In Egyptian a double form may be traced for the title of king, German knig, Sanskrit ganaka, Chinese wang or ang, Greek anax. Ank, anuk, or nak (Eg.) mean the I, the King, the Living One. The types of this living one can be seen in the hieroglyphics. The word ank may be, as in Chinese, abraded from kank or ka-nak, the Sanskrit ganaka, or we may take ganaka, kanak, king, as a compound of ka and ank. Ank has a variant in nakh, the powerful, or power personified. One type of this power is the bull. Ka means the male image, and nakh is power; the ka-nakh, ganaka, ka-ank, knig, king, is simply the type of power, the first form being that of male potency, still extant by name in the English 'kingo' (mentula) used by nurses[1]; then the male person, then the father, and lastly the monarch. The theory that the king never dies is obviously founded on the ankh-title of the living, and the ka-ankh is the type of life, the living one. Ankh, the living or the life, is, in the Maori, nga the breath, and breathing one or the breather.

In this character the king represented the bull, the solar divinity as Lord of Life, the erector as Khepra-Ra or Khem-Horus on the horizon, or Mentu, standing like the rock, in his type of the king or ngei-ngei (Maori), that is stretching forth, with the primitive sceptre in his hand, as the unhu or unkhu.

From the nature of the allegory imported into the drama of 'Punch and Judy,' and its series of triumphs over all the ills of life, among which is one of Death being beaten to death, and another of the devil himself being outwitted, it looks as if Punch were a form of the ank or nuk (Eg.), the Egyptian 'I am,' the Living One, the King. This, with the masculine article p is Punk, our Punch. In Phrase and Fable[2] it is stated that a statuette of Punch was discovered in 1727, with the long nose and goggle eyes, hunchback and paunch. This is said to be the portrait of a Roman mime named Maccus, who was the original of Punch. Now Maccus agrees with Hor-Machus, i.e., Har-Makhu, the sun of the double horizon or the equinox. [p.209] This was the god Tum, whose especial title in the temple of Pithom was that of the ankh, the living; he being the sun of the resurrection; written in Egyptian, his title is P-ankh, Punk, or Punch. We have him reduced to the status of Tom Thumb, and here there may be a link with the Italian Polichinello from pollice, a thumb, the Tom-Thumb figure. The original type of the nak or ank will explain the humour of the Punch.

Punch and Nuk have their correlatives in Hunch, Bunch, and Junk. Punch means the short, fat, pudgy, thick-set fellow, whence the puncheon. So in the Xhosa and Zulu Kaffir dialects a short thickset pudge of a person is called isi-Tupana from tupa, the thumb. The 'hunch' of bread is a thick lump; the junk is also a short thick lump. Punch is typified by his hunch, and therefore he personates what the hunch signifies. Buncus is a donkey in Lincolnshire, and the mystical Bull of Eu, called the Bangu, 'Edewid Bangu,'[3] will enable us to recover the solar bull, the neka or p-neka, as a form of Punch, of Makhu, of Eu, of Tum called P-ankh. This might not be worth following but for the fact that the name of the ank or Punch as the i, the a, 1, is the commonest form of the personal pronoun in the world.

It is ank in Egyptian; anoch, Coptic; anokhi, Hebrew; anaku, Assyrian; anak, Kizh (father); ךּנא Phoenician; ngs, Ethiopic; nga, Kassia; ngi, Tumali, and nga in a large number of African and especially the negro dialects[4]; nga-nga, West Australian; ngai, Port Lincoln; nga-toa, N. S. Wales; ngaitivo, near Adelaide; ngatoa, Hunter's River; ngatoa, Wiradurei; nga-po, Murray; nga-pe, Encounter Bay; ngape, Lower Murray; ngai, Parnkalla; naika, Watlala; ngwang, Kawi; ngo, Chinese; ink, Palouse; inga, Lirnbu; ang, Rung-chenbung; anka, Kiranti; anka, Waling; ung-gu, Chourasya; ung, Khaling; nga, Bhramu; ung, Dumi; ang, Bodo; ang, Garo; angka, Dungniali; hang, Thara; hanga, the man of might, and in-kosi, Zulu-Kaffir; ngo, Abor Miri; nga, Burman; ngai, Tonga Naga; ngai, Singpho; ong, Laos; aing, Kol; ing, Ho-kol; ing, Bhumij; ing, Kuri; ing, Santali; ing, Mundala; ining, Cayus; ngappo, Aiawong; ngai, Tarawan; ayung, Cherokee; ahan, Pima; nvah, Dieguno; nah, Teruque; inau, Guadalcanar; inau, Mallicollo; unno, Choctaw; unneh, Creek; ne, Chepewyan; ni, Shoshone; no, Netela; en, Tamul; en, Tulu; en, Rajmahli. To these may be added the Peruvian inca; Maori heinga, the typical ancestor; Eskimo uinga, the husband; Irish aonach, the prince; Arabic aunk; Malayan inchi, the master; Gaelic inich, the strong; American hunkey, the lusty, and Ako onnuku, the lively, active, equivalent to the Egyptian ank. The root is expressed by the sound of nk or ng. This is extant [p.210] in some of the African dialects as a nasal sound followed by a k-click, 'un-ka;' a nasal click still living in the Maori nga, which means to breathe, whilst ngetengete is to click with the tongue. This ng apparently formulates the earliest endeavour to utter by means of the nose and throat with breath and click the compound sound which was afterwards distinguished as n and k. And it was this with the ka prefixed that furnished the name of the ganaka, konig, kank, or king, and with the masculine article p, the name of Punch.

Ankh (Eg.), the living, appears to supply the ing terminal, as in Etheling. Ing denotes the son of. In the Saxon Chronicle[5], 'Ida waes Eopping' means Ida was the son of Eoppa, and the Etheling was an old Saxon title for the Crown Prince, the heir-apparent. 'The good true men of the land would have made king the natural heir, the young Chyld, Edgar Atheling. Whoso were next king by birthright, men call him Atheling: therefore men called him so, for by birth he was next king.'[6]

It is a theory that the king never dies; he being the ank or living. So was it in Egypt. And the son was the representative of the ankh, as the repa or heir-apparent, the visible link of continuity. When there was no natural heir, one was adopted, as the king could not die. Thus the son was also the ank, type of the ever-living, hence the 'ing,' denoting the son and the sonship. The first ank, king or male 'I,' is the son of the mother; the branch of the Tree of Life. The royal son and prince in Egypt was the repa, the shoot or branch, from rep, to grow, shoot, take leaf, sprout. Prince and branch are one at root, because the repa was the branch. The child, the nursling, is the ren, and this with the suffix, which is both pronoun and article, the ren (child) is the renpa, the young shoot or branch. In Welsh this suffix is the prefix, and we have pren for the branch, and pren becomes the English branch and prince. The branch, prince, child, or ren, is the nursling of Rennut, the gestator, child of the mother, named after her, and this is the repa, prince and heir-apparent. The Welsh have the Egyptian repa in their peryf, for the one who commands, especially used for the pharoah. Pren is the ren; pref is the ref; and peryf is the repa. Now we hear of the Welsh princes before we hear of kings, because their beginning was with the mother and child, and the pren as branch became the later brenin or king in the Welsh language, which title is extant, without the article prefixed, in the Breton roen for the king.

Our word young or jung, German jung; Basque jaung, the youthful god, our jingo; Lithuanic jaunas and Welsh jeuancg, all include the Egyptian ank (the king, the living one), as the Iu. [p.211] Iu means the coming one, and the Iu-ank, the coming life, is the young. This is another form of the repa, branch, prince, or heir-apparent to the throne. The young god or the god Young (an English proper name) is the oldest in the world.

The diminutive of dear in dear-ling, the little dear, is probably derived from renn (lenn), the Egyptian nursling. The Irish pronunciation is darlin or darlint, which adds the feminine terminal to the lin. As nursling the child is the renn (lenn), and not the diminutive of nurse, but the nursling (i.e., the renn) of the nurse. As ren (Eg.), with the article prefixed, yields the Welsh pren, the branch, or typical child, it is probable that this becomes the word bairn for the child, the beryne in Morte Arthure[7], and yields the name of Brennius, the prince, who was brother to Belin.

It is also possible that the acorn is not named as either the corn or the horn of the oak, but as the renn (Eg.), the child, the nursling, the young, the type of renewal. Renpu (Eg.) is to grow, renew, be young, with the shoot for determinative. So read, the acorn is the young, the child, the renewer of the oak, or aak.

There is a plural in the Egyptian renn or reni for cattle, and if this does not supply the terminal syllable, in children it may serve for the plural in en, as in Housen; but apparently the ren accounts for both.

According to Borlase[8], the Cornish people invoke the spirit Browny, when the bees swarm, to prevent them from returning to the old hive, and make them form a new colony. This connects the Browny with young bees and a new hive. Again the Browny, in faeryology, always disappears when old clothes are offered to him, as a repayment. Now the Brownie (or Brunie) is also represented as originating in the young child that died unbaptized or un-named. From this it may be inferred that the name of Brownie is derived from pren, as in the branch, the young one, and from rennu (Eg.), the nursling, with the article prefixed and modified into b, and as ren (Eg.) means to name, and rennu is the nursling, and nu is no, it follows that the rennu was the young one not yet named, and if he died in this nameless condition as p-rennu, the unnamed, he became the Brownie; hence the guardian spirit and guide of the renpu, the young, in the shape of the young bees, and hence the Brownie's aversion to old clothes.

Egyptian also supplies the terminal in 'red,' as in kindred, gossipred, or Ethelred. Red or ret is the race. Ethelred is of the race of the Ethel; race is relationship, and one red is used for relationship or kindred, although not limited to the blood-tie in Gossipred, a form of fosterage. Ret also furnishes the variants of red. Thus Ethel-red is the race of Ethel, and ret (Eg.) means to repeat, several: he is the repeater of the race of Ethel. So in hundred the red (from ret, to repeat, several), denotes the repetition or enumeration of the hand or cent in the hund-red.


Tehani was a title of the one who was nominated the repa, the Egyptian heir-apparent to the throne, or of the Divine Father; found also in the Kaffir duna. This too the Celts had; their heir-apparent was designated the tanist. Also the coronation stone, a monolith erected for the crowning of a king, was called a tanist, and the throne or elevated seat of the hieroglyphics is the tan. Ast means great, noble, a statue, sign of rule, an image of the ruler seated. Ten-ast supplies the Latin dynasta, the prince, the ruler. A form of the tanist stone, the coronation seat, is extant in the Lia-Fail, under the coronation chair, in Westminster Abbey.

The Egyptian ank or nakh, signifying the I as chief one; I in the highest form, the royal personal pronoun, wears down into the English 'nick-name.' The nakh-name is the individual name, and there are thousands of English working men with whom the nickname is the only one they are known by, the sole title to individuality among their mates, the family name being sunk altogether in the sobriquet or nickname. The nickname, the royal name in Egypt, points back to the first attempts to individualise from the group (the ing or ankh) by means of a distinguishing epithet personally applied, just as some special characteristic or feature is still the source of the nickname.

From being a necessary cognomen, the nickname became degraded when applied in derision. This sense too is found in the word nekhi (Eg.), meaning to deride, which expresses the existing status of the nickname.

It has been doubted whether the Sanskrit rj, to reign and rule, be a sovereign, exercise rule and sovereignty, could be derived from the Egyptian R. Nor would it if R were the primary form of the word. But it is not. The accented vowel represents a consonant found in ka. Prior to the R, a title of the sun, the sun-god, and the pharaoh, is rek, to rule, a name of time and cycle. The sun, as a ruler or rex, was a lawgiver of time, but not the first. The stars were the earliest time-rulers. The root rek enters into the name of the Seven Rikshas (Rishis), and these were the first of all the rulers of time.

The celestial ruler, as Regulus or lawgiver, was also represented by the constellation Kepheus in the north, and the Star Regulus (Cor Leonis) in the Lion. These were types of reign and rule ages before the rek became the solar Ra. This rek (Eg.) for rule, however, is the original of the Sanskrit rj, to rule, reign, exercise sovereignty; the Vedic rag, a king; Javanese racha, a divine image or type; Gothic reiks; German reich; Darahi rak-uk, to rule or put down; Latin rex and rego; Gaelic righ; Irish rigan, a queen. The word was worn down in Maori and Mangaian, as in Egyptian, to r, a name of the sun and day. The rex or regulus takes various forms. In English Gipsy he is the rye, the Lord, or [p.213] Swell. In Akkadian, the rak is the lady, and racham in Hebrew is the womb.

The term liege, French lige, Latin ligius, is but another form of rek (Eg.) for rule. The liege lord in feudal law was the ruler over the tenant, entitled to claim his faithful service. The nature of the duty enforced was as absolute as the suit and service of the subject to any other form of the Rex or the R.

The rukai (Eg.) are rebels, the culprits, rulers in the wrong. These are the ruga of Ugogo, Central Africa, who are robbers and rascals, our English rogue in the singular.

A far earlier rex than the solarite king founded on R is the rekh (Eg.), the reckoner, tunekeeper, mage, wise man, the knower, the architect, the washer, purifier, and whitener of men, i.e., the priest or rook. The primus is the Egyptian name for rule in relation to time and period.

The same root rekh, to reckon or rule, is the only origin for the logos as for the seaman's log. Instead of the logos that was in the beginning, the Caribs have their loguo, the first man, who created the earth and then returned to heaven. Loguo and rek, rekh, righ, rex, rj, rajah, and r are all founded on reckoning and on time and rule. That which first completed a circle of time was the first lawgiver, and she, as the genetrix, was legifera, a title of Ceres.

Dright is an early name for the Lord or chief This, like the rex and regulus, is primally the Egyptian rek, to reign and rule; rekt, the pure, wise, the magus, knower, intelligent one, with the Egyptian article t prefixed. trekht is the rekht, with the later sound dright; he is simply the right one for leader because pure and wise. The dright is the director. Ta (Eg.) signifies direction, to go; hence the dright is the right-goer, leader, director. The people as drighten are the directed, the followers of the dright. Breeching-time used to be a festival in a boy's life; and in the north a boy's breeches are termed dright-ups.

Rek for time and rule is applied with the article in the word drag, and celebrated on the evening of a fair day, when the lads pull the lasses about; this is called dragging (t-rek-ing) time, the time of their rule.

As the king is an image of the male power personified, the queen is the feminine abode the ken or house in English, the khen or inner place (Eg.); kona, Maori; con in French; kuna, old Norse; chaan, Favorlang; knai, Dayak; Kunlen, Votiak; china, Quiche; kuns, Mandan; cunha, Lingoa Geral; goni, Sanskrit; also yoni; gune, Greek; gwen, Welsh; cunha, S. Pedro; coniah, Cayowa; cunha, Tupi; kento, Musentando; kento, Basunde. The Swedish qvenna retains the oldest form, as in the Hebrew chivan, the Queen of Heaven, and this as kef-nu, the typical or divine kef, identifies the queen with the abode of birth. The kef (Eg.) [p.214] is a cave, a sanctuary, a place of concealment, and this we shall find in the Cefen Caves of Britain, first named by the troglodytes, who dwelt in the Kef or Cefan of the Mother-earth.

Hathor is a queen of heaven, and she is the habitation of the child. Kheft or aft is the feminine abode. The khef is yet represented by the Cornish coff (womb) and chy, a house. There was but one human image for the heaven or the queen of heaven, who was mother of the gods. The king is the masculine potent, the queen the female habitation, the house of life.

The English Empress of India was proclaimed to the natives as the 'kaiser-i-hind,' and in the discussions we were told that kaiser was primally Persian. But the original of the Persian kaiser, German kaiser, Russian tzar, and Roman caesar is Egyptian. The hieroglyphics will show us what the title means.

'Ser' is a most ancient and universal root, the Hebrew tzer is a divine name, the 'Rock' of Israel. Ser is the Egyptian word for the rock. Whether a divine or human title, Ser or Sire, it is the chief, arranger, placer, disposer at pleasure. The title of the king of the kheta was sir; Assyrian sar; sire, was an old French title used by itself for the king only. The Quiche scyri was lord over all. The Seren and Serene (Highness) are diminutives of sir or ser.

Khi is to rule, protect, govern, wield a whip. It was an Egyptian title. One form of the khiser then is the wielder of the whip; another ser is the arm of the Lord; another is the overseer. This is shown hieroglyphically by the camelopard sign of ser, the chief or high one. Khi signifies to rise up, elongate. The camelopard is the extended long-necked overseer, and a type of the ser or khiser. Ser is an epicene or neuter root, and the khiser may therefore be either male, female, or neither, as ser is the ram, sheep, or eunuch. The khi or whip emblem itself is, however, distinctly male in the monuments, as the sign of khem, ptha, and Osiris. Still there are female camelopards; and women have wielded the whip.

The latest living exemplar of the primeval kaiser is the tzar, who still wields the knout (or did so lately) as the sign (khi) of the ser. But the tsar, the ruler with the whip, is a divine personage in the realm of the dead. In the Ritual[9] we read of:

'All the created just spirits who serve the tsar.'

The camelopard is the more appropriate sign of rule for the 'kaiser-i-hind,' the tall overseer, and it is perfect; khi meaning to extend, elongate, rise up, be high, rule, govern, protect; and ser is the name of the animal thus described by khi. The camelopard would fitly symbolise the wide outlook of the British 'kaiser-i-hind.'

The ser is no doubt a worn down form of the kheser or seser. The [p.215] Egyptian type of the Kaiser or Caesar is the ideographic user, earlier seser, and therefore still earlier kheser, which furnished the Assyrian kasar, the Arabic wazir, and Malayan wezer. The sign consists of a head and vertebra, a backbone and brain, with the meaning of ruling and sustaining and maintaining power. Also the ka sign is the determinative of ses, the back and shoulders, the image of the seser or Kaiser. With kheser modified into seser we have the Caesar, in the Egyptian Sesertoses, the seser himself, or typical Caesar, who became the Sesostris of the Greek writers on Egypt.

Herodotus describes a pillar of Sesostris, which he says was engraved across the breast with words in the sacred Egyptian characters, signifying, 'I acquired this region by my own shoulders.' in those same sacred characters ses means the shoulders and back, and has for determinative the shoulders with uplifted arms; tesas signifies the very self. Consequently some one must have very nearly read the hieroglyphics of the Sesertosis[10].

The Egyptian Caesar or Seser appears on the monuments as early as Seser-en-Ra, in the third dynasty, and there is a female Seser by nameone onlyin Ta-Seser, the wife of Siptah, at the end of the nineteenth dynasty.

The lord is usually taken to be the Hlafford, as Saxon for loaf-author or bread-giver. And in Egyptian the repa or erp is the Lord. The erp, the hereditary highness, has the earlier name of kherp or kherf, his Majesty or Lordship. The Saxon hlaf is the equivalent of the kherf, the chief, first, consecrated, sceptred. Hlaf for loaf is paralleled by kherf, a supply, a sufficiency, to suffice, our crop. Kherp abrades into erp or repa. The feminine repa is the wife of Nile and goddess of Harvest. Harvest is kherp or kherf, the supply or crop. This was furnished by the repit, the lady who as breeder was the primal bread or loaf-maker. The Hlafford, then, points to the kherp for origin, not to the loaf, which became a later sign. But is it so certain that our word 'lord' is only the Anglo-Saxon Hlafford worn down? The Etruscan larth is the Lord, and that can scarcely be derived from the hlafford.

The equivalent rurt (Eg.) identifies the meaning with going round, and the circle-maker. The circle-maker is a rurt as Ursa Major. Rurt, the round, is a pill. The husband encircles the bride's finger with a ring in token of lordship. Lort-Monday, a name of Plough-Monday, is a day of going round. The Lord-size is the Judge of Assize who goes on circuit. The Larth or Lord was the chief of a circle, not merely the loaf-giver. This signification is pointed to in the mummeries of the Lord of Misrule in the Inner Temple on St. Stephen's Day, when the Constable-Marshal went round and round and shouted 'A lord! a lord!'[11] Is the title of Lord, then, limited to the Hlafford?


The Egyptian repa as Lord and Governor was our reve by name, who as reve of the shire became the Sheriff, and the repa as a division became our rape. Sussex was divided into six rapes with six rivers, six castles, six forests, six repa-ships or lordships. The repa may perhaps lead us to the origin of the law of primogeniture and entail of property. In Egypt the repa was hereditary lord and heir-apparent. He inherited the land with the throne, as representative of the divine Ra. Also the repa might be male or female; it was a name of Virgo, and with us the reeve is the female of the ruff (bird).

The flower is before the fruit, and the Lady repa, who became the bearer of fruit and goddess of harvest or the leat has an earlier character in relation to the flower or flowers. The female repa represents the Nile in one form and the harvest in another, as the Lady of the mystical Two Truths, the flowing and fixed, or flower and fruit. Rep (Eg.) means to grow, bud, flower, and rept or repti is the other of two forms of the word; rep denotes the one that buds and flowers; repit, the one that fructifies and bears the fruit. This accounts for the number of ladies among the flowers, as the lady's finger, lady's slipper, lady's smock, lady's glove, and others.

The king's thegn's, as the Thanes were called, were companions of the king. The term thegn answers to the word gesith, a companion. And in Egyptian tekn is to accompany; tekh, to join together; teka, attach; whence tekn, to be joined, and thegn, one of a companionship or order of men who performed some personal service to the king. The thegn, as one of the companions (comites) of the king or chief in battle is illustrated by teken, to accompany, be near, and stand fast. As tekh further means to supply wine or serve with drink, and tekhen is to play on the harp, the office of royal cup-bearer and minstrel were no doubt early forms of thegn's service. To play on the harp is to accompany, and tekh, to serve with wine, shows the tekhen or Thane as the server implied by the title of thegn.

In the Saxon period there was a royal official who from handing the dish bore the title of Disc-Thegn.

The hertoga was an army-leader in war. Har (Eg.) is the superior, the one set over, the overlord. Tek (Eg.) has the meaning of attack and overthrow. In this sense the hertoga is the leader and director of the attack, and lord of the army. In the Old English Chronicles[12] the first conquerors, Hengist and Horsa, are termed Here-Togan. This was whilst their rule was limited to certain districts and lesser boundaries of land, and the word teka also means a fixed frontier. Thus rendered, the her-teka is a border lord, or king of a county, the keeper of the boundary, whence the Hertoga and Hertogan.

In the same Chronicles (519) Cerdic and Cynric are called [p.217] ealdormen. But this title is by no means derived from the jarl or earl, both of which are modified forms of the karl, ceorl, or churl.

In Lazamon's Brut we read: 'Belin in Euerewic, huld eorlene husting.'[13] That is, Belin in York held a husting of Earls or Ceorls. The eal in Ealderman is one with the weal in Wealhcyn. Wales is the earlier Gales, still earlier Kars, which became the shires. The kar is the circle, orbit, enclosure; ter (or der) is all people who dwell in the kar. The Welkin is the circle round. A weal is a wicker basket for enclosing fish. The ealder is just the equivalent to garter, and Kilder in Kilderkin, and the Ealderman is the man of the whole kar or enclosure. As ter is the frontier and extreme limit, the Ealderman may have been the boundary-keeper of the kar, gale, weal, as representative of the ter (Eg.), that is, the whole, as land or community. Kar modifies into har, as in hertoga, and al, as in Ealdorman. The Alderman still represents the ward, and ward is philologically one with guard and with weald. Ward also means good keeping. The ward was the little world that needed the warden. The Weald as forest land had its warden, and the Ealdorman is the warden or warderman who represents the ward and weal, and is chosen for that purpose. Weal means to choose, and the Weal-der-man, Ealdorman, is the man still chosen to represent the whole, entire, the ter or commonweal.

The Earl, Ceorl, Churl, or Jarl, is derived from the kar enclosure, and, primarily, the name denotes one who belongs to that circle or enclosure before it was given to him to whom the circle belonged.

Our word rune denotes a mystery, something secret, and this is connected with roune, to whisper, and the runes which were mystical in character. To roun or whisper, face to face and 'mouth to ear,' and 'the word at low breath,' is a Masonic commandment. To rowne in English is to name in a whisper; in Egyptian to ren is to call by name. The round were officers appointed to inspect the watches, and called 'Gentlemen of the Round.' In relieving guard the soldiers still roune or whisper the password, and the Gentlemen of the Round are related to this secret renning. The ren enclosure of the royal name became the English Round. The Egyptian na-runa and na-aa-runa who are officers of name and of great note, but of an unknown office, are possibly the same as our Gentlemen of the Round.

Han (Eg.) is honour, sanctity, royalty, majesty, and rule. Han or her is the lord, chief, superior. Han (Eg.) also denotes territory, a field; the hanuti are labourers. Han (Eg.), moreover, means tribute, and to conduct as tribute. These include all our 'honours;' the honours of cards as the majesties, royalties, highnesses the honour or sanctity of character, considered in points, affairs, and debts of honour belonging to the unwritten law, and the honour as a [p.218] superior seignory under which other manors or divisions of land were held by the performance of service.

The marmor was a style of high nobility among the Gael; he was a great officer of justice. Mor, great; maor (Gael), officer of justice. The mere is the mayor, and there is an English mer, who is a bailiff or superintendent. This is the Egyptian mer, a superintendent, prefect, overseer, or governor. An official called the mer governed the people of the quarries at Turttau, the mountain-quarry in Egypt.

The mer was not only an overseer and superintendent, but an architect. The architects of the Egyptian pharaohs, who were the royal sons and grandsons, were called the mer-ket. And we are told by the Barddas that 'Morion lifted the stone of the Kettai.'[14] Morion is said to have been the architect of Stonehenge, Gwath Emrys, or the Mur. Ior (Eg.) means the circle, as does the ketul ket (Eg.) denotes the builder, and the Kettai are the builders. Morien was chief of the kettai. Now, as a negro is still known as a morien in English, may not this indicate that morien belonged to the black race, the Kushite builders? The name of the marmor himself appears in the Travels of an Egyptian, where the question is asked, 'Didst thou not meet the marmar?'[15]

Meru (Eg.) is a cow, a goddess, and a form of Hathor, the cow-headed genetrix. With the feminine terminal the mer is mer-t, and the mart is still a Gaelic name for the cow. The mert (Eg.) is a female attached; mar-t denotes feminine relationship and office. Mer (Eg.) is love, and the mer-t are persons attached, the lovers. This, in English, is married; but in Egyptian the female mer (mer-t) was the person attached as consort in the divine (or the pre-monogamous) marriage. The great goddess Pasht is designated Mer-Ptah, Ptah's beloved; she was literally his mort. And the poor vagabond's 'mort' that trails after him, dog-like, on tramp as a female attached, has the same name and is the living representative of the goddess, the divine mer-t. She is also called his doxy. In Egyptian tek means to attach, and tekai is a name for the adherer or person attached. Tekhi (the doxy) was a goddess of the months. This is sadly typical of the old divinities, when we find them in modern dress, and the divine names in current usage. The mer has become the mort and meretrix, and with a change of terminal the marque of the French argot; the fille, the femme publique, the marca, marquida, marcona of slang phraseology.

The mert has got be-mired, and the mut, the divine mother, has had a like descent into the mud. Her living representative is the English mot, the harlot. These names of the creative motherhood and consort of the creative power surely ought to plead for a little more pity and charity for those who bear them now! [p.219] Mer also means to die, hence the merti are the dead. And in the British mythology, the dog of Pluto is called Dog-Marth, the gate of sorrow. It was the door of Hades, the entrance for the dead or the merti. Maarau (Eg.), to grieve, corresponds to the word marth, for sorrow. The dog's mouth was the door of Hades. So Cerberus in Egyptian reads Kherb-ru, a first or model form of the mouth, gate or door. This dog of Gwyn ap Nudd and the Greek Cerberus is a figure in the Ritual. Just where the merti entered the underworld at the western corner, the angle of the pool of fire, sat the dog having 'the eyebrows of men,' 'Eater of Millions is his name,' as the doorkeeper and watcher who devours the fallen at the angle of the west.

The mouth of the dog was not the only form of hell-door; the bull was another type; the crocodile of the west was depicted as swallowing the Akhemu Ureta, or setting stars, hence the expression in the Ritual, 'Back, crocodile of the West, who livest upon the Akhemu who are at rest; what thou abhorrest is upon me.'[16] Here the passing souls are identified with the setting stars, and the crocodile of the planisphere does duty in spirit-world.

The root in kan, our can, sometimes assigned for the name of king, is extant in Egyptian as kan, to be able, courageous, valiant, a victor; khun-su is thus the brave child, the victor-son. This title is the British cun, a chief. There is also another sense of the canning or cunning man, only found in Egyptian. The cunning man, as wizard, is not only the knower and diviner, he is likewise the averter of evil and of bad luck. Khena (Eg.) signifies to blow away, breathe, puff away, repel and avert evil. Khenn also means to rest and believe. The khennu, in the modified form of shennu, is a diviner. The khennu then is the one who is able to divine, the averter of evil and bad luck, hence the kenning-stone and the cunning man or woman.

Tum was the judge of the dead in the hall of dual justice. He was the god of the darkness; his was the all-seeing eye. Tema (Eg.) means to make justice and truth visible, to announce. Tum, the name of the god, also signifies to spy out. Now in Ireland the wise man, the diviner, the seer in the dark, and discoverer of lost property, is a taman. 'I know,' says Vallancey[17], 'a farmer's wife in the county of Waterford that lost a parcel of linen. She travelled three days' journey to a taman, in the county of Tipperary: he consulted his black book, and assured her that she would recover the goods. The robbery was proclaimed at the chapel, a reward offered, and the linen was recovered. It was not the money, but the taman that recovered it.'

Tumau (Eg.) also means to restore. The taman is founded on [p.220] the type of Tum as seer in the dark, maker of truth and justice visible, and the restorer of that which was lost or concealed.

The English 'dumb-wife,' a name of the feminine fortune-teller, is a kind of taman, and the Irish spelling will recover the original form of dumb in tum (Eg.), to announce, reveal, or make the hidden truth visible. In Egyptian tum means dumb, mouthless; hence dumb means tum in relation to the dumb-wife who announces and makes known. Conjurors are proverbially born dumb. Tum, as representative of the lower sun, as hak (kak), is a form of Harpocrates, the dumb child, or mystic word, who points to his mouth, and is the antithesis of Makheru, the true voice. The 'dumb' cake used for purposes of divination is the Tum cake that reveals, announces, and makes known the secrets of futurity.

The thumb, the lower member of the hand is named after the god of the lower world. This too was a type of Tum, the diviner in the dark. Hence the allusion of the witches:

'By the pricking of my thumbs
Something wicked this way comes.'[18]

The thumb foretold.

In another bit of gesture language the thumb was bitten at a person to convey a meaning without words. The type of Tum made the truth visible.

In Egyptian the mage, the wise man, the illustrious and revered man of learning, is the akh. The akhen is a recluse. Akhennu denotes those who praise, salute, glorify. The variants khen and khennu signify belief, intelligence, news, and seclusion in the sanctuary. The akhen lived on in the Irish aighne, for prophet. In English akenn means to reconnoitre, make observations, to discover, and one of the Irish names of the Round Tower is the Turagan. The tower we may take to mean the 'tur,' which in Egyptian denotes the building on a frontier, a limit, to hinder, a wall, fortress, or prison. Agan may signify the recluse, the men who dwelt apart in seclusion, the Magi, who watched the heavens and reflected the light of their knowledge round the land from the sanctuary of Druidic lore, the Turagan or Round Tower. The Persian Magi, said Pliny[19], might have been taught by the British Druids. Tir in Welsh and Irish is territory, and the Tiragan may have denoted the land of the akennu or the khen, the sacred soil of the dead that was protected by the tower. We have the doole or dule, a kind of tel (Arabic, mound), as a conical heap of earth which marked the limits of parishes or farms upon the downs, probably the cairn of the dead before towers were erected. So Tillie-Beltane is the little hill or eminence of the Baal-fire.

The Lich-gate at the entrance of the churchyard, as the place where the corpse is set down first, serves to connect the lich, Gothic leik; [p.221] English lic, with the sense of ligging, or lying at rest, as in ligan, Gothic, to lie; Frisian liga, to lie; old Norse liggia, to lie; Latin legere, to lay; Russian lojit, to lay; Servian lojati, to lay; Greek λέγειν, to lay, lay to sleep. The lich, as the dead (corpses), are those that lig or lie at rest. But in the hieroglyphics the rekh (lech) are the dead in another sense; they are the pure wise spirits with the phoenix emblem of renewed life rather than the bodies that moulder in the ground. But the name was applied to these that ligged or lay there. The dead are those who know; they are the supreme knowers. The wise spirits, as the Magi, are also the rekh. And on this ground it is claimed that the lichtun for the churchyard is not merely the tun (place) of the dead. Just outside the city walls of Chichester, on the east, are what the common people call the 'litten' schools. The name is abraded from lichten, but not necessarily limited in meaning to their standing on the lich-field. The rekh, the knowers, as priests, were the dwellers with the dead, and they taught in the sanctuary, but the rekhten or lichten school originates with the living rekh. The same word has various applications.

Lechten is identical with Leighton (Buzzard), the ten (Eg.) land, region, seat of the rekh, the learned, the Magi. Sart (Eg.) signifies to sow seed, in this case, the seed of knowledge; the sert is a keeper. The buau (Eg.) are the chiefs, heads, archons. The Buau-Sart of Leighton are thus the chief men of learning, who dwelt in the tun of the rekh, not of the dead only, but of the Magi.

The rook, a name of the parson, identifies him with the Egyptian rekh, the wise man, the knower, the mage. In the Breton language a priest is called belech, agreeing with prekh (Eg.) as the rekh unless we read it Bel-akh, the Mage of Baal. The rekh supplies the leech. According to Strabo[20], the British Druidesses or wise women were also styled 'brig of the Judgments,' i.e., with the article prefixed, the rekh, and as they dressed in black, they too were rooks. In Akkadian the woman is the rak.

The ancient professors of witchcraft and raisers of the dead were called wicca and scin-laeca. The scin-laeca was also a species of phantom or apparition, and the name was used for the person who had the power of producing the manes. Scin-laeca is said to mean the shining dead. But scin-laeca, as the evoker of the dead, does not mean shining. It is the Egyptian ski-ien, to cause to alight, be manifested, give breath or being to; modified san, to charm by magic. The original of wicche, as in wiccraft (witchcraft) is hek or huka (Eg.) magic, to charm, evoke the spirits of the dead.

The 'Ur-hekau' is found on the monuments as the Great Charmer to the King, and Master of Magic. Ukh is the name of a spirit, as is the akh, the spirit, or manes, and their invokers the mages, are also named akh, earlier hek. So the dead called laeca, Egyptian [p.222] rekhi, are one with the spirits and the magi, from rekhi, pure spirits, mages or magicians. Our wicca-craft was their huka-craft.

In the Saxon period the mage, magician, or sorcerer was known as the dry, and his craft of magical evocation was called dry-craft. Yet the name is unknown to any of the cognate dialects. It was therefore a word, like so many more, adopted from the British, and out of this the Saxons formed a verb bedrian, to bewitch or enchant; but they found the dry already extant. It is yet to be found in the Gaelic draoi as the magician.

In Irish, draoi-acht is the name for Druidic law, or the law of the Druids. Draoi represents the Egyptian tri, which signifies the invocation, evocation, and questioning of spirits. Tri is to invoke, adore, question, with the determinative of a person making the invocation. As the full form of the word is triu, and it is Heaven, a passable Druid (Triu-it) might be derived as the Tri or Dry, who was the invoker of Heaven. But the name 'Druid,' whilst retaining the draoi or tri meaning, as well as that of teruu (Eg.), stems, roots, which associated the Druids, in the mind of Pliny[21], with the Greek name of the tree, is more probably compounded from tru or triu, the Two Times related to the Two Truths of Egypt, the root of all knowledge. Teriu (Eg.) denotes the twin-total, the whole, the all. An Irish name for Druidism is maithis, and that includes the Egyptian dual Truth called mati, which, applied to time, is the teriu or Two Times at the base of all reckoning.

Another meaning of it (Eg.) is to figure forth, and portray, as the artist. In this sense a teru-it might be the hieroglyphist who drew in colours. The Tru-It would also be the teacher of time and period, and the fulfilment of the cycles. This is the explanation of the Roman report of the Druidic proficiency in the science of astronomy, which was the science of celestial chronology, or circle-craft; a tru-it-ic (dru-id-ic) science.

The Egyptian priest called a karheb, the Reciter of the Festivals, answers somewhat to the meaning of the Druid. The Kar-Heb as explained by de Rouge is the chief of the utists or conductor of the sacred rites[22]. The full form of the name Ut is Hut, with the star (4) determinative of time and fate. Ut (Hut) also denotes magic. Tru is time, and the Tru-Ut or Tru-Hut, as an order of time and destiny, corresponds to the astrologers, magicians, or Druids of Egypt. It is therefore likely that the Druidic name is a modified form of Tru-Hut, especially as the Welsh Hud associated with them signified their mystery.

This hut or hat supplied an important formative in compounding words such as priest-hood, man-hood, mother-hood, boy-hood, widow-hood, maiden-hood. In brotherhood, sisterhood, and priesthood, applied to religious bodies, it is the original hut, an order. Hut-er (Eg.) is to join together. In the form of had the [p.223] word denoted faculty, degree, office, quality. In the Saxon Chronicle[23] the function bestowed on the candidate when consecrated was termed Biscop-had. The bishop's power of consecration was called hadian, and in ordaining for Holy Orders he was represented as conferring had, which made the initiate one of the holy order, or hut, i.e., hood. This quality of biscophad is Egyptian as well as the order or hood. For hut also signifies to consecrate by touch, as the bishop bestows the had; and hti-an is purely Egyptian for being consecrated. It has no relation to an Anglo-Saxon speech independently of that which the Angles and Saxons found in Britain.

The bishop too is Egyptian. There was an order of the shep (shept)[24] found also as sep, persons belonging to religious houses. The bua or bui is the head, the archon. The bui-sep, bui-shep or bui-skhep is the archon of the skhep, shep, or sep, the learned, teachers, enlighteners. The skhep are images of the other life, and these denote the religious nature of the order. Skhep signifies to transfer and transform. The bishop, in ordaining, claims this power of consecrating by touch when he bestows the had.

Khepra is a name for the Creator, as the transformer, imaged by the beetle, so that the bishop is an archon of the hut order, of the shep, skep, or skhepr (khepr), the scarab-god of Egypt.

Ambrose[25], Archbishop of Milan, proclaimed Christ to be the 'Good Scarabaeus,' and it is in keeping that the Bishop should be the priest of Khepra.

Shap is our word shape. It means to figure, image forth; and this the bishop does in antique fashion, with his hand in blessing. He still holds up two fingers without knowing what they stand for. The symbolic value of those two fingers will be better understood when we have treated of the biune being, and the Two Truths.

The two fingers () have the same meaning as the shabti image, the shapti plumes of the solar disk, or any other symbol of the twofold truth. The duality came to be applied to the life here and hereafter. But the apron is a relic of a more primitive significance.*

* ApronIn the paragraph on the 'basu'[26] it should have been pointed out that one form of the bes-skin is still worn by the soldier as the bear-skin busby.

The Welsh bards call the Druids nadredd, rendered adders. And the word is the name of the serpent in Welsh, but the nadredd were not merely adders; the adder or serpent was a hieroglyphic symbol of the divine, and the word for divine is nuter, of which the serpent is a determinative, therefore the serpent in Egyptian was nuter. Net signifies serpent. Nedder is an English name of the adder, and na is an Egyptian article, the. But nuterut is a temple, the Divine House. At or ata is a father, a priest; and another, nuterat, is a kind of priest, a holy father, a prophet or a prophetess. [p.224] And it is here claimed that the Druidic nadredd were identical with the nuterat of Egypt, the priests and priestesses, prophets and holy fathers who served in the nuterat or Divine Houses.

There is in Scotland both a castle and a parish of Kin-Neddar. Khen in Egyptian is a sanctuary of rest and faith, and nuter is divine. Kin-Neddar is thus a divine sanctuary, a nuter-at.

The Asc is a Gaelic name of the Druid or adder. Asc permutes with sekh in Egyptian. Sekh (Eg.) is the scribe, to write, and writing. Sakh is to adore, pray, understand, and the name of the shrine; saakh, is the intelligence or intelligent spirit; sakh the illuminator, inspirer, and informant in person. This is the Asc as Druid; he is the informant, hence the verb to ask or seek to be informed.

This sakh is possibly the original of the name of the Saccae and Saxons. We shall find the later typical names were religious before they became ethnical. Sekhsen (Eg.) would read the fraternity of the learned men or priests. The name of hate used by the Irish for the Saxon invaders is sasenach, and it may include the Egyptian sesen, to fight, distract, torment, whence the sesen-akh would be the great distractors and disturbers, as fighters.

The Egyptians had an order of priests, the name of which is written with the jackal, shu. Lepsius[27] has read it 'sa'; sa is to recognise or perceive, English see, and these would thus be the seers. Still the jackal, the seer in the dark, is 'shu,' the Hebrew shual (the fox); and the Welsh bards call their diviners, an order of priests, the syw[28], a word signifying that which is circling. They were also designated sows. In Egyptian sow is shaau or shu, and shaunu is a diviner; these were the shaaus or syws, the diviners. Some divining faculty was ascribed to the sow; it is yet said that pigs see the wind.

The sues or suas was a well-known name of the Cabiri. The Egyptian sua is a priestess and singer. The suat (plural, like the Welsh sywed) also appear in the male form, as choristers or glorifiers. The British Ceres, Keridwen, assumed the character of the hwch, a sow, the multi-mammalian mother. Hwch is hog, independently of sex, hence the boar. In the hieroglyphics the heku is also the hog, and hek is the ruleress, as was Keridwen the hwch. Hek also means charm, magic. The hwch was a magician, like the Greek Hecate.

Here is a good test, as it seems, of Egyptian origin. The name of the British Merlin permutes with Merddin[29]. So, in Egyptian, mer and mert are identical. Both signify the circle. Ren (Eg.), is to name. Mer-ren means the circle-namer. Merlin is reputed to have made the Round Table for Uther Pendragon, which descended to [p.225] Arthur when he married Guinever. The Round Table was the name-circle of the twelve signs, and later of the twelve Knights.

Ten (Eg.), is to complete, fill up, terminate and determine. The tennu are lunar eclipses; tennu, is to go round. Mert-ten, the equivalent of merddin, is the reckoner and determiner of circles and cycles. A type-name of the same value as tru-it (Druid), for one who is learned in circle-craft, the old English name of astronomy. This will serve to show how Merlin and Merddin[30] may be interchangeable names.

The scribe is already named in Egyptian by skha or saak, writing, to write, and the writer. But the first writing was cut or scratched, hence sekha means to cut, incise. Crafa (Welsh) is to scratch; Breton, krava; and this agrees with kherf (Eg.) a first form or mode of figuring and modelling. With the Welsh prefix ys we obtain yscrafa to scrape, also the words scrape, sculp and scribe. Thus our first scribe is the scraper of bone and the sculptor of stone.

Kherp (Eg.), to figure, with the causative prefix becomes skherp or the scarab type of khepr, the skherper, scraper or figurer, the former who preceded the writer, as figuring was earliest. Khepr as skherp, the kherp, was the scribe before writing was invented, and his type is the skarab, English scarbot. Hens are said to scrab a garden. Scrab to 'claw hold,' is identical with the scarab or figurer. In Devon scrapt signifies slightly frozen, that is, beginning to form or be kherpt, figured. Scrap, English, is a plan, a design, from skher (Eg.) to plan, design, picture; the Egyptian terminal p turns skher into scrap. A curious relic of skherpirig, figuring, inscribing, is extant in the Devon word scurrifung. Khepra the figurer is the Creator, the former as Generator. Khepr and kherp are variants of the figurer. Skurrfung, to couple, lash tightly together, signifies futuere. Ankh (Eg.) means to pair, couple, clasp together, and corresponds to 'ung.' Scurrif is a form of skherp, kherping, crafaing, carving, and scurrifung is creating in the sense of figuring the child. Wilkinson found a picture of Khepra (Ptah) engaged in making a drawing of the child as Horus[31]; this was the Creator as the figurer forth, in the character of the kherp or scribe, who was the earlier skherper or sculptor.

The word skeptic is derived by etymologists from the Greek, skeptikos, an examiner, and inquirer, from skeptomai, I look, I examine. Then we are assured that in Greek the root spek was changed into skep and accounts for it. Spek is to be found in the Sanskrit spa'sa a spy; in spashta, clear, manifest, and in the Vedic spa's, a guardian[32]. In the hieroglyphics skeb (Eg.) means to reflect. Skhep is to clear up, enlighten, illumine, render brilliant. Sap also means to examine and to verify; saph, to examine and reckon up. Thus we have sap, saph, and skherp all meeting in the same meaning. Further, the seps is an ancient form of the as, the [p.226] great, noble, the ruler, protector, or overseer, the original spas, as guardian, or overlooker. Sep is to judge, and the suer's was a sort of judge. There is no need, therefore, of converting spek into sker in Greek to account for their being there, or to derive spek from the Sanskrit spas. The sceptic or skeptikos is derived from skep, to examine, verify, and elucidate, and tek (Eg.) that which was hidden and had escaped previous notice.

The name of the bride is as old as the ceremony of capture in marriage. Priod in Welsh means appropriated, and owned. Priod takes the form of bride in English; braut in German. The buarth (Kym) is a cattle-fold; buartho is to fold cattle; they are thus, as it were, byre-d. The bride is also byred, folded, owned, captured with the noose or tie of marriage round her. Here alone is the origin, pri (Eg.) is a girdle or tie, to slip, wrap round with the tie sign of binding, and the terminal t makes the past participle in prit, priod, or bride.

The designation of 'hussy' is assumed to be an abbreviation of housewife. Yet in some counties it means simply a girl, and is never applied to the housewife or a married woman, but to the girl in antithesis to the housewife. Hus is the hes (Eg.), house or feminine abode personified in Isis (Hes). Si (Eg.) is a child, either male or female. Hes being feminine identifies the child, and hessr (hussy), is a girl. Si is an abraded sif (a child), so hussy has the form of hussif, which is not the house-wife, but the house-child (sif) the girl, as we find it. Wife is derived from khef (Eg.) the Cornish kuf, a wife. House-kuf is house-wife, and house-sif, the house-child.

What is the meaning of the title in step-mother? No satisfactory explanation has ever been offered. She certainly steps in and stops a gap. But the step-son or step-daughter do not. In each case, however, there is an adoption. And the Egyptian step (or setp) signifies to choose, select, try, be chosen, adopted, be active, attentive, assiduous. The despised title of step was royal and divine in Egypt; the pharaoh was crowned as Step-en-Ra, the chosen, adopted, approved of the god Ra, and he was the step-god. The step-mother is the adopted one, and so in each relationship the step means adopted. The Egyptian genesis of the word is set with the p suffixed. Set means to transmit, to extend, and the setp is the transmitter. The step or adopted relation was to ensure transmission. This was the setp of Egypt, the adopted for transmission and continuity. We have an application of the word in the stab, a hole adopted or selected by the rabbit for securing the transmission of her litter. There is also an occult significance in the step-mother; she is one of the feminine triad, and one of the two divine sisters, the wet-nurse. Stef (Eg.) means to menstruate; sutb to nurse and feed with the sign of divine[33]. The mystical origin must have been known when [p.227] the flower of the violet was first called the step-mother, as it still is in England. The primitive step-mother nursed the child before birth. And to this occult origin may be attributed a considerable share of the odium attached to the name of the step-mother, who has suffered for her symbolical character.

The word widow is one that has caused much speculation as to its origin, but all the light which is thrown on the early family life of the Aryans by deriving widow from the Sanskrit vi-dhava, man-less, or without man, which would have applied equally to all unmarried women, whilst the widower would likewise have to be a form of the manless, vanishes in presence of the Egyptian uta to be solitary, separated, divorced, as a woman. This reaches from the centre to the circumference of the meaning. In this sense the widow is far older than marriage, and a first form of her is uati, mother of source, the wet-nurse. The second widow was the woman put out and set apart, divorced from the herd or camp for seven days. The third widow is a woman who has lost her husband. Names like these originate in primaries, not in the tertiary stage of application.

Uta, to be separate, divorced, set apart, is synonymous with wite to go out, and with the word out. The wite-law is the outlaw.

Ua (Eg.) signifies the one, alone, solitary, isolated. The t is the feminine terminal; also ta is typical. Uta is the heron or crane, as the widow, the solitary, isolated one, distinct from the gregarious birds. The goddess Uat or Uati is the divine widow, in the form of the genetrix, who was the one alone in the beginning, the one who brings forth the gods; she who was mateless, the virgin mother of mythology.

Uta (Eg.) has an earlier form in futa, to be separate, divided, set apart for certain reasons, as the word shows. Fut and aft are variants, and aft is the mother of flesh and blood, the widow of mythology, whom we shall find at the head of all the divine dynasties, as sole genetrix of gods and men. Fut is found in the Irish fedb, Bavarian fud, for the widow; Gothic viduvo; Latin vidua. In the Welsh gweddw, the single, solitary, widow, or widower we have the guttural prefix to the uta (Eg.). Thus the widow is the uta, fut, and khut, each of which has its still earlier point of departure in the name Kheft (Eg.), the ancient mother which deposits the gweddw on one line, and the fedb on the other, and shows how the Egyptian precedes both. This old genetrix, the typhonian Great Mother, as Kef, survives in our English wife.

In Gipsy language, the female, as wife, girl, daughter, is named chavi. Kuf in Cornish English is the wife. The letter w comes to represent the k g or q in many ancient words, hence kef (older kuf) is the wife. Kef is the wife who was the earlier widow, before her son had become her consort. One of her titles is the Great [p.228] Mother of him who is married to his mother; the great one who bore the gods; this was when she was separate, or a widow, the one alone.

The mother of Romulus was the Virgin Mother, Rhea Silvia the vestal; but he was also said to have been reared by Acca, who was designated the Harlot of Laurentum. The Virgin and the Harlot are two names of the same character in mythology; the mother of the gods, who bore without the male, and was the prototype of the widow.

All that belonged to the first formation of thought was afterwards decried, denounced, and derided. Its types were condemned to serve as images of evil, evil being chiefly discovered in the superseded conditions, out of which the advance had been made. The ass was one of these living types that have suffered ever since. Woman has been degraded in various characters for her early supremacy in typology, one of these being that of the stepmother, another that of the widow. Her type in mythology is pre-monogamous. Her other name, as in the Book of Revelation, is the Great Harlot, because she had been the Great Mother, who produced without the proper, that is, later fatherhood. In her sacred aspect she was the Virgin Mother, in her degraded one the whore. The synonym of kharat (Eg.), the widow, in the Gaelic calat, means the prostitute. For this the widow suffers, and the opprobrium descends to her children. The Russian proverb, 'Do not marry a widow's daughter,' the meaning of which the Russians do not profess to understand, remains as a relic of this bad character inherited by the widow from the most ancient type of the genetrix. In this way we shall gradually learn that mythology is a mirror which still reflects the primitive sociology.

All profane words were considered sacred at first. Things now held to be vulgar and unclean were the divine verities of an earlier time. They were the gods and goddesses of mythology, and the mysteries, who are now but the cast-off rags and refuse, the dross of refined humanity. Who that hears the profane term of beak applied to a dignitary of the bench by any vagrant offender would imagine that the title is a divine sign of rule? Yet bak, in Egyptian, denoted a god. The bak is the divine hawk of Har (compare beak of a bird), and sign of the sun-god; with the whip attached it was a symbol of the highest authority. Becc, a constable, is the earliest form in English.

The oldest known Egyptian statue, one that was found by Mariette in the newly discovered temple of the Sphinx[34], wears a wig which may have been the type of one worn by a puisne judge. The wearer sits for the portrait of one. Is the puisne judge named in Egyptian?

The puisne judges are the four inferior judges of the Court of Queen's Bench, who are compelled to go on circuit. Shen or sheni [p.229] is the circuit. Pui is the article, the; pui-sheni is the circuit. Sheni likewise means the common crowd, the multitude, to avert, turn away, abuse. Pui further signifies to be; pui, to go. If the Egyptians had puisne judges who went on circuit to redress wrongs, pui (Eg.)-sheni (later seni) would express the character of our puisne judges, when itinerating in a circle, or on circuit. The dropping of the s in pronunciation is no proof that the title is from the French puisn, subsequently used.

We have a puisne court under the name of sene, an ecclesiastical, therefore most ancient, foundation, in which the abuses of the church Reeves were corrected. It was a court of appeal.

Senage is the names of fines and payments levied in the sene court. Senhai (Eg.) signifies to bind, conscribe, review, levy. Hai-t is a court. Sen-hait would be a court of appeal with power to review, to loose or bind, an early form of the Senate. Sen being second, the sen-hait is the second court of two. Sen (Eg.) means second, and puisne is also a second brother, and a secondary form of a judgeship. So that we have puisne (pui-sen) (Eg.) for the circuit, also pui-sen, the second; the sen-hait is the second court of two, as it still is in the second house of legislature, our Commons.

Ha (Eg.) is the chief, ruler, governor. Hat denotes various forms and symbols of the ruler, as the mace, the upper crown, or throne. The Egyptian hat or hut is the highest of the two crowns. The hat sign of the ruler is extant along with the mace in the English House of Commons, and is in the last resort the same emblem of authority. The speaker puts on his hat as the extremest sign of his ruling and governing power, in the lower of the two houses, answering to the neter-kar (or hell) of the two heavens; the double house of the sun. He is typified by his hat, and is thereby a hat in person. Great hat is likewise a sacred title among the Jews. The hat is put on to compel, and hat (Eg.) means to terrify and compel. Hat signifies to be called or ordered in English, and in Egyptian it means order. The cry of 'Order, order,' is thus 'Hat, hat,' and in extreme instances the hat is forthcoming. Hatt (Eg.) is a salute, and in saluting we take off or touch the hat.

The college 'gyp,' we are informed, derives his name from the Greek vulture because he preys like a vulture. The gyp waits on gentlemen as a porter. Gyp, as in Gipsy, is kheb in Egyptian, and kheb is a name for one who is in a lowly position, the title of an inferior. Kheb has an earlier form in nakhab, Akkadian nekab, or the khab, as we say, the gyp. This title is not identified in the hieroglyphics, but in the cuneiform negab is the porter, as is the college gyp. There must be many Egyptian words connected with these old college foundations of Cam and Isis. The name of the cantab is said to be abbreviated from Cantabrigiae. But the term cantab may also be derived from some form of a religious service, [p.230] as in the hieroglyphics kan-teb is a servitor or dependent. The word implies religious service. The determinative denotes a hall, a foundation. Kan is service; teb, to pray, prayer. Kanteb may also mean a member of a family, house, hall, or temple.

The fagging in our public schools is an extant form of slavery or compulsory service explicated by the Egyptian word fekh, capture, captives, to be a captive. The same word means reward, and this points to the service of the fag being the captor's reward. The captive fekh is now represented by the under-schoolboy, who drudges for the upper one's reward. Five heads of fekh or captives were given to Aahmes as his share of the spoil[35].

Nor do we derive the name of the page as a servant from the Greek παίδιον[36]. The page in East Anglia is a boy servant, especially an underling to a shepherd. This is the Egyptian bak, a servant who is a labourer. The page likewise is the bricklayer's boy, and the bak also works in stone. There is no form extant in pak, but there is in fekh, the captive, the bound one, as the page was bound, and word for word the fekh and bak are our fag and page. The glorified form of the page in livery is found in the bak, a type of Horus, the prince, the boy, the youthful sun god, and finally boy is the modified form of both page and bak. We might say at first sight that page or boy and the page of a book had no relationship, but the fact is there is nothing unrelated at root. The page of the book we may derive from pakha (Eg.), to divide, a division, one of two, and this may also be the meaning of the name of the boy as one of the two sexes. Khe (Eg.) is the child, and p is the masculine article, the. P-khe yields the male childbekh also denotes the maleand with the feminine terminal t we have the name of the goddess, the lion and cat, as pekht, a form of the biune being.

One meaning of our word hind is to be in an abject, evil, enslaved, or accursed condition. The earlier forms hine, heyne, hean, French haine and honi, relate to the condition of the person; this may be abject, poor, evil, or other shapes of humiliation. All the meanings of hine are extant in Egyptian. Han is evil, envy, malice, hate; an, to be afflicted, sad, oppressed; hannu, to rule and flog; hanru, to stint and starve; un is to be bad, to want, be defective. These sufficiently denote the evil condition which may vary indefinitely. The unt (Eg.) is a person whose condition as the hind is a washerwoman. The unnu appear as persons of an unknown condition, but apparently dark.

Un, an, han, and hannu, then, are Egyptian for conditions of misery, poverty, want, wretchedness, and serfdom. Hence the word in English includes the evil condition of haine or honi, and the condition of serfdom in the hind. But the word hind also signifies [p.231] periodicity. Han, an, or un, mean a cycle of time. Un or Unt is the goddess of periodicity. The periodic type is also found in the hind-calf or one-year old. Thus the labourer bound annually is the hind.

The primal illustration of the bad and evil condition of the hind as revealed by the hieroglyphics is that of the feminine period named un or an, the period, defect, deficient, open, bald, afflicted, murmuring, waiting; the period of purifying, from which comes the name of the washerwoman. This was a first form of periodic evil, and the lady who represents this is extant as the lady of hane, rendered hate, the lady of darkness, the mater dolorosa, the negative of two characters assigned to the Great Mother. An infertile feckless female is still a hen-wife.

In the hieroglyphics kat means to go round, circulate, travel round and be round, and to work. So the cadies, a body of messengers and porters extant in the last century at Edinburgh, were men who went round in doing their work. The Scotch market cadie and milk cadie still go their rounds. To caddle or cuddle is to clasp round. A cadar placed over a scythe in mowing surrounds the swathe of corn. A cade is a cask, also round. To cadge is to bind round; the cadge is a circular piece of wood. A kid, faggot, is bound round. The cadger plies his round. The kid or cod encloses round.

In Scotland both gipsies and tinkers are called cairds. In the hieroglyphics karrt is a furnace and an orbit, so that the caird may be named as the brazier from carrying his furnace, and the gipsy from his going and coming round, the one being the tinker by trade, the other the nomad. Karti is the plural form of kart, and it means holes; these are stopped by the caird as tinker. Ten in Egyptian is to fill up and stop; kar is a circle or hole, so that the tinker is the hole-stopper. The commoner form of the tinker in Scotch is tinkler. This is likewise found in the name of the furnace or brazier as krer. Tin-krer with the jet of flame determinative obviously denotes the mender by means of fire, our tinkler.

Kar (Eg.) is a course, the sun's course or daily round. This is our word char applied to the char-woman who works by the day, the course or char. Her orbit, like the sun's, is completed in a day. Charred is completed, as in the saying 'that Char is charred.' Daily chares or chores are duties done as the day comes round. The same root gives us our quarters of wheat; there is no statute measure in which four of these make a whole; five quarters are one load. The quart-ter (ter Eg., all) is the total that is karred as in the quart.

The scoundrel may be derived from the Gaelic sgonn, the vile, bad, worthless, and sgonn from skhennu (Eg.), a plague, a torment, to treat with violence. This word has Typhon, the devil, for determinative (). [p.232] But the droil or drel is the knave, the worthless one, and equivalent to sgonn, as if it only reduplicated the sgonn in scoundrel, which suggests another derivation from skhennu, to treat with violence, torment, and torture, apparently connected with the cucking-stool. This was used at one time as a sort of choking stool called the goging stool, the gog being a bog or quagmire. Criminals were choked in quagmires. In Germany, cowards, sluggards, prostitutes, and droils in general, were suffocated or nearly so in bogs, and the cucking stool is a remnant of this kind of punishment employed in Britain. In the Promptorum Parvulorum[37], esgn or cukkyn is rendered by stercoriso. Esgn is a form of skhen, to treat with violence; hence it seems probable that the scoundroil was the droll, the knave, and rascal, who was placed on the goging-stool to be choked, whence the term would be applied to one who deserved that treatment.

The fiend, we are told by the Indo-Germanic philologers, is a participle from a root, fian, to hate; in Gothic fijan; and it comes from the Sanskrit root ply; to hate, to destroy. That is, f is derived from p, and fijan from fl. Nothing of the sort. The sound of the f or fu was possibly uttered thousands of years before the human lips were sufficiently close together to pronounce the p.

The true root of the word meaning to destroy is fekh (Eg.), to capture, ravish, burst open, denude, destroy, whence the Sanskrit ply. But the fiend is not derived from fekh. The fiend existed in Egypt as fent, a worm, as bent, the ape, as the pennut or 'abominable Rat of the Sun' and as Typhon, the Devil. Typhon is equivalent to fen-t with the article reversed. Fent is the nose, and the fiend is proverbially of a bad smell. Fennu (Eg.) is dirt, and this is connected with the bad smell and the fent, as nose-symbol (). Fainich in Gaelic is to smell; penchiuman, Malayan, is sense of smell. Fenka (Eg.) is to evacuate. This is the English funk, to cause a bad smell, a stinking vapour; Irish fanc for dung; Maori pihonga, putrid, stinking; Sanskrit panka, mud, impurity, slough, with which we may parallel vanch (Sans.), to move slyly, secretly, stealthily, and go crookedly, to deceive, delude, cheat.

It is the Chinese fung-yue, considered by Morrison[38] to be too indelicate to translate except by calling it Breath and Moon. Penka (Eg.), to bleed, disjoin, make separate; fenka, evacuate, show the menstrual nature of the fiend. The fiend and font are here identical. Thus fen denotes dirt, filth, and the fiend is a personification. Pen (Eg.) is to reverse. Fane (Eng.) are foes and enemies, the fiend is the adversary. Ban (Eg.) is evil, and the fiend the evil one. Lastly, we have the Egyptian fenti in our 'Old Bendy,' an English name of the Devil. Fenti is a god of the nose; but the real fiend was female, t being the feminine terminal of Fen or Ban, the evil. Nothing can be more misleading than words when divorced [p.233] from things, and the nature of the eschatological or modernised fiend will not determine the origin of the name.

The Greek form of Typhon has never been found on the monuments. But we can see why. The fent of the calf's head was worn down to fet. Fent, the nose, was also worn down to fet. That is, an ideographic fen became a phonetic f. Thus tef would read tefen or Typhon, and fen-t as the calf's head is t-fen. With the snake f, read fen, fet, the worm, is the fent as in Coptic, and fet, to menstruate, is fent. The calf's head, fent or fet, is the sign of periodicity, the first of the two feminine periods or truths. There is a goddess Ahti, with a calf's head and the body of a hippopotamus. That is a form of Fenti or Typhon. Ahti means the double house, as the place of birth.

Typhon or Fent became our fiend, partly in relation to a certain physiological fact, whence the ill-odour of the fiend and the red complexion of Typhon. Hence the Irish fin or lion means that colour, as red; and fana in Arabic is the name of a doctrine of annihilation identical with the dissolution into primordial matter (blood) that takes place in the Egyptian pool of Pant (Fent), where Typhon was at last located as the Devil or fiend in the Fens of the Ritual.

The name of Old Nick has never been satisfactorily accounted for. It is said to have been borrowed from the Danes, who had an evil genius in the shape of a sea-monster. The Swedish nekan is an evil spirit of the waters that plays deluding strains of music. No matter how it got into Europe, the nick or necken is Egyptian. Neka signifies to delude, provoke, be false, criminal, evil, and naken has the same meaning. The neka personified is the monster of the deep, the dragon of the waters, the Apophis serpent, the eternal enemy of the sun and capturer of souls. Typhon (a form of the Apophis) was red. He dwelt in the mythical Red Sea or Pant. His companions are described as being red in the face. The Osirian asserts[39] that the redness of their faces is unknown to him and Wormius[40] says the redness in the faces of drowned persons was ascribed to the Neka (or Old Nick) having sucked the blood out of their nostrils. A modified form of the false deluder of the waters exists as the English nicker, a siren. The Yula (African) nekiru is the devil. The same meaning as neka (Eg.), to delude, play false, provoke, deride, be impious, is found in the Cornish Nicka-nan Night, the night before Shrove Tuesday, when boys were permitted to play all sorts of impish tricks upon the unwary. Nun or Nunu (Eg.) is the little boy, the ninny, whose night was that of Nickanan.

The name of man is said to be derived from a root meaning to think, so that man was originally distinguished from the animals as the thinker. If so, the child is indeed the father to the man in naming, for thinking, in the modern sense, is altogether a late application of the word man or men which means, in Egyptian, to fix, [p.234] memorise, or memorialise, i.e., to mind, in the Scottish sense of remembering. Man was first named from his physical attributes rather than his mind. The hieroglyphic type of the man par excellence is the bull, the potent male. This is the man or men, for the earlier dative men, now confined to the plural, had the Egyptian form. Men means the fecundator, the male, the bull. It is the title of Amen-generator or Kheni. The name may be derived from ma, the true, the firm-standing. One phonetic m is the male emblem; nu means the type or likeness. Also ma or mm is the seminal substance, that which has and gives standing and stability. Men also means to erect a stone monument. And here we have the connection between the name of man and that of stone. The man and stone are often synonymous. The stone is men (Eg.), a true type of stability. The stone is the ideograph of erecting, and the man is named from his virile power. Men permutes with khem as a male prefix, the bolt sign being read both ways. Khem, the erector, the bull, the physical male, signifies the potent, powerful prevailer, as the man. Khem, rectum (cheni in Chinese) and erector, is the ma-nu, or true type. Now as khem is men, it seems likely that the Latin homo is a modified form of khemu, the master. Khemu, to prevail, be master, have potency and authority, answers to the Latin homo, to be stout and brave. The worn-down hemu (Eg.) means the woman, the typical seat, abode, place, which has, however, an earlier form in khemu, the shrine, the habitation of the child, the womb. The name of the Amenti (Eg.), the earlier Menti, is based on men, the man as the physical founder; and the Menti, the region of the dead, is literally the 're-foundry,' where the pictures show the regenerator in the likeness of the generator, Men-Amen.

To be khemt (Eg.) is to become the homme fait, and that identifies the homme with khem. In the monuments, Khem, Men-Amen, and Mentu are three deified forms of 'man,' as the generator and their names are found in the following specimen lists of languages, for that of Man.


Men and Mentu

Kom, Vogul. Man, English.
Comat, Oregofles. Manu, Banga, S.
Ngome, Mare. Mana, Kirata.
Kami, Burmese. Manus, Kambojia.
Gom, English. Manas, Darahi.
Guma, Gothic. Muns, Bhatui.
Chamai, Koreng. Uman, Kssia.
Kaimeer, Erroob. ManhaiI, Tharu.
Hom, French Romance. Amunu, Mangarei.
Homo, Latin. Manusha, Sanskrit.
Amha, Irish. Minyan, Namsang.
Amme, Sibsagar-Miri. Manut, Pali.
Ami, Khari-Naga. Muntu, Wakamba.

It appears to me that the name of cousin may have been derived by a shorter way than from consororbrinus to consobrinus, and thence [p.235] to cossobrinus, cos'rinus, cosinus, and finally to cousin. In Egyptian khu is a title, apparently of relationship; sen is blood; khu-sen would be a blood title, a title of blood-relationship; sen, as second, would indicate the status of second in blood or the cousin. A certain 'country cousin' will sustain this derivation. Khu, found as a title, has the meaning of birth, to be born, as in khab. Khab-sen or khu-sen, then, signifies to be sister-born, as sen is the sister in an important mythological relationship. The Great Mother takes the form of the two divine sisters or the dual goddess as Isis and Nephthys, or Keridwen and Ogyrven, and the dual type is found in Urti, Pehti, Merti, and Senti, as the twin-sisters. We shall find in these two sister-goddesses the two women whom the Kamilaroi tribes claim to descend from. When this type was applied sociologically the children born of the sen (sisters) were the first cousins. Sen (Eg.) is the name of the Two Truths as Blood and Breath, whence the two sisters personified from pubescence and gestation as the Senti.

Here language tells its tales. The sen is the sister, but the earlier khen is a concubine. Also the khen denoted the uterus itself impersonated by the naked and outcast goddess Ken, Kefn, or Katesh. The English cousin has its earlier form in the Italian cugino, which goes back to the khen and the concubine in the pre-monogamous stage, but still showing the uterine relationship. This gino or khen is the con in consobrinus.

The duality of sen is preserved in the Latin con, as shown in consort, congress, and other forms of being together; and the Egyptian khen proves the feminine type; also khen, the concubine, is equal to sen, the sisters, and khenem is to unite, join together. The cousin in Spanish is sobrino, without the con. The equivalent sif (Eg.) is the child, and ren (Eg.) means the name, or to name. Thus sif-ren or sobrino is the child-name. Khen-sif-ren is the uterine child-name, as it denotes the name given to the child on account of uterine and blood-relationship on the sister's side, which is perfectly recoverable in sen-sif-ren, the child named from the two sisters, or from the earlier khen-sif-ren, from the two concubines Egyptian here shows the roots from which different words have been compounded to express the same meaning, and these have been in this, as in so many more instances, compounded independently of one another, instead of having been derived from each other, as philologists have hitherto assumed.

Parent is said to come from the Latin parens, a father or mother, breeder or nourisher. Both, doubtless, derive from one root, the Egyptian ren or renn, which will tell us more about the meaning. Renn is the nurse, to nurse, and the nursling. If we take pa for the male, as begetter, then pa-renn is the father. Ren, however, signifies to name, to call by name, and to rear. T in [p.236] Egyptian is the participial or feminine terminal, and ren-t, although not found on the monuments, except as the name of Rennut, the gestator, is the named, or the namer, wherever found, and shows the formation of parent from pa-ren-t. Pa, then, is the producer, ren means to name, nurse, rear up. The parent is not the mere begetter, but the namer and bringer up of the child. In Welsh ern is a pledge, and the ren (name) was conferred as a pledge of fatherhood.

It is difficult to realise the ancient mystery of the name and naming. The natives of the Aru Islands only asked to have the real name of the traveller's country, and then they would have the means of talking about him when he was gone[41]. Such was once the paucity of speech and economy of words! This reminds us of the story told by Dr. Lieber, who was looking at a negro feeding some young birds by hand, and asked if they would eat worms. 'Surely not,' replied the negro, 'they are too young; they would not know what to call them.'[42]

The name was a representative likeness. The name (sem) in Hebrew is in Egyptian a representative sign. There is a point at which the child and the name are one, as they are in the Egyptian renn, the child and the name. It is the same with the word and the child. Khar (Eg.) is both child and word. Both are uttered; both are issue. The name with the Hebrews is one with the god, and the sem or divine name of the Chaldeans was a person.

With the Egyptians the personal name was sometimes synonymous with the ka, a spiritual image or double of the self. The child of the parent was likewise an image of her or him. The name (ren) is identical with the son as the representative sign of the parent. Oaths were sworn by the name and by the son, and the name and son are equivalent as types of continuity.

The Hebrew Metatron is the Angel of the Name. He is called by that title, say the rabbis, because he is a messenger. This is best explained by the Egyptian metat, to unfold, hence to reveal; and ren, the name. Metat-Ren is the revealer of, or manifestor of, as the name.

'The Angel Metatron,' says one rabbi, 'is the King of Angels.'[43] As the angel he represents the name, 'for my name (is) in him.'[44] He is called Metatron, according to the rabbis, because that name has two significations. These meet in Egyptian as the nursling and the name. 'Blessed be the name, the honour of his kingdom for ever and ever.'[45] 'He shook the urn and brought up two lotsone was written for the name, and the other was written for Azazel, the goat that departs, the devil.'[46] The mystery of the Metatron was caused by the sonship, which belonged at first to the motherhood.


In the Egyptian Ritual 'knowing the name' and uttering its 'open sesame' are the means of passing through the door of the dead on the way to the land of life. 'I will not let you go,' says every part of the door and entrance, 'unless you tell me my name;'[47] and a knowledge of all the names is equivalent to salvation. The souls in the dark valley claim the aid of the god on account of their knowing the name whereby they invoke his help.

The same superstitious regard for the name survived as a Christian doctrine. The name is still as much the word of magic power as it was in the parental religion of Egypt, and precisely on the same ground. Here is the original doctrine. The seventy-five forms and manifestations of the sun-god Ra are synonymous with his names. In certain glosses on the Ritual Ra is described as 'creating his name as lord of all the gods,' or as producing his limbs, which become the gods who are in his company. The son renn is the typical name, and the 'Name as lord of all' is identical with the son. So the formula of invocation, 'for thy name's sake,' signifies for thy son's sake, the son and the name being equivalent and synonymous, as in the Egyptian renn.

In John's Gospel the son and name are identical, and the Son of God is the name of God[48].

'Father, glorify Thy name. Then came a voice from Heaven (saying) I have both glorified (it) and will glorify (it) again,' in the person of the Christ[49]. 'O Father, glorify Thou me ... I have manifested Thy name.'[50] So in Revelation the son is one with the name.

These things are alluded to in passing because it has to be shown that the primitive typology is yet extant in the eschatological stage, and we have to go back to the first phase of religious doctrines and superstitions before we can possibly understand them. But here was the later difficulty. The issue, whether as Word, Name, or Child, proceeded from the mouth. The mouth was feminine; it was the mother; it was rennut, the emaner of the renn. The child was her representative sign. And when the male became the parent, human or divine, here was a mystery connected with naming, ready made. Hence the Jews would not mention the names of either Jehovah or Baal, for reasons, as will be shown, connected with the motherhood and the early sonship.

In the ancient British system ten or a dozen Britons had their wives in common, particularly among brothers and fathers and sons, but the children were held to belong to him who had taken the virgin to wife. The virgin is renen (Eg.), a form of rennut, and through her and the first husband we find the parentage passing from the motherhood to the individualised fatherhood not yet sufficiently ascertained[51].


In Sumatra the father is distinguished by the name of his first child, and is proud to sink his own personal name in that of his son. Even the women, who do not change their first names, are sometimes honoured by being called the Mother of the Eldest Child, as a matter of courtesy[52]. They retain the status of Rennut, the Virgin Mother, with their first names.

With the Kutshin Indians the father's name is formed by the addition of the word tee to the end of his son's name; thus if Que-ech-et has a son whom he names Sah-nen, the father calls himself Sah-nen-tee, and his previous name, as that of a son, is then forgotten[53]. The son was first, the fatherhood was secondary, because the first naming was from the mother, and here the sonship still dominates the naming. The Welsh tad for the father's name implies this secondary or twoed status of the male parent.

The Kaffir custom of hlonipa is related to this mystery of naming and to the descent of the child from the mother. The Kaffir women and their children avoid mentioning their own father's name. They also refuse to pronounce or make use of words which have for their chief syllable any part of the name of the father, father-in-law, or paramount chief, and hlonipa is the designation given to the custom of avoiding the name of the male[54]. Hloni means maiden modesty, bashfulness, sense of shame. The present writer sees in hloni the Egyptian renn, the virgin, which answers to the sense of modesty, bashfulness, and shame; to the name of the nursling and to ren, to call by name, or rather to rennu, which contains the elements of ren, name, and nu, not, no, without. Pa, Kaffir, means to give, and hlonipa is not to give the name. It looks as if the male was still treated as the rennu or yet unnamed child of the virgin, the son of the mother who, in mythology, became her consort.

The first parent then was female; she is personified in the goddess Rennut, the primordial producer, as goddess of the eighth month, and of harvest. Pa-rennu reads the abode of the nursling, and pa-rennu is the parent, as the abode of the child. She was the first namer (pa-rent), and was portrayed as the Serpent-Womani, and the serpent that encircles round as the type of gestation. This serpent-ring was the first shape of the ren, a cartouche that enclosed the royal name, as rannut had enfolded the renn, her nursling. Then, with pa for a masculine prefix, we have the male ren-t (rennut) as the namer of the child, and, with the s terminal, parens.

When we call to mind the solemnity of the ancient rite of naming amongst what are considered the uncivilized peoples, this original significance of the, word pa-ren-t is of great sociological interest. The pater might beget, but the male parent assumed the position of the [p.239] family-man and husband. The child that was renned by him took ran-k, as in old English a knight was a renk. He was ran-ked by a name. To be renowned is to be recognised by name. A runt, ronyon, randy, rannel, ranter, each imply conspicuous naming.

The word name itself is probably derived from 'ken-am' as Num is from Khnum. Ken (Eg.) signifies a title, and am means belonging to; the name being a title belonging to. Am (Eg.) also denotes letters-patent. Thus the ken-am would be not only the title belonging to, but the patented title, the name by lawful right.

Still earlier ma or am is the mother, and ken-am or ken-ma would be the mother-title. In hieroglyphics the word may be khnem or nem, according as the sign be read khen or n, syllabic or phonetic.

The khnem, like the renn, is the nurse, the educator or bringer-up. Khenems denotes a title, name, function, relationship, tutor. And as khenem also means to smell, to perceive, to select and choose, it is apparent that the animal's knowing its young by smell was a recognised form of khnem-ing or nem-ing.

This word khnem for a title, and parental function will answer for the Greek ονομα, Sanskrit nami, Gothic namo, Finnic nimi, Lap namm, Ostiak nim, Votiak nam, Permian namid, Vogul nema, Samoyed nim, Latin nomen and agnomen, Persian nam, Switz nam, Maltese nom, Jukao nim, Gaelic nim, Malay nama, Avanish nama, Guzerati nama, Malabar naman, Burmese namado, Tamil namattin, Telugu namadhyan, Wohaks nimud, Hoch Indian namadheian, and many more; and as nam and nef interchange it will include the Magyar nev, old Norse nefn, Welsh enw, Ostiak nipta, and Mahratta nawe. Also as the syllabic ken deposits both k and n as phonetics, knam will include the Kaffir gama for the name. And with the modification of ka into sha and sa, which occurs in Egyptian, we have the shem or sem as the Semitic type-name.

Kenam or nam, to repeat and renew, may indicate something of the mystical identity between the name and the child. Nim in Toda is the plural pronoun of the second person. Nema in Sanskrit means 'the other.' Nam is the personal pronoun in Akkadian; it also denotes state and status, and nam-ad signifies paternity, ad being the father, an equivalent of the English named.

If 'name' be identical with 'nam' (Eg.) it has a bearing on the universal practice of not mentioning the dead by name. Nam (Eg.) means to repeat, a second time, a second condition, seconding, and to renew. This was the status of the child named by the parent. In Shetland no dead person must be mentioned by name, because the ghost was supposed to come in response; and this seems to have been the general reason for the custom. To repeat the name was synonymous with a renewal of the person. The Dyaks will not repeat the name of small-pox lest repeating and reproducing should [p.240] be synonymous. We have a survival in the popular 'talk of the devil he's sure to appear' employed on meeting with any one who has just been named.

It is commonly assumed and asserted that the names of pater, vater, father, are derived from a root pa, to protect, support, nourish. In Egyptian pa came to mean the male, the men. But the accent has to be accounted for. It represents a missing f or p. When restored we have the word paf, which means breath, the English puff. Paif (Eg.) is breath, wind, or gust, the earliest form of ghost or soul.

It is the universal testimony of language that being and breathing are synonymous; to breathe is to be, and to be is to breathe. Bhu (Sansk.), ba, Zulu; bo, Vei; bu, Zend; ba, Egyptian; basu, Assyrian, signify to be. And to be, in Egyptian and Sanskrit to ba, is to be a soul, the earliest soul being the breath. Ba, be, bo, bhu, however, do not reach the root of being, they had a prior form ending in f, p, or b. In the hieroglyphics fu is ardour, dilating cause, dilatation, to become large, vast, expanded; fa is to bear, to carry the corn measure, a symbol of pregnancy. Fuf, puf, and baf are not developed forms of fu, pu, and ba; on the contrary the latter are the reduced forms, and what have been taken for original roots are not primaries at all.

This root of being and breathing is found in bhava (Sans.) for being, state of being, existence, origin, production, and it is related to breath, wind, winnowing, purifying and making bright (light, fire, soul and breath are synonymous)in pavana; in the Malayan pupu for generation; in the Swahili beba to carry the child. Also, the series of senses in which bhava is used relating to being are to be found in the Hebrew bava (אוב) to go, come, coming, arriving, appearing, coming to pass, fulfilling, to live. Here the fundamental sense is based on the swelling and puffing in pregnancy, hence bavam (םוב) to be bellied; bavel (לוב) to bub, to sprout and bring forth. Peva (אופ) means to breathe and blow. Galla, bube, wind or breath. Maori pu pu, to rise, as breath or mist. This is the Egyptian paf, breath, a gust of wind; paf or vapour. Paf is determined by the sail puffed out with wind, and before sails were woven the sign of pay was the pregnant woman. Hence the peplum, or sacred chemise of Athena, was suspended as a symbol on her vessel, in the manner of a sail; hence also the word sail is the same as soul, and the sail is a symbol of the soul. The true root of purusha, according to the primitive thought, is extant in Sanskrit as peru, swelling, causing to ferment; that mystery of life called sheth and kep by the Egyptians. The root of being then is puffing, and this is the original significance of papa (Eg.), peva, Hebrew, and Sanskrit bhava; Gaelic fof, to swell, and English fuf, to puff. Bab (Eg.), to exhale, describes the process as one in which the water passes into breath, whence came the doctrine of the Spirit brooding and breathing over the [p.241] waters, the baev which in Sanchoniathon[55] is one of the two principles of life, mt being the other: the beba, Swahili, spirit; bwbach, Welsh, a spirit; pupa, Spanish, a spirit.

In the hieroglyphics the root baba, papa, fava was generally worn down to ba, pa, and fa, with an accented vowel, and sometimes the accented vowel is all that is left. Thus pati for two handfuls shows there was a hand called paf and this is found as fa and a for the hand. Papaka (Maori), the crab, is word for word the same as apsh (Eg.), the tortoise, the hard-shelled breather in the waters and preserves the earliest forms in pap for ap and ka for sha. This necessitates a good deal of restoration.

Fortunately the younger languages often preserve the older forms. Take the word people, or as we have it in English pepul. In Egyptian mankind, the human race or species are the pa, that is the paf, pap, babes, or people. The paf are the breathers and offspring of breath. To pepe (Eg.), is to engender, and the word came to be applied to the male parent, the papa, but can be proved to have had no primary application to him.

The bi-genetrix was the Mother of Breath and of Blood. As Mother of Breath (paf), she inspired her soul into the child and puffed and swelled in bearing it. This can be seen by the word ahti, which is the name of the genetrix, of the womb, and of a pair of bellows. The female was the first paf-er, or breather; paf is breath, gust, ghost, road, way, we still say the family-way; paba, in the Ritual[56], is the soul, and papa or pafa to breed and bring forth is the primordial word for being extant in the Sanskrit bhava, Hebrew bava, Mangaian papa, the Great Mother; Chinese fupa (genetrix), Ashanti babesia the woman as bearer; Swahili beba, Russian baba, for the grand-mother; Japanese baba San, 'O baba San,' the old woman; Greek baubo; Meazig babi, the mother; Chilian papa, mother; English Gipsy, bebu, the aunt; Hindustani bubu, the favourite concubine; the Baphomet of the Templars; Amoy po, the old mother; the Zula beba, the mystery called bobo in Irish Keltic; the Welsh pobo, producer of life; the Egyptian paba for the soul, also the 'baba' (Eg.), a collar with the nine 'bubu,' or beads denoting gestation. The dual character of the genetrix personified as bhavani, or pal'a, fupa or baba is expressed in the hieroglyphics by pa-pa, i.e., paf-paf, and it means to produce or engender, and to bring forth; in other equivalents to puff and pup, with the determinative of the female bringing forth. She was the dual pap or pa, the primary papa.

The present writer holds that f is an earlier sound than p and b, and that the primitive papa is extant in the Tobi vaivi, for woman; the fakaofo fafine, woman; and the Ticopia fefinetapu, woman. This faf is modified in the bushman t'mfi, for woman. In [p.242] Saparua woman is called pipinawa; bibini in Sumenap and babini in Ceram, all forms of the feminine papa the producer. Affa in Danakil is the mouth and affan in the Galla dialect. Avi in Tamil is spirit, literally as breath and then as life. Af (Eg.) means born of; and in Af or Eve was impersonated the maternal breath of life. This is a deposit of kaf on the one side or faf on the other; the meeting point of both. Faf as the Egyptian f (faf) denotes the seed-bearer, the swelling gestator. And faf-faf is the oldest form of paf-paf, p-p, papa, pa, and ba.*

* Fa-Fa. Certain words, such as 'kha-kha,' 'nu-nu,' 'rer-rer,' 'nka,' and 'fa-fa' have been thus dwelt upon for a purpose beyond the present, as, in them, the present writer considers, we are approaching the origins of speech to be illustrated hereafter in the 'Typology of Sounds.'[57]

The Scottish Gaels have the birthplace by name in the 'Isle of pabaidh.'

'There came a woman of peace (a fairy) the way of the house of a man in the island of Pabaidh, and she had the hunger of motherhood on her. He gave her food, and that went well with her. She staid that night. When she went away, she said to him, "I am making a desire that none of the people of this island may go (die) in childbed after this." None of these people, and none others that would make their dwelling in the island ever departed in childbed from that time.'[58]

Paf-paf had to be reduced to papa before the name could be applied to the father. When the male was discovered to be or was imaged as the breather of soul and his type was set up as the paf-er or breather and author of being one-half of the name of the bi-genetrix the paf-paf, pa-pa, is assigned to him as the pa. Thus the root of the name father, vater or pater is not pa but paf and the pafter is the engenderer of breath (paf) as primary being. Baf (Eg.) to inspire, give breath, and bat, for the father as the inspirer are later forms of paft. Ar is the child, and to image or make the likeness. Pafter modifies through pter into pater. But the mother was the first breath or bread-maker. For bread is synonymous with breath. The cake and bread are written pat and ppat, the latter being the same as our word puffed; the cake or bread is dependent on breathing and puffing, and the name like that of the human species, paf or bab, is derived from the nature of breath and breathing.

The Greek fuo (φύω) to be, renders the Egyptian fui or fa (faf) to bear or carry, with the ideograph of the bearing mother, who fu's, or fufs, that is, dilates with new life, just like bread. In the texts[59] the infinite god is characterized as fu-nun-teri, or dilation without limit, as an image of the Divine Being, and in others the divine substance is described as bread, in one[60] the circle of the gods are a [p.243] vast loaf of bread, a sort of infinite pufi or bap, as the food of souls. The Xhosa and Zulu Kaffir perfumlo is the breath and the soul of man, and papa, the English puff, is a kind of fungus, a type of lightness like the puff tart, or cake.

The symbolical bread-maker was the inspirer of soul; the ba (Eg.) (earlier baf) is both bread and soul, and paf is breath. Thus bread was named from breath or soul, and paf as the puff, supplied the name of light pastry. Ba or baf found in p-pau (Eg.) for bread and a cake, is the Scottish bap. Fa (faf) with the genetrix carrying the corn-measure is yet earlier. Earliest of all was the great mother fuffing, puffing, puping as the producer of being, the breather of the waters imaged by the fish, the frog, duck, or pregnant hippopotamus long long ages before bread was baked. We shall find that she was the first baker who produced thirteen to the dozen, and the only baker who ever had the owl (hieroglyphic ma) for a daughter.

The Hebrew bra, to create, like the word create implies the circle as the type of all beginning. Pra and per (Eg.) mean to wrap round, surround, go round, and be round. Ber the eye is an image of the circle and circle-making. But before the circle was drawn by the human hand, came the watching of the figure made by nature. First there was the ru, the female emblem, the uterus. Next the swelling in pregnancy, the bellying and rounding forth in creation.

This being the result of paf and puffing it is natural to find that the word bra, pra, or per has an earlier form in bvr (Heb. רוב), the same as bar for the hollow, pit, mystically the womb, the bubbing, puffing, or breathing place, hence bvl (לוב), to bubble, to swell, to bring forth, that is, when modified, to bell, belle, belly. Bealing like bearing is to be big with child. This was the earliest creation. In a later stage the male was considered the breather. Bat (Eg.), to inspire breath thus denotes the begetter. In the Mexican picture writing, the breath passing from the mouth, is typified by the male image of the breather, the bahu (Eg.), as symbol of the inspirer of breath. This sense is extant in English, 'Thinkst thou to breathe me upon trust,' says a female character in Heywood's Royal King[61], breathing and begetting being synonymous. When the male was the breather the female became the breathed. The name of the genetrix who carries the seed-basket as Neft, means the breathed, the seeded.

Pauti (Eg.) is the name for the divinity who recovers the lost character in the primary spelling pafti. Paf is breath and ti reduplicates; pafti is the reduplicator of breath. This proves the appropriateness of the first pafti being figured as the female, the inspirer of breath into the embryo. She alone is represented by paf-paf (p-p) the one who puffs and pups, or who produces and brings forth. When the male was recognized as the spirit-giver he is the [p.244] ba-t, that is baft, the breather or soul-inspirer, and the member, the bahu is bafhu, the breather, literally, the puffer of spirit or aliment of life.

From this it follows that puthu or Ptah is primarily Pafthu who, as father, is personified in the breather or inspirer of spirit, and named as the masculine Aft, of the four corners, who took the place of Aft, the genetrix, at the head of Egypt's deities. The name is extant in Hebrew as pevth (תופ), to be puffed, extended, said of the female, and of that which is made manifest and revealed by swelling. Puth (Eg.), i.e., pufthu is to open the mouth wide, to pant as the lioness. Pevel (לופ) is to be swelling, big, bellied, gestating. And put (Eg.) to stretch the bow out is equivalent to puft. The paut or put, a company of nine gods, also the name of no. 9, the nine months of gestation, is paft or puft, and this in accordance with the gnosis expresses the full period of gestation or the total number of the nine gods as the extent. Put, i.e., puft, is to figure and form, create the type; this too is based on swelling and puffing as did the genetrix, in shaping the child, the primordial image of breathing being.

The male breather of soul shares the type-name of Papa with the female producer as in the Songo, Bola, Pepel, and Sar'ar name of papa; Soso fafe; Tene fafa; Baga bapa; Ife, Ota, Kareharc, Ngodsin, Karnuka, Kiriman, Nalu, Kano, Turkish, Sonthal, and Carib baeba. In a later stage the produce was called the pup, as the young of the dog; pube, Cimbrisch, for the boy; German, bube; Swiss, bub, and Swiss Romance, boubo, the boy; Latin, pupa, a girl, pupus, a boy, and the North American Indian pappoos.

Because the Sanskrit jive means to live, be alive, revive, it is forthwith classed with various other words that signify life, living, to be alive. Such include the Latin, vivo; Greek, Βίος; Old German, qveh; Gothic, qvrvs; Sclavonic, schiva; Lithuanic, gywas; and English, quick. Here the Egyptian shows us two distinct ideas of life at the root of these words. The Latin vivo is not of the same parentage as jive or qveh, or the Russian givoy. The Sanskrit j represents an earlier k just as jina, the 'overcomer of all things' a title of Buddha; jwa, the victorious, triumphant, represents the Egyptian kan or kanu, the brave, able, victor. The root on this line is found in kef (Eg.). Kef or kep was the most ancient mother of life, the Egyptian Eve. Now kef means the mystery of life related to the mystical water; it is called the mystery of the Nile, of fertilization, and fermentation; one of Two Truths in the primitive physiology, that of the water or rather the blood which formed the flesh (af). This was one aspect of the mystery, one phase of the life.

Kef passed into Hebrew as ghiv, later ghi, the life, living; Russian, givoy, living. The nature of this origin will explain why life and the beast are synonymous in the word ghiv or ghiva. [p.245] The life in this sense was the blood, the life of the flesh. Kefa was the mother of flesh and the beast personified. From kef come the Old German qveh and Lithuanic gywas. But the Slavonic schiva corresponds to skhep (Eg.), to make live, and sheb, flesh, bodily shape. This relates to the first of the Two Truths.

Vivo is a form of pa-pa or paf, the wind, gust, ghost or spirit; the life of breath and primordial form of soul. This second of the Two Truths of life is shown by faf (f) to bear, with the corn-measure on the head of the genetrix, signifying gestation. It is the IrishCeltic bobo, the mystery; the Welsh pabo, the producer of life; Galla bube, wind, breath, or bufa, to puff; Egyptian paba, the soul; English puf, to blow; Tamul afa, breath, as vapour, and later spirit of life; Polynesian pu; Greek fuo, to be; Vei fe, to blow, breathe, kindle the fire; ba (Zulu), to be; b, Zend, to be; Egyptian ba to be a soul. With the article t prefixed to pu, to be, tepu (Eg.) means the first and also to breathe or blow. Buffaloes are called tepu (Eg.) from their blowing. This suggests the origin of the word buf-falo from the same meaning. In Maori the bud, shoot, growth or blowing of flowers is tupu, and tupu in Mangaian signifies from the very beginning, when things first began to tupu or blow.

Languages without the verb to be in one sense have it in the more concrete form of to live. The negro says the thing no 'lib' there, for 'it is not there.' To live, in the Latin vivo, is to be in the sense of to puff or breathe. The word life is synonymous with rep (Eg.), to grow, bud, blossom, and bear like the tree, or as Repit the genetrix, the llaf-dig. To be quick is to be living, and this means also to be pregnant, and is traceable to the mother's quickening. To quicken, in English, is to ferment with yeast. The word quick is khi-khi in the hieroglyphics, to beat with a whip or to fan, to make go; and this whip, early fan, is the symbol of spirit and breathing, whilst its fellow of two, the aut (crook) signifies matter. These are types of the Two Truths carried in the hands of the gods.

Our word mother is not derived from the Sanskrit ma, to fashion, but from the Egyptian name of the mother as mut. Mut means the mother, the emaner, the mouth (she was the mystical mouth of the breath of being); mut the chamber, place, abode, the womb, muht, the fulfiller from mut, to fill full, be full, complete, no. 9. The form mut also means to fix and establish. Ar (Eg.) is the child, or the likeness, the type of a fulfilled period, the thing made. Thus mut-ar is the place, the gestator, founder, and emaner of the child.

The name mama is also Egyptian. The word signifies to bear and has the determinative of the female carrying the modius or corn-measure on her head, the hieroglyphic of gestation[62]. In various other African dialects mama is the mother. This name has been [p.246] supposed to be the spontaneous and universal utterance of infancy. Ideographically it is written with the type of the mother bearing seed; phonetically, with a double boat-stand. The Mamuti or MainKuti is the cabin of the boat. This doubly identifies the mama as the bearer.

Max Muller[63] has suggested that the Sanskrit bhratar, Zend bratar, Greek φρατήρ, Gothic brothar, Irish brathair, Slavonic brat, Cornish braud, English brother mean the one who carries or assists. The earliest namers and myth-makers, however, made the female the carrier or bearer. If our principle of naming the male be true, it follows that the word brother is the same word as breather. The Egyptian prut is our English breath, and seed.

Prut signifies to void, emane, manifest, pour out, shed seed, with the male sign for determinative. This identifies the prut-ar as the male fruit-er, the breather, seed-shedder, our brother. The soul was the heat, the fire that vivifies as well as the breath. Thus the Breton broud, the Welsh brud and Irish bruth take the form of heat in place of breath, both being synonymous with spirit. The Irish 'broth of a boy' is a man of spirit and eruptive vigour. The brother includes both meanings, as the male child. We have to do with words in their primary sense. The relation of the brother is secondary. The meaning of sister is just as primitive, and as closely connected with the breath. These words come to us from a time when to breathe was to be, and breathing dominates the imagery used as symbols of the male and female.

The word sister is derived etymologically from the Egyptian sist. Sis is breath and to breathe. Ses-mut is the breathing mother. The ideograph of breathing is the brood, i.e., breeding mare. Sest is the same, the she and her represented by a brood-mare going, galloping. Ses-t means breathed; it is the participial form of ses, breath, and to be breathed is equivalent to breeding, and thus names the breeder. Sest likewise is the preparing house, the House of Breath, over which Nephthys, called the saving sister presided.

The phonetic s represents an ideographic sf, and by interchange of u and v the Egyptian ses, to breathe, represents the svas of the Sanskrit svasar for sister. Svi means to swell, increase; svasa is breath, breathing, inspiring the breath, or soul of life. Svas is the root of many words denoting breath and breathing, puffing, as in pregnancy. Sanskrit preserves the earlier form of ses, as sfs or svas in svasar. Sesar (Eg.) is the breather, and ses-ar is to breathe the child, whence the sister is the one who inspires life, is the breather or breeder like the Sest-Mut. Only in Egyptian do ses and sest meet, and only Egyptian could furnish both svasar and sister as the two distinct names, derived on two different lines of development. [p.247] Sest (Eg.) is the mare, as mother, and ar (Eg.) is the likeness of, ergo sest-ar is the image of the mother, a repetition of the same sex, whence the sister, just as the brother is the likeness or type of the father, as male breather, the inspirer of life. The Egyptian ar for the child, likeness, type, image, to make, serves in each case to illustrate the paft-ar (bat-ar, pat-ar), mut-ar, broth-ar, and sist-ar.

In Egyptian sf, later su, is the child; nu is a male type. Sifnu or sunu means the male child. This was worn-down as a word to sun, to be made, to become, sen the second, the other, the alter ego, or second self. The form sfnu is implied in the Sanskrit snu, the accent representing the missing consonant, and in the English son the o represents the f of sif (Eg.) the child. In Egyptian, however, the two components of the word (also the word sun) are anterior to the distinction of male and female.

The origin and meaning of the word daughter have exercised me more than most words. The derivation from duhi, Sanskrit, to milk, which makes the daughter the milkmaid, fails to fathom it.

The female as woman, wife, and mother is designated from the womb. Waimo, in Finnish, is the woman, and in Lap and Scotch the wame is the womb. In Egyptian the female is hem or khem with the determinative of the womb. Mut, the Mother, is identical with mut the mouth or uterus. Uterus and udder are equivalents and in Sanskrit vima is the udder. The wife is also named from the same origin, as is shown by the Cornish kuf, coff, and keber; English Gipsy, chavi; Chippewa, kiva; Maori, kopu; Egyptian, khep; Malagasy, kibo; Old Bohemian, kepf. The female is identified on this ground in Anglo-Saxon as the wif-child, that is, the womb-child. The wife-child is the 'kuf'-child, that is, the womb-child in Cornish and other languages. The daughter is certain to be simply distinguished from the male on the same principle. The name is found as the Sanskrit duhitar; Greek, θυγάτηρ; Zend, dughhar; Lithuanian, duktere; Bohemian, dcera; Lap, daktar; German, tochter: English, daughter; Gothic, dauhter. Following the clue of the wife-child leads us to the name of the oldest mother, Khept, in whom the womb and goddess are one. Khept modifies into kat, and this supplies the likelier root of the word daughter. Kat (Eg.), is the womb; koht, in Esthonian; qatu, in Fijian; quida, Old Norse; quiti, Alemannic; quithel, Gothic; ucht, Gaelic; cut, English; cwyther, Welsh. Ar (Eg.) is the child, and tu the feminine article. Thus tu-kat-ar is the womb-child or child with the womb. Kat is also the goddess, the seat, the hindward one, the cow, the bearer, the female in various forms, therefore it is inferred that daughter is compounded from tu-kat-ar as the female child. In English, daughter is also represented by dafter, and af (Eg.) means born of; aft is the feminine abode, the womb, the ancient mother from the first. The mother and daughter are one in mythology. The [p.248] mother of the god is likewise called his daughter. Hathor is the hat (earlier kat, earliest khept), the abode of ar, the child, and yet she is also the daughter. If we take the form of kat, as in Kat-Mut, Hathor is Katar, and with the feminine prefix tu, tu-kat-ar, she is the θυγάτηρ, dughdhar, daughter, dauhter, or duhitar, the divine milkmaid, or rather nurse, as the cow-goddess. This feminine type of khept, kat, or hat, may be followed in language generally thus

Kat . . . . . . . . . Karangas . . . . . . . . . Woman
Kota . . . . . . . . . Kwaliokwa . . . . . . . . . Woman
Kithia . . . . . . . . . Chetemacha . . . . . . . . . Woman
Khatun . . . . . . . . . Mongol . . . . . . . . . Woman
Khoton . . . . . . . . . Pelu . . . . . . . . . Woman
Kodar . . . . . . . . . Wokan . . . . . . . . . Woman
Kiteis . . . . . . . . . Malaguaya (compare Gr. Cteis) . . . . . . . . . Woman
Wata . . . . . . . . . Baba . . . . . . . . . Woman
Watoa . . . . . . . . . Peba . . . . . . . . . Woman
Wat-Waat . . . . . . . . . Keh Doulan . . . . . . . . . Woman
Wadon . . . . . . . . . Javanese . . . . . . . . . Woman
Oat . . . . . . . . . Kwakliokwa . . . . . . . . . Woman
Outie . . . . . . . . . Guachi . . . . . . . . . Woman
Itthi . . . . . . . . . Pali . . . . . . . . . Woman
Eti . . . . . . . . . Sekumne . . . . . . . . . Daughter
Aiat . . . . . . . . . Sahaptin and Kliketat . . . . . . . . . Woman
Macath . . . . . . . . . Minetari . . . . . . . . . Daughter
Meyakatte . . . . . . . . . Crow Indian . . . . . . . . . Woman
Takata . . . . . . . . . Annatom . . . . . . . . . Woman
Mu-hata . . . . . . . . . Kisama . . . . . . . . . Woman
Mu-hetu . . . . . . . . . Songo and Lubalo . . . . . . . . . Woman
Safat . . . . . . . . . Riccari . . . . . . . . . Woman
Tsapat . . . . . . . . . Pawni . . . . . . . . . Woman
Set . . . . . . . . . Amharic . . . . . . . . . Woman

These are derived from one original Khept, as were the names of the hand, because the uterus and hand are permutable types and both represent the parent power as female.





This page last updated: 12/04/2014