According to Caesar, the Druids worshipped Mercury in particular, and possessed many images of the god. They regarded him as the inventor of all arts, looked to him as their guide of ways on their journeys, and considered him to have great influence over mercantile transactions. Next to Mercury, they adored Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. 'Concerning them, they have almost the same opinion as other nations, namely, that Apollo wards off diseases, that Minerva instructs them in the principles of works and arts, that Jupiter holds the empire of heaven, and that Mars rules in war. To him, when they have determined to engage in battle, they generally vow those things which they shall have captured in war. When they are victorious, they sacrifice the captured animals, and pile up the other spoils in one place. The Gauls declare that they have all sprung from their father Pluto; and this, they say, was delivered to them by the Druids.'[1]

'Caesar's statement, that the Druids worshipped Mercury, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva, is of the same base metal as the statement of more modern writersthat the Buddhists worship the Trinity, and that they take Buddha for the Son of God.' So says Max Muller[2].

Caesar, however, as we shall find, knew what he was talking about. Such divinities as were familiar to him he identified by their nature, and transliterated their names according to Roman equivalents. So far as it went, Caesar's statement is entirely true and trustworthy. It is supplemented by Richard of Cirencester, who writes of the Britons thus, 'Among their gods, the principal object of their worship was Mercury. Next to him they adored Justice (under the name of Astarte), then Apollo and Mars (who was called Vitucadrus), Jupiter, Minerva, Hercules, Victory (who was called Andate), Diana, Kubele, and Pluto.'[3]


Dionysius Periegetes sings:

'Upon the ocean's northern coasts are found
Two British islands fronting to the Rhine,
Where in the sea he disembogues his stream
Of these th' extent is vast, no other isles
To the Britannic justly can compare
Islets adjacent lie, wherein the wives
From the Amnites' distant shore perform
Due rites to Bacchus thro' the livelong night,
Deck'd in the dark-leav'd ivy's clustering buds,
While the shrill echo of their chaunt resounds:
Not so, upon Absinthus' Thracian banks
Eistonians hail the harsh Iraphiote;
Nor thus, around the dark-gulf'd Ganges stream,
The Indians with their sons on Bacchus call,
Noisy and loud, amid the festive scene,
As shout these women, "Evoe" to their god.'[4]

Geoffrey, in his History[5], tells us that Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford, a man of great eloquence, and learned in foreign histories, offered him a very ancient book in the British tongue, in which lie found the story of Brut, the first king of the Britons, written in an elegant style, and continued down to the time of Cadwallader. This he rendered into Latin.

The present writer can have no difficulty in accepting the tale of the book brought from Brittany, and translated into Latin by Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford. Walter, as a Latin scholar, did as Caesar did, he read the myth, common to various races, because each had derived it from the same original, as if it were Roman. He knew the name of Brutus, the legend of Troy, and the tradition of Aeneas, but was unacquainted with the mythos as British, or with the character of Prydhain, the youthful solar god, whose reign was established when the celestial Troy was overthrown, that was, when the Sabean cult and reckoning were superseded by the solar, the dragon-tyranny overturned, the son of the Virgin Mother elevated to the supreme place as the Father in Heaven, and the idea of a divine fatherhood exalted over that of the earlier motherhood. Geoffrey Latinized the British mythos. The Troy city that was overthrown is still figured in the children's games in Cornwall and Wales, and consists of seven circles round a centre cut in the grassy sod. These represent the seven regions of Dyved, the seven encirclers of the Great Bear. The seven belonged to the great mother, and with the son added, as Eshmen (8th), the earlier Sabean Sut, this was the Egyptian Troy or Teruui, the circumference, a form of Sesennu, and no. 8. It can be identified by the shield or circle of Pridwen, in which the ogdoad of Arthur and his seven companions escape from the deluge. The naming of London as the New Troy (Trinovantum), when collated with the gate and tower of Belin, can be restored to its proper place in the mythos. Belin is the son, considered as the child of the virgin mother. In one version of the 'Hanes Taliesin' [p.313] the speaker says: 'I have endured hunger for the Son of the Virgin. I have been in the White Hill in the Court of Cynvelyn, in bonds for a year and a day. I have had my abode in the kingdom of the Trinity,'[6]this in enumerating the manifestations of the word or announcer of the various cycles of time.

Belin is said to have made a road from Totness to Caithness, and another from Southampton to St. David's[7]. And when he had made the burgh of Kaer-Usk, he went to London, the burgh he greatly loved. He 'there began a tower, the strongest of all the town; and with much art a gate there under made; then men called it Billingsgate.'[8]

The New Troy was established by the young sun-god, considered as the child of the mother. 'I am come here,' says Taliesin, 'to the remains of Troy.'[9] Also, New Troy, the White Hill, and the Gate of Belin will supply a possible rendering for the name of London. Renn (Eg.), the virgin, pure, unblemished, is the equivalent of white, as in linen (renn); thus Renn-ten (London) is the White Hill.

Helvellyn is another Hill of Belin, and retains his name so long as mountains stand. 'Now and evermore the name standeth there,'[10] says Lazamon's Brut of Billingsgate, the Gate of Belin, in the account given of the tower built by Belin, the good king who lived there as the prince of peace and plenty, the Nefer-Hept of Egypt. Belin, like Sutekh and Sat-ren, means the little or child Baal, who was Sut, the star-god, in the Sabean mythos, and Pryd (or Brute) in the solar. So interpreted, London is the royal seat (tun), the throne-room of the renn. The renn is also the nursing mother, who was Rennut in Egypt, Luna and Selene in Greece, and the Celtic Luan, the moon-goddess. Tradition tells us that a temple of Luan once stood where St. Paul's now stands. Thus London is the tun of the virgin (renn) and child of a pre-Christian religion. Belin is the diminutive of Baal, and he is the mythical builder of London. Belin is the nursling, i.e., the renn, and London was his seat and throne, or tun, as witnessed by Billingsgate; therefore the most probable derivation of the name of the city is from Renn-tun (Lenn-tun), the throne of the child, who was Belin in the British mythos. The child who came to the 'remains of Troy' was Pryd, who is represented by Geoffrey as Brute who came from the remains of Troy[11].

The sun of the resurrection, i.e., of the vernal equinox, is the potent because pubescent son. Hence he is the bearded or the long-haired god in many mythologies; the elder Horus being the wearer of the lock of childhood. This is illustrated by Arthur in the story of the giant who had made himself furs formed of the beards of kings whom he had slain, and who commanded Arthur to cut off his beard and send [p.314] it to him as a tributary offering[12]. Belin and his brother Brennes are a form of the 'two-halved youth,' the dual Horus or double Anubis of Egyptian mythology. Brennes or Brennius is but the Latinised form of the pren (branch), that is, the renn (Eg.) or nursling child of the mother, a type of which is extant in the wren as the little king, the prince of all the birds, the Breton roen.

The wren was hunted to death on Christmas Day, and on the day following it was carried about, suspended by the foot in the centre of two hoops crossing each other at right angles. A procession used to be formed in every village of men, women, and children, who sang an Irish catch importing the wren to be the king of all birds[13]. Now the hieroglyphic noose for the feet of cattle is a ren. In this ceremony the dead wren was typical of the first of the two brothers who died and rose again, or was transformed.

The process of modernizing the ancient fragments by recasting in the classical or biblical mould is sufficiently apparent. In the Poem in Praise of Lludd the Great[14] the name of the god Aeddon (Hu) has become Adonai. How easy is it to turn round and claim this to be the Hebrew Adonai, and then to infer that he was derived from the Hebrew writings! Aeddon is identical with Adonai and with Adonis, and Tammuz, and Duzi, and other forms of the same god in divers lands, who were independently derived from the Egyptian Aten, long before the Jews brought their version of the mythos out of Egypt. The same perversion of the original imagery is manifest in Freemasonry through this recasting of the ancient matter in the biblical mould. It was this process of interpreting the fragments by the Hebrew rendering of the same original matter that put Davies irrecoverably on the wrong track. The process may be followed into the Christian stage in which the Christ is substituted for Prydhain.

All this and much more is admitted without determining the true nature of the ancient British relics, which can only be done by collecting their correlatives, and showing how they belong to an original system of thought, of mythology, of typology, of eschatology, which it is now proposed to identify as Egyptian at first, and pre-Hebraic in the isles. The Welsh text of these fragments cannot be adequately rendered without their mystic meaning being understood and allowed, instead of laughed at.

It has to be shown that the most ancient form of the great mother was the goddess whose image in heaven is the Great Bear. Her name in Egypt runs through the gamut of Ta-urt, Khepsh, Kheft, Aft, Apt, Khebt, Kheb, Kep, Ap. Her name in full is synonymous with that of Egypt. Af signifies born of; ap is the first; aft the abode and the four corners. She was represented as the hippopotamus, the cow, or horse of the waters. Her name is likewise that of the north. Lower Egypt was to the north, and her constellation revolved about the pole of the [p.315] north. The celestial north is the oldest place of birth in mythology. Kheb means to give birth to; khep is the womb; and khebt was the birthplace in the north personified. From Egypt (Lower) the name of Kheft extended to Phoenicia, Kheft or Keft being the Egyptian name of that country, which was called so from the north. The Hebrew name of Japhet, Japht, or Apht (תפי), corresponds to the Egyptian Aft, earlier Kheft, the lady or queen of heaven, and is represented by Aipht, the Welsh name of Egypt. In the account of the generations of Noah in the Book of Genesis, Japhet and his descendants are the people who migrate and take possession of the isles. 'By these were the isles of the Gentiles divided in their lands; every one after his tongue, after their families, in their nations.'[15] The present writer believes that books have been written, although he has not read them, to identify Gomer with the Cymry of Wales. After long seeking and by very different roads he arrives at the same result, and anticipates having the pleasure of seeing the ripple of derision ironed smoothly out of the faces of the scoffers and scorners this time by the weighty pressure of hard facts.

Kheft is the north, the birthplace, the genetrix. She was the bearer, the great or pregnant mother, hence her type of the water-horse, the ark of life amid the waters before any artificial means of carrying had been invented. Kheft, by a well known law of language, becomes Khęt. So Kheft, the abode of birth, becomes Ket-Mut, the mother Ket or Kat. Kat, like kheft, means the womb. Kat softens into hat, the habitation of the child, named Hathor. By this process we are enabled to claim our British goddess Ked as the old mother Kheft figured as the living ark of the waters. Kęd is the Arkite goddess of the British Druids.

The readers of Davies' writings will remember how like a ridiculous dance witnessed by one who may be deaf to the music seemed all his wearisome references to the goddess Kęd and her ark, which was also a mareas bad as any nightmare. Yet there was original meaning in the whole matter, although its expounder knew not how to put or prove it.

Kheft or Aft was the goddess of the four quarters of the first circle made in heaven. Aft, the abode, is also the four corners. This circle of the four quarters was repeated in the Caer or sanctuary of Kęd, called the 'quadrangular enclosure.' The Druids, her teachers, are described as Druids of the Circle, of four dialects, coming from the four regions[16].

Taliesin, in Praise of Lludd the Great, recognises the Cymry of four languages, and says, 'the Kymry of four languages shall change their speech.'[17] These four quarters of the Kaer and four languages of the Cymry affiliate them to Aft of the four corners, the earlier Kheft, or Ked. Taliesin says that necessity produced nothing [p.316] earlier than Kęd (Keridwen), and the primary sacred order in the world was that of her priests[18]; the claim in relation to the four quarters is exactly the same as that made by the monarchs of Egypt and Assyria.

In the first period of the Round Table, Kęd is represented as living in the time of that Arthur whose symbol in the heavens was the Great Bear, and whose harp was the constellation Lyra[19]. Arth is the name of the Great Bear, and of Arthur it is said, 'Aythur­ap-Arth-Hen against foeman's attack and injury made the blade (for use) in battle,' which identifies him as the son of the old Arth, the genetrix, goddess of the Great Bear[20]. Khebt, the hippopotamus of the waters, became the fish-goddess as Derketo, the Syrian mermaid. And in an old Christian poem which was palmed off as one of Taliesin's, the fish that swallowed Jonah is called 'Kyd.' The writer asks, 'Who brought Jonah out of the belly of Kyd?'[21]

The ark of Kęd is described as passing through the dale of grievous waters, having the fore part stored with corn, and mounted aloft with the connected serpents[22]. The bard Cuhelyn[23] sings (eighth century) of 'the goddess of various seeds,' and of the 'enjoyment of the society of Kęd,' and the poems sung in her praise by the 'chanters of Caw.' This is in allusion to the Druidic mysteries. She is the goddess of corn and of those who carry ears of corn, as did her priests. Ta-urt, a name of Khebt, may be translated the corn-bearer, the genetrix being represented at times with the modius or corn-measure on her head. This 'ta,' illustrated by the Akkadian Umme-da, the bearing-mother, means the enceinte. Ta-urt is the enceinte, or Great Mother, and corn was one of the ideographs.

The Cornish hay, English Gipsy giv, English gofe, for corn harvested, Sanskrit yava, Lithuanian javai, Egyptian sef, Greek zeiá, lead back to khefi (Eg.), harvest, the Kaffir kwebu, an ear of corn, and to Khepsh, Khept, or Kefa, the name of the genetrix as the primal corn-bearer. So is it with the name of Ta-urt. Ta is corn, but, as in the Akkadian Umme-da and the Maori to, it also denotes pregnancy. Da-mater (Demeter) is the mother of corn, but the external is not the original sense, and she was the great mother, the gestator. The corn or seed was an image of life. One of Kęd's names is Lladd, to cut, reap, and mow, which corresponds to rept (Eg.), the goddess of harvest and lady of corn; and this name of the lady of corn was certainly not derived from the Saxon hlafdig. Llad (Welsh) means to confer favours, gifts, blessings; and the favourer, the giver, was the lady, the good lady, Welsh lladai, Gaelic leudi, from repti (Eg.), the lady of corn and goddess of harvest.

Enough to show that Kęd was, as the fragments of the Barddas and [p.317] Druids claim; much more might be cited to prove that she has been. As we have seen, the Welsh call the Great Bear by the name of Arth, the Irish Art, its Egyptian form minus the ta. The Bear was originally the water-horse image of Ta-urt, the typhonian Great Mother. In this connection with the horse we are enabled to identify Ta-urt with the prefix to the name.

On one of Camden's[24] coins, no. 32, there is a female head with the legend Direte. History, says Davies[25], mentions no queen or city of this name, but in our old orthography Direit, and in the modern Dyrreith, is a title of the mystical goddess who is introduced by the name of Dyrreith in the ancient British poem called the Talisman of Cunobeline[26]. She is a goddess, and takes the form of the mare to carry the hero to battle and victory. It is said 'Cunobeline, the indignant, the lofty leader of wrath and that divine allurer Dyrreith, of equal rank with Morion, shall go under the thighs of the liberal warriors.'[27] This was the bearer, the ark of the waters, and Ta-urt is the chariot and bearer of the waters. It is now claimed that our Druidic Direit, the goddess whose symbol was the mare, the crosser of the waters, is a British form of Ta-urt by name, which doubles the identity of Khebt and Kęd.

The word tasc is frequently found on the British coins, sometimes tascio, tascia, or tascie. This has never been satisfactorily accounted for, although Davies rightly connected the word with corn and the corn-bearing vessel of Kęd. The great mother of mythology is depicted as the corn-bearer whose solar son is Hu, or Corn, and whose earlier Sabean child was Sut, a name of seed or corn. The ear of corn is frequently depicted on the coins, along with the mare or mother. It is omitted, however, from one coin[28], but in its stead we find the word dias enclosed within a frame. Dias in Irish signifies an ear of corn; it here takes the place of the ear of corn, and in Egyptian tes is corn and food made from corn, also a tie or bond. Moreover, tes is a part of the style of the great mother, meaning the enveloped form and very self; Ta-su signifying the bearer of corn, or the child.

Tas in English is a mow of corn, the tasker, a reaper of corn. Tiscan in Cornish is a handful of corn tied up as a sheaf. On a coin published by Whitaker, and reproduced by Davies[29], the goddess appears in the dual shape of the mother and mare, in the act of going, like the hieroglyphic Ses-Mut. The coin bears the legend, 'Tasc-ia­no-va-lin.' Tasc is corn, ia or iua, (Eg.) is a boat; nu means a divine type; fa (Eg.) is to bear, carry the corn, with the corn-modius on the heada symbol of pregnancy; and lin is the water. The title thus interpreted is that of the divine boat which carried the corn across the waters as the Ark of Kęd. This figure was the water-horse in Egypt, and is the mare in Britain. Both are [p.318] personifications of the womb, or the mother great with child, called the Great Mother.

Whitaker also publishes a coin[30] on which there is a child borne upon a dog with the legend, 'Tasc No Va,' the same as Tascianova, with the boat, iua (Eg.), omitted. This reads the bearer of divine corn, or corn typically carried. The dog connects the legend with Sothis or Sut, the Dog-star, the first child borne by the great mother, whom we shall try to identify with the mythical Arthur, whose star is the Great Bear.

The noose hieroglyphic held in the hands of Ta-urt is the ark sign of reckoning, the end of a period, a cycle of time. So, on the back of the mare[31], the vase of Kęd is portrayed, the Pair or cauldron that boiled for a year and a day, and is, therefore, the symbol of a cycle, the circle and period of the water-horse or Bear. The one equates with the other. Kheb (Eg.), the water-horse, gave us the hob, or hobby-horse, of the mysteries and mummeries.

Memorials of the goddess Kęd exist in many symbols and things that bear her name. She was the genetrix. Kat (Eg.) is the womb, and the cat, or cut, is a type-name of the female emblem. The chat, cat, or gat, is alluded to by the wife of Bath, who says, 'Gat-toothed I was, and that became me well.'[32] Her teeth were cut, indented, suggestive of the gate, the opening. Cate signifies lecherous; hence the gat-tooth is the liquorous tooth. Kęd is the typical female in other applications of her name. The chid-lamb is the female lamb; the chideress, or chidester, is a female scold; also the cat in the same sense. She was the cat, and is still the cat with nine lives; the nine months of gestation during which she kills the rat nine times. She was the abode of birth, and the cot, cottage, quod, cathedral, and city, are forms of the abode named after Kęd. She was the first house, and the kit is an outhouse for cattle; the cat a shed for protecting soldiers. She was the lady of corn, Ceres, and cod is an enclosure of seed and a seed-basket. The cod-fish is the prolific seed-fish; the milt of a single cod-fish has been calculated to contain one hundred and fifty thousand million animalcules: the eggs of the female are numerous in proportion, and this furnished a type of Kęd, and was named after the prolific great mother. We have her namesake in the kid or cod of peas, with which some ancient customs are connected. The 'scadding of peas' was a Scottish custom of boiling the common grey peas in the kid and shelling them afterwards. Skhet (Eg.) means to be enclosed, shut up, as in the pod. It was also a custom to woo and to divine with the peascod. The old chap-book called Mother Bunch's Closet Newly Broke Open[33] gives instructions for seeking a green peascod in which there are full nine peas, and writing on a slip of [p.319] paper, 'Come in, my dear, and do not fear'; this is to be placed inside the kid and laid under the door; the first man who enters is the predestined husband. Kęd was the seat and sustainer of being, and the cat is still used as a support. The Cather (har or ar, Eg. is the child) is a cradle. Kęd was the first cradle of the har, child. She carried the tie or noose in heaven as one of her symbols, a sign of surrounding, inclosing, catching, tying up, being pregnant. In the children's game of cat's cradle we have Kęd's cradle, and the string twisted on the fingers is analogous to her tie; the game is hieroglyphical. She was the typical ship that carried us over the waters when she let us out of the ark, at the end of nine months, or ten moons, and the cat is still the tackle of a ship. It was also carried on board as the cat-o'-nine-tails. How profound the worship of Kęd in Britain must have been may be judged by the religious feeling with which we preserved the cat-o'-nine-tails! so dominating is the symbol. Kęd was a goddess of fire and ferment in one phase; one of Ta-urt's titles is Spark-holder or Reproducer; and her emblem is the Chad-pot or feminine fire-holder used by the lace-makers and straw-plaiters. Lastly, she became the devil in Egypt, and Quede is an English name for the devil; quaid, Scotch, evil. She was degraded to this secondary stage of deity when the male was made supreme; en revanche, Kęd seems to have become our St. Catherine, or Catern, who had her festival on Catern Day. Kęd became our Kate. Em, in Welsh, is a pledge. Em (Eng.) means to flow, run; and on Catern Day, Kate (Kęd) is pledged in the flowing bowl called the 'Catern Bowl' by the Chapter of Worcester[34]. Khat-renn (Eg.) would be the renewer of the race, the dandler of the child. Khat also means going round, wheeling round, as did the stars of Kęd, and the wheeling or circle-making of the Great Bear becomes the Catherine wheel of the spark-holder, still imaged by the firework. This was the wheeling round perpetuated in the ceremonies of Catern Eve, as in London, when, at six o'clock of the day, there used to be a procession round the battlements of St. Paul's, accompanied with fine singing and great lights[35].

On her day, in the Isle of Thanet, the carters place a small figure across a wheel on the front of their cart-sheds. But this has no relation to the popish imposture of St. Catherine and her wheel. It represented the circle of the year divided at the autumn equinox, and the celebration once dated September 25 instead of November 25, or more than 4,000 years earlier. In the Cadair Keridwen[36], the chair of 'Ged­widedd' identifies the goddess with the celestial circle of revolution and the stability dependent on cycle-making. Hence her wheel, for she is called the 'Goddess of the Silver Wheel.' Catherine has been [p.320] made the patron saint of weavers, knitters, and lace-makers, and kat (or at), in Egyptian, denotes weaving and knitting. Khet is to net, weave, a woof. The kat (Eg.) is the loom, the primal form of this being the womb (kat or ked). The genetrix was the first weaver and knitter, the ankh tie being a primitive symbol of her work. Kęd (Kheft), in going round, made the noose and did the netting, Catherine is the typical virgin. To coiffure St. Catherine, or to braid her hair, is to remain a virgin. Renn (Eg.) means virgin, and Rennut was the virgin mother, that is, the mother who bore before the fatherhood was acknowledged, as will be sufficiently explained. Kat-renn (Eg.), in this sense, denotes the virgin womb. The lace-makers of Buckinghamshire hold merrymakings on Catern Day, and eat a kind of cake called 'wigs.'[37] that is, they eat the symbol of hair instead of coiffuring it for the virgin condition. Hair was a sign of puberty, and it was tied, snooded, or wigged up, at marriage. The merrymaking celebrates the other of the two characters assigned to the mother. Also the name of Kheft was given to an Egyptian headdress. The vessel of Kęd, called a pair, English pail, Egyptian par, a pail, survives in the milkmaid's pail called, after the goddess, a kit. The 'milkmaids' dance' is yet performed on the first of May, the kit, or pail, being dressed and decorated for the occasion. At Baslow, in Derbyshire, there is a festival of dressing the kit now and again observed. The kits are fancifully and tastefully ornamented with ribbons and festooned with flowers. They are carried on the heads of the young women of the village, who parade the streets attended by the young men, preceded by a band of music. The day is ended in dancing[38]. One name of a fiddle is the kit. Baslow reminds one of bes (Eg.), to bear, to carry. The milkmaid with the kit on her head is an image of the bearer, one of whose types is the cow. The cat being a type of Kęd and a name also of the fiddle may have a serious bearing on the rhymes of:

'Hey diddle diddle
The cat and the fiddle,'

and the cow that jumped over the moon may be the cow-goddess of Ursa Major, Kęd, who was anterior to and higher in heaven than Luna. Also, a 'diddle' is a young duck or a young pig, and both are types of the old genetrix; and the little dog, or Canis Minor, imaged Sut, the son of the cow-headed goddess, or Hes-Taurt, later Astarte and Eostre.

The seat of the goddess of the seven stars was represented by the seven hills[39]. She is the mythical beast, whose seat is the seven hills of Rome; the Mount Meru, with its seven steps or divisions, is a form of the sevenfold hilt. And at Great Grimsby the divinity Kęd sat enthroned on the symbolical seven hills. Two of these [p.321] seven, Holm and Abbey Hills, are joined together by an artificial bank, known as Kit's Bank, once a landing-place[40].

Teb, Kef, and Kheft are names of the goddess of the hinder-part, the back, the north, the place of the mount, the fundamental seat. And in English, teb is the fundament; also the extreme end and outlet of a cart. Keb is the Peak of Derbyshire, with the same meaning. The Cefn or Keven is a ridge also called the Back, the hinder-part. The Chevin is a ridge in Wharfdale, and Chevening is on the great ridge in North Kent. To this naming from the North, the hindward quarter, we may assign the Back as in Saddleback.

Kęd is synonymous with the good. The good time or tide is named from Kęd; Gut-tide is a name of Shrovetide; the good-day or holi­day was the day of Kęd. The good wife is a form of the goddess. Kedy, a familiar name with the British Barddas, is our 'Goody.' A goody was an old woman that wore the red cloak, and the red crown was worn by the genetrix in the lower world. One 'Good Woman' was a sign of a woman without a head. This too can be understood as a form of Kęd or Kheft, who represented the lower and hinder-part; it was synonymous with the lower crown of Neithminus the hut or headthe crown of the north and hieroglyphic of her name.

Our word ure means use, custom, practice, and ur (Eg.) is the first great, oldest, principal; this gives the primal sense of ure, as use and usage. Ured means to be fortunate, that is, fruitful. Urt (Eg.) is to be gentle, meek, peaceful, bearing or pregnant. The urt is the crown with asps, a type of maternity. Urt was the Great Mother, who in mythology is the goddess of luck and fortune. In Egypt she was personified as Ta-Urt, the pregnant Urt. She was depicted as the hippopotamus, with big belly and long drooping dugs of breasts, more like uddersi. In English ur is a name of the udder. The constellation of Urt was Ursa Major, and this most ancient form of the genetrix is identifiable in Ireland, where the name of the Great Bear is known as Art, and in Britain as Arth. And Urt is a name of Khebt, our goddess Kęd.

As-t or Hes-t, the Great Mother, who is personified as the heifer, the seat, the house, couch, or bed, reappears by name as Ast, a title of Kęd as the greyhound bitch, the female dog being a type of her, as were the dog and Dog-star of Isis in Egypt. One of Kęd's stone monuments in Cardiganshire was named 'Llech yr Ast,' the flat-stone of the bitch[41]. A place near Tring, in Hertfordshire, called Astoe is probably the circle of Ast. Ast, the bitch, is a form of the as or hes, the seat, bed, chamber, abode of birth belonging to the female, personified in Astarte, Ashtareth, Ishtar, Asterodia, Eseye, and Eostre.


Gwal y Vilast, in Glamorganshire, is the couch of the greyhound bitch. In the mysteries Keridwen, the Great Mother, is represented as transforming herself into the swift greyhound bitch and pursuing Gwion the Little[42]. In the story of Saneha, an Egyptian tale of the Twelfth Dynasty, it is said of the swift hero, 'His limbs are like (those of) the greyhound of the great goddess.'[43]

So in the hieroglyphics the bitch-dog khen is the image of the inner abode, the khent or womb. And this brings us to the meaning of Kęd's name of Keridwen. She is the khen. Wen has a prior form in gwen, the equivalent of khen. Gwen, the lady, is Khen, the hall, interior, or boat. Gwenhywyvar, the lady of the summit of the water, is the khen (khen, to image, navigate, carry on the water) personified as Keridwen. This Khen is written with the boat-oar assigned to the goddess; kher-it (Eg.) is the figured oar, and khart is the child. Keridwen, as the vessel of the child and the oar, is the ark of life.

The sow was a primitive type of the Great Mother as the suckler, the Dea Multimamnae and goddess of the Great Bear. It was cast out of Egypt as unclean, but its name of shaau shows it to have been an image of primal being, whilst the primordial name of Hathor as Shaat is the same as Shat, the sow. The sow was also an image of Ta-urt as Rerit. This was one of the shapes of the British genetrix Kęd, and is a proof of her being the goddess Khebt, the good Typhon. The ship or vessel of Kęd that carries the corn is typified by the sow called hwch (hog) in one of the Triads. Hwch is also an epithet for the ship. In English hug means to carry.

The sow of the Welsh Druids was born in Dyved, and she went to the Black Stone in Arvon; under this she laid a kitten which Colt threw from the top of the stone into the Menai. The sons of Paluc in Mona took it up and nursed it to their injury. This became the celebrated Paluc cat.

Even a sow that gives birth to a cat may be explained by Egyptian symbolism, for shau, the name of the sow, is the same as shau, the name of the cat, and the two are interchangeable types of the genetrix. The Druidic cat or tiger is spoken of as a large ferocious beast. In the Ritual we have the 'cat in the house of Pet, whose mouth is twisted when he looks because his face is behind him.'[44]

The cat and the ass are called the 'Sayers of Great Words' in the Hall of Two Truths. The cat is primarily a feminine type, that of Pasht or Pekht, the mortal enemy of the rat. When the solar mythos was adapted to the symbols and imagery previously extant, and the sun-god became supreme, the sun in one phase took on the female form, and in the passage of the Pool of Persea is made [p.323] to transform into the great cat or leopard[45]. The Greeks had the same representation, although the symbols had become a dead letter to them.

Apollo is designated the rat-killer; but why, the Greeks cannot tell us. A story is current about a priest of his, one Crinis, who neglected his sacred duties, whereupon the god sent against him a devouring swarm of rats. The priest repented, prayed for protection, and Apollo slew the rats.

Apollo is the rat-slayer because the evil Apophis in the Egyptian mythology takes the rat for one of his types. The rat is a form of the destroyer, 'the abominable rat of the sun,' as it is called. This is the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack built. This was the rat that was put a stop to by coupling, and as rhyming is a kind of coupling, this may be the origin of the Irish practice of 'rhyming rats to death.' Remn (Eg.) denotes the limit and stopping-place, whence the rhyme.

The cat into which the sun transformed (or was catted) 'on the night of the battle made to bind the wicked,' when the cat attacked the 'abominable rat of the sun,' seems to have been represented in the rites at the witches' Sabbath, for we are told that after the supper or eucharist there stepped out of a statue standing in the midst of the assembly a black cat, as large as a goodly-sized dog, which advanced backwards towards them, having the tail turned up. Then the company gave the cat the kiss in ano, the hindward salute, a common formula of the witches' Sabbath, and sat in silence, with all heads bowed towards the cat. Then the lights were put out, and, like the Israelites, they rose up to play. After which there appeared a figure, half sun, half cat[46]. This was probably the transformation scene in which the great cat was re-transformed into its solar splendour.

The kiss in ano is equally the kiss in Annu, for annu (Eg.) also signifies behind, and in Annu occurred the scene of transformation into the cat, when the Egyptian mystery of Sem-Sem was enacted in the darkness. The witches' Sabbath serves to enlighten the obscurity of the Ritual and its mythological allusions. In the Hellenic cosmogony the sun is said to create the lion; the moon creates the cat. This likewise is an illustration of the Egyptian imagery.

In the two bulls issued by Pope Gregory the Ninth (1232 and 1233) against the Stedingers of North Germany, he charges them with their heathen practices, and amongst other secret ceremonies used on the initiation of a convert, he says that a shining personage appeared from the dark corner of the chamber, the upper part of his body being luminous as the sun, making radiant the whole room, [p.324] while his lower parts were rough and hairy, and like a cat[47]; an image of the sun above and cat below that perfectly reproduces the solar symbolry of the Egyptian Book of the Dead[48], where the sun in Annu makes his transformation into the cat.

This, then, it is claimed, is the speckled cat into which Taliesin, assimilated to the sun, says he had been transformed: 'I have been a cat with a speckled head upon a tripod,'[49] or a tree. Nor is the cat an isolated symbol, but carries with it the total cult and all its doctrines. The cat-headed solar goddess Pasht followed the sow-goddess, and in the British mythos the sow brought forth the cat. The cat-headed goddess Pasht is designated 'Menhi,' and she is also called Ur-Hekau, the old ruleress, or the great magic power. With the article prefixed, p-ur-ukhu, the great magic power or the old ruleress, is the equivalent of the Paluc cat of Menai.

Not a refrain, burden, or rhyme of the old popular nursery lore but had a meaning once, and became a permanent possession on that account. Things thrown off without sense do not become matterful by repetition. They live after the sense is lost, because of the meaning they once conveyed.

'Ding, dong, dell,
Pussy's in the well,'

says the distich, and pussy as the goddess Pasht is found there in the Well or Pool of Persea, and at the bottom of the well we are to find Truth. That same well was the Pool of Maat, goddess of the twofold total truth. Our pussy even is a diminutive of puss, because si and sif (Eg.) denote the child.

There is a goddess Uati on the monuments, very ancient, but little is known of her. She is identified, however, with the Buto of the Greeks. Uati is the goddess of the north. Uat (Eg.) is the name of the north and of Northern Egypt. Khebt is also the north and Northern Egypt. Thus Uat and Khebt are synonymous. Khebt, goddess of the Great Bear, is likewise the Goddess of the North. Buto and Leto are one with the Greeks. Leto is Urt (or Urta), a name of Khebt, the old genetrix, and it follows from this that Uati is a continuation of Khebt, as Goddess of the North and of the Great Bear, the British Kęd, mother of the sun-god Hu.

Now we are told by Pliny that the British ladies, married and unmarried, stained their bodies with woad, and danced naked in the open air[50]. This was obviously in the performance of certain religious ceremonies, but it has given rise to many false notions about the ancient Britons being painted savages. One name of woad is wad. Wad is a Cumberland name for blacklead. Woad is also written ode. Kettle is a name of purple, and the purple orchis is called the [p.325] kettle-case. Kit is also to smear or daub. Woad implies a form written with k. In Egyptian khu is paint. Khu-t will be painted, and we have need of this for determining the nature of woad. Pliny[51] says the woad was black, and wad is blacklead. Caesar[52] called it blue. Jornandes[53] affirms that it was produced from iron ore.

In Egyptian uat is the name of bluish-green, as stone for paint, and green plants and herbs. It is also the name of a blue cosmetic in the Great Harris Papyrus[54]. And we can see that uat in uatmes, the name of Collyrium, merely means colour or paint, and uatmes is black paint. It is also found as a brown colour. Uat as the name of water included both green and blue. My own conjecture is that woad was green when wet, and that it dried on the flesh in a kind of blue tint. Green and blue were the two colours wanted for the types of lower and upper, earth and heaven, whilst the transformation of the wet-green into the dry-blue would be the most perfect realization of the symbol possible. Again, one of the great objects of worship was Hu, the solar god, whose sign is a tongue, and the tongue is found to be painted blue and red, two colours that interchange with blue and green, the image of the heavenly and the earthly, or spirit and flesh, soul and body.*

*As on the sarcophagus in the Amhurst collection. Copied in colours by Bonwick[55].

Uat in the dual form is Uati, goddess of wet and heat, the two truths of water and breath, the two factors of being also personified by Hu, as the sphinx. Madder is a name of woad, also of paints. As Egyptian, mat-ter would read the twin-total of truth. Uat is found to be the colour of vestments worn in certain religious ceremonies of the Egyptians. This is identical with the woad vestment of the British devotees; and the woad has the name of the goddess of the north, who was Uati and Khebt, our British goddess of the north, who was Kęd. We have our Wad's-den not far from Gad's-den; two forms of the name of Kęd.

Painting the rosy flesh with a blue tint was clothing the earthly with the heavenly, and the ladies, maiden and matron, who danced and showed their colours dedicated to Hu and Uati made the same sign that we still perpetuate on the Union Jack. In the Ritual[56] Uati is described seated with Pasht in the great quarter, the greatest of the heaven, i.e., in the north[57]. And in another chapter, with a vignette of the deceased adoring, we read: 'Oh, great land, I have come from thee, I have prepared, I have irrigated the meadows. I am the bull painted (drawn) blue, the lord of the fields: the bull called (by) Sothis at her time ... Oh Uat (blue-green), I have come, putting on my clothes. I have put on me the woof of the sun when within the heaven. Oh, Usert (sustenance) at the head of the place where Hu was born! Oh [p.326] divine land of corn and barley, I have come from thee. I have stopped my arm from working at my service in thee, who art called ruler of puritypure mistress.'[58]

In this the worshipper of Uati and Hu says he has painted himself of a bluish-green hue, and put on the woof of the sun for his vestments. The bull of the sun wears the blue woof of heaven as his clothes. He has stained himself, as it were, with woad, like the worshippers of Hu and Kęd in Britain. Mistress of purity was a title of Kęd; she was said to be pure as the crescent moon, and fair 'as the snow which the cold has polished upon the lofty peak.'[59]

We have the name uat in watchet blue, now given to a palish kind of blue. But the original mixture of blue-green was worn by Sabrina (described by Drayton)[60], who sat as a queen in Neptune's throne wearing:

'A watchet weed, with many a curious wave,
Which as a princely gift great Amphitrite gave.'

In mythology the son of the mother becomes her husband and his own father. This is the relationship of the god Hu to Kéd. His name of Hu-Gadarn is rendered Hu the Mighty. But such titles as this and that of El-Shadai, the Almighty, are all too vague for the primitive thought. Gadarn is susceptible of a fine rendering in Egyptian. Renn is the child, the nursling of the great mother called the old dandier, who is Kęd, and the Welsh em, a pledge, agrees with renn, the nursling, as the child of Kéd.

The Druids called Hu the overseer, and on the Mithraic sculptures this solar overseer is pictured in place of the disk, afloat overhead on wings, with the serpent attached. Pliny[61] said the Druids of Britain might have taught the Magi of Persia. But both drew from the parent source.

The magical banner of the ancient British was emblazoned with the same device of sun and serpent, and the Two Truths were likewise identified by the presence of Hu and Kęd, the father and mother who supported the disk and serpent[62]. One emblem of Hu (Eg.) was the tongue, from which he has been called Taste personified.

But the tongue means more than taste. Stockius observes that a tongue was the type of flame. The tongue denotes the word, utterance, mystic manifestation[63]. The tongue-emblem of Hu is represented on the tokens of Cuno along with the mother as the mare, Hu being the male deity[64].

The 56th Triad asserts that the god Hu had already instructed the race of the Cymry in the art of husbandry and the cultivation of corn, previous to their removal and separation from the old land[65]. [p.327] Hu, whose name in Egyptian signifies corn, also means spirit, ailment, and sustenance, and he is the giver of wine and generous liquor, who presides over the festive carousals. 'After the deluge he held the strong-beamed plough, active and excellent, this did our lord of stimulative genius.'[66] Hu (Eg.) means both aliment and genius. The god Hu on the monuments is the good demon, the winged sun, the sun in the act of shedding. In the Ritual he is said to be one of the gods attached to the generation of the sun[67]. He is seminal as well as solar, hence Hu represents the seed of life, the giver of corn.

The great emblem of Mu is the tebhut, the sun on expanded wings called the great god, lord of life. A British priest invokes the god under the title of Hu with the wings[68]. He too is the Teb­hut. Hu was depicted as the driver of his three oxen, and in the hieroglyphics hu signifies 'to drive.' Hu is the bull, the mighty bull, and the one bull takes the triadic form in the three hulls that draw the Avane out of the lake. The triad of bulls which. is the three-in-one is the analogue of the Egyptian male triad.

In the Ritual[69] we read, 'These gods who are attached to the generation of the sun are Hu and Ka; they are followers of their father Tum daily.' Ka or Kak was the god Touch. We still swear by touch in the sayings 'true as touch' and 'touch-true.' Kak, the blind god, went by touch, and touched home as the one who reached the boundary. Kak, in Eskimo, and kakoi, in Japanese, mean boundary. The boundary of Kak or Touch is extant in Tich-field and Tich-bourne, the bourne in the latter being a translation of Tich. Tum (Atum) is the solar bull, the powerful bull, and Mu and Ka complete the bull-triad. The death of the bull as a sacrifice of virility was represented in the Druidic mysteries.

'The assembled train were dancing after their manner and singing in cadence with garlands on their brow, loud was the clattering of shields round the ancient cauldron in frantic mirth, and lively was the aspect of him who, in his prowess, had snatched over the ford that involved ball which cast its rays to a distance, the splendid product of the adder shot forth by serpents.* But wounded art thou, surely wounded, thou delight of princesses, thou who lovest the living herd. It was my earnest wish that thou mightest live, O thou victorious energy Alas! thou bull, wrongfully oppressed thy death I deplore.'[70]

* Compare Pliny's[71] account of the production of the serpent's egg or stone, to note another instance of the Roman and Greek ignorance of the ancient symbolism.

Aeddon is a name of Hu and Atum is said to be 'the duplicate of Aten.'[72] The priest of Hu was distinguished by the title of Aedd [p.328] after the god Aeddon, and in the hieroglyphics the at is a divine father, a priest.

Having shown the identity of the British and Egyptian Hu and Aeddon with Atum (earlier Aten or Adon), it is now intended to suggest that the triad of Atum, Hu, and Kak is the British triad of Tom, Hu, and Jack.

Atum in one character is the setting sun; he sets from the land of life[73]. He is the sun of autumn, to which season he has bequeathed his name. He is the god of the underworld, also named from him as the tomb. He was the lame and lessening sun of winter, and it is touching to think of the ancient deity who was the great god of heaven and earth, the great judge of the dead in the lower world, from whom we derive the primitive name of the judge as the Demster, and judging as dem-ing or condemning, and lastly damning, actually reduced to the condition of Tom Tiddler; but so it is. Tum was the winter sun: the slow-moving, long-in-coming, feeble sun, who as Tom Tiddler is Tom the Toddler, a sort of simpleton or Tim-doodle, who moves with slow tiny steps, and is twitted for being the lazy one, from whom his gold and silver may be filched with impunity. One game at his expense is played on the eminence up which he, the lower sun, has to mount and send off the mockers. Tum, the setting sun, is depicted as crossing the waters by means of the cow. In one instance, this sun, as lord of Hab, is making the passage, as it's called; and it is said of the deity, 'Thou hast rested in the cow, thou hast seized the horns, thou hast been immersed in the cow Mehur.'[74] The sun was reborn at the thigh of the cow[75]. How has the myth been minified by our faeryology in which Tom Thumb is described as being swallowed by the cow and reborn from it! Yet the matter is the same. Tum is the name of the lowest member of the hand, the thumb. Tum was the red as well as the lower sun. Both colour and lowliness meet in the plant called Thyme.

The Damson also is the redder, lesser plum, Tom is a close-stool, bottom, the lowest part, tawm, a swoon, a sinking down. The temples are the lower part of the head. The taum is a fishing-line which goes under. The tom-tit, a name of the wren, builds underground, the other Tom under the grass. The Tommy-bach stays in holes, the Tom-cull, Miller's Thumb, or Bull-head, lurks under stones. Tom-tiler is a hen-pecked husband who knuckles under; the tame and timid derive their appellations from Tum, the lower, hinder. Timings are the dregs of beer. Tum was the negative, sterile under, hindward sun. Hence tum signifies no, not, negative. He completed the circle of the day and of the year, hence tum, to announce, or Time, which depended on termination; thus 'tumt' is [p.329] total or timed. Tum the lower, hinder, and secondary, are among the meanings of the word, and these have been curiously applied in the formation of English, and in words not found in Egyptian, though shaped in its mould. Tum, as the lower, is the name of our underworld, the tomb. Toom means empty, hollow, void. From Tum, the winter sun, comes the word and meaning dim. This is echoed in many other languages, as dim, in Akkadian, a phantom; tumma, Finnish, dull, slow, dim; tumme, Esthonian, dim, dark, slow; tuom, Lapland, dull in action, slow, and dim; dum, Danish, obscure, dull, and dim; dimba, Swedish, haze, fog; tumu, Shoshone, winter; tomo, Wihinasht, winter; tamn, Kanuri, to complete, finish, end. In the Xhosa and Zulu Kaffir dialects, damba means to grow less and less in bulk, and a person who totters with unsteady gait, whether from drink or weakness, is called dambu-dambu. To tumble is to go under, to dimple is to dip under. To be in the dumps is to be down. Trees are timber when cut down. A timp is a place at the bottom of a furnace through which the metal runs. A dump is a deep hole in water, supposed to be bottomless. The ducking-stool was also called a tumbril. The helmsman at the hinder end of the vessel is a timoneer. A Tim-Sarah is a kind of sledge with wheels behind, and a Tim-whiskey is a chaise all bottom and no head. A Tom-noddy and Tim-doodle are foolish, deficient persons, and Tom, as the sign of the lower lesser, or little, attains the point of culmination in Tom Thumb.

A Tom-toddy is a tadpole. Here, too, is an image of Tum. One type of the sun crossing the waters was the frog-headed Ptah, the father of Tum, and our Tom-tadpole reproduces the son. Tom-toddy, or tutti, is literally the secondary type found in Tum, the son of Ptah. Tom-tut (in Egyptian the image of Tum) is also a kind of bogy. Children in Lincolnshire are frightened by being told of Tom-tut, a supernatural being that still haunts the nursery; and persons in a state of panic are called Tut-gotten. In Norfolk the same bugbear of naughty children, and the especial demon of dark places, is known as Tom-poker. Possibly this title actually enshrines the motherhood of the god. Tum was the son of Pekh, the cat-headed goddess[76], and Pekh-ar is the son of Pekh; Tum was Pekh-ar, as Osiris, the son of Hes, is Hes-Ar.

At Bromyard, in Herefordshire, among the ceremonies performed in the first hours of the new year, is a funeral service said over 'Old Tom,' as the departed year is called[77]. Here the transformation of Old Tum is applied to the year and made solstitial. In the Egyptian cult of Tum it was equinoctial, the old Tum changed into the young Iu-em­hept. When the devil appeared to the Witch of Edmonton, he called his name Dom[78]. That is Tum, the solar deity of darkness, who [p.330] becomes the devil of eschatology. Though dead and buried and transformed into the devil, the spirit yet lives, and still bears the name of 'Old Tom,' in a kind of gin.

Tum, as the lower, was the sun of the left hand. And there was a custom of drinking over the left thumb connected with passing the bottle round the table according to the course of the sun, and the left hand or lower sun was the solar god Tum. Also instructions were given that in a fit of convulsions or shortness of breath you should hold your left thumb with your right hand, and the god Tum was the breather of life, the breath of the mouth. Children were taught to fold the thumb inside the hand as a charm against approaching danger; it was an English custom to double the thumbs of the dead within the hand. This was a typical mode of laying hold of Tum, the great judge of the dead.

It is reported that during the battle of Solferino Victor Emmanuel, King of Piedmont, kept his right thumb doubled in his hand for good luck[79]. He was typically holding on to the god of justice.

The good old Irish names of O'Tom and O'Jack, common in an Irish poem by O'Duvegan[80], of the early fourteenth century, are of divine origin after all.

Tum's two manifestations are in the persons of Hu and Ka or Hak, earlier Kak. In the pictures of the lower sun (Tum), crossing the Ament in the boat of the solar disc, Hu is at the prow and Hak (Kak) is at the helm[81].

Tom is our impersonation of all that belongs to the lower, minimized, dull-looking, lagging winter sun, and Jack is his natural antithesis. If down, Jack leaps up, or springs, as illustrated by the Jack-in-the-box; or ascends, as by the beanstalk. Jack is the lively lad, the spirited, full of spirit, a spirit or sprite. Jack-bandy is a name of the spritely minnow. The jack-a-dandy dances on the ceiling, Jack-a-lanthorn is the dancing will-o'-the-wisp, Jack-in-the green dances in true Egyptian colour on May Day. Green with them was the hue of reproduction from the invisible or spirit-world, and Jack as the sprite of the May dances invisibly in green. We still perpetuate the symbol in the colour called 'invisible green.' The flesh of both Ptah and Num was painted green, the hue in which the spirit of life emerges from the underworld. The Aztec divinity Huitziton was represented with his head decorated with feathers, his arms in the shape of tree-trunks with branches, while from his girdle green leaves fell or flowed downwards[82].

The god Ka is the more ancient Kak, whose name modifies into Ka and Hak. Akh (Eg.) is a spirit, lively, gay, and the word also means to [p.331] rise up and illumine. Akh is to elevate, suspend, adjust. An image of this is extant in our Jack-in-the-box, who is suspended on springs and who 'jacks up' with a broad smile to illumine with merriment, being now reduced to a solar symbol for the nursery. Jack dances on May Day in green leaves, and akha is to be verdant, green. Jack is the quick, clever, sharp, hence the knave. Akar in Egyptian is to be quick, clever, sharp, always ready, just as we say 'Jack's the lad,' the character aimed at by 'cheap Jack.' Akh is a spirit, the creative or virile spirit in Egyptian, Assyrian, and Hebrew. It is the evil spirit in Japanese. In English the Jack used to hold the spirit. Jackey is a name of gin and strong ale, it is said or sung of our ancestors that they 'took a smack of the old black Jack, till the fire burned in their brain.' The Jig is the lively dance, full of spirit. The Egyptian akh, to lift up, suspend, is embodied in the jack instrument for lifting a weight, and akh, to turn round, is imaged by the Jack suspended and adjusted to revolve in the chimney. The Jacks used to jump up in the spinnette of old, Jack Ketch hangs up, the Union Jack is run up, the Jack struck the bell when the hour was up. Jack in his box leaping up with a laugh or a broad grin is a type of the sun or of the soul ascending from the nether world. Here is the fellow picture from the Egyptian Ritual:[83] 'I rise up as a god from men. I prevail as ye do with that god taller than his box. I have sat in my place on the horizon.' Just as the Jack leaps up. 'Oh, taller than his box; lord of the crown Atf!'[84] That is the headdress of Jack! The akh in his box is literally the Jack, and this spirit taller than his box is the akh. Jack-in-the-box is an Egyptian hieroglyphic of resurrection, and this gives the significance to 'Jack's Barrow,' a large tumulus in the parish of Duntesbourn, Gloucestershire. The name was like a warrant for rising again. A place near 'Jack's Barrow' is named 'Jack's Green.' Jack represents the spirit of life in spring, in the act of springing up or in jactation. One image of this was the ascending sun that rises up, aspires, illumines, puts a spirit of youth in everything, or 'Jacks up,' rises, revolves, and reigns higher and higher, and ranges from little Jack who climbed up the bean-stalk, to the place of the giant, or to the top of the great circle, over which reigns Hu with wide-expanded wings as the god in his disk, or, to reverse the process, from him who rides on the heavens by the name of Jach, down to our Jack of the beanstalk, and the box. Possibly Jack, the akh who jumps up out of his box as the young god, the sun of the spring equinox, is extant as the veritable 'little Jack Horner.' The divinity was represented as the young one, the ar or har. His place was the corner, and he is described as being in his corner, or angle. Says Ra, in the last judgment, 'Let the great one, who is in his angle call the souls of the just, and have them placed in their abodes near [p.332] the angle.'[85] Har-khuti is not only god of the corner, he is personified as 'the brilliant triangle which appears in the shining place.'[86] And this god, who rises up victorious on the horizon, spiritualized (akh) is literally Jack Horner, for Hor is Horus, and ner (Eg.) means victory. Jack's corner has been removed to the place of the solstice, and his victory minimized to the pulling out of plums. One wonders if these plums, like those of snapdragon, may represent souls snatched from the burning or the abyss. His exclamation, 'What a good boy am I,' still preserves the title of the youthful god called Nefer (the good, the young), applied to Nefer-Tum, and Khunsu Nefer-hept.

Har-Khuti, god of both horizons, the sum total of the Tum triad, called 'the brilliant triangle which appears in the shining place,' seems to be extant in the Lord (Ham) Cadi, and the triangle to be reproduced in his garland.

The Cadi is a remarkable character among the May mummers in Wales. He is the most active personage, chief marshal, buffoon, and money-collector. He is generally arrayed in a dress of both sexes, male above and female below. The number of the other mummers is thirteen. They are dressed in white decorated skirts worn over black velvet breeches. This dual dress of the Cadi and his followers corresponds to the Two Truths, two birds (light and black) two colours, two origins, and two horizons, of Tum-Har-Khuti, and the mythical personage designated by Taliesin the 'two-halved youth.'[87] The company carried the May garland, the glorified image of the circle completed and once more renewed at the time of the vernal equinox.

The Cadi, as primus, suggests the god Khuti of Egypt, called Har-Khuti, the sun of both horizons, lord of the two seats or double seat of the equinox, one of whose types was the sphinx. One name of the sphinx is Hu, and Hu is the god of the horizon, and the British sun-god. The mixing of sex in the dresses answers to the dual nature of the sphinx, and the Two Truths. The garland of the Cadi, says the Every Day Book[88], consists of a long staff or pole, to which is affixed a triangular or square frame. In the procession the triangular garland is carried next after the Cadi. The god Har-Khuti is pre-monumental. In the record of the divine dynasties, a period of 13,420 years is claimed for the Shus-en-Har or worshippers of the har, who as Sut-Har (whether Sabean or solar or both) manifested on the double horizon as Har-Makhu and Har-Khuti. Another hieroglyphic of Har-Khuti of the brilliant triangle is extant in the three-cornered cake. In the city of Coventry one of the New Year presents given by all classes [p.333] of people is the God-cake, invariably made in a triangular shape. The god and triangle meet in one name as Har-Khuti. The cake is the Egyptian symbol of the sun and the horizon; Har-Khuti of the triangle is god of the horizon, the British Hu. This custom is peculiar to Coventry[89]. The Coventry three-cornered cakes are called God-cakes, and the name of God is one etymologically with Khut, the god of the triangle, of which the equinox was the apex, the khut, the solstices being marked as low down on the horizon, the equinox in the zenith. The cake was a hieroglyphic of the triangle. Coventry is supposed to take its name as Conventry from a priory founded there in 1044, by Earl Leofric and Lady Godiva. But were there such persons as Leofric and Godiva? It is on Trinity Friday that the Lady Godiva rides naked through the town. The day also agrees by name with the three-cornered cakes and the triangular god, Har-Khuti, who was the manifestor of the Trinity. The corner or angle at which the young sun-god was reborn is the Kheb or Kep, i.e., Coy. It was in the place of the two times, the 'teriu,' where the two became three in one. The Egyptian 'teriu' is expressed by three, and gives us the word, and kep-en-terui is the corner and the concealed sanctuary of the two times. Terui also denotes the limit, the circumference, and a form of Sesennu, the seat of the eight gods in the lunar birthplace. The Egyptian name is represented by the Welsh daru or deryw, an end, and by the troi, a turn, a circle, the figure of Troy, earlier Trev, the rep (Eg.) or religious house of Egypt, whence we derive our Trefs, Tres, and Troys. En (Eg.) is the preposition 'of' or 'of the.' The name Godiva will resolve into Khutifa, the bearer of this god Khuti, from fa, to bear, carry, be pregnant with Khuti, the child. Thus Godiva, the lady, the patroness of Coventry, apparently becomes a form of the goddess Khet-Mut (Eg.), the British Kęd. Further, Iva or Iua (Eg.) is the boat, the symbol answering to fa, to bear, carry, and Kęd was the bearer whose image is the boat that bore the seed across the 'dale of grievous waters, having the forepart stored with corn,' a symbol of the mother, great with her child. Khep denotes the secret place, the sanctuary, the Ha-Kheb, in which the god was reborn at the Terui or Troy, to become the young divinity of the double-seat, he being the 'brilliant triangle.' The same word kep means hiding, concealing, lying in wait, looking, watching. And Tum in the Kep-en-terui would be in the place of concealment, watching, looking, lying in wait, literally the Peeping Tom of the Coventry mystery. One application of the word Tum actually means to spy, and covet, with the eye for determinative. It would indeed be strange if the Coventry mystery were based on historical characters, for Godiva is just the native goddess who appears on the monuments as Khatesh or Khen, the bearer, the boat of the waters, first of all personified as the pregnant hippopotamus, Khebt, later Khet, [p.334] the British Kęd. Kef or Kep is the genetrix; the word means mystery. Khep is the goddess of mystery, the mystery of fermentation, fermented spirits, and fertilization. The Coventry mysteries were among the most famous in Britain. The word mystery or mes-terui (Eg.) means the birth, a child of the dual time, born at the spring equinox in Kef-en­Terui. This derivation of the name of Coventry, as opposed to Conventry, is supported by another name, that of Daventry. Tef or Tep is a variant of kep, and the tep is likewise the abode of birth at the terui. Tep was a mythical locality consecrated to Buto or Uati, the goddess of the north, the British Kęd, and it permutes with the Kep or Khab, as the Ha-Khab.

The 'try' as a form of the tref or tre, Egyptian rep, trep, and terui, our Troy, will not agree with the Convent.

'Curcuddie,' says Jamieson, 'is a phrase used in Scotland to denote a game played by children, in which they squat down on their hams and hop round in a circular form.'[90] The word curr means to sit in this fashion. It is the Egyptian kar, to stoop down, bear, carry and be under; khuti is to make the circuit, go round in a circle. The game is probably an imitation of the lame sun moving round slowly and with difficulty through the lower kar, belonging to the childhood of the race, and its mimetic mode of enacting ideographic representations. Kar-Cuddie is the hard form of Har-Khuti, and the sun in the kar-neter is well represented by the English caddee, a servant employed under another servant; he is the Kar-Cuddie, the child Har, who was maimed in his lower members.

In the game of 'noughts and crosses' there are two players; one makes the circle and one the cross. It is gained by the one who can first get three marks in a line. Here we find the circle, the cross, and the triad. But when neither of the two players wins the game it is given to 'Tom.' 'Tommy Dodd' is a term also used in tossing, when the odd man goes out. Tum is the god of both horizons, and Hu is his representative of the circle (the Hut); Hak, of the crossing; when neither Hu nor Hak win the game, it is given to Tum, so that each has it in turn. The cross and four circles or dots of Tit-tat-toe form one of the chief patterns in the artistic designs of the Bronze age[91]. It depends on the particular cult as to which of these three is acknowledged figurehead and primus of the triad. In the Egyptian Ritual Tum is the supreme; with the British it was Hu, and with the Hebrews it was Jah Iach or הי.

The house that Jack built is the solar mansion of the thirty-six gates in the upper half of which was stored the bread and drink of life, both being represented hieroglyphically as grain. Jack is the akh or jach who, as Tum, is said to 'build the house.' The rat that ate the malt is the 'abominable rat of the sun,' found in the Ritual.

The cat-headed goddess Pasht is designated the cat devouring the [p.335] abominable rat[92]. The dog that worried the cat occurs in the shape of a dog-faced demon, with human eyebrows, that lived off the fallen ones at the angle of the pool of fire in the west, the domain of Athor, the cow-headed goddess, who at this point, having tossed the dog, took the sun (Atum or Tum) between her horns and carried him across to the east. The cow and the cat were both bringers forth of the new sun of spring in the house that Jack built; the house of the two horizons. This was the representation of Egyptian mythology, doubtless the very form in which the facts were taught in the mysteries.

The Aztecs, at certain religious festivals, as in the feast of Tlaloc, in the sixth month, were accustomed to carry in their arms the images of gods 'made of that gum which is black and leaps, called Ulli' these were named Ulteteu, that is, gods of Ulli[93]. Ulli is India-rubber. And the leaping gods, the Ulteteu, suggest kinship to our Jack-in-the-box, whose progenitors leaped in India-rubber before other springs were invented.

This India-rubber image of deity, a type not yet extinct, is in our day subjected to a great deal of stretching.

A more mystic image of our Jack is the dance of sunbeams on the ceiling, reflected from water in motion, called Jack-a-dandy, or Jack beating his wife with a silver stick. It is emblematical of the two sources illustrated by sun and water; for Jack is a sun-god, and his wife is water, a pail of which he went for with Gula, or Jill, up the hill.

Jack dancing on the water is the same solar image that we find in the Ritual: 'Oh sun, thou hast lodged dancing;'[94] that is, on the waters. The box of Jack is the ark in which the sun lodged dancing, and crossed the water. 'The great one crossed in the cabin, capped in the ark.'[95] 'I saw the sun in the midst of his box when I hailed his disk daily, the living Lord,'[96] says the spirit in crossing from this life to the other.

Atum was the lord of An: lord of the double-seated boat in An. Atum is one with Aeddon (Hu), and this solar god of the Britons appears in one of Taliesin's poems[97] as Teyrn On, the Sovereign On, or of On, i.e., An, usually written Annwn. This is identifiable, because in another poem of Taliesin's, on the rod of Moses, he connects the British On or An with Heliopolis. He says of Joseph, 'the son of Teyrn On collected treasures from his associates, and the sons of Jacob had those treasures in possession.' The title of his poem is Kadair Teyrn On, or the Chair of the Sovereign of On. In this he sings of the 'Person of two origins of the race of Al-Adur, with his divining staff and pervading glance, and his neighing coursers, and his regulator of kings, and his potent number, and his blushing purple, and his vaulting over the boundary, and his appropriate chair: [p.336] amongst the established train, the sovereign of On, the ancient, the generous feeder,' or Heilin Pasgadur, the feeder[98].

Hu (Eg.) signifies corn, food, and aliment. Tum is the generous feeder. He provides the bread of Tu and the drink of Tep for the Osirian. 'My father Tum did it for me; he placed my house above the earth; there are corn and barley in it; unknown is their quantity. I made in it the festival of Tum.'[99] Tum is the lord of An, and the feast is in An. The altars in An are piled with plenty. Tum is called Hetu Abi[100], and hetu means bread. Tum is the ancient god, called Ra in his first sovereignty, and the oldest of the chiefs, who is represented as Har-Makhu of the two origins, or horizons. The boundary was that of the horizon, where the seat was established in An.

The poet sings of Teyrn On, 'Let him be the conductor of his fleet, then, were the billows to overwhelm beyond the strand, so that of firm land there should indeed remain neither cliff nor defile, hill nor dale, nor the smallest sheltering cover from the wind when its fury is roused, yet the sovereign of On will protect his chair: skilful is he who guards it.'[101]

This will appear less remote when we have set forth the typology of the Ark and the Deluge[102]. The writer apparently means that were the deluge to break forth again, there is always one place of safety in the ark of On; that seat of the god will remain secure. This was the seat of Atum in An, the established region; the double-seated boat is there, the ark of Sekari, found with Atum in the procession of the great gods[103]. 'There let them be sought; let application be made to Kedig for the men of Kęd, who have been lost.'[104]* That is, in An, the established region, called Tattu the Eternal.

* Davies, whom I have here followed. He is not to be compared with Skene as a translator, but was right as to the Barddas being in possession of the ancient mythical matter, although it was not derived from the Hebrew writings.

The eel was a type peculiar to Atum as sun of the underworld. It took the place of the solar serpent, as the crawler through the waters and mud of the abyss. The eel preserves its divine name, and being a divine type, it was too sacred to be eaten. That was the primitive law of the case. Things forbidden to be eaten were hallowed and not abominated. This was the later phase when the theology had changed. At first the Jews did not eat the pig because it was sacred, a form of the multi-mammalian mother; afterwards because it was degraded and denounced. The later cursing implies previous consecrating. And to this consecration of the eel in Egypt the present writer attributes the yet surviving horror of the eel found in Ireland and in Scotland, where it is invested, rightly too, with the character of the serpent. This repugnance to eating the eel is a superstition; the feeling against eating it was once religiously fostered because it was a divine type, and when the theology changes [p.337] and the thing is anathematized as unclean, the horror of eating it is there, ready to be set against it.

The superstitions of folklore and religion are mainly a deposit of denaturalized mythology, and not until the original types are interpreted and rightly explained can these superstitions be estimated justly.

The eel is a symbol then, extant in our islands, but not understood, which can be interpreted in Egypt, where it belonged to a deity of the dark, worshipped in the remotest times. This accounts for the eel that was seen by a man in Loin as he was fishing, which was passing from morning until sunset without coming to an endthat was a long eel! Not at all. It was the type of a circle, or the completion of the circle passing through the deep, as the sun-god Atum, whose name denoted a water-type. A namesake of Tum is extant in the timber, a kind of worm.

Tum was known in Egypt as the living god. That is the ankh. And we have our divinity of the same name in the god Jingo, whose worship has outlived that of Kęd, Hu, Prydhain, and others of the ancient pantheon. Jingo is the modified Kingo, the mentula type of deity. Jingo was a god, also, of the Bask people. 'By Jingo' is a common oath, but the more emphatic form is 'by the living Jingo'; that identifies the ankh (Eg.) with the living one.

'Ankh,' the living, and also the name of the king, was an oath and a covenant, so sacred that it was profane and punishable to use it vulgarly, or to swear by the life (ankh) of the pharaoh. Profane swearing consists in making the sacred usage common.

The Irish beangan and Welsh pincen, for a sprig or branch, are derivatives from ankh, the living. The 'living Jingo' apparently translates and identifies the Egyptian ankh, an oath meaning by the living or the life. This sense of life enters into our words jink and 'high-jinks.' Jink is to be gay and ebullient with life. 'High­jinks' are the very festival of frolic life.

Unki (Eg.) is also a god, or the name for God. According to Brugsch, the special ankh, unki, or jingo of Lower Egypt was the god Atum, the only one who is expressly denominated the ankh or living god[105]. Our Jingo ought therefore to be identified with the Tum triad, as he may be. Eidin, a form of Aeddon, signifies the living, and both names are identical with Adon and Atum, who is the living god of Pithom, the ankh, our living Jingo.

Again, the wedding-ring was formerly placed on the thumb. The author of Hudibras refers to this,

'Others were for abolishing
That tool of matrimony, a ring,
With which the unsanctified bridegroom
Is married only to a thumb.'[106]


The Hereford, York, and Salisbury Missals direct that the ring shall be first placed on the thumb and left on the fourth finger. But as late as the time of George I it was a custom to place it on the fourth finger during the ceremony, and afterwards it was worn on the thumb[107]. Here we have the ankh coupled with Tum, the ring being an ankh-sign of to pair, to clasp, and to make a covenant.

At Kidlington, in Oxfordshire, the custom was on the Monday after Whitsun week for a fat live lamb to be provided, and the maids of the town used to run after it having their thumbs tied behind them, and the one who caught it with her mouth was declared Lady of the Lamb[108]. This points to the time when the vernal equinox occurred in the sign of the ram. Possibly the thumbs tied behind may have been symbolical of Tum, the hinder sun, now transformed into Hu, in the sign of the ram. Tum (Eg.) is also a name of the mouth.

Tut is the hieroglyphic hand, and the name of number five or one hand. We have Tum on the hand as the lower member, and tut as the sign of five in the little finger. In the ancient nursery lore the hand is reckoned up as 'Tom Thumkin, Betty Bodkin, Long Gracious, Billy Wilkin, Tutty-Woo.' Tutty-Woo, the fifth sign, is number five in two languages, 'Tut' in Egyptian and 'Wu' in Chinese. There are two versions of the last line; the little finger is likewise called 'Little Tut,' and in this version tut is a hieroglyphic of five, fifth, or a hand. It is this little finger tut or tutty that knows and makes known. In Piedmont mothers are accustomed to awe their children by making believe that it reveals everything[109]. Tut (Eg.) is speech, the tongue, the word, the manifestor and revealer of the hieroglyphics. The revealer personified is Tut or Tahuti, the lunar deity. In fact, we have two Egyptian deities on one hand in the thumb and tutty-woo.

The first month of the year in Egypt was called the Tat, and this is the Irish name for the first or opening day of harvest. Also the Irish god of harvest was called Tath. Another name of Taht is Takh, and Dagh was a god of the Irish Tuatha-Dadanan; deaghd is a name for divinity.

On the monuments the lunar deity Tahuti, lord of the moon in its first half is represented by deputy in the second half. One form of this deity is the dog-headed monkey, the Aan, earlier Kan. From this connection of the cynocephalus with Taht, we derive the well-known man in the moon, who is followed by his dog as Taht was by the dog-headed monkey. These two images of Egyptian mythology have their abiding-place in the moon for ever. One legend makes the man to be Cain, that is, Kan the dog, or cynocephalus.

The man is supposed to carry a bundle of sticks, said to have been gathered on Sunday, the origin of which has been derived from the [p.339] Book of Numbers[110]. The earlier representation may have been coupled with the Hebrew story to point a moral, but the image is sure to be Egyptian. In our elder poets, Chaucer and Shakespeare, the bundle is a bush of thorns, and a bush is but a branch or tod, and Taht is the bearer of the palm-branch of the panegyrics; he is also lord of the date-palm. Time was reckoned by the palm-branch of the festivals. The great spring festival was that of our first of May. The branch of May was a sacred sign of this season, and that is the white-thorn bush. Thus we recover Taht and the cynocephalus in our man in the moon and his dog, whilst the palm-branch is represented by the bush of thorn or branch of May.

But to return to Hu, the sun-god. A relic of the disk-worship apparently survives at Silchester in connection with the onion. Onion-pennies is the name given to Roman coins when found there. According to tradition, they are so called after a giant whose name was onion[111]. The great god, lord of heaven, divinity of the disk, is the Hut, and hut is the onion. It seems to follow that the giant onion is a form of the solar god. Further hut, the onion, for the god and the disk, is also the nature of silver, and the pennies are the disks of onion. The giant is one form of Hu, the great god of the Hut sign and circle, the great solar circle. Huten (Eg.) is this circle and the name of a ring, and from huten in the hard form of khutn comes the Norse jotun or eoten, the old English etin, the giant. In Egyptian, khut, hutn, aten, all denote the ring or circle of time. The giant was a figure of great extent, a type of the larger course.

In one of our western isles, that of Borera, there was a vast stone, on the hill Criniveal, some twenty-four feet long; this, the natives said, marked the spot where a giant of a month old was buried[112]. Of course, when time came to be reckoned by hours and minutes, the lunar period of time looked a giant; that of Hu or Aeddon was a year. This type took one form as the eye of the Cyclop, or giant, the one-eyed monster, the eye being another ideograph of the circle. The Norse jotunheimr, the giants' home, is a region of the eternal, or on the way to it, by means of gigantic cycles of time. The Saxon eoten for giant is a word unknown in the Teutonic branch of language. Nilsson traces it to a Lap word[113]. Grimm thought it had been derived from etan, to eat[114]. It comes from katen, an image, a ring, as the representative of a large circle of time. The eye as a symbol of the cycle was given to Horus, to Taht, and to Hu. It was likewise assigned to the giant as the Cyclop, and putting out the eye was synonymous with slaying the giant. The story of Odysseus and his escape from the monster whose eye he had put out has been traced by Antoine d'Abbadie[115] among the tribes of Abyssinia. In this version the hero escapes from the cave by being carried under the belly of the ram. This gives the thread of a clue to the maze.


Odysseus is a form of the giant-killer or circle-ender, like Khunsu, and to put out the eye is figurative for ending a cycle personified in the Cyclop. Khunsu, the Egyptian Hercules, was the god who represented the full moon, and with the full moon of Easter the cycle of the year, the eye of the Cyclop, ended. This, in the ram calendar, was where the sun entered the sign of Aries. When the vernal colure was in Pisces, the solar hero was conveyed in the belly of the fish.

The onion of Hu was a form of the ankh, or living, and as an emblem of life the oldest spelling of the name onion retains the primary significance; it is the ingan, and ankh-an is the repeater of life, who was worshipped as Tum, the living, and Hu, the lord of life. Juvenal satirizes the Egyptian veneration for the leek and onion. He says it is impiety with them to violate and break with the teeth the leek and the onion. 'O holy race to whom such deities as these are born in their gardens.'[116] The onion of Hu, or Tum, has been given to 'Saint' Thomas. Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, speaks of a kind of divination with onions laid on the altar on Christmas Eve[117]. In the instructions for divination with onions the buyer is told to be sure to select a shop with two doorways and to go in at one and come out by the other. The onions are to be placed under the pillow on St. Thomas's Eve[118]. St. Thomas takes the place of Tum or Tom, and the double doors correspond to the double horizon, the double house and double-seated boat of Atum.

Here is another meeting-point. The great god Hu was the youthful sun-god, son of the old Atum, and onion (hut) is an English name of a young child. Also the onion is the little one in the sailor's reckoning of so many knots and an onion.

According to Stukeley[119], the remains of a stone temple at Navestock, in Essex, showed that it had represented a circle with wings. He could not have derived this supposed image from the hieroglyphic hut, being wholly intent upon the serpent, yet it is the figure of the hut or celestial sun, the chief sun, the life-giver, the winged disk of the god Hu, called the solar disk spread out. The disk with wings, however, does interchange, as Api, with the disk and serpent. So the British Hu is called the gliding serpent.

The hut sun is closely connected with our Whit-sun. Hut (Eg.) means white. It was a common superstition that whatsoever was asked on Whitsunday morning at the instant the sun arose and played or danced, God would grant. The god was Hu, and the sun his Hut; the Sunday his White day. Evans, in his Echo to the Voice of Heaven[120], says he went up a bill to see the sun rise betimes on Whitsunday morning, and saw it at its rising 'skip, play, dance, and turn about like a wheel.' As the hut sun was the sun of the [p.341] equinox, our Whitsuntide is apparently seven weeks late or nearly 4,000 years behind time.

On one of the British coins the word 'att' accompanies the solar disk or wheel[121]. Aedd was an abbreviated form of Aeddon, the solar god. 'Att' is the solar circle in the hieroglyphics, also to fly and soar; be a type of Aten or Aeddon. This circle is known to the bards as the 'Barrier of Eidin,' the encircling mound[122], built of stones in the circular temples, and culminating at last in Edinburgh.

Edinburgh was doubtless one of the seats of Aeddon. Buru (Eg.) is the height, summit, cap. In the hard form this yields the brig or arch over, and the Burgh. 'Ethan' is an unknown place, named in the Pictish Chronicle[123].

The Caer of Eidyn is mentioned in Cunobeline's Talisman[124], and in Gwarchan Maelderw[125], as well as in the Gododin[126], and in the sixth song of the latter poem, the 'Knights of Eiddyn' are celebrated they are the equivalent of Arthur's Knights of the Round Table, or Circle of Edin, Aeddon, Aten, or Adonai, the lord. Dun-Edin, another name, is the tun, elevated seat, throne, mount of Aeddon, the solar god.

Aten and Atum are identical as the youthful god. The Nefer-Atum of a later cult reproduced the Aten or Adon of the earlier.

This will be fully explained, meantime Atum (Tum) and Aten are interchangeable names. Hu, the youthful form of Tum, is the earlier Adon or Adonis.

In the Eton Montem it seems to me we have a surviving relic of the worship of Aeddon. Eton itself has the name of the youthful god. The Montem is a peculiar ceremony, said to have been coeval with the foundation of the college. Such foundations as this and those of Cambridge and Oxford were made, so to say, over the crypts of the more ancient cult.

On 12th May a procession was formed of the boys, who carried standards and were accompanied with music. The scholars were dressed in military or in some fancy costume, and the procession went to a small mount on the south side of the Bath Road, called the 'Salt' Hill, supposed to be a British barrow or burial-place of the dead.

The hill was ascended, the grand standard unrolled, when the captain made a speech, and the 'salt' (money) was then collected. The money bags were richly embroidered, the salt-bearers were superbly dressed. Members of the royal family attended at times, and their donation was called the 'Royal Salt.' The origin of the Montem, as of so many other immemorial customs, is unknown. At one time it was celebrated on 6th December, the festival of St. Nicholas, the same day as that on which the boy-bishop was [p.342] elected at Salisbury and other places from among the children attached to the cathedral[127].

The boy-bishop was a survival under Christianity of the youthful sun-god, and the ceremony will help to identify the meaning of the Eton Montem. Eton Montem! We use the word immemorial, forgetting what ineffaceable memorials are registered in words! Eton contains the name of Tum, who transformed annually into the child, the Adon or lord. Men-tem (temau) in Egyptian reads the procession, memorial, dedication, gift of restoration. Eton Mon-tem would thus denote the festival of Aeddon's restoration.

A passage in the Status Scholae Etonensis[128] shows that in the papal times the Eton scholars elected their boy-bishop on St. Hugh's Day, November 17; St. Hugh being a supposed real boy-bishop at Lincoln, whose day was November 17. St. Hugh is just the papal name of the sun-god Hu, written in the Welsh form, otherwise Aeddon, Egyptian Aten.

At the time of the spring equinox the old god was restored in youthful form, and the event was celebrated in all lands. Eton is still dedicated to the young god as the especial college for boys. In the same manner on the mount did the Druids unfold the dragon-flag of Aeddon at the time of the vernal resurrection. It was called Magnum Sublatum.

'I have devised a huge standard, the mysterious glory of the great field of battle, and its excessive toils. There the victor directs his view over Manon, the luminary, the Arkite with the lofty front, and the red dragon, the Budd of the Pharaon; it shall accompany the Advaön, flying in the breeze.'[129]

Salt (sart) in Egyptian is the name of wisdom and science, and the word has the sense of sowing, planting, distributing, augmenting, and extending, which was no doubt typified by the 'salt' as money-means. Salt is still a recognized emblem of learning and wisdom.

The people of Alnwick formerly celebrated St. Mark's Day in connection with the making of 'freemen of the common.' The custom is locally attributed to King John, who is said to have once attempted to ride across Alnwick Moor and got stuck in the morass, in commemoration whereof he commanded that all freemen should pass on foot through Freeman's Well. When any new freemen were to be made, a small rill of water which runs through the morass was kept dammed up for a few days before the ceremony was performed. In this way a miry bog chin-deep in mud was made, and through it the freemen passed. King John is here as great an impostor as St. Mark. There was a race for the boundaries, in running which the young freemen were obliged to alight from their horses, in passing an open part of the common, and to place stones on a cairn at intervals [p.343] as a mark of boundary. This shows the true mark, march, or boundary signified. Then the race was continued to the Town-law or Twin-law cairns, a high hill, for the honour of arriving first. On this mount the names of the freemen of Alnwick were published. Having competed for the honour of winning the boundaries, the young men returned to the town in triumph, and were met, according to tradition, by women dressed up with ribbons and flowers, playing upon bells, who welcomed them home with dancing and singing. These were called 'Timber Waits,' a supposed corruption of timbrel-waits.

The celebration may be entirely interpreted by the solar mythos, of which so much has to be written in this work. To begin with, it celebrates the making or becoming free. This freedom was attained by the young deliverer, the sun-god Aeddon (Hu), who crossed the abyss of waters and landed on the mount, the rock of the horizon, where the Hall of the Judgment and of the Twin Truths was located.

Alnwick Moor was anciently called the Forest of Aidon or Aeddon, which identifies the passage with the solar god. King John, who crosses the morass, takes the place of the An or Oan, the manifestor, who came up out of the deep, as the sun of the water-signs; the mark or boundary represents the land re-attained and the twin-law the place of the Two Truths, also called the double seat of Atum or Aten. The Timber Waits announced the reappearance of the victors who had won the boundaries[130].

The 'Hill of Aren' is a form of the mount of the horizon and landing-place of the sun. The resting-place of Tydain, the father of the inspiring muse, is in the border of the Mount of Aren; 'while the wave makes an overwhelming din, the resting-place of Dylan is in the fane of Beuno, the ox of the ship.'[131] The ox of the ship here identifies the landing-place with the colure of the equinox in the sign of the Bull. This 'Hill of Aren' is a form of the solar birth place, the bekh (Eg.), found in An. Renn (Eg.) is the young child, the nursling, and the name-circle; and it is suggested that Aln-wick is one with Arn-wick or hill of Aren, the birthplace and resting-place of Tydain, who, as the British Apollo, is the solar god and a form of Aeddon or Hu. Renn (Eg.) is the typical birthplace, personified as Rannut, and in the Aren was the Będd of the youthful god. Bed, in English, is the uterus; the Egyptian but and pa-t; Hebrew, beth; Vei, ba; Celtic-Irish, beith; Sanskrit, bheda. This bedd is the pet of the hieroglyphics, the divine circle of the gods which is synonymous with number nine, the nine months of safety from the deluge, the nine days associated with the deluge of Deucalion. Tydain, the father of the Muses, is the progenitor of the nine. Thus the Timber [p.344] Waits may have represented the Muses. Tema (Eg.) means a choir (temau, choirs), and ma signifies number nine. The nine were extant in the damsels whose breathings warmed the cauldron of Keridwen. The Gallicenae of Sena were the Nine. 'The tuneful tribe will resort to the magnificent Se of the Séon,' says Taliesin[132].

Hu, the sun-god, was celebrated by the Barddas for putting an end to the dragon-tyranny. Hu, the bull, was son of the dragon, as in the Bacchic mysteries the bull was born of the dragon. The dragon was a type of the mother Kęd, Draconis of the sphere. She was the deity of darkness and the night-side; Hu, the god pf light, who was her son and consort, became the father who superseded the Sabean mother. Hence we hear of the 'Deluge that afflicted the intrepid dragon.'[133]

Atum was especially called the Lord of An, which may be rendered Har-An; and there is reason for supposing that 'Heron,' from whom the city of Heroöpolis was named, was a title of Atum, as lord of the lower world. Champollion[134] considered the analogy between Atum and Heron confirmed by the monumental inscriptions, giving to the kings the title 'Born of Atum,' since Hermapion, in his rendering of the obelisk of Rameses, calls that monarch the 'Son of Heron.'[135] In Egypt the An of the monuments, the Aean of Pliny[136], is the black land, an appellation of the Heroöpolitan nome. Mar-an is Lord of the Black Country; a title of the pharaohs. In the inscriptions the king is called Lord of the Red-land (Tsher), and Lord of the Black-land, An. Mar-An has his likeness in the British Arawn, the solar lord of Annwn, the deep.

Osiris was also a lord of An. Ben Annu is a title of the god in An, which is echoed in a title of Hu, as Pen Annwn, ruler of Annwn. By aid of the Osirian myth with Osiris as Lord of An, and his relation to Horus-Tema, the avenger of his father, we shall be able to correlate the myths of Arawn and his son Pwyll or Pyr. Pwyll, like Horus, the son, changes characters with Arawn the Arkite, who answers to Osiris shut up in the ark by Typhon. Pwyll transforms himself into this character in order that he may become the avenger of Arawn the Arkite, just as Horus is the avenger and defender of Osiris. Arawn is the sovereign lord of the deep. 'Behold,' he says to Pwyll, 'there is a person whose dominion is opposite to mine, who makes war on me continually; this is Havgan,' a power also in Annwn; 'by delivering me from his invasion, thou shalt secure my friendship.' On the day that completes the year Pwyll was to kill the usurper with a single stroke. This was the role of Horus, who did battle with Typhon, the 'day of the fight between Horus and Typhon,' as it is described in the Ritual, as if on a certain day the battle was concentrated into a blow. This was at the time of the spring equinox, and the conflict was in Annu. It is absurd to [p.345] render Havgan by summershine[137]. Summershine did not dwell in Annwn, the deep of winter. Hef is a name of the gigantic serpent, the Apophis of the Ritual, and Havgan is the analogue of the Egyptian Apophis.

Har-An, however, is but a title, and it equally applies to Shu as one of the Lords of An. Shu is the Egyptian Mars, god of battles; and Mars, according to Caesar[138], was one of the divinities of Britain. Arawn Pendaran is the Lord of Thunder, and as Master of the Hounds, the dogs of the deep, he partakes of the character of Shu. The Welsh 'Cwn Annwn' that appear with Arawn are found in the Ritual as the dogs of shade, that is, shu or shadow, ergo, shadow-dogs. These are hard to lay hold of; they are thus spoken of: 'Oh, leader of the boat, thou goest in the waters. The Osiris shoots through every place in which he has been, through a person who has been to him swifter than the dogs following after Shade.' Three times in this chapter[139] the swift shadow-dogs or dogs of shade (Shu) are quoted. The Shadow Dogs of the Ritual are the Echo Dogs of the Welsh myth. When Pwyll is hunting in the Vale of the Boat, Glvn Cwch, listening to the cry of his pack, he hears the cry of another pack of a different tone corning in an opposite direction. These belong to Arawn, the Lord of the Deep, who is here one in person, with Shu, the Lord of the Shadow Dogs of the Deep. The Cwn Annwn, or Echo Dogs, unite both the echo and the shadow character in popular belief to this day, and are supposed to hunt the souls of the dead in shadowy apparition by night, as they do in the Book of the Dead.

It has to be shown that the constellation Cepheus and the star Regulus were two starry types of the god Shu, who was depicted both as the hunter and the shepherd. The star Regulus is in the Babylonian astronomy the shepherd of the heavenly flock[140]. As Cepheus, he is the lawgiver in the North. The shepherd in British mythology is the swineherd. We are told that the first of the mighty swineherds of the island of Britain was Pryderi, the son of Pwyll, chief of Annwn, who kept the swine of his foster-father, Pendaran Dyved, in the Vale of Cwch, in Emlyn, whilst his own father, Pwyll, was in Annwn. Pwyll and Pryderi, called father and son, are the swineherd in two characters agreeing with the two phases of Shu-Anhar. The star Regulus in the Lion was the shepherd or swineherd, the lawgiver and guide when Cepheus was low down in the northern hemisphere. Pwyll is designated Lord of Annwn and Dyved, in which there are seven provinces answering to the seven halls in the house of Osiris, the seven circles of the Troy figure, and the seven caves of the American myths. Dyved is the tepht (Eg.) or abyss of the beginning, in the region of the north.

Now we are told by Taliesin that it was through Pwyll and Pryderi [p.346] that the god entered what Davies[141] calls the ark, or the enclosure of Sidi. This, as will be shown, means that these two as a double Regulus were the determiners of a circle of the year. Hence Pwyll is said to govern Annwn, the great deep, the place of the waters of the deluge, for a whole year, for the solar god of the underworld called Arawn. All this will be vivified later on, at present we must establish our comparison. There is another name of Pyr, called Pyr of the East, supposed to be another character altogether. But we take Pyr to be a local form of Pwyll. Pyr of the East was the son of Llion the Ancient; that is, of the waters called Llion, which burst forth and overwhelmed the world. Llion is the British form of Nun (Eg.), who is the father of Shu, the Egyptian Mars. Nun signifies the celestial water. Pyr, son of Llion, equates with Shu (Cepheus), the son of Nun, and Pwyll is the god of the solar boat, as Shu is in the Egyptian mythos. Thus we identify Pwyll as the British war-god Mars.

Now, to complete the proof that Arawn is the same as Haran (the sun in An), and that Pwyll is Shu, it can be shown that Anhar-Shu-si-Ra-Neb-Khepsh[142] has a character in which he represents or is assimilated to Har-Tema under the style of Har-Tema of Tinis[143]. Har-Tema is the lord who represents justice visibly, whether as the solar Horus or as Shu, and is a representative of the great judge Atum Har-an. Herian or Herran is likewise a name of the Norse god Odin, the huntsman with the hounds who is the equivalent of Shu and Pwyll with their dogs.

The Cwn Annwn or dogs of the deep are, at times, accompanied by a female fiend named malt-y-nos. This name in the Isle of Man is spelled mauthe, where they have the dog of death called the Mauthe dog. Math or Maut was the Hecate of the Britons. She is the Egyptian mut, to die, mut, the tomb, underworld, personified as Death. Maut was a form of Mut, the Great Mother who as Isis was accompanied in her wanderings by the dog. The dog of Mut in Egyptian reads the dog of death. The Druids had Mut in her unfallen form, as the Mother Nature. Math signified kind, Nature, who created out of nine principles or elements. Ma in the hieroglyphics is number nine, and mat is the mother. A form of 'Mat' in Egyptian is fruit, and one title of the Druidic Math was the fruit of the primeval deity, or 'Frwyth Duw Dechrau.'

One name or title of the Druidic creatoress is Henwen, the ancient lady. Another divine name of the primordial life-spring or of springing into life at the lowest point of animated existence, out of the chaotic mass of matter in its uttermost stage of disintegration[144], personified as the deity who was the most ancient and unoriginated ruler, is Ddi-henydd. This can be read by the Egyptian Han or Nun. [p.347] Han or Nun is the bringer, called a god. But we shall find the feminine is always first. The nun is the primordial cause in the negational, passive phase of being, the water, as the factor contrasted with breath; nun is typical, and water is one of two types, the oldest in the mythical creation. One ideograph of the Han or Nun is the vase, and the vase means the womb, the as. Han, the deity of the heavenly water, is primarily female, as is Hen-wen. Henydd appears to represent the Egyptian 'enti' (hen-ti), the name of existence, or hent, the matrix, the water-dam and reversed vase. Hent signifies ruling power, and Ddi-henydd is the unoriginated ruling power. Ti (Eg.) is two or reduplicative; ti-enti is dual existence; ti-hent, the plural of rule, in short, the Two Truths of all beginning according to Egyptian thought.

Ddi-henydd, so rendered is the ancient dual divine being, of which so much has to be said, and then it will be manifest how ancient is this Druidic portrait of cause. We are told in the Anglia Sacra[145] that the name of the mother of David (Dyved) was Non. This serves to reproduce the female Nun (Han), the bringer of the hieroglyphics, the Nun of the celestial abime, and the primordial factor of creation, the divinity of the heavenly water.

Among the Irish deities are Krom-Eacha, the god of fire, and Man-a-nan, the divinity of the waters. Akha (Eg.) is fire; akhu, the furnace. Mena is the wet-nurse, and nun (Eg.) is the typical primordial water, the inundation. 'I have a sword which man-a-nan MacLir (Son of the Sea) gave me,' said Naisi of the 'Sons of Uisnach.'[146]

At Lydney Park, near Chepstow, Gloucestershire, a god was found bearing the Romanized name of 'Deus Nodens,'[147] who is not known as a Latin divinity. An inscription on one of the votive tablets runs thus: 'To the god Nodens. Silvianus has lost a ring; he has made offering (i.e., vowed) half its value to Nodens. Amongst all who bear the name of Senecianus, refuse thou to grant health to exist, until he brings back the ring to the Temple of Nodens.'[148] Amongst the other relics preserved are certain letters cut out of a thin plate of bronze forming the words Nodenti Sacrum, which are supposed to have been affixed to the alms-box of the temple wherein those who consulted the oracle deposited their offerings. This may afford a clue to the meaning of the name Nodens.

In Hebrew the Nethen (plural Nethinim) was one who was offered, consecrated, and dedicated to the service of the temple. Nathan (ןתנ) means to give, to offer, place, set, bestow. It signifies many forms of offering, including the sacrificial; those devoted to the sword[149] or slaughter[150]; having especial relation to blood-sacrifice and offerings of blood. 'I have set (ןתנ) her blood upon the top of a rock.'[151] [p.348] 'Thou shalt take of the blood and place it (ןתנ) upon the tip of the right ear of Aaron.'[152]

The form nuden has similar meanings of gifts, offerings, presents, to present, hand over. 'Thou givest thy gifts (ןדנ) to all thy lovers.'[153] Nadan permutes with nadeh (הדנ) for 'gifts of all whores,' in the same verse. Nadeh signifies the wages of prostitution, the images of impurity, uncleanness, the menstruating woman, which suffices to connect nuden with blood.

Nethen (Heb.) means to pour out a blood-offering, and it has been conjectured that a circular opening nine inches in diameter found in the floor of the temple was made use of for receiving drink-offerings of blood as a libation to the god Nodens. Nuden (Heb.) denotes a belly-shaped receptacle, and this terracotta funnel-shaped orifice was ringed round with outer bands of blue and inner bands of red, the two typical colours of flesh (blood) and spirit in relation to the Two Truths of Egypt.

Nat (or nut) in Egyptian is the name for gifts, offerings, to present tribute, make a collection, to bow, address, hail, help, afflict, punish, save. Enti (Eg.) signifies existence in the invisible form, the lower of the Two Truths, that of blood, the flesh-maker. Enti (Eg.) or nat is the name of the red crown and the negative form of existence determined by the bleeding flower; nat, therefore, as in Hebrew, means blood, the lower of the Two Truths, and nadeh, the flowers[154], are one with nat, the flower of blood. The origin of blood-sacrifice will be shown to be related to or suggested by the menstrual purification. So interpreted, nutenti (nodenti) indicates blood-offerings, and 'Nodenti sacrum,' the sacred place, a mystery of blood-sacrifice; hence the belly-shaped receptacle. When the spirit was offered up to heaven, the blood was poured out in libation to the mother earth the Egyptian Neith, goddess of the lower heaven, that is, earth. Thus Nodens, whether male or female, or both in one, appears to have been a divinity of blood-offerings.

Calves and lambs which happen to be born with a certain natural mark in the ear called the 'nod' or token of Beuno are still chosen as offerings to the Church of Clynnok Vaur, in Carnarvonshire, on Trinity Sunday[155]. The 'nod' is the mark of offering, the blood-sacrifice of Nodens. Beano in English-Gipsy means birth, and the Nod-Beuno is probably the birthmark. The bennu (Eg.) was a type of rebirth.

The name written Noddyns has been translated by Celtic scholars god of the abyss. Neith was a Celtic divinity of the mystical water, or blood. The name of Noden also is a well known English proper name. In the Chronicle of Ethelwerd[156] 'Nathan Leod, King of the Britons,' was slain by Cerdic. Natan-Leod sounds much as if [p.349] the name had been adopted from the (Romanized) Nodens of Lydney[157]. An inscribed stone found at Sea Mills, on the east side of the River Avon, two miles below Bristol[158], has on it a bust with sun-like face, which a pair of eardrops proclaims to be feminine. The legend reads 'Spes (O) senti' with the circle ˇ broken. Spes might be the Latin for expectation or the resurrection, and this would be corroborated by the cross in the centre; the dog and cock on either hand corresponding to Anup and the hawk. But these signs only prove the imagery of the equinox, which was pre-Christian and pre-Roman. The rays round the head show the divinity, probably that of the solar goddess known as Sul Minerva. Senti is Egyptian for worship and breathing homage. Spes or sps is a hieroglyphic variant of the statue As, the sign of the noble, the Great. Here, the one worshipped is feminine. And spes (Eg.) is the spouse. Seps or shaps (Eg.) also denotes the bringer forth of the child. Taking the imperfect ˇ to be the hieroglyphic circle, spes (circle), senti is the statue erected in the circle of worship to the genetrix, who gave birth to the solar child of the crossing every vernal equinox. This reading would not determine whether the monument be Roman and Mithraic, (there was a feminine Mithras) or ancient British. The inscription, however, contains the leaf-stops that took the place of the ancient papyrus roll of Egyptian punctuation.

The Egyptian Fates or Parcae are seven in number, called the Seven Hathors, who are in attendance at the birth of children. In the Tale of the Two Brothers[159] the Seven Hathors came to see the newly created wife of Bata, and they prophesied with one mouth that she would die a violent death. In the Tale of the Doomed Prince the Seven Hathors greet him at his birth and predict his fate[160]. They appear in the Ritual in the form of seven cows, with the bull who is the husband of the seven.

The seven passed into Persia as the seven sisters or wise women who are present at the birth of children and at other sacred times. They appear in the Rig-Veda as the seven sisters who are also seven cows like the Hathors. The Chinese have the seven sister-goddesses in connection with the Seven Stars. These seven are found in a diminutive and elfish form among the Manx.

Waldron, in his account of the Isle of Man[161], relates that a woman, who was great with child and lay in bed waiting for the good hour of deliverance, saw in the night-time seven (or eight) little women of the wee folk come into her chamber, one of them having an infant in her arms. A scene of christening ensued, and they baptized the infant [p.350] by the name of Joan, by which the woman knew she was bearing a girl, as it proved to be a few days after.

The seven in Waldron's story were accompanied by a male (the bull), who acted as a sort of scribe or minister.

The number seven was continued in divining. Mother Bunch says of the experiment of the midsummer shift: 'My daughters, let seven of you go together on a Midsummer's eve just at sunset into a silent grove, and gather every one of you a sprig of red sage, and return into a private room, with a stool in the middle, each one having a clean shift turned wrongside outwards hanging on a line across the room, and let every one lay their sprig of red sage in a clean basin of rose-water set on the stool; which done place yourselves in a row, and continue until 12 o'clock, saying nothing, be what it will you see; for, after midnight, each one's sweetheart or husband that shall be shall take each maid's sprig out of the rose-water and sprinkle his love's shift.'[162] This too presents a picture of the seven Hathors.

By aid of the Cauldron of Keridwen or Vessel of Kęd the genetrix we may recover the Egyptian un, the goddess of the Hours. The 'Pair Keridwen' was a vessel, and the typical name of the whole circle of laws and doctrine of the Druids. Cauldron or kart-ren is the circle by name. Pair is the Egyptian per, to go round, surround, be round, and is synonymous with pail or pale.

Keridwen, with due attention to the books of astronomy and the hours of the planets, collected plants for the cauldron, which boiled and bubbled for a year and a day, to obtain three 'blessed drops of inspiration.' These three drops represent the knowledge of the cycles of the sun, moon, and stars[163].

On a certain day about the end of the year, whilst the ancient mother was muttering to herself and feeding the cauldron with plants, three drops flew out and the cauldron divided in two halves. The two halves typify the two divisions of the circle of the year completed in An, the place where the pool and water of the Two Truths are found in the Egyptian mythology. And this pair, out of which came the Druidic inspiration, is variously called the Cauldron of Keridwen, of Prydhain, and of Awn. From the Cauldron of Awn came forth the Waters of Truth. The divine drink was brewed in it for a year and a day. It is called the Cauldron of Five Plants, and these represent five planets.

'Manifest is truth when it shines; more manifest when it speaks, and loud it spoke when it came forth from the Cauldron of Awen, the ardent goddess.'[164]

An in the hieroglyphics is speech, and to speak, a form of the word. An also means repetition, again, to be periodic. An was the place of [p.351] periodicity, the place of rebirth. An and un interchange, and have one meaning. One form of an is lunar, the ape-deity An is a form of Taht. The ape An was a type of periodic time. And the time-circle or cauldron is the symbol of 'the Goddess Awn,' the 'ardent Goddess,' the 'ardent Awn,' the inspiring Muse whose cauldron is also said to be warmed by the breath of nine damsels. Un (Eg.) is the hour, the repeating period, like An. Un personified is the goddess of periodicity, or the Hours, as is Awn the ardent goddess.

The sum and substance of the earliest science or inspiration was the teaching concerning time and repetition of periods. Awn was the revealer; un means to show, reveal. Awn burst open the cauldron that divided into two halves. Un is the opener of the circle. Hence it is now claimed that the Druidic goddess Awn, or of the Awn, is identical in nature with Un and the lunar An.

Noë and Eseye are two divinities celebrated by the Druids as presiding over and being worshipped in the vast temple of Stonehenge, called the 'great stone fence of their common sanctuary.'[165] They are representatives of the genetrix Kęd, whose seat was in Stonehenge. The Great Mother, as we shall see, divides into two other characters called the two Divine Sisters, who personify the Two Truths, the two heavens, or Heaven and Earth, the two principles called Breath and Water. One form of the Two Sisters in Egypt is Hes (Isis) and Neft (Nephthys). Hes is the cow-headed goddess, the seat, and hes signifies liquid, hence the vase ideograph. Nef means breath. Hes or as are two readings of her hieroglyphic. Eseye being identified with As, Hes, Iusaas, or Isis, Noë is one with Nef.

Nef means breath and the sailor of the waters. Nawa in Javanese is breath. Neff in Cornish is heaven above, the place of breath. Isis represented the lower heaven and the waters; neft, the heaven above the horizon, in the total circle imaged by Stonehenge.

Hes, the seat, equates with the goddess of the hind quarter, and Hes (Isis), the cow-headed, was compounded with Ta-urt, the bearer, in Hes-tareth. Eseye was our Isis in her seat at Stonehenge, and Hsa is also an Irish name of the Great Bear.

Nor was Stonehenge the only sanctuary in these islands of Noë and Eseye. In Strathmore there was an extensive Druidic ground, in which numerous monuments have been found. There is a place named Eassie, and a large circular mound, about a mile from the old church of Eassie, and in the 'united parish of Eassie and Nevay'[166] we have the names of the two goddesses, united as at Stonehenge, whilst in the form of Nevay we recover the f modified in Nod. But we must go a little further round.


There is, says Herodotus[167], a large city called Chemmis, situate in the Thebaic district, near Neapolis, in which there is a quadrangular temple, dedicated to Perseus, the son of Danae. In this enclosure is a temple, and in it is placed a statue of Perseus. The Chemmites affirm that Perseus has often appeared to them on earth and frequently within the temple, and that a sandal worn by him is sometimes found which is two cubits in length, and that after its appearance all Egypt flourishes; which is delightful when interpreted. Chemmis means the shrine (khem) of birth and the child. Thebes also has the same meaning. It was the ap, apt, or aft, the quadrangular enclosure and place of birth. Perseus is the appearing star or child, from per (Eg.), to appear, show, explain; and siu, star, a divine son. His re­appearance was astronomical. Two cubits are equal to Mati, the Two Truths. Mati is a pair of feet, the pair of feet found on the stones, and the Egyptians were telling Herodotus of the reappearing star in the place of the Two Truths and dual foot in Mat (Mati) or An, the solar birthplace.

The chief corner of this quadrangular enclosure was at the place of the spring equinox, in Apta, called the corner or end of the world; that is, the place of completion. Here we find a temple within a quadrangular enclosure, and are enabled to see that it represented the reappearing son of the mother within her temple or Aft of the four corners; and this was in Chemmis, the shrine of birth.

We find the Egyptian khi, one of the four supports of heaven, in Gyvylchi, and in the account of the temple at Dwy-Gyvylchi, given in Gibson's Camden[168], we are told that the most remarkable monument in all Snowden, called 'Y Meini Hirion,' within the parish of Dwy-Gyvylchi, is a circular entrenchment about twenty-six yards in diameter, on the outside whereof are certain rude stone pillars, of which about twelve are now standing, some two yards and others five feet high, and these are again encompassed with a stone wall. It stands upon the plain mountain, as soon as we come to the height, having much even ground about it; and not far from it there are three other large stones pitched on end, in a triangular form. The triangle with Meini Hirion thus formed a square, a quadrangular relic of the quadrangular Caer of the genetrix and her son, who were Kęd, and Prydhain, or Ior, the appearing youth. The four corners are the four khi, the four supports of heaven. This enables us to restore the sanctuary in its dual form, and to understand the meaning of the double figure. The quadrangular Caer represented the maternal abode, the Aft or Fet of the primary four quarters. Within or near this four-square enclosure was the temple of twelve stones, which number identifies the twelve solar signs, the temple of the young sun-god, whose statue, as Perseus, was placed in the inner enclosure at Chemmis. The sanctum sanctorum of Stonehenge [p.353] was oviform, as were the Adyta of those temples where the fire for ever blazed, because this figure was female, the circle within the circle, the womb.

The Jewish cult was so emphatically feminine in its origin that they sacredly preserved this ovoid form of the circle. Says Rabbi Simon, son of Gamaliel, 'When the rent is round it is forbidden, when it is lengthwise it is allowed.'[169] That is, when it was the oval shape of the hieroglyphic ru, (¨) the emaning mouth of birth. This was the type of the holy of holies, where stood the statue of the child. 'Beloved of the Adytum, come to Kha,'[170] say the two divine sisters in their invocation to the child Horus. The kha is the type of the uterus.

In the Song of Cuhelyn, the enclosed temple at Stonehenge is called the 'precinct of Ior,' 'in the fair quadrangular area of the great sanctuary of the dominion.'[171] The god Ior is our Perseus and Horus. Ior, says Davies, became a title of the supreme God, but is 'borrowed from the British mythology, where it seems to have meant the sun, moving within his orbit or circle.'[172] The orbit is identified by the twelve pillars of Gyvylchi. Ior is the British Har, the solar divinity, who was the son of the mother before the fatherhood was embodied in Ra. At Stonehenge, then, we had the quadrangular enclosure and the youthful sun-god Ior united with Noč and Eseye, whom we identify as the two divine sisters of Har (Horus) in the well known triad of Horus, Isis, and Nephthys; whilst the double nature of Horus as the elder and younger Har is manifested by Ior, who is the renewed and glorified form of Keridwen's recovered son Avagddu, the child of darkness, who was transformed into the radiant lord of light.

In the Osirian mythos Isis, the great mother, has two children, Har the elder and Har the younger. The elder is born deformed, and maimed in his lower members. Plutarch[173] describes him as the cripple deity, who was begotten in the dark. He dies prematurely, or rather he transforms into the second Har. The elder Har is portrayed finger to the mouth, and named Hor-pi-Khart. Khart is the Egyptian word for silence. Hence the Greek Harpocrates was designated the God of Silence. In the astronomical allegory the child Horus was the mystical word; the second Horus is called Ma-Kheru, the True Word, or the Word made Truth. This is effected when the Silent One is united with him who is the True Voice, and Horus is 'transformed into his soul from his two halves.'[174] The meaning will be made apparent, but for the present this much is stated on purpose to show that the Druids had the same myth. Keridwen bears a deformed first son, who is hideous to behold, whose misfortune is the grief of his mother. The name of this [p.354] child Avagddu, is said to mean 'black accumulation,'[175] and we learn that no change could occur for the relief of both until a certain time appointed, which was set forth as the annual boiling of Keridwen's vessel; then came the change, the 'Correcting God' formed the child anew under another name, which indicated the one bursting forth with radiancy. This transformation implies the transition from the elder Horus, the dumb and deformed child of Isis, to the younger Horus, the true light of the world.

There is an Irish word, 'Pocrat,' signifying, according to Vallancey, 'lame in the foot.'[176] Po-krat is usually read the child. But Plutarch[177], says he was maimed or lame in his lower members, and here in Irish is 'pocrat' for lame in the foot. Vallancey knew nothing of Egyptian.

We have the 'crut' also in English, as the dwarf and the puny child. P-crut is the crut or khart, the elder Horus.

In the British mythology we have a character named Gwion the Little. The Welsh Gwion is the Irish Gan, the little one, the diminutive. Gwion is said to be the son of Gwreang, the Herald of Llanvair, the fane of the lady. Gwreang the Herald identifies the impersonation with the word, or logos. The lunar herald, or word, is Taht, who is associated with Khunsu, the Victorious Child, or brave boy in the moon mythos. Gwion was stationed in Caer Emiawn, the City of the Just, in Powys, the land of rest, by Keridwen, to superintend the preparation of the cauldron which boiled for a year and a day to produce the Water of Inspiration and Sciences intended for her son. Three drops only could be obtained. About the end of the time these very three drops chanced to fly out of the vessel, splash the finger of Gwion the Little, and burn him so that he put his finger into his mouth. As soon as he did so, his eyes were opened and all futurity was present to his view. The cauldron divided into two halves, and Gwion the Little fled in mortal fear of the angry goddess, who pursued him and eventually caught and swallowed him[178].

We may well suspect that Gwion the Little is not only a form of Khunsu, but that his name throws a light on the meaning of Khunsu's name. Khun is depicted with the infantine lock of Harpocrates, the child Horus, and Khunsu as the child (su) is Khun the little. Gwion, son of the herald, corresponds to Khunsu, the boy-representative of the moon. Khunsu is depicted as the time-reckoner, holding the palm-branch of the panegyrics, and marking the years with a stylus. And the cauldron of Keridwen attended by Gwion, which divided at the end of the year, or at the place of the equinox, represented the time-cycle kept by Keridwen. The drops of the water of life were emblematic of the knowledge whereby future events could be known, that was, astronomical knowledge which afforded real ground for [p.355] prophecy. Gwion was stationed in Powys, the land of rest, for the preparation of the cauldron. And one title of Khunsu is Nefer-Hept, the child, or prince of peace. Khunsu is stationed in the zodiac of Denderahi, in the sign of the Fishes, figured with the pig and full moon, which is the full moon of our Easter, the sign of the solar resurrection, and the point of renewal for another year. In the Welsh legend the myth is physiological as well, for when Keridwen pursues, catches, and swallows Gwion, he is again born of her at the end of nine months. Khunsu is a form of the elder of the two brothers of mythology, and, as such, is a Har-pi-Kart, who is represented with finger pointing to his mouth as the symbol of the mystic word. Gwion the Little was represented in the same manner, only he put his finger in his mouth, whereupon his eyes were opened, or his transformation came[179]. Khunsu is a luni-solar form of the son, and Gwion the Little likewise transforms into the solar hero. 'I have,' says the Initiate, 'been for the space of nine months in the belly of Keridwen. I was formerly Gwion the Little; henceforth I am Taliesin.'[180] Taliesin, or radiant front, is a title of the sun. This is the luni-solar transformation of Khunsu.

Gwion the Little is identical with the Gaelic Con, the son of Cruachan, and hero of a hundred tales, who wields the sword of light against the giants in the underworld of the dead[181], and who is thus related to the Egyptian Khun, the slayer of the giants according to Macrobius[182]; the vanquisher of the proud rebels in the Book of the Dead[183]. Khunsu, the bringer-up of the orb of light from the world of the dead, is figured as Con, who gathers the gold down among the dead, and ascends with it in the giant's creel. Con-al, or Khun-ar, is the exact equivalent of Khun-su, the brave boy. But to recover the allegory from the Gaelic tales is somewhat like trying to spoon out the sparks of sunshine from its reflections in the water. Nevertheless, it is shining there. For instance, in the Tale of the Fine, where Fionn and his heroes are in the house with seven doors, and they sit altogether on the one side to breathe, and the king and people of Danan sit on the other; 'Yonder side of the house be theirs, and this side ours;' the house is the double solar house, the house of Osiris, with the seven halls in the Ritual. Fionn and his men are the celestial heroes, the Danan are the people of earth. Ta-nan (Eg.) is the type of earth. The ensuing battle is that of Horus and Typhon, who is the black dog of the people of Danan. Fionn slaying the Danan seven by seven with the jawbone of the boar is the same solar or luni-solar hero as Samson slaying the Philistines with the jawbone of an ass. The deadliest battle of Fionn, when he set his back to the rock on the 'longest night that came, or will come,' [p.356] was the struggle of the sun with the dark power on the longest night of the year[184].

The common Irish form of Conal's name in O'Connel, and O'Conner adds the word ner (Eg.), meaning victory. Thus Conner is the victorious Con. Con, as Khun-su, will account for the Gaelic tradition that Conor lived at the time of the crucifixion. Khun was the king of the crossing, the determiner of the very moment at full moon. It is possible that the stone of the ball in Conor Mac-Nessa's brain may have been derived from the full-moon borne on the head of Khun-su. The legend relates that when he observed the darkness on the day of the crucifixion, and was told by the seer that the 'Innocent One' was then suffering, he got so excited that the ball flew out of his head and he died. In this version of the myth, Conal is designated Conor Mac-Nessa. Nessa appears in Irish legends as the widow with her son Conal; she is said to marry Feargus Mac-Roy, but is as likely to be entirely mythical as Conor who carried the ball in his brain. The only object of introducing the name of Nessa here is to point out that it is an Egyptian feminine name. Nesa means 'her,' and a daughter of Khu-en-Aten* was named Nesa.

* Amenhept IV [Akhenaten].

Prydhain was a name and character of Hu, the sun-god, the youthful character into which the solar divinity transformed every spring. The same is found in all the mythologies. In the Mabinogion he is called the son of Aedd the Great; that is of Aeddon, a name of Hu. He also interchanges names with Beli as the solar son. The young god appears in the British fragments as lord of the seven provinces of Dyved in Annwn the Deep.

These seven provinces answer to the seven halls in the house of Osiris in which the young solar god is annually reborn, and from which he emanates. Pwyll also proceeds from the seven provinces and the high place of reappearing in Arberth and from Diarwya, called by Davies the 'solemn preparation of the egg.'[185] The egg was a symbol of the circle, and this Diarwya looks very like the Egyptian teruu, the circumference, a name of Sesennu and a form of number eight the expression of the sevenwhether of the Great Bear or planetary sevenas in the person of Taht. Pwyll or Per read by Egyptian means coming forth, manifestation. With the terminal t this is pert, to appear, emanate, proceed. Thus per and pert, our Pwyll and Pryd, meet in one meaning. Ham (Eg.) is the youth; Prydhain, the appearing, emanating, manifesting youth, or the young solar god of various names. Hu is the god of corn, and the son and corn (seed) are synonymous. Per is corn, grain, the seed. Pert, the corn or food appearing; ham, the young. Prydhain is the young seed or corn of Hu, who reappeared at the time of the vernal equinox. We have Pryd personified as corn.


Martin speaks of a custom in the Western Islands[186], observed on the second day of February, in which the mistress and servants of each house take a sheaf of oats and dress it up in woman's clothes, put it in a large basket, and lay a wooden club beside it. This they call Briid's Bed. Then the mistress and maids cry three times, 'Briid is come; Briid is welcome.' This is done just before going to bed, and on rising in the morning they look among the ashes to see if the impression of Briid's Club is visible there; if so, it is a presage of a good harvest and general prosperity. Briid and Pryd or Prydhain are identical, and from Pryd, through Briid the corn, comes our name for bread. The son of Hu, whose name means corn, was the bread of life in person, and pert in Egyptian is the food made of corn. Briid or Prydhain was the earlier Christ, and when the new theology was adopted in these islands, Briid's bed was made for Christ. It was, as already related, the custom at Tenby, in Wales, for young persons to meet together on Good Friday to 'make Christ's Bed.' This was done by gathering the long reed-leaves from the river and weaving them into the shape of a man. The image was then laid on a wooden cross, and left in a retired part of some garden or field[187].

But the son of the Great Mother is a star-god at first; the solar imagery is latest: one form of the genetrix and son is that of the bitch Baal and the dog Baal, the Baali or Baalim of the Hebrews, and Sut-Typhon of Egypt. The dog who accompanies Isis, and is said to be born of Nephthys, is the Dog-star, Bar-Sutekh or Sut­Anubis, the Sabean son. This divinity reappears in Britain as Cunobelinus, whose name is found on the British coins or amulets. This was the title of a famous prince in the reigns of Augustus and Tiberius, said to have been the father of Caractacus. By his title he is assimilated to the Cynvelyn of the bards. That is Baal or Belin with the style of Cun, or Cyn, which we identify with the dog as in the cynocephalus. In the hieroglyphics a headless dog is a khen; a conductor without exterior vision, therefore a type of interior perception, hence the name given to the Kenners. The priests of Kęd are designated dogs, and she is the bitch. They represented her son. The Cynvelyn of Helvelyn, of Belin's-gate, and of the Druids, is the dog Baal, in the diminutive from of Belin or Velyn. This form, like that of Sutekh and Saturn, determined the god as the child, the little one who was the son of the mother in the Sabean cult. Saturn was the planetary type of the male Sut-Anubis of the Dog-star, and in the dialogue between Ugnach and Taliesin we read: 'Seven blazing fires will counteract seven battles: the seventh is Cynvelyn, in the front of the mount.'[188] Skene renders 'Cynvelyn the seventh in every foremost place.'[189] The seven are the planets, of which the seventh is Saturn. Therefore Cynvelyn is identified with [p.358] Sut in the form of Saturn, and is one with the Egyptian Bar-Sutekh, the Sabean Baal.

Sut was the great warrior-god; the dog of battles. And in the Talisman of Cunobeline the dog Baal plays the part of Bar-Sutekh. 'Cunobeline, the indignant, the lofty leader of wrath, pamperer of the birds of prey, and that divine allurer Dirreith, of equal rank with Morien, shall go under the thighs of the liberal warriors. In equal pace shall the Gwyllion proceed with the benign blessing. Amongst the splendid acquisitions of the mystic lore, the most majestic is the Talisman of Cunobeline. It is the shield of the festival, with which the man of fortitude repels the affliction of his country.'[190] In this Cunobeline is coupled with Dirreith, who has been shown to be the Great Mother Ta-urt, or Rerit. These are the Sabean mother and son as goddess of the Great Bear and the dog of Sothis, the firstborn son of heaven. Now it appears to me that the mythical Arthur is primarily a form of Cynvelyn, the dog of battle.

Arth is the ancient British name of the Great Bear, and this constellation was associated with Arthur. Arth corresponds to Urt, the goddess of the Bear, and we may derive Arthur, the son of Urt or Arth, in one of two ways, Ar-t-ur (Eg.) as son of the old mother, or Arth-ar, the old mother's son. He must have been the solar son in the later myth of the Round Table with the twelve seats for the twelve companions. There is an Egyptian Artaur, rendered by Maspero the flames of God[191]. But the first son of the genetrix was Sabean, not solar; Sut-Har (Ar) of the Dog-star, Sut-Anubis, the earliest form of Hermes, the heaven-born.

The vervain plant was used by the Druids in casting lots and foretelling events. It was gathered without being looked on by the sun or moon at the rise of the Dog-star. In digging it up the left hand alone was to be used, and when dug up, it was waved aloft. Leaves, stalks, and roots were dried separately and in the shade[192]. This serves to connect the plant of prophecy with the Egyptian star of annunciation, the Dog-star, the son of the Great Mother, who appears to have been reproduced as Arthur, the son of Arth or Ta-urt. Arthur, son of the Great Bear, is the equivalent of Sut-Har of the Dog-star, which leads me to conclude that Arthur was the Sabean son before he became the solar representative. The parents of Arthur are the Great Dragon and Eigyr. The great dragon is Typhon, the old genetrix.

The British Arthur is primarily represented with the seven in the Ark who are the only ones that escape from the deluge in the circle of Caer Sidi. Sidi corresponds to Suti (Sebti, Sothis, the Dog-star, Sut). A poem of Taliesin's called Preiddeu Annwn, the 'Spoils of the Deep,'[193] contains this Arkite imagery. In the house of Osiris there are seven halls and seven staircases. These seven came [p.359] to signify the circles and pathways of the seven planets, but the first seven in mythology are not the planetary seven, they are the seven companions in the constellation of the Bear. These are the seven Rishis of India, the seven Hohgates of the Californian Indians, the seven sons of Sydik in Phoenicia. They appear to be the seven companions of Arthur of whom the bard sings in their escape from seven different Caers, 'Thrice the number that would have filled Prydwen we entered into the deep; excepting seven, none have returned from Caer Sidi.' The subject matter of this mystical representation is the escape of Arthur and the seven companions from the deluge based on the time and circle-keeping of Arthur's Star, and seven other stars. Now if Arthur were here considered a solar god, there would be one too many for the seven planetary gods, therefore the seven are those of the Bear, Arthur's constellation, and Arthur is identical with Sydik, the Egyptian Sutekh of the Dog-star.

Again, the talisman of Cunobeline[194] is a shield, and it is in Arthur's shield Prydwen that he and his seven companions escaped from the waters, or the so-called deluge. Prydwen, the lady of the established order of things, is a form of the Ark, which also contains eight persons in the Hebrew mythos.

Arthel is a British word, written arddel in Welsh, to avouch, prove, justify; a similar meaning to that of Makheru, a title of Horus. At Exmoor the number eight is called art; eighteen is arteen. Art­har is Har the prince or lord of the eight, the manifestor of the seven. This, however, belongs to an earlier myth than that of the eight great gods of Egypt, in which Taht was the manifestor of the seven. Arthur was the eighth to the seven Cabiri of the Great Bear, the manifestor of the seven, or the son of the sevenfold constellation, considered as the Great Mother.

Arthen (Welsh) is the bear's cub. Arth-al is to growl as the bear. Al interchanges with ar, as the voice, speech, faculty of speech, and Arth-ar is the speech or utterance of the bear. This is the doctrinal word or logos. So An (Anup), the Anush, is the speech, the announcer of the year of the Bear. Ar (Eg.) is the earlier har, from khar, the speech, to speak, be the word, the son and word being identical. Arthar is thus the word as son of Arth the Bear.

Arthur, in his first estate, then, we hold to have been the Sabean Mercury, son of the goddess of the Great Bear, and identical with Sydik and Sutekh, who was continued in Egypt as Sut-Har, god of the sun and Sirius-cycle, known as the negro Sut-Nahsi and Sut Nubti, a Sabean-solar combination to be found in other mythologies, in which a star-god of fire becomes a sun-god.

The series of astronomical legends or myths found on the Assyrian tablets is known to consist of twelve in number, one for each sign of the zodiac. In the 'Fight between Bel and the Dragon,' in which appears the sword that turns and flames all round the circle, wielded by [p.360] the hand of Bel against the Dragon, when the battle is over, it is said 'the eleven tribes poured in in great multitudes, coming to see the fallen monster.'[195] Evidently the twelve signs were said to be peopled. These correspond to the twelve tribes of Israel, and to the twelve labours of Hercules; the conflict occurs in the twelfth sign, and the people of the other eleven rush in to see the result. The twelfth sign is the last of the old year, and the fight of Bel with the dragon is the same conflict as the battle between Horus and the evil Typhon, the earlier akhekh-serpent, gryphon, or dragon. This battle occurred annually, and specially just before the time of the vernal equinox, and is called 'the day of contending of the lion gods,' 'the day of the battle between Horus and Sut, when Sut puts forth the ropes against Horus.'[196] The contention, being equinoctial, is represented as under the lion gods who kept the level on the horizon, whilst the light and darkness contended in the balance, and each pulled at the ropes of either scale. This belongs to mythology in the latest stage, the solar. Most of the Assyrian matter yet recovered relates to this later stage, although we do get glimpses of earlier things submerged in Akkad. These twelve representations in the twelve signs, the present writer considers to be akin to the twelve battles assigned to Arthur by Nennius[197], the twelfth being a 'most severe battle, when Arthur penetrated to the Hill of Badon,' or, as we interpret it, to the bed of Tydain, Tiotan, or Tčthin, the solar god, who was reborn in the hill.

Caesar affirms that the Britons chiefly worshipped the god Mercury; of him they have many images, him they consider as the inventor of all arts, as the guide of ways and journeys, and as possessing the greatest power for obtaining money and merchandise[198]. But we have to reckon with two forms of Mercury; the Sabean and the lunar. Sut was the first form of Mercury; Sut-Anubis is the guide of ways. Taht is the second. This is acknowledged in the Ritual[199], where we read Taht formerly, or otherwise Sut, when Taht had superseded as the word, announcer, and reckoner of the gods.

The deity Gwydion has been considered the same character as Mercury, the son of Jove and Hermes, the councillor of Kronus[200]. He is called Gwydion ap Don; Don being the father of the gods. Then is an Egyptian divinity, Tann, both female and male, a type of the earth. Gwydion, the son of Don, they say, by his exquisite art charmed forth a woman composed of flowers, and early did he conduct to right side as he wanted a protecting rampart, the bold curves and virtues of the various folds; and he formed a steed upon the springing plants, with 'illustrious trappings.'[201] Or, as Skene renders it, 'Gwydyon-ap-Don of toiling spirits, enchanted a woman from blossoms, and brought pigs from the south. Since he had no sheltering cots, rapid curves and plaited chains, he made the forms of horses from [p.361] springing plants and illustrious saddles.'[202] It was Lieu and Gwydion who 'changed the form of the elementary trees and sedges.'[203] The elementary trees belonged to the ten primary Ystorrynau of Kęd. These were the earliest branches of the kat (Eg.), tree of knowledge. They were so old that Taliesin in the Battle of the Trees, (Cad Godeu) says, 'The mountains have become crooked; the woods have become a kiln, formerly existing in the seas (like bog-oak or a geological stratum), since was heard the shout,' the triadic 'beam,' or cyfriu sign. 'The tops of the birch,' he continues, 'covered us with leaves, and transformed us and changed our faded state.'[204]

In this poem of the trees, 'the head of the line' is described as a female who issued forth altogether alone, and the birch was a much later arrival. Probably the birch, Bedwin, the male emblem, refers to the change in the elementary trees made by Gwydion, and the introduction of the masculine type of the creative power.

But, says the old goddess (or her poet for her), 'when the chairs are judged, mine will be the most excelling; my chair, my cauldron, and my laws, and my pervading eloquence meet for the chair.'[205]

At the time of the mythological deluge, we learn from a poem by Taliesin, that in the living Gwydion there was a resource of counsel, and when 'Aeddon came from the land of Gwydion into Sčon of the strong door,' then Gwydion advised him to 'impress the front of his shield with a prevailing form, a form irresistible.'[206] By this means the 'mighty combination of his chosen rank was not overwhelmed' when 'Math and Eunydd set the elements at large,' which, is described as producing a deluge. Gwydion is credited with devising means for saving what Bryant[207] and Davies[208] call 'the Patriarch and his family,' when the deluge is about to burst forth and overwhelm the world. This he accomplished by forming the 'bold curves,' and the 'virtues of the various folds,' and making a 'protecting rampart,' the shape of a shield or of a circular pattern, a form irresistible. A mode of meeting the coming flood, which is elsewhere figured as building an ark.

Now in the Egyptian Ritual Taht says he built the ark. 'I am the great workman who made the ark of Socharis on the stocks.'[209] We shall see the gist of this when we come to the Deluge and the Ark.

Gwydion then is here identified with Taht in character as the ark­builder. Taht was the word, the manifestor of the gods, lord of letters or types. The companion given to Gwydion as inventor of an alphabet of sixteen letters is named Lieu, and in the hieroglyphics the ru is the reed pen, the paint, and the written word of the scribe; the ru sign accompanying Taht as writer and the lord of letters. Both pen and papyrus were made from the reed.


Amongst the plants referred to more particularly was the Elestron, the water-lily or flag-flower, the lotus of the Druids. This answered to the papyrus sceptre, the uat held in the hand of the Egyptian goddesses. The woman composed of flowers is called the rainbow, that is Iris, and the flag-flower is the Iris. Thus, the woman enchanted from blossoms identified by the Iris leads us to see a personification of the reed as the instrument of the written letters invented by Gwydion in Britain and by Taht in Egypt.

The uat or papyrus sceptre is identical by name with the goddess of the north, Uat, the earlier Kheft, our Kęd. And this goddess of the papyrus reed is replaced by Sefekh as mistress of the writings and consort of Taht. Sefekh reads number seven, which identifies her primarily with the seven stars and with the seven colours of the rainbow, or Iris. It was for this goddess of the rainbow, the seven colours, that Gwydion formed the horse (or horses) on which she was to ride forth as mistress of the writings or as the feminine word.

The order of mythological sequence is first the Sabean, next the lunar, and lastly the solar. We know the lunar zodiac preceded the solar, and just as Taht claims to have made it or built the Ark, so Gwydion is credited with instructing the solar god how to meet the coming flood of destruction. The eagle of Gwydion takes the place of the ibis of Taht. Thus far Gwydion appears to represent Taht, and the inventor of symbols and memorial types answers to the lord of letters and scribe of the gods.

There is a god on the monuments, however, named Khetu, of whom little is known. He is called a god of things, it may be of types, as khet is the seal-ring; it may be of letters as the temple-scribe or hiero­grammat is a rekhi-khet. Whether a god or only a title, the name supplies a root for Cadmus, the reputed inventor of letters. Khet, shet, and set are synonymous in many meanings, and this Khet would seem to be a form of Sut-Anubis, the earliest, the Sabean Mercury. The name of Sut has an earlier form in Khut. Khut is the goer-round, the circle-maker. Khut is a modified form of Kheft (Kęd), the goer-round, as the Great Bear. The first goer-round, as her son, was Sut or Khut, the Dog-star, who bears her name in the modified form. Kuti means the traveller round, the maker of the circuit, the particular god of the Britons. The name was continued in Egypt as that of Har-Khuti, god of the two horizons, who, it will be maintained, was a Sabean Har-Suti before the solar-god, Har-Makhu, assumed the title. And this hard form of Suti is found in the name of Gwydion. Hence, it is argued, he derives from Khut or Sut the Sabean Mercury, who preceded Taht as the scribe of the gods, and that, as in Egypt, the lunar god eclipsed the older star god. But the obscurity of the matter on the monuments doubles the difficulty with the British mythology. Still, the sixteen letters appear to identify Cadmus, Woden, and Beli, each of whom is credited with [p.363] introducing that number of types, runes, or letters, into his particular country, and Beli is identical with Bar or Sut, whose name in the earlier form would be Khut, the god of things, and who corresponds to Caesar's[210] description of the British Mercury, the inventor, the guide of ways, and deity of commerce, with the same passing into the lunar Taht that we find in Egypt. Another link: Sut or Sebt deposits the god Seb, whose type is the goose, which in Welsh is the Gwydd. The Welsh Gwydd and Gwyddion, the teachers, sages, seers, men of letters, derive their name from this god of letters. The first written signs, with the Druids, were cut. Khet, in Egyptian, means to cut and imprint, or to seal. Gwyd, in Welsh, signifies the wood that was cut, the letters that were cut, the sage who cut the letters, and the manifestation of knowledge by means of the letters. Gwyd was the whole science of letters. The names are countless that come from this root, khut, to cut, imprint, type, show, or reveal, from which the earliest sacred words were called ghetas in Sanskrit and gathas in Zend; cuth, in English, to be taught, instructed; kith, knowledge; guth, Irish, speech; the Gwyddion, who made known; the Godi, or Hofgodi, of Norway, chieftains who in olden time were at once pontiff, judge, and godi, god of the hof or temple in one[211], doubtless identical as religious rulers with the Druidic Gwyddion, the followers of Gwydion. Archagetas was, according to Pausanias[212], a name of Aesculapius, signifying the primeval divinity. It was the arch-Khutu, who came from Egypt on various routes. The cadeu-ceus of Hermes was in name and nature a type of khet, to shut and seal, found to be Egyptian. Lastly, god is the same word as khut, although it does not retain a single primal element. Khut (Eg.) means a spirit traceable to fermentation. But the earliest khut or god was the maker and reproducer of a circle, the goer-round in a circle, the opener of the circle. Hence Ptah and Sut are the openers. The two aspects were those of opening and closing, and here the god is one with the cutter or cleaver. To cut is to open, to open is to reveal; the primordial god is the opener, and the axe sign is the hieroglyphic of divinity (Â), the type of the cutter, a primitive expression for manifesting and making known. Kęd (English) is to make known, whence 'un-ked,' a word used to describe the horror of the unknown. Thus, when letters or other signs were cut, the cutter was Khetu, Cadmus, or Gwydion. Behind the god is the goddess Kęd, and so the god is secondary. Kęd was Khept, the feminine of khep, to figure forth, form, and typify.

It is certain that we have Sut, the god of the Dog-star and the inundation in the British pantheon[213]. Seithenhin, the diminutive of Sut, has been called the son of Saidi; but is rather Saidi, who is the son. Seithenhin and Saidi resolve into one and the same character. [p.364] Seithenhin or Saidi, the son, has the style of Kadeiriath, the language of the chair. This title rendered in other words is the word of the genetrix, who was represented by and as the seat or chair; the word (announcer) who preceded Taht, the lunar form of the manifestor in Egypt, as Sut-Anubis or Bar-Sutekh.

Plutarch[214] had heard that about Britain there were many small and desolate islands, and that in one of these the ancient Saturn was detained a prisoner fast asleep in chains. Saturn was the Egyptian Sut, who went out of Egypt in remote times, and was afterwards deposed within it.

Seithwedd is a name implying his sevenfold nature, or having seven courses, which relates Sut to the constellation of seven stars in Ursa Major. Sut, as Sothis, the dog, watched the waters of the inundation, and announced the coming overflow. Han (Eg.) denotes the bringer of the waters.

The Welsh Triads preserve the tradition of Sut (Seithwedd or Seithenhin), who was placed in charge over the waters of the deluge, and who upon a certain time was intoxicated, and whilst in liquor let in the inundation over the world, and drowned a district. Seithenhin, sometimes called the son of Seithin, is designated the drunkard. In the 'graves (or cities) of the Kymry' one of them is designated the grave of the 'weak-minded Seithenhin.' From Seithenhin-Sut has been derived the Saint Swithin of the Christian calendar. In him Satan has become a saint. Swithin is called the 'Drunken Saint,' which identifies him with Seithin the drunkard. Also Swithin's Day, our July 15th, is nearly coincident with the inundation of the Nile, proclaimed by Sut; and if it rains on that day, says tradition, it will continue to do so during forty days. This belongs to mythology, not to meteorology, for, according to the observations at Greenwich, for the twenty years preceding 1861, the greatest number of wet days after St. Swithin's day occurred in the years when the 15th of July was dry. The Christian story which tells how it rained for that length of time on the death of St. Swithin, in the year 865, and prevented the monks of Winchester from removing his body from the churchyard, where he wished to lie, into the choir on the 15th July has been exploded by Earle[215], who shows that the weather was most fair and propitious at the time. Further, when it rains on Swithin's Day, the drunken saint is said to be christening his apples. And in the Egyptian zodiaci the dog Sothis is stationed in the tree constellation. This tree was the vine in some planispheres; in others the apple-tree on which grew the golden apples in Avallon. Swithin, the drunken saint, is none other than Seithenhin, the drunkard, of the mythos, and the forty days' flow of rain is connected with the overflow of the Nile conducted by Sothis or Sut.

The producer of the inundation became in other skies a meteoro­ [p.365] logical prophecy, and so this was transformed into a rainy saint. In old calendars St. Margaret's Day, the 20th of July, was the one on which it is said 'all come to church that are or hope to be with child that year,'[216] and the 20th of July was New Year's Day in Egypt, the day of the inundation announced by Sut, and the overflow of the river which poured its fertility into the lap of Egypt. The 20th of July was considered to be the first of the dog-days in England, and in Egypt it was the first day in the year of the dog. St. Margaret reminds one of her more familiar names of Peg and Page, the same as that of the goddess Pekh, the lioness.

The British Nay and Irish Nevvy is not necessarily the god Khnum of Thebes. Still the name of that deity is found as Knufi[217], and he became the gnostic Knuphis. Khnum is lord of the inundation, and nef means the sailor. Khnum is represented by the bearded he-goat, and nef is a name for an old goat. This figure of nef, the old goat found in the Western Isles of Scotland[218], survived to a late time, as the deity exhibited for worship at the witches' Sabbath, the last flickering shadow of the ancient mysteries. In the examination of the French witches whose confessions are elaborately recorded by De L'Ancre[219], we find the deity or devil often appeared in the form of a bearded goati, at other times as a serpent, and the serpent and goat constitute the biune form of Knum or Nef. The pitcher is a hieroglyphic of this god; with this his name is written. And at the Sabbath the goat issued out of a vast pitcher set in the midst, and began to swell and swell and grow monstrous by inflation until it was fearful to behold. Nevi, in the African Wolof language, means to swell and swell. Evidently this was the god of breath, or Nef, portrayed in a dramatic representation of the breathing source, one male type of which was the goat. At the end of the Sabbath the inflated form subsided and returned again into the pitcher. This is a rendering of the nature of Nef, primitively perfect, identifiably Egyptian by four hieroglyphics, the goat, the breathing, the serpent, and the water jar. It is a masquerade of Egyptian imagery, in which Nef, the lord of breath and dominator of the waters, manifests in his serpent-crowned ideograph of the goat as the image of inflation or breathing life. Marie d'Aspilecute of Handaye deposed that, when she was initiated and introduced to the goat-deity, she had to kiss him on the hinder face, this being the face of a black man, and hidden under a great tail[220]. Khnef was a form of Al, the black sun of the lower regions called the hinder-part[221]. The posterior face had not the power of speech, and thus corresponds to the dumb Har-pi-Khart of the dual Horus. Sometimes the deity manifested as something between a tree and a man[222]. This is akin to our Green man and the Jack in the Green, who is the hieroglyphic of leafy life on May Day. [p.366] Khnef is pictured on the monuments as the Green God. At other times the witnesses saw him shaped as a great man enveloped in a cloudiness or a smoke, flamboyant and red-faced, like iron coming out of a furnace. The sun of the underworld was also the Red Sun and the god of fire. Nefer is the 'heat emitted from the mouth of Sekhet,' the goddess of fire, a feminine form of divinity.

Neb also signifies gold, golden, to gild; and the great pulpit in which the old goat Nef sat enthroned was gorgeous with gilt, and as they all agreed, glittered very pompously. So the tinsel pageantry of Jack consists of gilding as well as green. This identifies Nef, if not Khnum, on the continent. In celebrating the Egyptian mysteries or the Eleusiniae in Egypt, Sharpe tells us that 'within the temple the hierophant wore the dress and mask of Khneph; the crier, the mask of Taht; the priest of the altar, the emblem of the moon, whilst another with the dress of Ra carried a torch.'[223] De L'Ancre[224] drew a picture from descriptions given by the worshippers, which shows the triad of the two sisters and the male-god as in the triad of Isis, Nephthys, and Horus.

Ard-Macha is the ancient sacred name of the city of Armagh in many Irish documents, some of great antiquity[225]. The oldest of these is the Book of Armagh[226], known to have been transcribed about the year 807; in this the name is translated by Altitudo Machae, which determines the meaning to be the height of Macha. Ard for height is found in 200 Irish names, and this is the Egyptian arrt or ert for the steps, staircase, or ascent. The tract called 'Dinnsenchas' in the Book of Lecan[227] professes to give the origin of the name as being derived from some wonderful woman of the name of Macha.

From other sources we learn that Macha, the first of three of that name, came into Ireland as the wife of Nevvy, who led a colony into Ireland 600 years after the deluge. Mythologically interpreted, this suffices to identify Nevvy with the nay of the Welsh and the nef who in Egypt is the sailor and lord of the deluge. There is a goddess on the monuments of unknown office and relationship whom Wilkinson met with but once and copied[228]. He read her name Makha or Makht. Dr. Birch reads it Menka[229]. It reads both ways according as the first sign is taken for an ideographic men or phonetic m. The goddess is really the wet-nurse Menâ or Menka, as is shown by the two vases held forth in her hands in place of the two breasts or the woman suckling. She typifies the water of life, one of the two factors. Breath or nef is the other, and Menka or Maka appears in Ireland as the consort of Nevvy. Makh abrades into mah or meh, still the wet-nurse as mother, who is called Meh-urt, the meek fulfiller. Mah signifies to be full, complete, covered, filled, satisfaction, also [p.367] the number nine connected with gestation, and mah modifies into , the goddess of the Two Truths, which are typified by the two vases of Menka (Maka). So that there are three of the name in EgyptMenka, Mah and Mâ, and the Irish Macha was the first of three of that name in Ireland.

The three, however, may merely mean the triad of the Great Mother, who becomes the Two Sisters. This was Hathor of the spotted cow, who is called the Golden Hathor, and the chief, the second, of the three Machas is known as the golden-haired Macha.

The Irish Macha is the older form of Meh, Mehi, Maya, and May, recovered from the monuments as Maka or Menka, the wet-nurse. Macha answers to Meh, a form of Hathor, whose type is the cow. Hathor or Athor, the habitation and wet-nurse of the child, is extant with us as name of the womb, and she is represented in Ireland by her own cow, that still rises up from the waters in many legends, as did the cow Athor to receive the sun when setting in her own region of the west.

The Irish antiquaries have been cajoled by writers who, like the author[230] of Rude Stone Monuments, explain everything by means of 'the Danes,' and who no sooner come upon a window that opens into a farther past than down they pull the blind, assuring you there is nothing to see.

Dr. Joyce[231] supposes the name of the Hill of Howth to be Danish, a form of the word hoved, or head. But these names go thousands of years deeper than any Danish deposit.

The ancient Irish name of the ground was 'sean-mhagh-ealta-Edair,' rendered the old plain of the flocks of Edair, Edair being the Hill of Howth. The tradition is that the first leader of a colony, Partalon, took up his residence with his followers on this plain.

Now the names of Edair and Howth may possibly identify the Hill of Hathor or Macha. The Irish mhagh for plain corresponds to the Egyptian makha, the level, the scales, the place of the equinox, where Hathor is represented by the cow's head in the Egyptian planispherei close to the Scales[232]. 'Shen-Makha' is Egyptian for this level in the orbit of the twin heavens; the flock of Hathor was a herd of seven cows. Wilkinson says this goddess at times wore a peculiar headdress of a hawk, a perch, and an ostrich feather, which denotes that the Lady of Hut is then in the character of the president of the western mountain. 'Lady of Hut' was her title at Thebes[233]. This is the hut for height, the Howth we are in search of, and the Hill of Howth is Edair-Hut, the western mountain of the cow-headed Athor. The 'hut' has many forms, a seat, throne, boat, table, shrine, all of which have been found on our hills and heights. Howth is a form of hoved, but that means more than a headland. In Egyptian hut is modified from khut, and khut from kheft. Kheft is a goddess of the west, the [p.368] lady of that country. Hathor as Lady of Hut is the earlier Lady of Kheft, as the solar west. The Hill of Howth or Hoved implies the Kheft-name of the West, and this form abrades into the 'Hib' of Hibernia and the 'Ib' of Iberia.

Edar, the Irish name of Howth, is connected by tradition with a female named Edar, said to be the wife of Gann, one of the five Firbolg brothers who divided the land between them. Ben Edar would be their own mountain of the west to the emigrants as they sailed into the sunset, the Mountain of Hut and of Hathor.

There is a tradition of a colony dwelling on the Mhagh of Edair that perished of the plague[234]. In Hebrew makkeh (הפמ) is the plague or plagues, and in Egyptian makha-ka is the desert, the desolate land. Outside Eblana there is a small island called 'Edri Deserta' on the map, and Edrou Hëremos in the Greek text of Ptolemy[235], that is, the Desert of Edyros or Edair. Edair connects this with Makha (Mhagh), and suggests that the people who perished of the plague in the desert were mythological, and so helps to identify the imagery.

In a papyrus quoted by Champollion it is said of Hathor in her two characters, 'She is called Neith in the east country and Ma in the lotus and the water of the west;'[236] that is, as goddess of the equinoxes. Makha is the name of the equinox or level, and the earlier name of Ma. Hathor the Golden, whose statues were often gilded, is the lady of the two doors of entrance and egress for the sun. She was the 'Goddess of the Lovely Face,' of mirth, music, and the dance; the Venus of Egypt.

The following old lines are sung of the English Hathor, who is the Irish Macha:

'Sing, reign of fair maid,
    With gold upon her toe
Open you the west door,
    And let the old year go.
Sing, reign of fair maid,
    With gold upon her chin
Open you the east door
    And let the new year in.'[237]

Hathor was also designated 'Daughter of the Water;' her lute was strung with sunbeams, and her cows were seven in number. This luteof seven stringsmay be represented in another lilt of song, which was formerly sung by the children in South Wales, carrying a jug full of water newly drawn from the well on New Year's morning:

'Here we bring the water
    From the well so clear,
For to worship God with
    This happy New Year.
Sing levez dew, sing levez dew,
    The water and the wine;
The seven bright gold wires,
    And the bugles they do shine.'[238]


It has now been shown that the Britons worshipped the Great Mother Kęd, who was the Egyptian Kheft (or Ta-urt) and identical with Kubele. In her lunar form she was the horned Astarte, our Hathor. in her character of Keridwen, the ancient mother was the British goddess of wisdom. Gwydion, the Sabean son, is the British Mercury, the Sut-Taht or Hermanubis of the Egyptians. Arthur we parallel with Sut-Har, the Sun-and-Sirius of the Druidic cycle of thirty years, which was the Egyptian Sut-.Heb.

The sun-god Hu is the solar Hu of the monuments, called a Son of Tum. His name of Aeddon identifies him with Aten, the son of the mother who became Atum as the divine Father, the Jupiter of the Romans; Atum being Ra in his first sovereignty as the father of the gods and in the dual form, Horus of both horizons, whence the Iu-Pater. Hu retained the character of the son as Aeddon, or Prydhain, the youthful Son of God, corresponding to Tum as Nefer­hept or Iu-em-hept the Son, who comes with peace, the Apollo known to Caesar[239].

Pwyll is the Druidic Mars, and Pwyll and Pryderi have been paralleled with Shu, the Egyptian lion-god in his two characters. Hercules we have identified with Khunsu, as Gwion and Con; the two children of Kęd with the double Horus, and sufficiently shown what Caesar meant when he said the great god of the Druids was Mercury[240], and that after him they also worshipped Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. But there were things in the British mythology indefinitely older than the Roman cult, as known to Caesar.

When we have collected and correlated the legendary lore of many nations, and can read the symbols in their primal significance, and reconstruct the myths, we shall find, at the head of all, the mythical divinities of Egypt as the oldest things extant; that is, these personifications embody the earliest configurations of human thought, and are provably of Egyptian origin, and traceable in other lands by their nature and in many instances by name. Words will help us much, but the divinities more. Through them we can get down to firm standing ground on the Old Red Sandstone of the pre-eval world, the primordial pavement of the past on which the footprints of antiquity are fossilized; through them we can get back to the primitive types which culminated in deities, and the dumb symbols of early expression that have been exalted to the status of religious doctrines and revealed dogmas, and prove that these types, the fossilized footprints of the past, are neither Roman, nor Greek, nor Hindu, nor Semitic, but identifiably Egyptian.





This page last updated: 13/04/2014