia, the white, agrees with milk, the white, and na, the red, with the blood. The milk and blood of the Mother were a primal form of the Twin-Water. The Two Truths were represented by white and red, and both colours were combined in the 'spotted cow' of Hathor.

The Dee springs from two fountains in the East of Merionethshire, and is probably named as the dual water, the twin water of the Egyptians. It was called Dyvrdwy, the divine water of source in a dual character. Another of its names, Peryddon, read as Pent-ten (Eg), yields the twofold manifestation.

The river Deskie is formed of two streams, and in Egyptian ti­sekh would signify the double water. D-eskie is the dual Eskie.

Ivel is a twin river: 'Two rivers of one name,' says Drayton[4].  The Ivel was anciently called the Yoo, and the Iu (Eg.) is two or twin. The yeo is the same, and our yeo-math is the second mowing.

The river Neath has a double head, and net (Eg.) is a total, the all, which was composed of two.

If the Egyptians named our waters and rivers, it is tolerably certain those of Wales were the first-named, as the Taves, Tefis, Dyvis, Dovers, and others. For this reason: ap or af (Eg.) means the first, as a liquid, an essence of life, or essential life. This supplies another elemental water-name. With the article the prefixed, this is tepi or tell, the Welsh dyvi, English tavy, and dove, the first, primordial, ancestral source. [p.183] This ap or al; as first in the form of liquid with the Egyptian t prefixed, furnishes all the primaries of water found in Tobor and Dobar, the well, the Cymric Dwr (Dfr), water, and the river names, Tef, Tav, Dvvi, and their kindred, the i and i, retaining at times the twofoldness of character. Thus, if, as will be maintained, the first landing was in Wales, one of the rivers named the first would be the Dvvi, which flows into Cardigan Bay, and debouches through an estuary that divides North and South Wales.

The Tay, formerly Tavus, is a first river, on account of its size.

The name of the Thames shows an example of compounding from Egyptian. If we take the es for a reduced esk, as it is found in Senas, a name of the Shannon, the Tham may be accounted for in this way.

In Drayton's Polyolbion[5], a dozen rivers make up the Thames. The Oxfordshire Come, the Charnet, Charwell, Leech, Windrush Yenload (Drayton's spelling), join the Isis; the Ock and Ouse join the Thame, and these all unite with the Kennet, Loddon, Wey, and Hertfordshire Coin to form the Thames.

In Egyptian tem is a total; the completed and perfected whole. Tam means to renew, make over again, the second time. It should also be observed that temi (Eg.) is a title of the inundation in Egypt, and the Thames is a tidal river. Thus Thames is the total and the tidal river. The same origin will account for the name of the river Tamar (Devon), which 'sweeps along with such a lusty train' of attendant streams and rills as 'fits so brave a flood two countries that divides.'[6] Tamar takes in the Atre, Kensey, Enjan, Lyner, Car, Lid, Thrushel, Toovy, and others. As Thames means the collective or total water, so tam-aru reads the collective river. In each case,  tem (Eg.) is that which divides the land into districts, a name of the inundation, a total, and a created river.

We have another name for Thames, as the tidal water. According to Camden[7], this river was once known as the Cockney, and therefore a dweller on its banks is called a cockney. The khekh-nui (Eg.) means the tidal water; the to-and-fro of the water corresponding to the motion of the khekh, as the Balance or Scales. This name, says Boileau[8], was likewise applied in Paris, where we find the water is the Seine, and in Egyptian sen or shena is the tidal-river of the inundation.

Shuma (which permutes with shuna) is the Pool of the Two Truths, in An; the water of the dual aspect here figured as the tidal river.

Ancient Paris stood on the island which divided the Seine into two halves, called the Isle of France. Shen (Eg.) denotes the dual, twin-water. The names of the Seine and the Cockney rivers are important. Shen is to complete an orbit, it is the circuit, extent, [p.184] perimeter; shen, to stop, bend, twist, turn away, turn back, turn down. It is the Egyptian name for the measure of the inundation, the hieroglyphic of which is the shent. We have a form of the word in shunt, to turn back on another line. The game of shindy, also called shinny, is designated from its motion to and fro, like the ebb and flow of a tide, as Egyptian shows. Now, if we apply this to the name of the place on the river Thames called shene, we shall see that it was so named as the spot to which the flow of the tide reached, and where it ebbed again. That in Egyptian is shen.

This may supply a landmark for the geologist. Shandon on the River Lea (Ireland), on the Clyde (Gairloch), and in other localities, may be named on this principle of identifying the place where the tide once turned.

There is an old sacred place in the county of Durham called Cocken Hall, round which the River Wear winds two ways, and khekh-nu (Eg.) means the water that goes to and fro. In this instance it is a tidal river, but the tide does not now ascend so far up; the name, however, appears to show that it did so in the past, and the Wear was a khekh-nui, or tidal water.

The cockney, as a person, is not named from the Thames. He is a form of the April fool called the gouk. In the north of England April fools are April gowks. The gouk, gowk, or goke, is sent on a foolish errand, repulsed, and sent back again, and khekh (Eg.) signifies to repulse, and send back. Hence the khekh, or gouk. The cuckoo is the gec, as the bird of return, that goes to and fro. Thus we have the khekh, as a pair of scales, the tide, the cuckoo, and the fool. Now in the hieroglyphics the word for water or inundation is written nu, nnu (nenu) and nini (nni), and the same word is the name of the little boy, the nini (nui), who is our ninny. The ninny, or fool, who goes to and fro on fool's errands, is the analogue of the khekh, river, and, like it, is the khekh-nini, khekh-nui, or cockney. In relation to the First of April, khekh (Eg.) is the balance, equinoctial level. Cockaigne, as place, was the mythical land of promise and plenty, that is the solar country lying eastward, where the waters were crossed and the manifestation to light had occurred, where the corn was seven cubits high, and the ears three cubits long[9]. This was attained at the time of the equinoctial level, the khekh. London, on the Cockney river, as the land of Cockaigne, is connected with the mythological astronomy, as the Gate of Belin likewise shows. Uka (Eg.) means a festival and to be lazy. Khekh-uka-an would answer to Cockaigne, the reputed land of laziness and luxury, a form of An (Heliopolis), placed at the Khekh, on the summit of the equinox. At this point in the planisphere was the Pool of Persea, now represented by the double stream of the Waterman; the one water with two manifestations, [p.185] which may be the two aspects of a tidal river, the water above and the water below, fresh and salt water, milk and blood, or, finally, male and female source.

The khekh balance, the type of tidal motion, takes many forms in English. The sea-cockles are left on the sand by the turning tide. In Devon they are called cocks. Stairs that wind about are called cockle-stairs. The pilgrim and palmer wore the cockleshell as a badge, not that they had been to sea, but because they were wanderers to and fro like the bird of passage, or the tidal water, or the cockle, a tidal shellfish. They too were gecs, khekhs, or cocks. Dampier[10] speaks of a 'cockling sea, as if it had been in a race where two tides meet;' the motion of contrary currents caused the 'cockling.' Shag is another variant. Wicliff translates 'the boat was shagged with waves,'[11] that was, in a cockling sea.

To cocker is to fondle, dandle, jog, or rock up and down. To joggle is to move this way and that. To juggle is based on rapidity of movement to and fro. One khekh hieroglyphic of this motion to and fro, up and down, is the balance, as the figure of the equinoctial level, and the up and down of the two heavens. Khekh passes into our word weigh, and in Bavarian wag is the balance; wage in Dutch; waga, Russian; vág, old Norse. To weigh is to balance, and all turns on the wagging up and down. Goggle, joggle, waggle, gaggles, quake, shiggle, gig, giggle, giglot, gigsy, and many other words are variants, having the same fundamental meaning. Gick-Gack is a name of the clock in nursery language, from the motion of the pendulum to and fro. A jigger in machinery goes to and fro. In giggling the body shakes up and down. A giglet is always on the go. The Gaelic gogach and English kickle denote a wavering and unsteady motion. Goggle-eyes roll to and fro. Nine-pins are called 'gaggles,' and they are set up to be knocked down, and thus illustrate the motion called khekh-ing. In the children's' game, 'Cockle-bread' is made by wobbling the body up and down and to and fro,

'Up with my heels and down with my head,
And this is the way to make Cockledy-Bread.'[12]

The goging or cucking-stool moved up and down in ducking the culprit. The cock on the vane turns to and fro. Hocking at hock-tide is a custom of the male and female alternately lifting each other up and down. The game of hockey consists in driving the ball to and fro.

This derivation of the April fool from the khekh tends to prove that the so-called 'All Fools' Day' is in reality the 'Old Fools' Day,' Scotch, 'Auld Fool's Day.' In an ancient Roman calendar, quoted by Brand[13], there was a feast of Old Fools. The khak in [p.186] Egyptian is the old fool, coward, nincompoop. Kehkeh (Eg.), like the Maori koeke, and Kaffir xego, is the old man. Khekhing, hocking, and hoaxing are all connected with the equinox. The khekh represents the old 'kak,' the god of darkness, who was derided and made sport of when the young sun-god had arisen, in the ascending scale or khekh.

But to return. We might infer that a people coming from the land of the Nile would be sure to confer the names of the inundation on our tidal rivers, and erect the tidal into a type-name. This we find they have done. Temi, as before mentioned, was one name of the Nile inundation. Abhain is an Irish name for a river, and as abh is the river, the suffix probably characterises it. Han (Eg.), or an, is to bring, to come and go, turn and return. Ab is the water, ab­han is the periodic tidal water, named after the typical inundation of the Ab, Hap, Kabh, or Nile.

The River Dove, says Ray, is the Nile of Staffordshire when it overflows its banks in April[14]. There is an old distich,

'In April, Dove's flood
Is worth a king's good.'[15]

Dove rendered by Egyptian is tef or teb. Tef signifies dripping, flowing, and to evacuate. The tepht is the abyss of source, the Welsh dyffed. Dove in the west of England is the name of a thaw. In Egyptian, tep marks the point of commencement of thing, time, and place. This meaning combines the beginning of the overflow, or the thaw, or the land, as in the names of Dyfved and Dover. The name of Staffordshire, we might suppose, would be based on the River Dove or Tef with the s prefixed, as this is the causative prefix to Egyptian verbs. Accordingly we find that stef is an Egyptian name of the inundation of the Nile, and Stafford is the ford of the flooding river. Several of our river-names suggest this origin. Nen is a name and a type of the inundation which, according to Horapollo[16], signified to the Egyptians the new or renewer. Nen-ut is fresh and sweet. We have the River Nen in Northamptonshire, and one of its two sources springs near Staverton, which looks as if it also had been named from stef, the inundation.

The name of the River Shannon is still more to the point of nen being a name of the inundation, for it is the Nile of Ireland in its overflowing and shedding of alluvial soil. Shen-nen (Eg.) reads the periodic type of renewal. Nen (han) also means the bringer, and shannon is the periodic bringer like the Nile. There are large tracts of marshland along the banks of the Shannon deposited when the river overflows its banks; these are called caucasses, and are famous for their fertility[17]. Kau, in Egyptian, is earth, and khus means to found, lay the basis. Shen also is [p.187] to turn away, and return; that is the tidal river; as senas also, it is the tidal or inundating water. Limerick appears to be named from the inundation or tidal river. Rem (Eg,) is to rise and surge up. Rem likewise denotes the place of, remn means extending up to, so far, and rekh is to wash and purify. Thus Limerick may be the place to which the tide ascended. Remi-rekh (Eg.) reads washed by the inundation or tidal water.

The Severn is a tidal river. Nennius[18] calls it the Habren. Hab (Eg.) means periodic, the type of return, tidal. The naming of Severn as the tidal river is also denoted by the two kindred divinities, Sabrina, and Sefa, who is the goddess of the tidal river in Egypt. The goddess of the Severn, and the inundation of the Nile, are one and the same at root. Urne and Orne signify to run. Rene is a watercourse. Thus Hab-rene would be the tidal watercourse. This rene represents the ruan (Eg.), the valley gorge, and outlet of water. In which case the hab-ren, is the tidal river of the valley-gorge.

The Habren or Severn has a different origin to the Hafren and Avon. These are the crawling, sluggish waters. Avon is a Celtic type-name of the river. In Welsh hafru signifies the slow and sluggish. Hefu, hef and af (Eg.), mean to squat, writhe, crawl along the ground like the caterpillar or snake. Nu or n denotes water. Thus Hef-n or Avon is the crawling or sluggish water, as the Avons are; the crawling, winding, serpentine water. The Gothic ahva and Welsh araf, the gentle, include this meaning of af and hefn (Eg.) to crawl along the ground.

The Aff is found in Brittany, the Ive in Cumberland. There are a dozen avons in England, Wales, and Scotland. Besides Shakespeare's Avon there is one in Hampshire, one in Gloucestershire, one in Devon, in Lanark, Banff, Stirling, Monmouth, and other counties. The Eveneny, in Forfarshire, is a diminutive of the Avon. Avon abrades into the aon in Manx, the aune in Devonshire, also the auney; the aney in Meath, and inney in Cornwall.

The Leven implies the al (or ar) compounded with avon. The earliest form of Leven is Alafon, which modifies into Alauna. Leven also means the smooth, like avon. So derived, these are the slow, smooth, crawling alus (aru, Eg. river), unless we take al to signify white.

But we have to include another type in lenn, as renn (Eg.) is the pure unblemished virgin water. This is extant in the Linn, a deep, still pool. Drayton[19] sings of the calm, clear Alen born of Cranborn Chase. Len (renn) may enter into the name of the Ellen in Cumberland, the Allen in Derbyshire and in Leitrim. Matthew Paris[20] calls Alcaster on the Aln, Ellen-Caster, so that the Aln, the Line, the Eryn in Sussex, Loin in Banff, Line in Cumberland, Lyon in Inverness, Leane, Kerry; Lane, Galloway; Laine [p.188] Cornwall, have to be distinguished according to their character, whether they derive from Ellen the pure, the virgin water, or from the Leven, Alafon, the slow, sluggish, crawling, serpentining stream.

Rui (Eg.) is mud, muddy, red, or black-coloured. To this corresponds the Roy (the red) in Invernessshire, and some of the other rivers of similar name, which include the Rye in Yorkshire, Ayrshire, and Kildare; Rue, Montgomery; Rhef, Cambridge; Roe, Derry; Ray in Oxfordshire and Lancashire; Rey, Wilts; Rea, Herts, Warwick, Shropshire. The Gaelic rea, the rapid, Welsh rhe and rau (Eg.), the swift, have to be taken into account. Still the rapid and the red or the deep-coloured are often likely to meet in the same stream. The Warwickshire Rea and Hertford Lea are not the rapid but are the muddy (rui) rivers.

Aur, aru, the Egyptian name of the river, has an earlier form of the water-name in karua, a lake, or some other water-source. These include such names as the Ure, Are, and Aire, Yorkshire; Ayr in Ayrshire and Cardiganshire; Aru, Cornwall; Arro, Warwickshire; Arrow, Herefordshire and Sligo; Aray, in Argyleshire; Ara-gadeen and Ara-glin in Cork; Aru, Monmouth; the Norfolk Yare, the Yair and Yarrow in Selkirkshire; the Yarro Lancashire, the Garry in Perthshire.

The name of the Nile had to be derived from aru, the river as it was called. The river watered the Two Lands, and the plural definite article is nai. From nairu or nar comes the Nile.

In Ireland we find the River Nure is also the Oure, that is by dropping the Egyptian article the. The River Nure or the Oure is precisely the same as Aru and Naru (Nile) in Egyptian. Boate[21], in 1645, calls the Irish river Nure or the Oure. Anfheior is the full Irish name. So the Egyptian a is an earlier fa in more than one sign. The Nure, like the Nile, is a dual river.

The hieroglyphic sign of the inundation is a triple vase (Ò), with two spouts, from which the water issues in two streams, one on each side of the sign. One name of this symbol is khenti; this abrades into khent. Khenti means an image. Khen is the waters, liquid, within. Ti is two. Khenti is the plural of water, say as red and blue Nile. Near Abury in Wiltshire a river rises in two heads, and realizes the Egyptian image of source called the khenit or khent. Our twin river there is the Kennet. This identifies the twofoldness of the ideographic khent. The hieroglyphic of the vases has been variously read khent, shent, and fent[22]. Latterly fent has been given up. Yet, the fent, as the nose sign (¦), is one of its determinatives. The English fount makes it almost certain that fent was one of its names. The nose, as fent, is a fount of life, the dual organ of breath; and the fent imaged by the vases symbolised [p.189] the water-fount of life. In English fend signifies livelihood, means of living.

Diodorus[23] says that when the Nile overflowed most parts of Egypt, and the waters were coming down full-sweep, the river, for its impetuosity and exceeding swiftness of its course, was then called the Eagle. As the Egyptians rendered l by r, the Eagle corresponds to our eagre or acker, a peculiar vehemence of motion in the tide of some rivers. It is still applied to a dangerous surge and eddy in the River Trent called the rume (Eg. rem, to rise and surge up.)

'Well know they that the Reurne yf it aryse,
An Aker is it dept.'[24]

The word aker was explained by the early lexicographers by the Latin impetus maris, which they said preceded the flood or flow. In Egyptian the eagle as bird is akhem or akhmu, which likewise means an extinguishing wave of water. Akh is to rise up; mu, water. The eagle was of course a symbol of swiftness and ascending power. The bore is the name of the reume or aker, which occurs annually in the River Severn at Gloucester about the time of the spring equinox. Ber (Eg.) signifies to be ebullient, and boil up to the topmost height. Berwi (Welsh) is to boil and bubble. Periodic manifestation was one of the first forms of phenomena observed and named, and the bore of our rivers was an especial phenomenon. The Parret is a river with a 'bore,' and this apparently enters into its name. Per (Eg.) interchanges with ber, to well up, be ebullient, manifest periodically; ret (Eg.) means repeatedly. Thus parret names the periodic high tide. In the Hoogly, one of the mouths of the Ganges, the Bore is known as the bora, and in the Amazon the Indians call it Poro-Roca. A reviewer in The Athenaeum for July 3, 1880, remarks that under 'Humber,' a Shropshire name for the cockchafer, Jackson, in her Shropshire Word-Book[25] gives additional currency to the old notion that the river Humber took its name from the humming noise made by its waters, and says, 'This is certainly wrong. The Humber does not hum more than other rivers, nor nearly so much as the Parret, the Ouse, the Trent, and other rivers on which the high tidal wave known as the bore or eagre manifests itself. The origin of the name is at present an unsolved enigma.'[26] In Egyptian hum means to return, to be tidal; it is a variant of hun, to go to and fro. Ber (Eg.) is to boil up; ber, the supreme height, cap, tip, top, roof; this names the Bore, and the Humber is doubly designated from Egyptian, as the tidal and borial river. Hummie is a Scotch name of shindy or hockey, which has the tidal movement; and the ham-mock is the swing bed. This sense of hum passes into [p.190] hum-drum and hum-strum, applied to recurring, and, in hum, to incessant motion, whence the cock (khekh)-chafer is also the hum-ber.

The Celtic dwr for water has earlier forms in dovar and dobar, which, as tep-ar (Eg.) denotes a water from the point of commencement, as the well of water, like Tobermory, that is, water from the source. Dureeck in Nottinghamshire is thus the tep-ar-bekh, or water from the beginning in the beck. The Beck is the Egyptian bekh, for the place of birth, the begetting, birth itself. It is a delusion to look on this as a Teutonic addition to the dwr. The Dowr-water in Yorkshire is also the water from the source. In this case the water is the uat-ur (Eg.), after the Dour from the source has widened out. Many rivers were named from this origin. We have the Dour, in Fife, Aberdeen, and Kent; Duir in Lanark; Thur in Norfolk; Dore in Hereford; Durra in Cornwall; Doro in Queen's County; Durar-water, Argyle. But not all the durs and turs are to be derived from dobar or tepar. These have been lumped together as dwrs, or waters, with no power of distinguishing them by any principle of naming.

The chief type-name in Egypt for river is aru, with the variants, aur, ar, or ur. But which aru or ar in a given case is the question. The tep-aru is the first aru, from the source. But we have turs and ders, which are only branch-rivers. And teru (Eg.) means the branch of a river and a measure of land. This is included among our turs or ders, perhaps as Derwent. The town of Derby (or Deoraby) stands on the Derwent, which is an interior Ter to the Trent. Went possibly represents the khent (Eg.) either as the inner or the dual water. Khent as the lake and interior water is certainly retained in Derwent-water, and probably in Windermere. Trent is absolutely a boundary water of the county, and as Trent is the lower Derwent, and ent (Eg.) is the lower of two, and means 'out of,' it looks as if Trent were the ter-ent, the lower of the two ders or drws. Nt (Eg.) also means limit.

The tepar, tobar, or dru, as water from the source, becomes the tur and dur, as the name of a natural boundary, the land-limit, the first lines drawn on the topographical chart. Many rivers are turs in this sense that are not named from the wellspring or fountainhead. They are named from teru (Eg.), a measure of land, the boundary and margin of a shire or other district. The River Nidd in Yorkshire is still a land-limit and boundary for two different Hunts, those of York and Ainsty and Bramham Moor.

A good example of river-naming in Egyptian occurs at Duruthy Cave, near Sorde, in the Western Pyrenees. The name Duruthy actually describes its topographical situation in Egyptian. It overlooks the junction of the two rivers Gavethe Gave de Pau and the Gave d'Olérontwo tributaries of the Adour. The name of the [p.191] Gave corresponds to Kapu, the name of the Nile in the oldest form, and there are two Gaves whose branches blend at Duruthy. Turu (Eg.) is the branch of a river, and ti reduplicates. Teru-ti would indicate the double river-branch. They flow into the Adour, the name of which, as atur (Eg.) signifies the river, limit, measure, and a region determined by the Propylon and house or temple. Duruthy is the place of the famous Bone-cave.

The tur, as river-branch and boundary, has its earlier form in atur (Eg.), with the same meaningthe water, the river that constitutes a measure and limit of land. With this agree the Adurs in Berwickshire, the adur in Sussex and Wiltshire, the addar in Mayo. This gives the name to several of our streams, as the Cornish atre, the Welsh atro, the etherow in Derbyshire, the adur near Shoreham, which latter name echoes in modern phrase, the shore, coast, land-limit, signified by atr in Egyptian.

The same thing occurs in Thetford, the ford of the River Thet. Tet (Eg.) is to ford, cross over, pass through; therefore the thet was the fordable river in Egyptian; a thing of importance in early times. At adds a different type to the ar or water, which has in each case to be distinguished before we know the nature of the particular name. It may go back to kat, so as to include the cheddar. In kat or khet we obtain the type of the navigable river. Ath (Eg.) is a canal. Khet is to navigate. Here it may be noted that Egyptian supplies a far better type-name for the Spanish rivers the Guada, Guadiana, Guadarama, Guadalete, Guadalimar and Guadalquivir, than the Arabic wadi, the channel of a stream. The present writer would derive these names from khata (Eg.) to sail, go, navigate. These were first named as the navigable rivers, that is, khata supplies the navigable as its type.

But here again we find two types under one name, as khat also means a ford; so guado in Italian is the ford. Thus the river named from khat may be the fordable, i.e., the wade-able, or it may be, the navigable water, for which the water itself must be questioned. Khet, as the ford, is preserved in Quat, near Bridgnorth in Shropshire, where we not only find the quat but quat-ford, and the ford repeats the quat, as in Watford. Quat is an earlier form of wath, a ford, therefore the khat.

Another good example of the primary nature of naming the rivers and flowing waters as the self-cut boundary lines may be found in the Irish sruth, for a stream, when interpreted by the Egyptian srut, to cut, dig, plant, as a means of arranging, distributing, organising, from ser, to arrange, distribute, organize, make private and sacred. Sruta is to cut out, engrave, as the stream did in its course, whence its adoption as the distributor and divider of lands and the establisher of frontiers and boundaries to be held sacred. The river formed the [p.192] first shire and the sherh (Eg.) is a river, a source. Rivers were the ready-made lines on the map of the land. This principle of naming them in Egyptian as water-boundaries of the district or region of land is very apparent. If we take a few of the border rivers and those found, or once extant, such as the River Tees in the north and the Teise in the south, on the margin of counties this will be evident. Tesh is an Egyptian name of the nomes into which Egypt was divided; tesh is a frontier, and the Tees is a frontier river; tesh is a district, frontier, the nome, made separate. Tes is a liquid measure; so is the River Tees.

On the borders of Denbigh and Flint there are, or were in Drayton's time, the rivers Hespin and Ruthin. Hesp is likewise an Egyptian name for a district, land measured off from or by water; a square enclosed. Rut means to cut, engrave, figure, girdle, tie, fasten, retain the form, separate. Both names agree with these meanings. This principle will account for the naming of our rivers Stour. The our or aur (Eg.) may be taken for the water-word as it is in various other names, the river, for example. Ru (Eg.) is the path, channel, outlet, and with the f for 'it,' we have ruf or riv, whence rib and ripe, the bank of the ar, or water, our river.

Sat is Egyptian for the nome; aur for the river. The Stours were the boundaries of districts. Ster (Eg.), to lay out, agrees with the sat-our or nome-river, and this root enters into the name of scores of German streams, such as Alster and Ulster, the Stren and Stroo being akin to our stour and stream, the water-boundary of the nome, or district laid out.

In the west of England stream means to draw out at length, to pass along in a set course actively. Ster (Eg.) is to lay out lengthwise and together; and as am (Eg.) is belonging to, it seems likely that our word stream is sat-aur-am, the water-boundary of the nome, water and land being laid out together.

The Eridanus or Iarutana (Eg.) of the planisphere is the dividing river and the water that divides. The River Po is also known as the Eridanus, and in Egyptian the equivalent pu means to divide. Ten or tna (Eg.) is to separate, divide in two, halve. This name of rivers, as the boundaries that divide the lands, is found in the dons of Brittany and other parts of France, and also the Danube, Dnieper, the ancient Tanais, Donetz, Dniester, Danasper, Adonis, Tanaro, and others. This gives a name to our Tynes and Dons; Dun, Ayrshire and Lincolnshire; Dean, Forfar and Notts; Dane, Cheshire, Deen, Aberdeen; Tone in Somerset; Eden in Yorkshire, Kent, Fife, and Cumberland; Teane, Stafford; Teyn, Derbyshire; Tian, Jura, whilst the Tanot in Montgomeryshire, and Tynet in Banffshire, show the participial form of ten (Eg.) to divide, be tyned or made separate. Some of these, no doubt, are modifications of teign, a Devonshire river. Tekh [p.193] (Eg.) is the hard form of tesh, the nome boundary, and denotes a frontier, a crossing. The type of this would be the tekhnu; and as nu is water, the teign is the water-frontier, that which divides and makes separate in the Tun. A rivulet near Ambrose Hole, Hampshire, is called Danestream. Danesford also occurs in Shropshire. But these have no relation to the Danes except to show the perversion of the water-name. Tam (Gaelic), don in Armorican, and tonu in Slavonic are the Danes meant. They are forms of the dividing stream. There is a river Toucques in Normandy. If we take the ues (uskh) as the water, the toucq answers to the Egyptian tek (tuk), a frontier fixed, and the toucq-uskh is the river of a fixed frontier. The Tagus agrees with the Toucques, as the river of the tek, frontier and land-limit. Tesh and teka permute within Egypt, and the names of the Tess, Teise, Tagus, and Toucques out of it. No better illustration could be given of the water being the first boundary than in the name of boundary, as the Bourne. This was then applied to the burn of water, and thus the burn and bourne are one in the water-boundary.

'Come o'er the bourne, Bessy, to me.'[27]

alludes to the water-bourne. In Wiltshire we have the River Bourne. In Herts the Bulbourne. The Isbourne, the Ashbourne and Ousebourne are all of them uskh-boundaries, not mere Scottish burns.

The Celtic uisge also contains the elements of u or ui (Eg) the line, limit, edge, canton, territory, so often applied to the country in Central Africa, as in U-ganda, and sekh is the liquid, the drink, English suck, the name also of a tributary river, and with the u prefix uisge reads the sekh of the limit, line, edge, direction the uskh, as the extent, range, boundary, equal to the uskh collar, a type of binding round, therefore of boundary for the land. In the earlier form of the ui we have khi to govern, rule, protect, dominate. The same word sekh or uskh means to cut out, incise, engrave, memorize. Thus the sekh or uskh, as river, is the dividing line of the Sokes, as in Essex, with its six rivers and six sokes or divisions of the county. According to Drayton the river Team, which divides Shropshire and Hereford on the Cambrian side, is the furious[28]. Again, the team (Eg. temi) reproduces the name of the inundation. Tema is also to swoop down, cut in two, announce, ticket. Ru (Eg.) is a mark of division, a chapter, fraction; rua, to separate. This, which becomes the French rue, a street, gives a title to several rus and llhus, in Britain, as rivers. We have the River Penka, and this word in Egyptian means to disjoin, separate. The [p.194] Sput is a small river in Westmoreland, and sput (Eg.) is a district of country marked off, one form of this being the sept enclosure known by that name on the monuments[29].

The river Gyppen, now called the Orwell, the river on which Ipswich, that was once Gyppes-wick stands, repeats the Egyptian khepeni, a measure of liquids, a brimming measure of beer; our gyppen being a liquid-measure of land.

Ru (Eg.) is the mouth, gate, way, gorge for water. Ar (Eg.) signifies the water. From these come our abers. Ap-ru, or ab-ru is the water-mouth, gorge, gate of passage for water, the outrance of a river. Aberdeen is Ab-ru-deen, the outlet, gate, or mouth of the Deen-water.

From hi (Eg.), the water, stream, or more particularly the canal, we obtain the hithe as a landing-stage on the river, or seat on the seashore, as in Hithe, Rotherhithe, Queenhithe, Greenhithe. There are several Hithes on the banks of the Thames. The name has curious illustrations in Egyptian. Hi (Eg.) is the water, the canal, or stream; ta signifies bearing, carriage, seat. Whence hit is a boat, as a carriage on the water. The canal, as hit, is determined by the hippopotamus, the bearer of the waters, who (as Ta-urt) was the seat. The hit is also a seat, a station, a limited place on the canal, our Hithe. The Hithe, in the form of hit or hut, then, existed as the boat, the seat, the bearer of the water, and a water-region or enclosure. Still earlier is the hat, our hatch, or dam, by which the waters were banked off and land created. This, the sign of chaos and determinative of pre-commencement so to say, of creation, is the earliest form of the Hithe as a landing-place, and its type is worn on the head of the goddess Egypt, as the sign of land obtained from the water. So ancient is the Hithe. In Erith we have the Aru-hithe, the landing-stage on the river. This will prove the origin and application of the principle of naming to be Egyptian.

Other names from the same source abound. At the beginning is the beck, the infant stream. Bekh (Eg.), as before said, denotes the birthplace, and to enfanter. The beck is the water from the place of birth, the river in embryo. In Avonsbeck the beck crawls along like the child on all fours from the birthplace. The burn may be derived from nu (n), water, and bur, to well forth, or per, to come out, appear, become a visible form of manifestation.

The melta is one of the 'handmaids' of Neith. Merta (Eg.) is a person attached to; also merta, a water attached to. Hepsey is another affluent of Neith. Heb is the fountain of source; hep, hidden; si or sif is a child.

The Smestal is a tributary of the Stour; tal being a permuted form of ter, the branch river, and sems (Eg.), the Minister, smes-tal becomes the ministering branch.


Those who know the nature of the rivers, if they have not lost their character since Drayton's time, will be able to identify the principle of naming the Art and Werry in Cardiganshire. Both art and uri are names of the inundation. Uaru represents our word hurry, and means to go swiftly, fly. But there is another form as huru, the tranquil; urt is the gentle, peaceful, meek; and this may be the Irt in Cumberland, the 'pearl-paved Irt,' which, though the smallest of rivers, was, according to Drayton[30], the richest from the pearls found in it. Urt (Eg.) also means the crown, crowning; arut is spoil, and art is milk, the white.

There is the same difficulty or choice in the name of kart and its congeners. We have the kart in Scotland and ta-grath in Wales. In one case kart (Eg.) is the dark and silent; in another, kart means a cataract. So the Gaelic clith, the equivalent of kart, the cataract, means the strong, the typical force, whence the Clyde and Cludan in Scotland, the Glide in Ireland, the Creddy in Devon, the Clwyd, Cloyd and Clydach in Wales.

Aysgarth Force, on the River Ure, in Wensleydale, has a cataract when the Ure is in flood, which has been compared with the Nile. Its grandeur depends on the stream being swollen to the flood. One name of the flood in Egyptian is aash[31], and kart is a cataract. Aash-kart, or Aysgarth, means the cataract of the flood. Uri, a name of the inundation of Nile, is repeated in the name of the ure.

The Rothay runs fast; rauti (Eg.) is swift. Rauu, is swift; ti, go along; Rothay is the swift-running water. The Calder is in Celtic the winding water; in Egyptian kar-ter would indicate the extremely winding.

The River Bry that rises in Selwood runs or glides along in such a winding course that in one part it almost encircles Glastonbury, Arthur's Avalon. Fri (Eg.) signifies to manifest, appear by sliding, slipping, and wrapping round, as does the River Bry. Our prying and peering come from this root.

The River Medway is peculiar from its long wandering windings, covering some thirty square miles of the surface of the country with its trunk and branches. It is said to have been called the vaga, on account of its wanderings[32]. The primitive of our word way is the Egyptian uakk, a road, or way, and matt means to unfold, to unwind, round and round. Mat (Eg.) also denotes a surface of water, and matr is a name of the marshes. At Tunbridge the river is separated into five different channels, just above the town, which join again into one below it. This names the town in Egyptian; tna, or tun, means to divide and turn away, or separate.

The Pool of Pant in the Ritual is the mythical Red Sea and lake of primordial matter, which was the place of dissolution for those who [p.196] were resolved again into the elements. Panta was the ancient name of the English river now called the Black Water; black and red are permutable. Pant is paint, and the na (Eg.) paint is red and black. Both are negative.

There is a river in the county of Limerick named the Morning Star. The old name of it was Sam Hair or Samer; this in former times was a woman's name. Shem and sem in Egyptian are type-names for a woman, the woman who bears. Sem signifies breeding; sam-her is the delightful because fertile woman, a summer of a woman, for it has the same meaning applied to woman as to season. In Egyptian shem is summer, harvest, and the woman. Ar or aru is the river. Shem-ar is also the tributary river, the fertilising or feeding river. The French and Belgic sam-aru, the Somme, is equivalent to the Egyptian shem-aru, the fertile river. The Persian name of a river, Samar, is the same. Shem (Eg.), to recede and retrace, is likewise a tidal name. But the sam-aru is also known as the Morning Star. Possibly in this way: samhair is sounded savvir. Now the Morning Star, as Venus, was named Zipporah and Lucifer. This was the star of stars. Sep or sif (Eg.) is the star; it is both star and morning, therefore the morning-star; the Lady of the Blush of Heaven, as the Akkadians called Venus of the Morning. This meaning is recoverable in sav-var, the river of sav, sef, or seb, the star of the gateway, the dawn, the one woman-star in heaven, as a planetary type, and the sole one as the feminine Seb (Sebt or Sothis), the star of sefa, the inundation, and therefore an equivalent of shem (sam), the woman of rivers. Possibly the title of the Morning Star is not a mistake after all for a name of the Irish river Sam-hair.

The Great Mother, Teph or Typhon, gives the name to various streams called taff, taw, teify, and teviot. Tepht (Eg.) is the entrance, door, gate, valve, hole, cave of source, the mouth of the abyss. This was personified as the Great Mother, of whom we have an immense image in the Mendip Hills, famed of old for the caves in which it rained or drizzled; a type of teph. A cave called by Drayton[33] the Wockey-Hole, is one of these. Uakh is Egyptian for wet and marshy. Uka is water of the inundation (every name of the inundation was reapplied in our Isles), and out of the Mendip Hills, says this writer, springs the Frome, that is, out of the place of the rainy or weeping caves. Rem (Eg.) is to weep; f represents the article or pronoun. The rem (prem, frome) is the river that was wept. We have the rem without the article in the Arme in Devon, and again urm is a name of the inundation. The Frome is said to rise near Evershot. This name read by Egyptian uf-er-shet means to be shed secretly, squeezed out, expressed drop by drop. Shet is a name of mystery; secret, sacred, mystical; a pool of water; uf, drop, pressed out; r, to be. The name of Mendip is [p.197] apparently derived with the same signification. Mena is the wet-nurse, and to suckle. One of her names is tef, and tef (Eg.), the equivalent of dip, means to drip, drip. Tef enters into the name of Tefnut, a goddess of wet. Mona was the nursing mother of the British Druids. The oldest name of St. David's in Wales is Hen-Menew, old mother; in Egyptian the divine wet-nurse, Teft, whence the name of David. And Men-dip, the modern name of the weeping cave, we take to be a personification of Mena-Tef, Teb, Tep, or Typhon. In Mendip are the Cefn caves, or caves of Khef, another name of the old bringer-forth.

The Yorkshire river Nidd is said to be designated from its course being for a considerable way subterraneous. Net, or ent (Eg.), means out of. Also net is the lower region, the underworld of the goddess Neith. Nidd is thus a form of neath. The Nidd enters the Ouse at Nun-Monkton. Nun (Eg.) is the new water, a name of the inundation.

The Dripping Well, on the banks of the River Nidd, in which a petrifying spring falls from above, is credited with being the birthplace and abode of Mother Shipton. Is Mother Shipton then a form of the primeval Great Mother, who personified source itself, and poured forth the water of life as Nupe, Kefa, and Sefa? Sefa, the earlier Kefa, is a goddess of the inundation of Egypt. Sefa (Eg.) is to make humid, to dissolve and liquefy, hence to drop, as in the dropping well of the River Nidd, and the Mendip Cave.

Shep (Eg.) means to exude, flow, evacuate periodically, like the inundation. Shep is interchangeable with khep. Shept and shepsh, the hinder-part, are one with khept and khesp. This makes it probable that Mother Shipton, the prophetess, is a form of Khept, the British Kêd, as the goddess of the north, the underworld of Neith or Nidd, where the Well of Source was placed or personified as the feminine emaner who wore the red crown, or poured forth from the Tree of Life, or fed with the breasts of the wet-nurse.

In An, the place of commencement, was the well, the Pool of the Two Truths. The well and the water are identified with our Easter customs.

The Aldermen of Nottingham and their wives from time beyond memory had, in 1751, been accustomed on Monday in Easter week, after morning prayer, to march from the town to St. Anne's Well, with the town waits playing before them[34]. The Well of Anne answers to the Pool of the Two Truths in An. St. Anne, as at Jerusalem and other places, has been adopted as patron of the Pool of An. Amt (Neit), the figurer in An who is represented with the shuttle or knitter, is perpetuated in the name of Nottingham. [p.198] Anit was the weaver, and this became a great town of the weavers or net-makers.

In the Celtic mythology the presiding spirit of the waters, in what is erroneously termed well-worship, was called Neithe[35], identical with the Egyptian Anit or Neith. The place of the well was that of the Uskh Hall of the Two Truths, stationed in An, the last of the three water signs.

At Whitby they had the formality of planting what was called the Penny Hedge in the bed of the River Esk on Ascension Eve. 'Nine stakes,' 'nine gedders,' and 'nine strout-stowers,' were regularly planted, and a blast was blown on a horn by the bailiff of the Lord of the Manor, rendered, 'Out on you! out on you! out on you!'[36] Our number 9 corresponds to the nine non-water signs, and relates the custom to the deluge-imagery. Pena (Eg.) means to reverse, turn back, return. The symbolists were figuratively commanding the waters to retire, and marking the boundary of the deluge.

The water of the Pool of the Two Truths was in one aspect the water of life and death. The Strathdown Highlanders have the Pool of Two Truths, although the ceremony of drawing from it has been changed from the vernal equinox to the winter solstice. On New Year's Eve they draw from the well called the 'dead and living ford,' from which a pitcherful is taken in profound silence, without the vessel touching the ground, lest its virtue should be lost. Early on New Year's morning the Usque-Cashrichd, or water from the 'dead and living ford,' is drunk as a potent charm that lasts until the next New Year's Day[37].

In Cornwall there is a well in the parish of Madern called Madern Well, and this name reproduces that of the Two Truths, called Mat. Mat-ren (Eg.) renders the name of Mat, and Mat was the more ancient name of An, the place of the Pool of the Two Truths. Ren (Eg.) also denotes renewal and making young; and this was the Well of Healing that flowed with the water of life.

In the Bay of Nigg (Co. Kincardine) there is a well, called Downy Well, and near it a hill, called Downy Hill, a small green islet in the sea. The passage to the isle is by a bridge, named the Bridge of a Single Hair, which young people cross over to cut their lovers' names on the green sward, Downy at the crossing suggests tennui (Eg.), the place of the crossing, hence the bridge; whilst Nigg is the variant of ankh (nkh), the word for life and living[38].

Two Egyptian names of the well, or abyss of source, are tes and teph. Both recur in Tissington and Dovedale, where the wells on Holy Thursday are all decorated with flowers, and they have a particular variety of the double daisy, known as the Tissington daisy, [p.199] peculiar to the place[39]. The Two Truths are still found there in one flower in addition to the Pool.

Near Newcastle-upon-Tyne there are two sacred wells not far from each other. One is named Rag-Well, and the other is at a place called Jesmond. The Rag-Well is the Rekh-Well, the well of purifying; and in Egyptian hesmen is the natron, and the pool of purging, as one of the two waters. Hesmen is also a name of the menstrual purification. These two wells will be again referred to in further elucidation of the subject.

Karti (Eg.) is a name of holes underground, therefore of wells. Tera (Eg.) means to invoke, rub, drive away, obliterate, and tera-karti answers to the name of the Well of Drachaldy in Scotland, much sought in Pennant's time for its waters of healing[40].

Near Tideswell, in Derbyshire, there is an intermittent spring called the ebbing and flowing well. The place is named Bar-Moor. In Egyptian bar is to be ebullient and boil up; mer is water; bar-mer is the ebullient water. Tideswell is probably a form of Tephts-well; tet (Eg.) is an abraded name of the tepht, the well of source, whence the word tide.

Near Great Berkhamstead (Herts.) there is a Dudswell. Tut, teft, teb, and keb, names of the old typhonian goddess, the suckler of source, are all names of holy wells.

Gubb's Well, near Cleave, in Devon, is the name of a chalybeate spring. Kheb was a name of the Sacred Nile; kab is the water and the place of libation; kabh is pure, or purifying water; kherp, or kherf (Cleave), signifies the consecrated, holy place.

The well at Oundle in Dob's Yard was reputed to drum against any important events. This is stated in the Travels of Tom Thumb[41] who says, 'No one in the place could give a rational account of their having heard it, though almost every one believes the truth of the tradition.' Baxter, in the World of Spirits[42], says he heard the well in Dob's Yard drum like any drum beating a march. It lasted several days and nights. This was at the time of the Scots coming into England. It drummed also at several other changes of times. Such a natural phenomenon would arrest attention. Teb is the Egyptian name for a drum. Tupar is the tabor or tambourine. Dob is the Egyptian teb, goddess of the north and of the tepht, the abyss or well of source here found in the yard at Oundle. She passed into the later Hathor, to whom the drum or tambourine was given. If the well 'drummed' periodically, and was supplied by an intermittent spring, that probably furnished the name of Oundle. Un (Eg.) is being periodical, and tur means to wash, dip, purify. Un-tur is the periodic purification.

There is a Routing-well at Inveresk, Midlothian, which is said to predict storms by the noise it makes. Rut or ter (Eg.), with the [p.200] same sign, means to indicate time, and repeat. The Well of St. Eunys, in the parish of Sancred, according to Borlase[43], manifested its most salutary influence upon the last day of the year. San (Eg.) means to heal and save. Sen or shen also denotes the last day of the year, as the completion of the circuit. Khrit (Eg.) signifies the victims, the fallen victims.

In the Isle of Lewis there is a well called St. Andrew's: it is in the village of Shadar. It is used for healing and divination; the natives made a test of it to know whether sick persons would die of their ailments. They send one with a wooden dish to fetch some water; the dish is laid gently on the surface of the water, and if it turns round sunways, the patient will live; if whiddershins, he will die[44].

In Egyptian, sha is the pool, and ter signifies to question, interrogate, invoke, as well as to rub and drive away. Sha-ter is the divining pool or well.

We cannot here include the rivers of the world, but water is a thing so initial and vital that its naming ought to afford a crucial test of Egyptian nomenclature and of an unity of origin once for all. In the mythologies, water is the first principle, factor, and type of existence. All naming of water originates in the feminine water of life, poured out by the genetrix; the water on which souls are nourished, and over which the spirit broods in creation. And Egypt supplies the words for water to all the chief groups of languages in the world.

A, dew; Aa, bedew; A, water; Heh, inundation; Ia, wash, water, whiten, purify.

A, Akkadian,
A, Norse.
Aw, Kurd.
Ea, Anglo-Saxon.
Awe, Zaza.
Aya, Tshampa.
Awa, Bramhu.
Oee, Banjak Batta.
Owai, Savu.
Waij, Cocos Island.
Aiyah, Korinchi.
Wai, Bugis.
Wai, Annatom.
Wai, Fiji.
Eeia, Masaya.
Oh, Santa Barbara.
Aha, Mohave.
Eau, French.
Je, Susu African.
Jah, Pessa African.
Hih or Hwih, Chinese.
Heih or Heue, Chinese.
Ahu, Agaw.
Yui, Khoibu.
Yeho, Jakun.
Jucu, Moxos.
I, Guarani.
Wai, Maruwi.
Ai, Sasak.
Eyau, Catawba.
Oi, Bima.
Wai, Ende.
Owai, Rotti.
Waya, Wokan.
Wai, Mandhar.
Wai, Bauro.
Wi, Mare.
Wai, Malay or Polynesian.
Aya, Chankali.
Hou, Manchu Tartar.
Woxo, Mandingo.
Aha, Cuchan.
Ia, Otomaku.
Veh, Bali.
Jo, Namsang.
Vi, Vurak.
I, Kamskatkan.
I, Tupi.
Iah, Dizzela.
Haha, Vagua.
Wahe, Shina.
Hoh, Jura Samang.
Wahe, Deer.
He, Warow.
Wa, Zyrianian.
Ja, Vogul.
Ja, Magyar.
Ya, Burmese.
Yi, Mano African.
Ya, Gbese African.
Yar, Myammaw.
Yowa, Lohorong. 

Ab (Egyptian), water, pure water. 

An, Persian.
An, Kashmir.
Abh, Irish.
Aa, Bakhara.
Obu, Western Pushta.

Ak (Egyptian), the liquid mass of the celestial height. Akh, water.

Ach, Welsh.
Waca, Mayoruna.
Aqua, Iquito.
Caqua, Salivi.
Achye; Mid.
Kha, Dieguno.
Augr, Arnya.
Ock, Toba Batta.
Aki, Ternati.
Oco, Correguage.
Acuh, Chapacura.
Oiche, Gaelic.
Ick, Cornish.
Eku, Ebe.
Euak, Guachi.
Agho, Fadaha.
Acho, Kaffa.
Ek, Takeli.
Aqua, Latin.
Honaca, Mayoruna.
Vge, San Pedro.
Ak, Attakapa.
Aichu, North Tankhul.
Oan, Chocktaw.
Atgue, French Romn.
Yacu, Quiche, Peru.
Yakup, Puelche.
Ugh, Kashkari.
Ake, Ceram.
Ocudu, Betoi.
Aeco, Ge.
Ega, Gafat.
Acuo, Gonga.
Akka, Yangaro.
Oko, Isoama.
Ouge, Albanian.
Vige, Soso.

 Ankh (Egyptian), liquid of life.

Aningo, Mpongwe.
Nke, Bamon.
Nki, Kanun.
Ngookko, Aiawong.
Ngi, Kanem.
Nke, Balu.
Nki, Ngola.
Engi, Munio.
Ngongi, Maori.
Inko, Tocantins.
Tanak, Unaladska.
Engi, Mumo.
Aing, Madura.
Ninhanga, Jupuroco.
Tanak, Kadiak.
Tang, Kusunda.
Nlangu, Nyombe.
Pankhu, Sunwar.
Nak, Tonkin.
Ying, Ostiak.
Ongou, Fertit.
Azanak, Lien.
Niogodi, Mhaya.
Aing, Sumenap.
Amango, Nubian.
Ong, Lepcha.
Minqi, Okuloma.
Riang, Tahlung.
Uhung, Nizhni Uda.
Kiang, Chinese.

Ap (Egyptian), liquid, first essence. Hefn, to crawl along.

Aph, Biluch. Afon or Avon, Celtic.  

  Ash (Egyptian), wet, emission. Kash, to water, inundate.

Uash, Opatoro.
Guass, Guajiquiro.
Wasser, German
Guask, Intibuca.
Esk, Celtic.
Uisge, Gaelic.

 Bah (Egyptian), inundation.

Pah, Chemuhuevi.
Peh, Aino of Kamchatka.
Vehi, Manatoto.
Bala, Welsh; effluence of a river.
Poh, Tesuque.
Vehi, Timur.
Beck, English.

 Bai (Egyptian), water, visit, limit. Ba, water, drink.

Vai, Marquesas.
Vai, Ticopia.
Be, Batta.
Bi, Chanta and Baikha.
Bu, Koi.
Pa, Wihinasht.
Vai, Kanaka of the Sandwich Islands.
Bay, Mayorga.
Bê, Tawgi.
Bu, Motarian.
Pa, Shoshoni.

 Hes (Egyptian), a liquid.

Esi, Dofla.
Wesi, Estonian.
Wesi, Fin.
Wesi, Olonets.
Ezi, Adampi.
Asi, Abor.
Wesi, Karelian.
Wesi, Vod.
Ezi, Mahi.

 Iuma or Ima (Egyptian), sea.

Ammah, Cherokee.
Ame; Sobo.
Ame, Egbele.
Hama, Purus.
Em, Peiaong.
Immek, Labrador.
Huma, Aymara.
Ame, Bini.
Amu, Bode.
Amu, Karehare.
Ampo, Lutuatni.
Emak, mouth of the Anadyr.

Karua (Egyptian), lake, pond.

Kharr (river), Bengali.
Corr, Irish,
Goor (salt water), Erroob.
Kaling, Wiradurei.
Garra (river), Ho.
Gur (running water), Akkadian.
Khar (river), Uraon.
Ghurr (rivulet), Arabic.
Goila (fresh water), Redacar Bay.
Goro (river), Chepang.


Gouer (brook), Cornish.
Coora, Juri.
Kell, English, a well.
Were, English, pond or pool.

 Kep (Egyptian), inundation.

Gaippe, Head of Bight. Kepe, King George's Sound. Kapi, Parnhalla.

 Khekh (Egyptian), fluid.

Kik, Talatui.
Kihk, Tshokoyem.
Wokh, Baraki.
Kuk, San Raphael.
Haache, Coconaaricopa.

 Mena (Egyptian), to suckle; Menat, wet-nurse.

Meenee, Yankton.
Meenee, Minetari.
Mini, Dor.
Min, Mbofla.
Mine, Dakota.
Mant, Tisnmani.
Menya, Kisansa.
Mane, Begharmi.

 Mer (Egyptian), sea, basin, lake, water.

Mare, Latin.
Mer, French.
Mel, Bolar.
Malum, New Ireland.
Malar, Lobo.
Molum, Port Praslin.

 Mes (Egyptian), product or source of river.

Mazi, Msambara,
Mizi, Lúchú.
Moss, English, bog.
Moaz, Kanyika.
Mizzu, Japanese.
Maza, Kongo.

Mu, Ma, Mua, Meh, Meri (Egyptian), water.

Mi, Hebrew.
May, Thounglhu.
Mu, Korean.
Mi, Tigre.
Mi, Hurur.
Mayo, Syriac.
Mote, Maoni.
Mu, the Tungus languages.
Meya, Kasange.
Mi, Arkiko.
Ma, Arabic.
Mau, Coptic.
Ma, Vilela.
Mere, English.

Nai, the; Aru, river: Nairu or Nile (Egyptian).

Nira, Tanema.
Niru, Canarese.
Nir, Tulu.
Nir, Budugur.
Nilatu, Rodiya.
Nillu, Telugu.
Nual, Nalu.
Nero, Greek.
Nir, Kodugu.
Nir, Tuda.
Nire, Kohatar.

Nem (Egyptian) water.

Nam, Siamese.
Nam, Laos.
Nyima, Gurma.
Nama, Greek.
Nimbu, Subtiabo.
Nyam, Dzelana.
Nama (flood, torrent), Persian.
Nyiam, Guresa.
Namun, Bago.

Nu, Nnu, Na, Nnui, En (Egyptian), water.

Nu'oe, Cochin-china.
Una, Quiche.
Nan, Western Shan.
Une, Saraveca.
Nyo, Ankaras.
Nia, Antes.
Nyu, Adampi.
Ni, Dewoi.
Ni, Kru.
Ni, Geb.
Na, Yula.
Naino, Timbora.
Una, Naenambeu.
Oni, Guinau.
Uni, Omagua.
Nyo, Wum.
Nu, Erromango.
Noo, Accrah.
Ni, Bassa.
Ni, Grebo.
Na, Kasm.
Nee, Omaha.
Nihah, Winebago.
Neah, Osage.

Nupe (Egyptian), goddess of the celestial drink.

Neebi, Ojibwa.
Neper, Knistinaux.
Nepee, Skoffi.
Nip, Narraganaetta.
Nipi, Illinois.
Neppee, Shawni.
Nipish, Ottawa.
Nepeee, Sheshatapoosh.
Nippe, Massachusetts.
Nepeh, Miami.
Neppi, Saiski.

Pan or Pant (Egyptian), pool, mystical Red Sea.

Banui, ordinary Javanese.
Beni, Udso.
Pani, Hindi.
Pane, Gadi.
Panni, Mahratta.
Pani, Asamn.
Panni, Banga S.
Pani, Siraiki.
Pani, Bhatui.
Pani, Gohuri.
Punal, Tamul.
Pani, Chentsu.
Pani, Tharu.
Pani, Pakhya.
Pane, Punjabi.
Pani, Gujeráti.
Pani, Bengali.
Pani, Ruinga.
Pani, Uriya.
Pani, Taremuki.
Pani, Bowri.
Pani, Khurbat.
Pani, Kuswar.
Pani Urya.

Rem (Egyptian), surge up, rise up as tears, to weep. Urm, the inundation of Nile.

Lam, Legba.
Lem, Keamba.
Lem, Kaure. Rime (hoar-frost), English.

Ru (Egyptian), drop of water, pool, gate, door, outlet, mouth.

Le, Shiho.
Re, Burmese.
Lau, St. Matheo.
Le, Koama.
Leh, Danakil.
Ri, Rukheng.
Lau, Newar.
Lua, Hawsa.

Sekh (Egyptian), liquid.

Sux, Karagas.
Suck, an Irish river.
Sux, Soiony.
Suck, English, juice, drink.
Sack and Soak, English.

She or Sha (Egyptian), a pool.

Shoi, Canton.
Shiu, Gyami.
Su, Kumuk.
Shin, Akush.
Sin, Camacan.
Shui, Mandarin.
Su, Turkish of Siberia.
Su, Osmanli.
Sa, Mongoyos.
Sin, Minieng.

Tekh (Egyptian), liquid, drink, wine.

Deco, Coretu.
Ti-chi, Gyarang.
Tkho, Umkwa. Dak, Ka.

Tua (Egyptian), kind of liquid.

Tu, Kioway.
Tui, Kapwi.
Ti, Chepang.
Ti, Mijhu.
Tu'i, Mrú.
Dui, Songpu.
Tu, Slave.
Toue, Cbepewyan.
Toah, Apatsh.
Toya, Bass Krama
To, San Lids Ohispo
To, Lule.
Di, Magar.
Doi, Bodo.
Tii, Tengsa.
Ta-dui, Koreng.
To, Kutshin.
Tu, Dog-rib.
Too, Takulli.
To, Pinalero.
Tei, Baladea.

Tur (Egyptian), libation, wash, distil. Teru, river-branch.

Taru (fresh water), Tobi.
Tarnar, Boraiper.
Teloho, Gunungtellu.
Taari, Tarawan.
Taru, Luhuppa.
Dwr, Kyniric.

T (article), the; Nu, water (Egyptian).

Tuna, Wafrsiana.
Tuno, Caribisi.
Tuna, Accaway.
Tuna, Arécuna.
Tuna, Tiverighotto.
Tan, Rotuma.
Tain, Gaelic.
Tuna, Waiyamera.
Tuni, Maiongkong.
Tuna, Macusi.
Tuna, Pianoghotto.
Dane, Irnlar.
Tona, Indians of Guiana.
Don, Armorican.
Tanni, Keiladi.
Tannu, Modern TamiI.
Dannu, Hoco.
Tanni, Yerukala.
Tannir, Malabar.
Teign, Coropo.

Uat (Egyptian), water, wet. Uat-ur (Egyptian), ocean, water.

Uatu, Botocudo.
Ouata, Hottentot.
Wut, Tsheremis.
Ut or Ot, Narym.
Wat, Mordvin.
Watura, Singhalese.
Wit, Kondin.
Wit, Vogul.
Wata, Mairassis.
Woda, Slavonic.
Udra, Sanskrit.
Vatu, Norst
Vat and Fad, Scotch (lake).
Wai, Maori.
Ua (rain), Maori.
Udor, Greek.

Ur (Egyptian), water, oil. Ar, Aur, Aru (Egyptian), river.

Ari, Sanskrit.
Ayer, Malayan.
Arus, Malayan, current of water.
Uru, Otuke.
Er, Gundi.
Iera, Baha.
Yeyer, Atshin.
Oira, Kissa.
War, Papuan.
Wire, Vanikoro.
Ar, Keikadi.
Er, Rutluk and Madi.
Ul, Veniseian Group.
Enarap, Abiponian.
Jala, Sanskrit.
Ur or Errio, Basque.
Jerie, Sumbawa.
Jojar, Foggi.
Ira, Mangaret.
Ir, Naikude.
Ar, Hindustani.
Yaru, Malabar.
Ayer, Buton.
Ouar, Arago.
Ero, Taneamu.
Aeromissi, Guebé.
Jal, Kooch.
Aru, Tamil.
Ara, Malayalam.
Arroio, Portuguese.

It is not only that Egypt supplies the words for water; there might be no particular meaning in her having several names for water, but each of all these is a type, and most of them have a distinct ideograph, which shows the different relationships to water. The first sign of water itself is the phonetic n or single zigzag line of running water (I). Mu is water with three lines (J), that is the plural of water, the waterer, or the waters. Hi, water, is a canal of water; mer, a limit of water, a reservoir, or an inundation. A is water, as dew, with the sign of figuring forth. Ia (and these include forms of the word spelt with k) is water, and to wash. Rekh also is to wash and whiten. The rekh-t is a laundress. Rukh-t, to wash, to full, has the water sign. This supplies the Australian Lucka (Carpentaria) [p.205] water, and the Murray Ney-lucka for water is, in Egyptian, Nui-rukha, water for purifying. Kab is liquid poured out as a libation. Kep is a name of the inundation. Khen is water, a lake, an interior water, water chiefly as a means of transit, the waterway. Ru is a single drop of water. Ankh only appears as a liquid life; ankh permutes with nakh. Tekh is a supply of liquid; nam is a jug of water; nu, the water vase and receptacle; nu, the celestial water that descends. Uat is water, written with the papyrus sceptre, an especial sign of greenness, freshness, growth of plants; uat is wet. Uat-ur (Eng., water) means the greatest principal wet. Ba is water, as drink; ad, is the sign of purity; ubt is boiling water. Hes is a mystical water of life, the feminine ankh. Han is tributary water; also the water of youth. Tet denotes the water of the abyss of death. Ta is the water of a tear, a type. Tur is to distil with water. Sur is drink. Iuma, for the sea, is the water (ma) that comes and brings (iu); it is the tidal form of water. Iuma is the earlier huma, whence humber, the water that comes, and humid, the water becoming.

The common type-word for water, as ak, was almost worn out in Egyptian. It does exist, for akhab is pure water, and ab is pure. Also ak is the liquid mass of the celestial height. But it was worn down to an a for water, as in Akkadian. The ideograph of the inundation has been read fent, to stop, the nose. So read, as type of the waters, the feminine period, it means that water which is the antithesis of breath, and to stop the nose is the antithesis of breathing. Fenti, for the inundation, is supported by the Lithuanic name for water, vandu. Kama is a name for water not applied directly in Egyptian. Ka-ma is male water, and ma or mai is the substance of the male. Kamai was a gum and a precious oil in Egypt; the oil of Khem. This is one of the two waters of life when the life principles are both imaged by waters, and given to the male and female. Ash is wet; ashr, a river. But ash primally is a water of life. The ash, as tree, is the tree of life. Ash, wet, is blood, and the variant shaa is the substance born of, as ka-mai is the substance begotten of. Mena, another type, appears as the name for the wet-nurse of the gods. So nupe is the water-source personified, as the Lady of the Celestial Water. In the same way uat (water) is a goddess of wet, or the water in the north, and the uat, sceptre, the sign of the mystical water, is the special emblem of the goddesses. There is no goddess of wet primally except in relation to the mystical water, the source of life, which is essentially feminine, and most of the type-words may be traced to that origin. The na (water) is red; ash and tesh are the red source, with the sign of bleeding. Khekh (fluid) has the same determinative. Nakhekh is fluid, blood, essence of life, with the same sign. Mu (water) is likewise the mother. Khen is the water [p.206] that carries or bears, as does the mother source. Rekh, to purify, describes the water of purification. Ba, water, is a means of being a soul. Ndsah for water in the Gabun dialects reads in Egyptian net, invisible being, with the sign of blood, and shab is flesh and to form. Net-shah would denote the mother of flesh.

Ru is a measure, a quantity, so much; ma and na are water; hence rem or ren, an inundation or a deluge; rem, to rise and surge up as a tide of tears. These supply the type-names of rem and ranu. Water, as nu, na, n, with the masculine article prefixed, forms the type-word for water, as pena; with the feminine article, the type-word tuna; and with the plural article, nai, prefixed to aur or aru, the river, we obtain the nile, niru, nore, nir, as names of water.

Sekh (Eg.), liquid, the root of all our usks, esks, seks, iscas, oxes, uisges, is identical with suck, or drink, which is derived by the suckling from the mother. Also the type-name ar, for water, is found in art (Eg.), milk, meaning the liquid that is made, generated, for the child or ar (Eg.). The ar (art), as milk, furnishes the all in Gaelic, meaning the white or wan water. The al-avons may in some cases be the white or milk-like waters.

The present contention is that blood was named as the primordial water of nen, the bringer, in relation to the source of life. The Egyptian nunter or nuter, our nature, the word for a divinity and type of periodic time, reappears as the name of blood in the oldest languages of India, as nettar in Tulu; netturu in Telegu; netteru, Canarese; netra, Kohater; netru, Budugur. The relation of nuter with blood and periodicity is visible enough in the hieroglyphics[45]. It is typified in the nuter, axe (Â).

The water of Ouranos is the Egyptian urnas, the mystical or celestial water of life, that is, blood (from which sprang Aphrodite). Ur is the water or oil for anointing, really the blood.

The Assyrians called rain zunnu, that is the Egyptian shennu, which means periodic water, as was the Nile inundation, and the mystic water of feminine source. This latter is sen, blood; nu, water. Sini in Kandin; zaini, Haussa; and sona, Sanskrit, are names of blood. Sen has a variant in zem, Mose; soma, Gurma; zeam, Dselana; sem-sem (Eg.), the mystery, and the Well of Zem-zem. The chief of all type-names for water are also the names of blood. This is most observable in the African languages. A few names are ax, Khari-Naga; yel, Yala; ye, Chinese; hi, Dumi; Aji, Mithan Naga; eije, Ako; ha, Sanskrit; aru, Boko; ara, Kupa; erah, Javanese hari, Nepalese; kuri, Timbuktu; crou, Cornish; krew, Polish; chora, Malayalma; chore, Kurgi; gor, Welsh; gore, English; weri, Fin; uli, Kono; yelo, Kabunga; yello, Mandingo; wul, Soso; kil, Dsarawa; [p.207] keal, Koama; mosu, Undaza; mas, Ranyika; mahe, Shienne; mahasi, Songo; muazi, Marawi; noo, Netela; nah, Savu; nama, Gbese; namai, Gbandi; nyiem, Barba; nyimo, Basa; nyiyem, Fulah; ninye, Bidsago; nenye, Wun; us, Akkadian; usi, Sunwar; usu, Chourasya; husi, Bahingya; azu, Nowgong; asra, Sanskrit; asu, N. Tankhul; isage, Dsekiri; si, Ham; sa, Gura.

The total list of names might have been lengthened indefinitely, especially by adding all the rivers entitled from these types, but that is unnecessary. The converse reading of the facts would imply that Egypt had gathered all these names of water from all the groups of languages in the world, including the river-names found in the British Isles.





This page last updated: 12/04/2014