Some consciousness of the sacred significance of certain words seems to have yet lingered livingly in the mind of the people of the Western Islands of Scotland when Martin visited them nearly two centuries since. In St. Kilda they had common and sacred words for the same things. They held it absolutely unlawful, he says, to call the island by its proper Irish name of 'Hirt,' but only designated it the 'High Country.' St. Kilda is the farthest west of the Scottish Isles; in this, Conachan, the highest point, is 1,450 feet above the sea.

In Egyptian the word hert means the high country. Hert is height, above, over, the name for heaven, and either they did not know that 'Hirt' was the proper name of the high country, or this was their mode of preserving the fact that it signified the high country, and so they kept the old name as too hallowed for common use, this being one of the most effective means of preserving the mental impress.

Hert, as the height, the upper land of England, would seem to have given the name to Hertfordshire, for it is the summit of the land. The Grand Junction Canal reaches its summit in Hertfordshire, and descends both ways for Middlesex and 'the Shires.' This is the highest of the counties south called by the name of shires, so that it is the Hert, the land above, in a double sense; highest in altitude and by name as the upper boundary of the shires. 'Scarce one county in England,' says Camden, 'can show more footsteps of antiquity' than Hertfordshire[1]. The highest hill in the county is named Kensworth, and worth answers to hert (Eg.), the highest or uppermost, as an enclosure.

The shore, Martin remarks, which in their language is expressed by 'Claddach,' must be called 'Vah.'[2] Fa, in Egyptian, denotes canals or water enclosed, and the peh is the hieroglyphic sign of a water-frontier. Pa is the shore or bank in Maori. These people were preserving their hieroglyphics; v or f being the earlier form of [p.371] tep or tef (Eg.) signifies the point of commencement. This enters into the name of Dover. Tep-ru (Eg.) is the first outlet, gate or port. Tepru is the Egyptian name of Tabor, the sacred hill, a point of commencement in the solar allegory. Dover is our outlet and point of commencement. From Dover starts the great road called Watling Street; this runs northward on its way through the island. It is called the Roman Road, but uat is a name of the north in Egyptian; Uati is goddess of the north. Uat also means distance, the long, long road, and is determined by three roads arranged lengthwise[3]. So interpreted, the Watling is the long long north road, and the ling does but repeat one meaning of uat, a common mode of compounding English names.

Uat is both water and way, the water of Nile was the first road in Egypt. This dual meaning survives in English. Watford (Uatford) is the Waterford, and wat is the name for the ford, so that Watford is the ford of the uat (water), and the way (uat) across the water. The north where the three water-signs are placed was the uat (wet) quarter.

To wattle is to intertwine osiers and make wickerwork, and this wattling was an early form of Irish bridge or uat for crossing over water. Tiling a roof is still called watling.

The naming of the Isle of Thanet is a curious relic of Egyptian. It is not an island in the ordinary sense, not an isle of the sea, but is insulated by the aid of the river Stour forming two branches, which separate Thanet from the rest of Kent. A thousand years ago the arms of the Stour formed a channel three or four miles in width, named the Wantsume[4]. Tnat means divided in two, cut off, insulated, the river constituting the boundary line and landmark of the division called Thanet.

Our word gate is the Egyptian khet, which, in relation to the water, is a ford, port, or harbour; khet, a port, to navigate, go, stop, be enclosed. This supplies the water-gate as in Margate and Ramsgate. Mer (Eg.) is the sea and also a land-limit, the boundary of a region on the water. Mer-gate (Margate) is the gate at the limit of Thanet at the north-east extremity of the isle. Ruim or Ruym[5] is an ancient British name of Thanet. Ramsgate is the gate of Ruim. Ru (Eg.) is an outlet, waterway. Ima or im is the sea. Ruim is the mouth or outlet to the sea. The gate in Ramsgate is a repetition of the ru in Ruim; according to the reduplicative mode of compounding the later names, Ramsgate, the sea-gate of Thanet, is already expressed by the ancient name of Ruim or Ruima. There is a park in Thanet named Quex Park, still famous for its coursing. Khekh (Eg.) means to chase, follow, hunt. The Quex family are probably named as the Hunters. Theirs is a very ancient seat. [p.372] Deal, rendered by ter (Eg.), is an extreme limit of land, a frontier point. Caesar[6] writes the name Dola. In Domesday it is called Addelam. The corresponding Egyptian is Atr-am, or Atr-ma. Atr is the land-limit, and this modifies into ter (Deal) am (Eg.), belonging to, also the place of, as in the ham of hamlet. Ultima Thule, the northernmost point known to the Romans, the Thuly of Drayton[7], the Isle of Thyle (Thylens-el, a name of Shetland), we may derive from teru (Eg.), a measure of land, the extreme limit of the land, the frontier and boundary. This underlies the Gothic tiule, the most remote land, and the Greek telos, the end; tro, Cornish, circuit, turn; tora, Irish, border or boundary; tara-tara, Maori, palings. Dhal and Tyree are also found at the extreme end of 'the Lewis.' Dunnet Head, the Caledonian promontory mentioned by Richard of Cirencester as the extreme northern point of Great Britain[8], has that meaning in tun (Eg.), to complete, fill up, determine; and net, the limit, or end of all.

Ban or ben (Eg.) means to cap, to tip; the ben is the extreme point, as the roof; the ben was a pyramidion; with us it is a mountain. F adds the pronoun it. Ban-f, the extreme point applied to land, describes the promontory or jutting point of Banff. Near Banff is Gamrie Bay. Ka (Eg.) is the lofty, uplifted earth, the high place, headland, and meri denotes the limit of both land and sea. On the other side of Gamrie Bay is Crovie Head. Kherf (Eg.) means to steer, and paddle; and this was the headland by which the deep-sea fishers who left the shell-mounds of Banffshire had to steer or paddle in coming in. Out to sea stands Troup Head, the home and haunt of multitudes of sea-fowl; 'all the birds in the world' are said to come there. In Egyptian terp is a name of ducks and waterfowl, and also means food. Thus, this breeding-place of the terp (in America a particular kind of duck is the terapin) is designated in Egyptian as the place of the ducks and food.

The fowlers of Rutlandshire formerly celebrated St. Tibba's Day with great rejoicings. Tibba was their especial patroness. Camden mentions the town of Rihall as particularly addicted to this worship; the passage in which he describes this was ordered to be expunged from his Britannia, by the Index Expurgatorius, when the book was printed by Louis Sanchez at Madrid in 1612.*

* The passage runs thus: 'Rihall, ubi cum majores nostros ita facinasset superstitio, ut deorum multitudine Deum verum propemodum sustulissit, Tibba minorum gentium diva, quasi Diana ab aucupibus utique rei accipitrariae praeses colebatur.'[9]

Teb is the Egyptian name of waterfowl; the duck and goose are called teb, tef, and ap. Ap or af (with the article) denotes the first (tep and tef) born of; the duck, goose, and swan were types of the genetrix, who, as the old great mother, was personified as Tep or Typhon, the bringer forth from the waters. Typhon was made a [p.373] saint in Tebba, but the fowlers of Rihall had the pre-Christian form of the lady, and the expurgators knew it.

Ru is another name of the waterfowl, and rui (Eg.) means mud, marsh, and reeds, hence, perhaps, the name of Rihall.

Caithness is assumed to derive its name from the Catti, of whom Tacitus[10] writes. The Ness is of course equivalent to the nose, or jutting, but we have no such expression as nose of land. In the hieroglyphics the nes is a tongue, and we have the expression, a tongue of land for the jutting. Moreover, at the base of this ness, the tongue is still preserved in the town and the Kyle of Tongue. Hence the Ness is probably the Egyptian tongue. Caithness may be the abraded form of Kheftness, Kędness, the tongue of Kęd. Kheft is the north, the hind quarter to the north. Kheftness is the northern tongue of the land. This meaning of the north (Kheft, Caith) is corroborated by the south land lying next to it in Sutherlandshire. Sut, or Suten, is the Egyptian south, and the south of Sut (Dog-star) and the north (Kheft) were the two halves of the total land. In Egyptian khata is the end of land, and the unabraded khap-ta is the northern end, the Caithness of Egypt. In an ancient poem of the Irish Nennius[11], 'From the region of Cait to Forcu' is synonymous with from north to south. Cait is Caithness, and Forcu the Forth. Caith or Saith also signifies number seven, corresponding to the Egyptian Seb-ti, Hepti, or Khepti, for seven, and Kheft (Kęd) was goddess of the seven stars of the north.

Kaer Gybi (Holyhead) stands on an island at the western extremity of the county of Anglesea. The Kebi were the four genii of the four corners, the watchers over the sarcophagus or the four cardinal points. The Kaf or Hapi was the dog-headed watcher of the road east and west. The especial point of the west is connected with the goddess Khaft, as lady of the west. Khef or khep (Eg.) means to look, watch, watching, and in Ireland the hill of watching, which preceded and survives the watch-tower, is called a covade, Covet, or Kivet, as in Mully Kivet, Fermanagh. Lookout points, says Dr. Joyce[12], intended for places of watching, to guard against surprise, are usually designated by the word Coimhead, pronounced covade. The title is generally applied to hills which overlook a wide expanse, and Kaer-Gybi is the enclosure of watching, or the watchtower. On the mount of Gybi, 700 feet high, are the remains of a circular watchtower, and on the sides of the mountain traces of extensive British fortifications.

The Island of Sark, says Pomponius was greatly celebrated on account of the Gallic god[13]. Sarkh or serkh is in Egyptian the temple, palace, and shrine. This in the parent language gives the name to the island, as the place of the shrine and oracle of the god mentioned by the Roman writer. Also the island divinity is recognized as continental. Serkh, an Egyptian goddess, was a form of Isis-Sothis.


The Islet of Staffa is named in Egyptian from the action of the water on the rock. Stu is to excavate, to make; fa, channels. Stafu signifies to melt down, with the determinative of water; a twofold description of Staffa. Stave, in English, is to break, throw, crumble down. Scart is the name of one of the caves, and skar-t in Egyptian is to be cut, cut out, cut piecemeal. Skart may be read as a picture carved, from skar, to cut and picture.

Opposite Tenby, in Pembrokeshire, there is a cave called the 'Cave of Caldi,' containing some marvellous chambers and passages underground, one of which is now designated the 'Fairy Chamber.' The equivalent, karti (Eg.), denotes holes, passages, and prisons underground, and as the word also relates to running waters, it may have included the stalactite grotto or cave, as at Caldi.

Some caverns in the chalk beds of Little Thurrock, Essex, are called Cunobelin's Gold Mines, from the local tradition that Cunobelin hid his gold in them. They are sometimes called Dane-holes, and of course the Danes are brought in, and these are claimed to have been their lurking-places. There is a very deep Dane-hole in the chalk near Tring, Hertfordshire, locally called 'Dannel's hole.' Cunobelin's gold was also stored in the chalk of the Dunstable Downs. It is known at Totternhoe as the Giant's Money, which you are supposed to hear ring if you stamp on the ground. Also Money-bury Hill is a part of the chalk range at Ashridge.

This hidden money is known by the name of Crow Gold, one form of which consists of nodular balls of iron pyrites, radiated within, which are frequently found in the white chalk without flint, that is, the mass of soft and pulverulent limestone of this formation.

The earliest gold of mythology is fire. The names afterwards applied to gold as a product of fire were given first to fire itself. The early men, be it remembered, had to mine for fire as diligently as the later dig for gold.

The Egyptian pur, to manifest, come forth, emanate, appear, is the same word as the Greek name of fire or πυρ. Pliny[14] says fire was first struck out of flint by pyrodes, the son of Cilix (i.e., Silex), and the name of the iron pyrites used with flakes of flint for striking fire points to this origin of fire or pur.         

Among the African names for fire and the sun are the Biafada, fur, fire; Pepel, buro, fire; Mose, burum, fire; Dselana, burom, fire; Galla, berru, splendour, glory; Kise-Kise, afura, hot; Okuloma, ofe re, heat; Mende, furo, the sun; Gbese, furo, sun; Toma, furo, sun; Bini, ufore, sun. In Arabic, afr is sultry, and birah is the sun; in Sanskrit, vira is fire, and peru the sun; breo, Gaelic, a fire; ver, Garo, fire; vuur, Dutch, fire. The fullest form of the word is extant in the Maori kapura, for fire. This modifies into the Egyptian and Hebrew afr (רוא), and afr into the Welsh aur for gold. Gold and fire are identified by name in aur and [p.375] apr, afr being first. From aur comes ore. The first ore sought for was not gold, but the iron pyrites, which, when struck against the flint, yielded the precious element of fire. These were found with the flints in the chalks of our downs. The flint manufactories, as at Cissbury, must have also produced the equivalent of the 'steel' for striking fire in some form of the iron pyrites. The Eskimos at the present day, obtain fire by striking a shard of flint against a piece of iron pyrites. Iron was first extracted from the stone in the shape of fire, long before it was smelted. One name of these iron stones is crow. An iron bar is still a crow-bar. There is a poor kind of coal called crow-coal, which does for furnace-fuel, but is of an inferior kind. Crow means inferior, and is therefore the same as karu (Eg.), the lower of two; and crow-gold is inferior gold, not the true gold. The crow stone, then, is a fire stone; and the fire stones found in the chalk contained Cunobelin's gold, i.e., fire. The name of fire as tan or tek-n has already been traced to an origin in the spark, this being emphatically the fire of Baal.

Another English name for the iron pyrites is mundic. Mun (Eg.) is stone; tek is the spark; and as mundic is the equivalent of muntek, the pyrites is thus named as the spark-stone, the stone of Baal, son of kar-tek, the old spark-holder of the north. Some of the West Australian tribes still say they derived fire from the north[15]. As already said, an earlier form of teka, the spark, is shown by the Bushman t'jih or t'kih, for fire, the t of which is a click, and the jih or kih reaches its antecedent in the Swahili chechi, a spark, and koka, to set on fire with sparks; kiaoka, Mantshu Tartar, for a fire made with sparks and dry leaves; chik, Uraon, fire; kagh, Persian, fire; qaco, Fijian, burnt; and English coke.

Belin is the little Baal, the child Baal, who in Egypt was Bar-Sut. The name of Sut means fire and limestone, the firestone that fermented. Sut-Nub is both fire and gold. And this identity of fire and gold may be found in the god Sut-Nub, whose name includes both. Cunobelin was our Sut-Nub, god of the sun and Sirius combined, and the limestone (Sut) contained the ore, aur, afr, per, or fire, in the iron pyrites called Crow-gold, Cunobelin's gold, and the giant's money. Fire, then, was Cunobelin's gold. This was hidden in the chalk as Crow-gold, that is, fire-gold, in search of which the chalk of Dunstable Downs was undermined for miles together, and at one time the Dunstable people, who dwelt a considerable distance apart, could visit each other's houses by passing underground. As the firestones were obtained from the chalk, it follows that the word dane is the tein or tin for fire. Baal-tein signifies the fire of Baal, and Cunobelin's gold is Baal-tein. Tin also means money [p.376] and both the gold and the money were hidden in the Tin-hole or Dane-hole.

The name of Sut, earlier Sebti, contains seb, no. 5, and ti, no. 2, and is a form of no. 7, found also in hepti. At Lambourne, in Berkshire, there are tumuli at a place known as 'Strike-a-light, Seven Barrows.'[16] How the old names cling! Sut, the fire-god, our Cunobelin, was the embalmer of the dead. His name of Sutekh also means to embalm, and to lie hidden as did the dead in the barrows, where the fire-and-flint stones were often dug out to strike a light, and replaced by the bodies of the dead.

Kent's Cave or Hole has been called the Bone Cave from the quantity of bones found in it[17]. And if such a place had been named in Egyptian, it would be as the Ken-Kar, or, with the article suffixed, Kent-Kar, signifying a hole underground, having some relation to bone. Ken (Kent) is bone; kar, the hole, beneath. Ken also means carving in ivory or bone. The ken is the carving tool, the burin, as well as the cartouche in which the name is inscribed. The kent is the man of the ken, the sculptor, or literally the scraper. Kenti would be a plural form. In the stele C, 14, of the Louvre, Iritisen calls himself a kent, or sculptor. Ur-Kent, the chief sculptor, occurs in another text[18]. It may therefore be conjectured that Kent's Cave was the workshop of the bone-carvers, hence the bone implements discovered there, the bone awl, bodkin, and harpoon, which had been shaped by the rudest flint tools; the philological evidence shows the naming to be Egyptian, and the Kent-Cave, in English Kent's Cave, buried like a ten-thousand-years-older Pompeii, when opened up, reveals the earliest workers in stone and bone, ministering to the simplest human needs as Egyptians. Kent's Cave is in the parish of Tor, whence Torbay. Teru (Eg.) means to work, fabricate, decorate, ornament, and the teru implement is also the ken of the carvers. Later, teru is the name for portraying in colours with the scribe's palette, when the artists who had carved in bone became the men who drew in colours. The word teru enters into the name of Druid, who was doubtless the figurer of other things besides the time-cycles.

The bone age is the necessary complement of the stone age; the bone supplied the book for the pen of stone. Stone and bone were the first implements of registering, the primeval ken of the Kenners, who wrought in the Ken (cave and sanctuary) before temples of learning were built or books were made to bear that name.

The first men of Kent's Hole were Palaeolithic. They could not polish stones, but, as may be seen from extant specimens of their work, they attained great excellence in the art of drawing. In the Cresswell Cave the figure of a horse 'delicately incised on a fragment [p.377] of rib is the first trace of the art of design in this country.'[19] But the faculty must have been developed in a high degree among the cavemen of France, where they left their drawings of the reindeer and whale, their hunting scenes incised on antlers, and, in one instance, the mammoth engraved on ivory.

In the Duruthy Cave[20], near Sorde, in the Western Pyrenees, a necklace was found, formed of the teeth of lions and bears, and on the teeth were drawings of the seal and pike, also a pair of gloves. Altogether there were no less than forty teeth variously engraved. The cavemen cut their pictures on bone, antler, stone, and ivory[21]. Considering that their graving tools were only flakes of flint, the execution of their figures is marvellous. Strangely enough, their art of drawing, engraving, and sculpturing, was indefinitely superior to that of the later Neolithic age. And yet not so strange when we remember that this was the one especial art of the cavemen, of which the Eskimos, Kaffirs, and Hottentots have furnished such remarkable specimens.

The Cave of the Carvers, the Kennu or Kenti, found at Deruthy, is near Sorde, and in Egyptian surt or srt means to carve, engrave, and sculpture; which suggests that Sorde was named as the seat of the sculptors, carvers, and engravers, whose buried work has been found in the Deruthy cave. The word surt is determined by the ken graving tool, the sign of bone and ivory.

Tradition tells of the bloody rites of the Druids enacted in gloomy groves. The hallowed grove of the Celtae was called a nemet, whence probably the name of Nymet Rowland in Devon. The sacred character assigned to the secluded Nemet is found in nemet (Eg.), the retreat, The Egyptian nemet is also the place of execution, the name of the gallows and the block. This throws a light on the dark recesses of the Druidic nemet, where, no doubt, they put their criminals to death. The nemet (Eg.), as shown by the nam symbols, was the scene of judgment and execution. A form of the judge is yet extant in the Nompere, later Umpire. In Gaul the nemetum had become a temple, but the caves and sacred groves were the earlier temples.

Buchan, in his Annals of Peterhead[22], describes a vast stone, thirty-seven feet in circumference and twenty-seven feet across, which was still in the 'Den of Boddam' or Bodun, in the year 1819. Both names are Egyptian. 'Batun' means the bad, the criminal, the malefactor; whilst but-tem signifies the execution, cutting to pieces of the but, the criminal, hateful, evil, infamous, and abominably bad. The Den of Bodun was probably the dungeon of the malefactors; the Stone of Boddam, the block of their execution.

It was in the Links of Skail that the beetles were found in the stone [p.378] coffin of one of the ancient barrows. The name of Skail is identical with that of the Island of the Written-Rocks in the Cataract near Khartoum, just where the land of the inundation begins. Skul (Eg.) denotes not only writing but instruction, counsel, design, picturing, and planning; from which we may fairly infer that skail was a seat of learning named in the most ancient tongue. The root sekha (Eg.) means to memorize and remember.

The Cornish Guirrimears are supposed to have been miracle plays. Guirimir, according to Lhwyd[23], is a corruption of Guari­mirkle, a miracle play. The word 'guary' is found in English.

'Thys ys on of Britayne layes.
That was used by olde dayes,
Men called Playn Garye.'[24]

But Lhwyd does not go deep enough, to say nothing of the inevitable 'corruption.'

Guare, in Cornish, means a play, gware in Welsh, guary in English, and in Egyptian kher means speech and to speak. But the play was enacted on spacious downs and natural theatres of immense capacity, which were encompassed round with earthen banks and in some places with stonework. These places, it is now claimed, were the Mirs or Mears. The mer or mera (Eg.) is an enclosure of land or water. The water-mer is extant in the Mere. The mer is also a circle, and the guiri-mir or kheri-mer is the enclosure or circle where the speeches were made and the play was performed. The size of the Mears shows they were at times beyond speech, hence guare means a game, and kher (Eg.) is also a picture, a representation, that was acted, the acting drama being earliest. For the mir is a moor, and in Kirriemuir we probably have the Guirimir by name extant also as a place.

The so-called Anglo-Saxon and German worth, for an enclosure, is called a test-word, showing the Teutonic settlements. But the garth, garter, garten, and garden are equally the enclosure. The original of all is the kart (Eg.), an orbit or circle, that is, the Kar Caer with the article suffixed. The kart is the Russian grod and Polish grod, a burgh. The modified hert (Eg.) was the name of enclosure as a park or paradise. We have it as large as a county Hertfordshire, and small as the tiny cup of the Blae or blue berry. This is called the whortle-berry, that is, the enclosed berry. But another form of its name is the hert. In Hertfordshire it is known as the bilberry-hert. Thus we have the wort and hert in one. Did the Teutons also carry the hert into Egypt, together with its earlier form in kart? The fact is simply that the thing kart, garth, hert, and worth existed; the w is a later letter, and the later sounds were applied to the earlier names of places.


The Egyptian kart had to do double duty. The terminal t may denote two, and one kar (kart) is the lower; the other, the upper, is the mar (hert), and the hert becomes the art, the ascent, the steep, the height. Kart is downward, and hert is above. This hert or art becomes the ard, of which there are 200 in Ireland, as the upper place, the height. The Irish ard is the Welsh alt, a steep place, and this becomes the Old, as the Old Man of Coniston and Old Man of Hoy. The art (Eg.), Irish ard, permutes with ret, the ascent, and this enters into the ridge or rudge, a back or height. In the Irish ard, the height, we have the mount of the Great Mother Macha, whose seat was at Ard-Macha (Armagh), and whose name of Arth is that of the Great Bear.

The Inland Wick, represented by the Anglo-Saxon vic, Irish fich, Maeso-Gothic vichs, is with us the homestead, the enclosure of the farm. It is the place of property, of plenty. Feck means plenty, much, most, the greatest part. It is the Egyptian fek, fullness, reward, abundance. The fog is a second crop, and the fat of land; allied to the vic, a marsh or moist land, where plenty of food was grown for cattle. This is the uakh (Eg.), a marsh, a moist meadow-land.

Cattle were an early form of fekh, feb, or fee. Pekau (Eg.) is fruit or grain. Pekh, as in English, is food. The fog, vic, or wick is the place of food, and becomes at last the enclosure or homestead where the produce is stored, it may be as fech (vetches), feh, cattle, fek (Eg.), the reward, abundance, plenty of food. The wick is thus finally the enclosure of the victuals.

The wick as a creek was derived neither from the Norse nor Saxon Vikings. It is the uakh (Eg.), an entrance, a road. This wick is so essentially a corner that in Northumberland the corners of the mouth are called wikes. It is well known that some of our wicks are places where salt is produced. But these are sometimes far away from any sea-wick, and the wick as bay has no necessary relation to the wick as salt-work. Wick is a sediment and the name of a strainer. The word relates to the salt-making. A dairy is also a wick in the same sense, with butter for product instead of salt.

Taylor's[25] suggestion that the name of bay-salt is derived from the evaporation of seawater in the bay may be doubted when we know that baa (Eg.) means stone, or rock, solid substance; it may be salt so far as the sign goes, and bay-salt is called rock-salt. Besides which bay is sure to stand for an earlier form of the word. Bab (Eg.) means to exhale; bak or bake is to encrust. Bekh (Eg.) is the rock, bakhn being a name of basalt. Also pakh (Eg.) means the separated; Maori paka, the dried.

The wick takes several forms. The Anglo-Saxon wig is a temple, monastery, or convent; the Gaelic haigh is a tomb, or grave, like the Quiche huaca. The name goes back to the chech or stone chest, and kak for a church; the kak (Eg.), a sanctuary; the khakha (Eg.), an [p.380] altar; chakka, Hindustani, a circle; khokheye, Circassian, circle cokocoko, Fijian, ring of beads; kigwe, Swahili, string of beads; kekee (lb.), a bracelet; gig, Scotch, a charm; vir (Heb.), a circle; igh, Irish, a ring; coiche, Irish, mountain; kaweka, Maori, mountain ridge; eca, Portuguese, an empty tomb, in honour of the dead, who are the Egyptian akh. In Cornish the modified hay is a name of the churchyard.

The 'ton,' says the author of Words and Places[26], is also true Teutonic, although non-extant in Germany. It is a genuine test-word to determine the Anglo-Saxon settlements in the isles, where there are thousands of tons, tuns, and duns, over 600 in Ireland alone, but none to speak of at home. What an amazing anomaly!

In a paper on the 'Distribution of English Place-Names,' read by W. R. Browne[27], he gave a table of the results obtained by examining 10,492 names in Dugdale's England and Wales[28]. Those ending in 'ton' formed nearly one-fourth of the whole, being 2,345 in number; the hams came next, 702 in number.

Dr. Leo has computed that in the first two volumes of the Codex Diplomaticus the proportion of our local names compounded with tun, as Leighton, Hunstanton, is one-eighth of the whole[29]. It is characteristic of Anglo-Saxon cultivation, he says, that their establishments were enclosures (tuns). No other German race names its settlements tuns. This fact struck Kemble[30], who observes 'it is very remarkable that the largest proportion of the names of places among the Anglo-Saxons should have been formed with this word, while upon the continent of Europe it is never used for such a purpose.'

Coote[31] sees in it another proof of Roman origin. Our tuns, enclosures, our hedgerows, he affirms, were all Roman. The truth is that the tun or tem marks an earlier stage or stratum of society than anything extant with the Germans, Angles, or Romans. They did not possess it, and could not have brought it here. Egyptian will tell us what the tun was. It is not necessarily the settlement, and consequently the arguments of Coote founded on its being so are beside the mark and of non-effect. The tun was not based on the Roman limitatio agri and allotment of the land, for it existed before there was any sense of possession in land that could be enclosed. In Egyptian the tun takes divers forms. The tun is a region, an elevated seat, a throne. This is extant in our Downs, the high and still most unenclosed of places. In the so-called 'Dânes' Graves' found on the Yorkshire wolds, where many tumuli are to be seen, the graves do but repeat the tun in a plural form, and pervert the old spelling in the name of the Danes. The downs were the judgment-seats of the Druids, like the Tynwald Hill of the Manxmen. The tun as high place is found on the downs, as are the two Gaddesdens. Tyntagel is the tun or elevated seat on a rock. Dynas Ennys was a [p.381] Druidicial Tun-as in Snowdon, the lofty seat of the gods. The Zulu Donga (Tun-ka) is a division or cutting in the land, but with no necessary sense of inclosing a property. One of the most primitive forms of the tun was the Cornish dynas or fort, a simple entrenchment with stones piled together without cement, and raised some twelve feet high. The tun is here the high seat, and as (Eg.) is the house, chamber, tomb, the secreting place. Hence the dynas or fort. So Ab Ithel[32] derives dinus from din and ysu. The barrows and burial-places of the dead are found near these forts, as if the first places of defence were built to protect the dead. To all appearance the first property claimed in land and right of enclosure was on behalf of the dead. We have a possible relic of this in the popular belief that a common right of way may be claimed wherever a corpse has been carried.

The first tun as an enclosure of land is the tomb. One hieroglyphic tun is the determinative of a tomb, and tun in this sense means to be cut off, separated. The teen, Chinese, is a grave; than is a shroud; tuna, Zulu Kaffir, a grave; tanu, New Zealand, to bury; dun, French Romance, a sepulchre; den, English, grave. The den or tun leads to the dynas, as the house or general sepulchre of the dead.

The Down, however, is one type-name for the elevated seat, the high place, the burial-place, and doubtless in some of these, now swept bare of all their ancient monuments, there are yet concealed precious proofs of the prehistoric past. The downs were the high places, and the reason why the word 'down;' came to mean below, is because the tun, den, or tomb, represented the underworld, where the dead went down at whatever height it opened. The tun, ton, or town, as the enclosure of the living and of property in land, is the final form, not the first; the Roman, not the Egyptian or Druidic. Tun or ton is far older than town, hence the reversionary tendency to the older formation in pronouncing the word town. The ton did not denote a town when it was the Cornish name of a farmyard.

In English, Scotch, Welsh, Irish, Gaelic, Manx, French Romance, Biscayan, Lusatian, Old Persian, Chinese, Coptic, Tonquinese, Phrygian, and other languages, the dun or tun is the hill, the summit found in the Egyptian tun, the elevated seat. Irish philologists understand the ton (or thone) to signify the same as the Latin podex, but the seat is primarily feminine and mystical, the mons veneris, the hes of Isis, the Khep of Khept or Kęd, extant in the Irish ceide or Keady, for the hill as the place of sepulchre.

Ten and tem permute; the tem (dumb, negative) are the dead, and the temple is also the house of the dead. So with us the tun and tom are interchangeable as names of the burial-ground. The tom, Gaelic, is a grave; tom, Welsh, a tumulus; tuaim, Irish, a grave; toma, Manchu Tartar, a tomb for the dead; toma, Maori, a [p.382] place where the dead are laid. The tema (Eg.) was also a fort, a place of defence. There is a mound or natural fort near Barcaldine old castle, known locally as Tom Ossian, or Ossian's Mound. It is a habit of the people roundabout to give many grave-mounds the name of Ossian. In this case it is said to be a place where Ossian sat, according to a local legend[33]. These mounds, being natural forts, were temau. The word tem (Eg.) also means to announce and pronounce. The tem as the seat of the singer agrees with the plural temau (Eg.) for choirs.

Now Ossian was a typical bard, one of the Asi or Hesi, by whom the announcements of the law were made from the seat. The as is this seat of rule and sovereignty; the as is also a mote or mound (which was the seat of justice) and the resting place of the dead. Thus the tom is the tumulus and the tomb, the seat of sanctity, defended as a tem or fort, used also as a mount of justice or a mote. Another mound named 'Tom-na-h-aire,' the mound of watching, between Dun Cathich and Connel, further identifies the tom and the tem, fort, as the watch tower.

Taylor describes the syllable 'ing' as the 'most important element which enters into Anglo-Saxon names.'[34] This is found in more than one-tenth of the total names of English hamlets and villages. In such as Tring, Woking, Barking, it is the suffix merely, but in Paddington, Islington, Kensington, we have the ton or seat of the ing belonging to the name prefixed.

The Billings, for example, were a royal race doubtless because they were assimilated to the god Baal; the Thurings are from Thor; the Sulings, of Sullington, in Suffolk, from Sul-Minerva; the Ceafings, of Chevington, in Suffolk, the Cofings, of Covington, in Hunts, and the Jefings, of Jevington, in Suffolk, or of Ivinghoe, Bucks, from the Kef of Kęd. This is merely by way of illustrating the type-name.

The ing denotes a body of people founded on sonship, human or divine. The mother was the primary parent thus derived from, and afterwards the male. But Kemble's[35] theory, that names ending in 'ing' indicated an original seat of the Angles or English, is apparently negatived by the almost entire absence of 'ings' in South Suffolk[36]. One 'ing' of the Angles is an enclosure. We have it in the far older form of hank for a body of people confederated (Var. d.), identical with ankh (Eg.), to covenant. To be at inches with, meaning to be very near together, is an expression belonging to the ing relationship. The Ingle, a parasite, in a depraved sense, is named from the ing. Thus we have the ing as the hank, and the ankh was extant in Egypt not only as the living representative, [p.383] the son, but as the body of people belonging to a certain district, who are designated the ankh, whilst the topographical enclosure, the ing, eng, inch, mis, is as old as the naming of the isle, enclosed by the waters. Cheddington, for example, is the tun, the high place, seat, enclosure of the ing, which derives its name from Kęd, whose own tun, or elevated seat, her throne, was higher still at Gad's-den (Kęd's tun).

The Chipping, as in Chipping Norton, Chipping Ongar, Chipping Barnet, or Chippingham, did not originate in Chapping and Cheapening. Cheping Hill and Chepstow take us up to the old high places of Kęd, where we find her cave, cabin, or Kibno, as in the Kibno Kęd, a form of the Cefn or Cefn Bryn or Cefn Coed. This cefn is the kafn (Eg.), an oven (a symbol of the Llafdig), and the kabni (Eg.), a vessel, a ship, which was represented by the boat, the cauldron, and the divine sanctuary of birth and rebirth. The war-chariot of the Britons was a covine[37]. This too was a kind of Cefn Kibno, or cabin of Kęd, a type of the bearer, who was called Urt, the chariot. The Chevin, in Wharfdale, or on the hill near Derby, or the Cheviot Hills, is not merely the ridge, but the cabin, cave, or khepsanctuary on the height, sometimes found in the hill itself, or in the stone-circle on the hill. The cef, or cev, is the Cornish coff, womb, and the wife. Now the ing community that bears this name are the children who derive that name from the mother's womb, the coff of kheft or Kęd, hence the Chiping and the Chevening on the great ridge in North Kent. The Kippings were still extant by name, not many years ago, in the neighbourhood of Ivinghoe (Kiv-ing-hoe) and Cheddington.

The coff being the birthplace, the coff-ing or chip-ing is the clan, confederacy, or hank, named from the feminine abode. The name of the Roman civitas, anciently an association of families, a corporation, and that of civ-ilization itself comes from the cave and the genetrix Khef. This is a principle of naming direct from nature. The Cefn Cave at the village of Cefn, near Denbigh, is not designated from the village of that name, as shown by the Cefn-caves elsewhere; and as this was only discovered and cleared out some forty or fifty years ago, and had then been filled up with sand from time immemorial, the name of Cefn must have been continued from time immemorial, before the cave was filled up.

The bed is another name of the uterus, and the Bed-ing is the gens named from the birthplace. The cwm, or quim, is another, whence the Cum-ing and the Cwm-mwd. In these cases the place of abode has extended to a county, in Bedfordshire and Cumberland. Thus Combe, according to Ovid[38], was mother of the Curetes. The ken is another form; hence the Ken-ing and the Ken-nings. The hem, another, whence the Hem-mings. Kęd, the mother and place [p.384] in one, supplies one of these type-names, whence Ched-ding-ton, the seat of the family of Kęd.

This subject will be pursued in the 'Typology of Naming.' Enough for the present. This alone is origin from the typical birthplace, and such names as Wamden in Buckhimgham, Wambrook in Dorset, Wembury in Devon, Wampool in Cumberland, instead of being corruptions of Wodensburg, are from the living home, Wame, Weem, Uamh, Hem, Cwm itself. This is shown by the pool and the brook, for the Wam was the place and the Pool of the Two Waters and Two Truths of mythology. The wam as birthplace is identical with woman. The uamh is extant on a larger scale in the place named Meall na Uamh, South Uist, where the beehive is still a human habitation.

The Beck and By are said to be Norse or Saxon names. Both are Egyptian; both British. The bi (or bu) is a worn down form of the Beck. The bu is the feminine birthplace, which, with the terminal t, is the but, or beth, the abode. With the kh it is the bekh, the birthplace. Bekha is the land of the birth of the sun; the bekh is the solar birthplace. Our Beck is applied to the river at its source. The bekh of the sun was represented by the Hill of the Horizon, the Tser Rock, stationed as a figure of the equinox. The Egyptians placed their equinoxes high up in heaven, in the zenith; this was where the sun was reborn every 25th of March. The bekh was imaged as the bringer-forth, the earlier pekh, a form of the genetrix, also named Buto.

The Bekh-Mount had been Sabean first, the Mount of the Seven Stars, and was afterwards made use of as a figure for the initial point of the solar zodiac and the birthplace in the sign of the Fishes. The same hills served in both cults, the worshippers of the Great Mother turning, like the Jews, to the north, the adorers of the solar son to the east.

The mount, throne, royal seat, is the ten (Eg.), and the word also denotes the division, the birthplace at the equinox, the bekh. Thus the mount of the bekh is Ten-bekh, and in the worn-down form Tenby. Now we know the earlier name of Tenby is Tenbich or Den-bigh, and the name is founded on the mount of the Bekh, or solar place of birth. We may further infer the same origin for the town and shire of Denbigh, as the Bekh of the Ten, the birthplace on the mount.

The peak is another form of the word, also the pike, as in Lang­dale Pikes, the Welsh pig, the Pyrenean pic, Italian bec, and the puy in Auvergne. The hill behind Bacup is one of our bekhs. The mountains called 'Backs' (as Saddleback) are birthplaces, only these are pre-solar; they typify the mount of Kęd, and of the hinder-part. And in this meaning only do we reach the root for the names of our Beacon Hills.

The bekhn (Eg.) is a fort, tower, fortress, magazine, or strong- [p.385] hold. Bekhn is a name of basalt, the hard, strong stone. The Beacon Hill would thus be the natural stronghold. The bukan (Eg.) is also an altar with fire burning on it, and that too was a beacon.

These, however, are but applications of the bekhn or beacon. The origin is in the bekh as place of birth. Bekhens (Eg.) are called dwellings of the gods, the bekhen being the pe, heaven; khen, sanctuary. Bekhn is the typical birthplace. This may be reckoned in the north, the east, or the south. We have each of these initial points, equinoctial and solstitial. For example, the ten is the division, and this may be either; at Tenbury we find the solstitial ten. The 20th of April is the great fair-day of Tenbury, and there is a belief that the cuckoo is never heard till the day of Tenbury Fair, or after Pershore fair-day, which is the 26th of June. The cuckoo is our bird of the cycle, and here the end of his period is the solstice. Bun (Eg.) denotes the highest ten or division.

The bekh represented the hill of the resurrection and ascent to heaven. Sinai was one of these as well as Tabor, the Egyptian tepr. From this top (tep) the sun-god mounted to the upper half of the circle. The rock of the horizon, as it is called, is perfectly portrayed in Blake's picturei of the old man entering the rock of the tomb below and the young spirit issuing from it upward[39]. It was the place of burial as the tser (rock), and the place of rebirth as the bekh. And this image of the mount of burial and rebirth is the prototype of our Beacon and Back hills, on the top of which the dead were buried in the symbolical birthplace.

On the Palatine Hill in Rome, they show an opening in the rock which is said to be the cave of the she-wolf that suckled the twins Romulus and Remus; this cave also represented the primeval place of birth, the bekh on the Bekhen Hill. The divine birthplace gives us the names of Buchan, Beckenham, and Buckingham, as the Ham of the celestial place of rebirth, our Heliopolis, and Sinai, for the Egyptian name of this mountain is the bekh (bekht). The bekh as the place of issuing forth may be variously applied to the sun of the resurrection, the infant stream, or the beak of a bird, and the bacch (bitch), the back of a mineral lode, the bag (womb), and others. But this is perhaps the most curious in its compound condition.

The Port of London extends for legal purposes to a point six miles and a half below London Bridge. This point of egress and entrance to the port is known as 'Bugsby's Hole.' The current interpretation of names would possibly explain this by asserting that it was derived from the circumstance of a man named Bugsby having 'made a hole' in the water at that precise spot.

This is a form of the bekh, which in one spelling is the puka, or hole. 'Bugsby's Hole' is the bekh or puka of entrance and egress by water to the City of London. In the hieroglyphics the bekhs (or beks) is the gullet, a passage of entrance and egress. The by repeats the bekh, [p.386] and the hole is a third name of the same significance. It is a common mode of continuing the ancient names by a sort of gloss. Beks-by­hole, as the place of passage at the boundary and dividing line of the port, is the bekh three times repeated.

But for the Teutons it seems we should never have found the English home. 'This word,' says the author of Words and Places, 'as well as the feeling of which it is the symbol, was brought across the ocean by the Teutonic colonists, and it is the sign of the most precious of all the gifts for which we have to thank them.'[40] There was no home in Britain, nor the feeling for it, till the Teuton came! Why, the home is as old as the womb. Word and thing existed as long ago as the Scottish weem and the Irish uamh, when the home was a hole in the ground. As for the particular forms in ham and hem, they come from the Egyptian hem, the seat, abode, dwelling-place, that goes back to the birthplace. Hem is the typical seat, and habitation, the female ems, the woman, the wife. It was so old that the hemu, abraded into amu, are the residents, residing, seated, and enclosed. The am likewise indicates a residence with a garden, park ('hert'), or paradise. Nor did the Egyptians bequeath us the ham undistinguished.

The hem sign, which is also the han, is the symbol of the seat or home on the water, and denotes a water-frontier. The hemu are the watermen, sailors, and fishers. The hannu or hanti are the voyagers to and fro. Both mu and nu are the water in Egyptian, hence the interchange of ham and han. In the same manner the names of our coast hams and hans interchange, and Ellingham in Hanmpshire is represented by Ellinghen in France. On the coast-line of Oldenburg and Hanover the ham takes the shape of urn, as the Frisian suffix. The Egyptian ham or han being primarily a water-frontier, a place on the coast or river-bank, rather upsets the Teutonic derivation of names based on it, whether found in England or France. It makes one feel afresh that the less we know the easier it is to generalize. The hun (hunt) is the matrix. This permutes with the hem or ham, the khen, khem, or skhem. All have one origin in the earliest place of birth, and were applied to the abodes of the living and the tomb of the dead, as a place of rebirth. How near to nature is the ham as the seat is manifest in the name of the thighs. The khem or ham might be illustrated by a score of types, and each one can be traced to the female, and her type of types, the womb, khem, hem, or ama, the primeval house and home; the kwam, which in khaling denotes the mouth or uterus; the quim, םוח, or khebma, who is the most ancient genetrix of Egypt and the black land.

The skhem (Eg.) is the shut place and secret shrine of the child Horus. This form is extant in the African Gura, saguma, and Icelandic skemma, for the house, the abode. One type of [p.387] the genetrix, and therefore of the khem or skhema, is the leopard-cat (pasht), and in Arabic a cheetah kept for hunting is the shukm, whilst in the African Bambarra the ziakuma is a kind of cat. The khem is the feminine shrine, a name of Hathor, the habitation kima, Arabic, house, home; kam, or kim, in Dumi, the home; chem, Tibetan, house; khema, Swahili, a tent; koma, Persian, straw hut. The kam, in Nupe, Susu, Basa, Doai, Ngodsin, and other African languages, is a farm; gama, Singhalese, a village; the chvmah (המוח), in Hebrew, is the wall, or the walled enclosure; yum Magar, a house; umah, Javanese, house; uami, Uhobo (African), house; chim, Zincali, country or kingdom. And it is here we shall find the true meaning of the combe, the place between the thighs of hills. The combe answers to the khem (Eg.), the secret shrine, the shut-place of Horus, the child, in which he transformed into Horus born again. The combe is supposed to be the bowl-shaped or crooked formation. The Welsh form of the name, the cwin, compared with the same word used in vulgar English, the quim, will sufficiently recover the ancient meaning. It is akin to the home, the weem, the cam(ber), for which there is but one prototype in nature.

The underground houses called weems, the Gaelic uaimh, a cave, are synonymous with wames or wombs, and represent the womb of the auld wife, the mother Kęd. Weem or uaimh answers to khem (Eg.), a shrine, a secret shut-place, which may be that of the living child, Horus in Khem, or of the dead (khema). 'Can a man enter a second time into his mother's womb,' Nicodemus[41] asks. That was exactly what these simple souls symbolically sought to do!

A large cromlech at Baldernock, nine or ten miles from Glasgow, is denominated the 'Auld Wives' Lift.' The lift is the heaven or sky. The 'Auld Wife' is probably the correct rendering. She was Kęd or Kef, whence wife, and in Cornish, kuf is both the wife and the womb. The 'Auld Wife's Lift' was the meskhen, or mastebah, the place of rebirth, to which they looked for a lift into another life in the lift above. Auld means first and great, the exact equivalent of urt (Eg.), the first, the great, the old mother, who was the bearer that gave the lift in her chariot, called the urt, or the womb of the khebma.

The place of birth being the type of the tomb, the abode of rebirth will account for and explain the hole-stones so frequently found at the circles. Through these apertures children and initiates were passed in the Druidic rites and representations of the mysteries, as a mode of regeneration and rebirth from the womb, the ark, the cwm, the prison, the cell under the flat stone, the weem or khem of Kęd. The root of both cwm and cefn is hhef or khep. Ma is the mother or place. The khef is the Cornish coff, the womb, or belly. The kep (Eg.) is the concealed place, a sanctuary; the khep, or khepsh is determined by the hinder thigh, as the feminine abode, and the birthplace in the not them heaven. As cognates we have the cop, an [p.388] enclosure with a ditch round it, a heap, and a mound; the cove and the cave; the oval, the hop or hoop, an inclosing circle. Khebm modifies into khem and kam. The same root with the terminal n forms the word khefn, chivan, or cefn, and this modifies into the chűn and ceann.

One of the cromlechs is called the 'Chün Cromlech.' This is a prevalent name for the maternal abode, the kun of birth and rebirth, the meskhen (Eg.), which the Chűn Cromlech imaged. Chűn is chiven in Hebrew, the Kymric cefn, at once the mount and the cave of birth. Now Grimm's Law need not be appealed to in paralleling the Gadhaelic ceann for the mount with the Cymric pen and Gaelic ben. It is the reduced form of the Cymric cefn and the name of the cevennes. This modification of cefn occurs in the English Keyntons in Devon, Shropshire, Dorset, and Wiltshire. The double n of Ceann occurs in Conan, the old name of Conisborough. The pen and ben are the Egyptian ben, the height, cap, roof, top. The ben was the solar pyramidion; the obelisk was one of its types. It is masculine, as another application of the pen will prove. The cefn is feminine. In this way the types will often take us beyond the region of mere sound-shunting, and give us the definiteness of things in place of verbal vagueness.

The Chün Cromlech shows the application of the womb-type to the tomb; the place of birth to that of rebirth. In Glamorganshire there is a circle of stones named kevn (cefn) Llechart. Thus the cromlech and circle of stones are identical with the type of the birthplace, which was first of all found in the feminine nature, then applied to the cave of the hill, and afterwards externalised in the rude stone structures erected outside as the burial-places of the dead.

The ark, pair, vessel, or uterus of Kęd was represented by such stone sanctuaries. The cauldron or cooking-place of the ancient mother was designated the Kibno-Kęd. In the hieroglyphics the kabni is also a vessel, a ship, or ark, the English cabin, and the Kibno-Kęd is the mother-ark. The kafen (Eg.) is an oven, and means to bake, and the kibno was figured as a cooking vessel, whether for boiling or baking. In one language the belly or womb is the kabin, and in Welsh the cafn is a boat and a baker's trough.

The cabin of the ark, the kafn or oven of the Lady of Bread, the kibno of Kęd, the Kevn Llechart, the chűn Cromlech, the cenn and cefn of the mountain cave, the Scottish govan are all illustrations of the one original type, the birthplace called the coff or kep of khept, the British Kęd.

The combe is often found with the Beacon Hill, and in 'Cwm Bechan' the birthplace is named twice over. The beehive-house, which was a human habitation before the type was passed by and left behind for the bees, has. two names in Gaelic, [p.389] the boh and the bothan. Boh corresponds to the per (Eg.), a form of the lower, hinder-part, the hem, a female type; bothan to the but (Eg.), belly and nu, receptacle; the Hebrew תב, the receptaculum, and ןמב, the belly, the uterus, and primordial abode.

The primitive borough, burgh, barrow, bur, or bury, is the bru (Welsh), the mystical residence; bru, Irish, the womb; bara, Vei, the womb; apara, Sanskrit, the womb; pal, Akkadian, sexual part of woman; pir, Gond, the same; por, Armenian, the belly; bar, Hungarian, and bayar, Canarese, the belly, and, lastly, the belly is derived from the same origin.

The cairn does not mean a mere heap of stones above ground. Anderson[42] has shown that it is what we might infer by deriving the name from kar (Eg.), an underground cell or hole, and nu, a receptacle, house, feminine abode. Then it becomes manifest that the Welsh calon, or galon, for the womb, is a form of the word cairn. We derive the charnel or carnary from the cairn.

There is an ascidian simplicity about the beginnings of human thought, as manifested in the earliest typology, which shows the commencement to have been akin to that initial point in evolution, a mere sac, with the dual function of including and excluding water. In the human beginning the sac is the uterus, the abode of Two Truths of life, those of the water and the breath, feminine pubescence and gestation. All utterance appears to have originated with this primitive utterer.

All human feelings can be traced back to two desires, the one being that of self-preservation, the other of reproduction. These constituted the total stock at starting in the dimmest dawn of human consciousness. And to this early stage we have to look for the first rude mould of thought and expression. Nothing that ever belonged to it has been entirely obliterated, and its evidences are visibly extant, as are those of the Palaeolithic age. No origin has ever been wholly lost, any more than spoken language has altogether superseded the clicks. The desire of reproduction by itself alone is sufficient to account for what is termed the phallic mould of thought and utterance, and the final stage of that desire constitutes religion.

It can and will be shown that the leer of Priapus is an altogether later expression added to the face of the subject commonly called 'phallic worship.' There is no lewd grin in the look of the early men; their beginnings were lowly, but their observations were made in a spirit as seriously intent as that of modern science or of childhood. Hence Egyptian art, however near to nature, was pure and unashamed in its nakedness.

The feminine abode of birth was the typical home of the troglodytes, who dwelt in the caves of the earth and named these after the mother. These caves were afterwards devoted to the dead more freely when the living could defend themselves outside, in the open [p.390] space, or on the mound. In this way the abodes of the living were named as the habitations of the dead, as in the tun or the cleigh.

Cleigh is a Gaelic name for the burying-place. There is a clegh in Lochnell, identified as a burying ground by its monument, a great cairn some sixty feet in diameter. A stone chest, an urn, and a bronze dagger were found there. Cleigh resolves into kl or kr, the cell; and akh (Eg.), the dead, the cleigh being the cell of the dead. The Arabic kalagh is the stone enclosure of a tomb. The clach stone is another form of the same word, the stone being the representative sign of the burying-place. The proof may be found in the clachan. The cleigh (clach) is the dwelling of the dead, and around this was formed the clachan, a small village built round the church which had superseded the cil or cleigh of an earlier time. Thus the clachan of the living has its roots in the cleigh of the buried dead.

The glebe land and ecclesiastical revenue are not primarily the present made by the people to their god, as Spencer puts it[43], for the first possession of the land was taken by the dead, who constituted the earliest form of the landed interest, and instituted the most primitive kind of landed property. The dead were the cause of a sacerdotal class being established in their precincts to protect them, and the church lands as ecclesiastical property are the last result of this ownership, on behalf of the dead, of the soil thus made sacred at the centre, with its surrounding circle devoted to the sustenance of a priesthood.

The type of the tomb-temple becoming the house of the living was preserved in Egypt to a late period. Twelve thousand inhabitants are ascribed to a single temple at An (Heliopolis) by a census taken in the reign of Rameses III. So the tem or tomb became the fort, village, city, and king-dom.

This origin of the artificial enclosure as the sacred precinct of the buried dead is further corroborated by an Akkadian ideograph. Bat (Akk.) means to die, the ideograph being the portrait of a corpse. Bat is also a fortress, and the ideographic corpse is the sign of an enclosure. The corpse-enclosure was primal, as the kester, and the corpse remained as a determinative sign of primitive usage when the kester had become the castle, citadel, or city.

In the Black Book of Caermarthen[44] there is a long series of verses on the 'Cities of the Kymry.'[45] The cities are the graves. Each city is the grave of some mythological or legendary hero, whose name it bears, and these cities originated in the caers as circles of the dead. Beyond these are the 'Long Graves in Gwanas,' of which it is said 'their history is not to be had; whose they are and what their deeds.' We are told, 'There has been the family of Oeth and Anoeth, naked are their men and their youthlet him who seeks for them dig in Gwanas.'[46] [p.391] The long graves in Gwanas are the 'Long Graves' of the cavemen of the Neolithic age, who turned the natural cefns into chambered tombs, such as are found in cefn near St. Asaph, in Denbighshire[47]. Gwanas is gwan-as, that is, cefn-as. As (Eg.) is the sepulchre, the chamber of rest, of birth and rebirth, the maternal abode. The cave was this at first, and the chambers were excavated afterwards; the one being used by the men of the Palaeolithic age, the others by those of the Neolithic age. The cefn was a natural formation; the cefn-as (gwan-as) was artificial. Both are apparently recognized in the two burial-places by 'Oeth and Anoeth.'

The 'Long Graves in Gwanas' mean the same as the long barrow at West Kennet, Wiltshire, and others found in Somersetshire and Gloucestershire. The name of Kennet likewise identifies the khen sanctuary. Khen-net (Eg.) reads the lower-world khen, and the west was its entrance. The long barrow at West Kennet was 350 feet in length. These were made by the men of the Neolithic age.

Cleidh-na-h-Annait is the name of an ancient burial-ground in the west of Scotland with two stone cairns in it. The word annait is commonly connected with sacred places. Annoit, in O'Reilly's Irish Dictionary, is explained as 'One's Parish Church.'[48] In the Highlands the church was at one time synonymous with 'the stones.' The annoit, says Skene, is the parent church or monastery which is presided over by the patron saint, or which contains his relics[49].

The parent church is the mother church. The stone cairn was the earlier annait, sacred to the dead, and this was built by each person contributing a stone. Nat means an offering, to present tribute, as is done in accumulating the cairn. Annt (Eg.) is tribute, and in English anne means to give, and annet signifies first-fruits. Anit (Eg.) also means to anoint, and is the name of incense. But the offering of the stone, an, was a far earlier mode of making sacred, and the annait was the first stone sanctuary before larger stones were hewn. The annait can be traced upwards from the cairn to the church, and the stone chest or 'sanctuary of the saint's relics.' The Welsh annedd is a dwelling-place. In connection with this it is noticeable that the solar birthplace and the soul's place of rebirth in the Ritual is An, an being the name for stone, and one especial symbol of An is the stone or obelisk; also Anit is a name of the genetrix, who was the earliest form of the mother church. The Annait is probably identical with Taliesin's Circle of Anoeth[50]. An-at as Egyptian would also denote the circle of repetition.

Cuhelyn uses the term 'Anoeth' for Stonehenge, and speaks of the 'study of the circle of Anoeth.'[51] Arthur is said to have been imprisoned for three nights in the enclosure of Oeth and Anoeth[52], [p.392] like the other solar heroes who were three days in the fish's belly or in the underworld, the place of transformation and reproduction.

If asked, what is a hoe? most Englishmen would reply, a hill. So many hills are called hoes. But the hoe as name of a hill is secondary; the hoe is not the hill except that the high place and hoe place are synonymous. The hoe is primarily a circle, and need not be on a hill. The letter O is its symbol. Ho is a boundary; 'out of all ho' is out of all bounds. Our hoe is the hieroglyphic heh, the cycle with the sign of the circle. The hoes were stone-enclosures of a circular form, whether on the hill or in the plain. True to the primordial type, these circles have perpetuated the primitive idea even in their names. In the Orkney Isles they are called Ork-hows, that is ark-circles. 'Much fee was found in the ork-hows,' says an inscription in the Orkneys[53]. The primary form of hoe is kak or khekh.

The hay, haigh, or hak, as in the Cornish hay, a churchyard, and the hak-pen at Avebury, is derived from kak, an old local name for the church or stones. The kak is neither derived from the German hag, a town, nor the Dutch haag, an enclosure, nor the Sanskrit kaksha, a fence or bush. It exists as the root of all in kak (Eg.), a sanctuary, an enclosure, and kakui, a coffin. The kak or khekh may be manifold. One of the earliest is the kak, a boat, a caique, Welsh cwch; another is the English cege, a seat. It may be the keg or cask, the whiche or chest, the Cymric gwic or the Norse haugr, a sepulchral mound. The stone-chest or kistvaen is also called a chech by Camden[54]. The kak is an extant provincial name for church. The kak (Eg.) is a boat and a sanctuary. This boat is the Welsh cwch, the coracle of the goddess Kęd. Hence the hoe or how is an ark, and the Ork-hows are the arks of the dead.

The name of the Orkney Isles is undoubtedly derived from the old Cymric word orch, which means a border, a limit. This renders the Egyptian ark, an end, limit, to cease, be perfected, finis. They are named in Egyptian as the extremity or end of the isles. Nun (nnui) signifies countries in relation to water and fellows of the same type, as we say the Orkneys. Nnui (Eg.) is the name of water, and ark­nnui is both the land and water limit. The isle is also an ark of the water, especially chosen in ancient times as a place of sepulchre. The arach in Gaelic is a bier; the ork, Icelandic, a sarcophagus, and in Irish the womb.

The writer is fully aware that the repetition of certain words and names used so frequently by the Arkite triad, Bryant, Faber, and Davies, will be to many as the offering of water in hydrophobia. Nevertheless the dreary Arkite and Druidic subjects have to he gone over again with the expectation of seeing a winged transformation of the grub long buried underground, and stamped underfoot, as if for ever, by many a passer-by.


The hieroglyphic sign of land and orbit (Ű), called the cake, occurs four times on a stone found in the Rose Hill tumulus at Aspatria, near St Bees[55]. This, like the hoe, is the symbol of a completed period. That period was fulfilled when the sun had passed through the three water signs, and entered the first of the nine dry signs. The cake signifies land and horizon, the place of landing from the waters. The circles represented the ark generally on the hill-top, out of the waters. Our cake is synonymous with the Egyptian khekh, to check.

The hoe or howe goes back to the khekh (Eg.), the horizon, collar, the round. Khekh, the balance or level, denotes the circle completed at the equinox. The khekh collar worn by Neith has nine symbolic beads, corresponding to the nine maiden stones and to the nine nobs on the Scottish Beltein cakes. Many of the circles consisted of nine stones. The relation of this number to land and a completed course will be amply illustrated. Enough for the present to point out that in Egyptian meh means to fill full and fulfil, to complete. Meh is the number 9, and a water line, the same in significance as the cake symbol. Meh-urt is a form of the cow-headed goddess Hathor, and Mehi a name of the lunar deity Taht. Meh is likewise the north. When we are told that maes means a field and magh a plain, that explains nothing. They mean much more than that for the present purpose. The magh, as plain, is based on the level of the equinox, the makhu (Eg.), level or balance. The ancient name of Dunstable was Magintum, and it is a lofty table-land. Ard-Macha (Armagh) is the level aloft. Hence the place makhu interchanges with mat, the midway; and the Swiss mat, the plain, level, or meadow, is the magh. Both meet in Egyptian, where mat is an old name of the makhu in An. Makh and meh denote the place of fulfilment.

There is no proof extant of the original number of stones in Maes How, which bears the same relation, however, to the standing stones of Stennis, in Orkney, that Maes Knoll does to the circles at Stanton Drew[56], showing a likeness in the nature of these monuments, as well as in the name. And we know, by the Nine Maidens of Cornwall, and the Nine Stone Rig, that some of the stones were nine in number, and that number would in Egyptian denote Meh's How, or the circle of Macha.

Kemp How is a tumulus in front of a circle among the remains at Shap. Shap, in the hieroglyphics, signifies time, epoch, period. The shebu is a collar forming three-fourths of a circle with nine points. Shebu means a certain quantity of flesh. Shap is to shape, figure, image; bring forth, evacuate. The root of the matter is the measure of time, nine solar months, that it took to clothe a soul in flesh or [p.394] shape it and bring to birth. The shapt were persons belonging to religious houses, such as we infer gave the name to Shap.

Kemp, in English, is a champion; kemb, a stronghold. In Egyptian, khem is the champion, and the khem is a shrine of the dead, with a circle for determinative. Khem-p-how is a circle of the dead. Khenf is bread or food offered to the dead, and the shebti are sepulchral figures and images of the dead.

Pomponius Mela speaks of the Island of Sena in the British Seas, where the nine priestesses ministered in a round temple, which they unroofed annually and covered again in one day, before sunset[57]. He relates that if in the process any one of the women dropped or lost the portion she was carrying to complete the work, she was torn in pieces by the rest, and the limbs were carried round the temple in triumph, until the Bacchic fury had abated. Strabo affirms that there always happened some instance of this cruel rite at the annual solemnity of uncovering the temple[58]. The same thing is alluded to by Taliesin as the metaphor of a hopeless calamity, 'a doleful tale, like the concussion, like the fall of a se, like the Deluge.'[59] It was most probably a representation in the mysteries. The nine 'Ses' were the nine months of child-bearing impersonated. If one of these let fall the burden, it was fatal to all; the eight were depicted as turning on her and rending her piecemeal. Such was the drama of mythology. In the same sense the Gallicenae are said to have turned themselves into whatsoever animals they pleased. So the sun's passage through Aries and Taurus was his transformation into the Ram and the Bull.

The name Seon is not necessarily that of an island, although Strabo mentions an island of Sena[60]. The root meaning enters into senate, sennet, a total or round, and is the Egyptian shen, a circle, orbit, round, circuit, period. The Druidic Caer-Sëons were the primitive type of these, and they were stone circles. The Caer-Sëon, or Sëon with the strong door, typified the landing-place of Hu after the deluge, the station of the sun on his ascending out of the three water signs into the circle of the nine land signs. Whether an island or a caer, the Sëon was the circle emblematic of the divine circle of the gods, the put of the hieroglyphics, signifying number nine. And the nine maids or priestesses were one with the nine muses of Greece, the nine that danced about the violet-hued fountain as described by Hesiod[61]. Taliesin says, 'The tuneful tribe will resort to the magnificent se of the Sëon.'[62] Sua, in Egyptian, is loud singing; shen, the circle.

The vessel or cauldron of Keridwen, the symbol of this circle, was said to be warmed by the breath of nine damsels; in Taliesin's 'Spoils of the Deep,'[63] it is the cauldron of the ruler of the abyss[64]. [p.395] These were the nine muses of Britain, and of greater antiquity than those of Greece.

The nine personify the nine months of gestation and of giving breath to the child; in the eschatological phase they performed the rites of the dead, and represented the 'wake,' the resuscitation, and rebirth of the soul of the deceased, as did the nine in attendance upon Osiris. Hence the nine maidens of memorial in the nine stones.

The accented ë in Sëon shows the elided consonant. This is recoverable in segon (Caer Seiont, from Segont), and segon is the sekhen (Eg.), the enclosure, place of settling, of rest, a breathing place, from skhen, to give breath to. And in Caer-Seon the cauldron of Keridwen was warmed by the breath of nine damsels or muses, the Gwyllian of the sekhen who become the nine Gallicenae of Mela's account[65]. The Sëon or sekhen is found in several forms.

In the year 1843 seven urns were exhumed at Swinkie Hill; these were inverted and imbedded in an artificial mound. Near at hand is a monument called the Standing Stone of Sauchope. Sau-khep (Eg.) denotes the sanctuary or place of transformation for the mummy or dead body. Of course the sau may only have denoted the deceased, but doubtless they preserved the dead to the best of their ability.

Swin in Swinkie answers to skhen (Eg.). Ki (Eg.) signifies the land, earth, interior region. Thus swinkie is the domain of the sekhen, sanctuary, resting-place, where the dead were gathered together, literally, as the hieroglyphics show, to be embraced in the arms and enclosed in the womb of the mother earth in the sekhen or khen shrine, as at Swinkie.

We are now able to show that Scone in Scotland is another Sëon or Segon. The Moot Hill of Scone preserved the original, that is Egyptian, meaning of the name, as the sekhen[66]. It was designated the 'Collis Credulitatis' or Mount of Belief. It is called the 'Caislen Credhi' by Tighernach, which is rendered the 'Castellum Credi' in the Annals of Ulster[67]. The Pictish Chronicle, in recording the assembly in 906, says from this day the hill merited its name, viz., the 'Mount of Belief.'[68] Now the Egyptian name for belief is skhen, which also means to sustain and give rest. Thus the Scone Mount is the Sekhen Hill, in a double sense.

The nine maids of the Segon or circular temple have bequeathed their name and number to some stones standing on the downs leading from Wadebridge to St. Columb, which are generally called the 'Nine Maids.'[69] The legend relates that the nine maidens were turned into stone because they would otherwise keep dancing on Sunday, which riddle is easily read when we know the nature of the nine, and that the birth depends upon their established fixity. Other circles of nine [p.396] stones in Cornwall are known as the 'Nine Maidens.' In Scotland we find the Maidin stone or stones.

We have also the rekh or rig of Nine Stones. In Barthram's Dirge, 'They shot him at the Nine-Stane Rig, Beside the headless cross.'[70] Near this 'nine-stane rig,' in the vicinity of Hermitage Castle, was the 'Nine-Stane Burn.' Also there was the Lady-Well. A most precious preserve of the ancient imagery this of the nine stones, the waters, the feminine fount, the pre-Christian cross; we shall see, directly, the relationship of nine stones to the waters, and the cross without a head.

We are told in the poem on the Graves of the Kymry[71] that they also buried their dead on the shore where 'the ninth wave breaks,' and here we can arrest the symbol just where it passes into false belief. The ninth wave and earlier tenth does not mean the sea-wave, but relates to the reckoning by nine and ten in the time of ten moons or nine months and a three months' inundation, still manifest in the three water-signs. The water side of the circle was one quarter, and the nine waves, nine stones or nine maids, represented the nine dry months of bringing forth. The ninth wave and the tenth, the nine pins and the ten have their prototypes in the two Collars of Isis, the gestator who wears nine bubu or beads, whereas the collar of the wet-nurse called menat implies the reckoning by ten water periods of twenty-eight days each, as ment (or met, Coptic), signifies number ten, and men-t means liquid measure. The cross without a head is an equivalent symbol of three quarters out of four. So the put circle of the nine gods contains three quarters filled in and one quarter left hollow, á. The horse-shoe images and the headdress of Hathor likewise typifies the same three quarters of the circle as the nine stones or the headless cross; the zodiac, minus three water-signs.

The 'Nine-Stone Burn' was also represented near Dunstable (Bedfordshire). There is an earthwork near the town called the 'Maiden Bower' and the 'Maidening Burn.' The 'Maiden' identifies the nine stones when interpreted. It may be noticed that Dunstable stands on chalk hills that have been turned into catacombs by enormous excavations which were made with the most primitive implements of the Bone and Stone Age.

The 'Maidens' do not derive directly from the word maid, but from the nine, which is both meh and ma in Egyptian. The Egyptian meh, to fulfil, and meht, earlier makht, to be fulfilled, represent the German magd, for the maid, in madchen and in the Gaelic maigh-den, as the one whose period is fulfilled. Makha, to measure, is the earlier form of meh and ma; and the makht of the equinox was the meht of fulfilment in the north quarter. The ten is the terminus; and the meh-ten, the terminus of the nine, is equivalent to the name of the maiden, makh-ten or maighdean. These circles were [p.397] the seat of the nine whether as the meh-t or the put. Taliesin calls himself the 'Bard of Budd'[72] who conversed much with men, and as budd is the Egyptian put, the divine circle of the nine, Bard of Budd is identical with the poet inspired by the nine, the nine muses or maidens of the budd circles formed of nine stones. In the Gododin[73] the bard celebrates the fame of the 'established enclosure of the band of the harmonious Budd,' that is, the put in the hieroglyphics, the nine. This circle of the nine called put and ma (meh) is established by Ptah and Ma in the Egyptian mythology. Ptah is the framer and Mâ the fulfiller. The circle of nine, it is repeated, is based on the nine months of fulfilment in gestation, and on the nine dry months which in Egypt with an inundation made a year.

The 'Maid' stones were probably limited to that number, and meht is the number nine fulfilled. This name is extant in Maidstone. The Maiden Stone in Scotland, and the Maiden Castle, possibly mean the 'ten' (Eg.), throne seat of meh, the nine. Bridget had her nine maidens, and in her legend as the Virgin Martyr it is affirmed that the castle of Edinburgh was called the Maiden after her. But there were 'Nine Maidens,' as at Boscawen-űn, and three other places mentioned by Borlase[74], consisting of nineteen stones, which have been mixed up with the nine maids. Also the inner elliptical compartment of Stonehenge, within which stood the stone of astronomical observation, consisted of nineteen granite blocks. Now we shall see the further use of the root meh for nine. Meh (or ma) is the number, and 'ten' has different meanings, as ten, the throne, seat, place, division of the nine. Ten is also our English number, 10; ten, a weight of 10 Kat, a unity of weight, the ideographic ten, or sign, formed of two hands or ten digits.

Meh-ten may be read either the nine total or 9-10, our 19, the exact number of Maiden-stones at Boscawen-űn. Now when we remember that the Metonic cycle is a period of nineteen years, at the end of which the new moons fall on the same days of the year and the eclipses recur, it is exceedingly strange if it was left for a Greek astronomer of the name of Meton to discover this cycle, BC 432[75]. The nineteen Maiden Stones in Cornwall, and the nineteen at Stonehenge, already figured and stood for the cycle of Meton, or possibly of Mehten, meaning the number nine-ten.

The stones varied in number according to the nature of the circle or caer. The caer was sometimes a quadrangular enclosure, then it symbolised the circle with four corners, like that of Yima in the Avesta which had four cardinal points, and was a four-cornered circle[76]. Two of these caers with four corners, but left open, would be the two houses of the sun, the lower and upper caers or courses, and these would equate with Sesennu the region of the eight great gods. The circle of nine, whether called a Bedd or Maes How, represented the [p.398] nine months of childbirth, and the sun in the nine non-water signs. There may have been a circle of ten stones, which number, as in the ten pins and tenth wave, was superseded by the solar nine. Twelve stones stood for the total of the solar signs, and nineteen for the Metonic or Maiden cycle. They range at least up to seventy-two, the one-seventh of a phoenix period of five hundred years. The dead were buried in or around them, but they served the purpose of the living registers and rolls, and were the figures of the astronomical chronology.

The reader will gather from this that the Men-an-tols of Cornwall meant something more than merely holed stones. Ter, the circle, round, to encircle, of course includes a hole, the Cornish tol, but is more than that. Ter, in the simplest form, is time, the mover in circles, tide, season, limit.

The Men-an-tols were gnomons and dials of time. Max Muller has observed that a Men-an-tol stands in a field near Lanyon, flanked by two stones standing erect on each side. Let any one go there, he says, to watch a sunset about the time of the autumn equinox, and he will see that the shadow thrown by the erect stone would fall straight through the hole of the Men-an-tol[77].

The name of Carnac, in Brittany, is the same as Karnak at Thebes, and resolves, as Egyptian, into kar-en-akh, the circle of the dead. It comes to the same thing if we read Carn-Akh, as the cairn in English; crwn, Welsh; cruin, Gaelic; cern, Cornish, and cren, Armoric, denote the cairn-circle. Kar is the underworld, underground; kar, a chest, sarcophagus or coffin; karas, a place of embalmment, a chamber for the mummy. This is the origin of our kar-stones, from which so many places are named. It is not that carragh (Ir.) merely means a rock. The car stone is a rock, but the full form of the rock, as craig or carragh, includes the car (kar) of the akh (Eg.) or dead. In that case the car-akh and car-rekh have the same signification, as both the akh and rekh denote the dead. The Rock is a worn down caraig or cleig­stone of the dead. At Carrowmore, in Ireland, a large number of sepulchral remains have been found. The unabraded form of the word is Car-raighea-mora. Mora is a region, land. Kar is the underworld, the sarcophagus, the hole or passage. But it may be questioned whether Raighea does not mean more than rock. In Egyptian ruka is to hide, to stow away in safe secrecy. We have the form ruck, to crouch down out of sight. Llvch, Welsh, a hiding-place, and llech, to lie flat or horizontal, apply equally to the dead and the flat-stone. So interpreted, Carraighea-mora is the region limited to the sarcophaguses or mummies of the hiddenthat is, buried, dead. The part of Arthur's Seat called Salisbury Craig was doubtless a Car-akh Hill.


There is a stone in Aberdeen designated the Craba Stone, and if we apply this principle of formation to its name, craba becomes car­akh-ba. Ba in the hieroglyphics is the stone or place of the hidden corse, and 'Car-akh-ba' reads the stone or place of the hiddenthat is, buried, dead, the final form of which is the grave-stone, grave being a form of craba, and craba an abraded kar-akh-ba. With the ba rendered stone there are many crabas known as cra-stones. And as cra alternates with crow, other stones are called crow-stones, or clow-stones. In this transformation of car-raigh into crow, we come upon the meeting-place of rook and crow, two names of the black long-lived bird of renewal, adopted in our islands, and named after the Egyptian rekh.

In Cornwall the stones with a circular hole, made use of to pass the children through as a type of new birth, or some kind of covenanting, are called crick-stones. Crick-stones, they maintain, were also used for dragging people through to cure them of various diseases[78]. This offers us another car-rekh stone. And we must beware of supposing a compound word like this has but one meaning. In the crick-stone the kar (Eg.) is the circle, the hole, and rekh (Eg.) signifies to whiten and purify, therefore to heal. A feminine rekh (Eg.) is a laundress. The crick-stone, then, as the kar-rekh stone, becomes the hole-stone made use of for purification and healing. As the car, crow, or craba-stone it was a type of rebirth; the grave itself was but a hole of passage, the emaning womb of another life.

Kirkcaldy in the full form is probably the kar-rekh-caldy, the circle of the rekh, who were the Magi, known in Scotland as the Culdees, or, as kar-rekh becomes the kirk, known in the same country as the stones, and then the kirk, kar-rekh-caldy is the stone circle of the Culdees. Many of the stones are called Leckerstones, as those near Abernethy, the Liggarstone in Aberdeenshire, the Lykerstone at Kirkness. This is the reverse form of kar-raig, with the l instead of r. Here the name is identical with that of leckerbad, the place of the purifying sulphur baths.

Rekh (Eg.), to whiten, wash, purify, in connection with the crick-stones used for healing, makes it appear probable that the rocking stones were employed as rekh-ing stonesthat is, stones of purification. Roke (Eng.) is to cleanse. Mineral ore is rocked in cleansing. The rocking-stone, says the Arch-Druid Myffyr Morganwy[79], was the yoni-stone; it typified the womb of Kęd, and was called the ark-stone. In the mysteries the initiated entered the womb of the mother, were cradled and rocked in it, renewed and born again from it. Rekh (Eg.) means to reckon, calculate, know, and the oscillating or rocking-stone was also used for purposes of divination.

Bottrell, a Cornishman, wrote to one of the papers some time ago, and informed the public that a few years before there was a rock [p.400] in the town-place of Sawah, in the parish of St. Levan, known by the name of Garrack-zans[80]. This is a dialect form of the crick and car­raig stones. The word zans is a valuable addition. Sans or snes (Eg.) signifies to salute, adore, invoke. Sens is to breathe, to breathe the earth, that is, begin to breathe. Ssen, to breathe, pass, begin, has for determinative the slug or snail, an image of the lowliest beginning to breathe the earth. San is also to heal, prepare, preserve, and save. We have it as same, to bless, and save. Sau in Cornish means health, and denotes healthy. The u and w imply an earlier f, as in save. Sefa (Eg.) is to purify, and sawah was the place of healing. San-su (Eg.) would signify preserve, heal, charm, save the child, as was done in the process of regeneration and rebirth by passing it through the kar-rekh or circle of purification.

In the parish of Lansannan, Denbighshire, there was, according to Stow[81], a circular plain cut out of the solid rock on the side of a stony hill which contained twenty-four seats, and was called Arthur's Round Table. Twenty-four, as the four-and-twenty elders, was a solar number as well as twelve. The Welsh llan is a shrine, a sacred enclosure. Ren (Eg.) is a symbol of inclosing. San (Eg.) means to preserve and save, also to heal. Nen may be the type and likeness.

Taoursanan is the Gaelic name given to the circles of stones. It is read 'Mournful Circles,' or supposed places of sacrifice. The sanan is one with the Welsh sannan, and the llan and taour, or ter, interchange. The dead were buried in these 'Mournful Circles,' and the mournful is extant in the ter (Eg.), the layer out and mourner.

The conclusion we arrive at here is that the circle of the sannan or sanan was the place of preserving the dead, and on that other circle through the stone was the symbol of salvation and renewal in the doctrinal sense. The transformation and regeneration postulated for the mummy laid in the womb of earth were applied to the child and the initiate in the mysteries, and they were reborn from the crick or cloven stone, the yoni-stone, connected with the circle of the dead.

Our ancient menhirs or high stones are named from men, a fixed stone memorial or monument, and 'her,' high, over, above. Mena also means the dead, whence the minnying-day, or anniversary in which prayers were offered for the dead. According to the Egyptian language, the 'Menhir' signifies the stone erected over the dead. The menhir was a symbol that conveyed a profound meaning. Men (Eg.) is a name of heaven. The her (her-t), means the image of heaven and of hereafter. Her is also the way, the road, to fly away, leave, go out, ascend. The menhir was a fixed and lofty memorial of the higher life.

The Men-Ambers, as they are called, through the modification of the k sound, were originally men-kam-bers, and the word is [p.401] commonly spelt Mencamber, or Mincamber, by the Cornish people. In this form the name explains itself. Men is the fixed memorial. Khem (Eg.) is a shrine, and the dead; her (Eg.) is the top of the obelisk, the roof of the house. Cam is the name for the ancient earthen mounds and ridges which the khem (Eg.) as shrine of the dead (khema) identifies. The cam-ber, or roofstone over the dead, is our first form of the chamber. Camber is also an English name for a harbour. The Mericambers were harbours of the dead. The oldest chambers, cambers, shrines, are the cams, mere ridges, mounds, burrows, tumuli on the downs. The Egyptians made some of their cambers and sarcophagi of obsidian, that stone being named kamu. The greatest weight, of hugest size, of hardest stone, lifted to the fullest height, was the fittest embodiment of their type of Eternal, and this they expressed with tremendous toil in quarrying, hewing, and heaving heavenward their monuments, menhirs, mencambers, and piles vast as Stonehenge or the Great Pyramid.

This meaning of kam and khem will account for a place like Camelot, near South Cadbury Hill, in Somerset. As described by Drayton[82], it was a hill of a mile in compass at the top. Four deep trenches with the steepest of earthen walls enclosed about twenty acres of ground. Egyptian will tell us what for, in the name of Camelot. Kham is a shrine for the dead, and ret (lot) signifies to retain the form. The ret is also the ascent or steps. Camelot was the shrine in which the dead could best and longest be preserved. Cadbury tells the same tale. It is the bury, barrow, burial-place. Khat (Eg.) is the corpse, dead body. Khet means shut and sealed; khat, the womb, personated by the goddess Kęd. One of the Men-Kambers is described as being a rock of infinite weight, laid roofwise on other great stones, so equally poised that a child could move it, but no man remove it[83]. This would be rocked in the Mysteries. Another enormous stone in Gower was calculated to have weighed thirty tons, erected as the primary type of permanence. Such was the longing for life to be continued, as may be read in the various types of permanence, when we can see through the symbol, whether this be the mummy type perfectly preserved, or thirty tons of millstone grit elevated and suspended, or only a shinbone split and painted red and buried in a mound of shells.

The immense flat stone was called Arthur's Table. The table of Egypt is the hept, the sign of peace, offering, plenty, welcome, sunset; the table of heaven and of the sun, heaped with food[84]. This was Arthur's Table, and Camelot, the lofty shrine of the dead, was but this table on a larger scale, round which the gods were figured sitting at the eternal feast.


The stone monuments of Britain are none the less Druidic because their likeness is found in other lands. They are some of the scattered remains of the primitive cult, relating to the keeping of time (tem) and the preservation of the dead. They are the dumb witnesses to the human desire for continuity, which attained such profound and persistent expression in the Egyptian art of symbolizing the mummy as the type of self-continuity.

In England the grave was formerly called the pytte, and the same name was given to a well with an intermittent spring; over this well the enormous flat stone of Arthur was elevated and suspended as at Kefn Bryn in Gower, where a vast unwrought stone, from twenty to thirty tons in weight, was supported by six or seven others over a well which had a flux and reflux with the sea. Here the well and grave were one in the pytte, as they were in the Great Pyramid or the mastebah of Egypt.

The interior of each tomb consisted of three parts, typical of the vault and void of the two heavens, and the middle earth or passage between the two, called by excavators the serdab. The void was the well containing the mummies in the underworld. The open chamber typified the upper world of the future life, where the deceased sat at the celestial feast surrounded by his friends in his eternal home. When the friends in the earth-life come to visit their dead and bring their offerings, these are representative of contributions to the feast; the life above being the reflex image of the life below. In the passage between, or the serdab, was placed the sepulchral image called the shabti or double, the type of transformation from the one life to the other. This had the same significance as the scarab emblem of Khepra, the beetle, that went underground to make his change, and to issue forth once more in the shape of his own seed. The serdab was the place of Sem-sem or the re-genesis, and the only communication between it and the rest of the tomb was a small hole scarcely large enough for the hand to pass through. This usually opened toward the north, like the entrance to the Great Pyramid. It was the place of egress from the womb, the mest of the mastebah, and has its analogue in the hole-stone of our far ruder and far older structures. Mariette describes the mastebah as a 'sort of truncated pyramid built of enormous stones and covering, as with a massive lid, the well at the bottom of which was the mummy.'[85]

Our primitive sepulchres were open to the passers-by, as were the Egyptian mastebahs, in which the friends of the deceased deposited their offerings or came at times to pray and hold their feasts of dead on the anniversary day. The mastebah was the chapel over the grave or pit, representing the underworld. It contained the table on which the contributions were deposited.


In the case of Arthur's Stone, the slab was the table, and the large stones still bear evidence of the offerings that were made as well as the mode of offering.

At Bonnington Mains, near Ratho, there is a cromlech with cups, bowls, and basins in the capstone. The capstone is a reminder that the cap, roof, top, is the ben in Egyptian, the cap or roof of a monument. Benen (Eg.) is also a surname of the Horus of Resurrection. The benn is the phoenix, another type of re-arising. The cups were hollowed on the outside of the covering, the capstone, so that, if no longer filled by friendly hands, they would still catch the rain, a type of the water of life besought by the builders of these monuments uplifted towards heaven as their petrified prayer.

Arthur's Flat-stone laid over seven others with the well beneath corresponds to the most colossal mastebah of Egypt. For the Great Pyramid is an enormous mastebah, and it contains seven chambers with the deep well underground. The oldest form of the pyramid known in Egypt is found at Saqqara, which has seven steps like the Babylonian towers. In this form the seven steps correspond to the seven chambers of the Great Pyramid, which has the mystical number within instead of without. Arthur's Stone was supported on six or seven other stones. We may be sure the correct number was seven.

In the hieroglyphics the number seven is hept, and the same word signifies the table of offerings, the heap of food, the shrine, the ark, and peace. The earlier form of hept is Khept, the goddess of the Seven Stars, and it is here claimed that the Seven-Stone, or stone supported by seven, or the seven-tiered tower, the seven-stepped or seven-chambered pyramid, represents the birthplace personified by the genetrix who was Khept in Egypt and Kęd in Britain. From this it follows that the British mastebah is of an earlier type than the Great Pyramid of Giza or the more ancient pyramid of Saqqara. The number seven is also connected with the name of Arthur in the form of seven companions in an ark. One of the Druidic stones is known as the Seven-Stone. The monument in Llan Beudy parish, or the house of the ox (sign of the bull), shows that Arthur's Table was identified with 'Gwal y Vilast,' the couch of the greyhound bitch, that is, the couch or lying-in chamber of Kęd. In this place the flat-stone or table supported by other stones is only about two and a half feet high[86]. This then was a burial-place that represented a birthplace, the birthplace of the divine child Arthur, and abode of rebirth, variously called the Cell of Kęd, Maen Llog, Llogel Byd, Maen Ketti, the Ark-Stone, and the Stone of Keridwen, known today as representing the womb of the Great Mother[87].

The aft, couch and name of the goddess Aft or Fet, is repeated in the Cornish veth for the grave, and Gaelic fuadh, the bier.


The khet or kat, seat of the mother and her child, became our cat-stone, often supposed to denote a place of battle. The cat-stone is the stone of Kęd, the genetrix, and marks the birthplace of her child, whether Sabean or solar. Cat, the French chat, is the Egyptian kat. This seat was the mount of the Great Bear in the earliest rime; afterwards it was turned into the bekh or birthplace in the rock of the horizon when the zodiac was formed.

The seat in Egyptian is the khet, with steps denoting an ascent, and the kat, a seat or throne. The latter is a conventionalised lioness, which was used as a palanquin or portable throne, with considerable likeness to Arthur's Seat. The seat is the feminine abode; the same words signify the womb, the seat, or kat of the child. Thus Arthur's Seat is synonymous with Arthur's Stone at Kevn Bryn or Arthur's Table, or Arthur's Quoit, as the symbol of the mother, who was the habitation (kat or hat) of the child. Hence the lioness or the lioness-shaped portable throne was a type of the bearer.

At the foot of Arthur's Seat lies Duddingstone. Tut (Eg.) is the throne, image, or region of the eternal. Tattu was the established region in this sense. And in Tattu was the rock, the Tser Hill, the Hebrew Tzer. Duddingstone may be named from the stone of establishing, the type of the eternal identified as Arthur's Seat.

Our word 'dole' is the same as the Egyptian ter. Dole is to divide or separate, portion, tell, mark out. The Dole-stone is a land­mark or bourne. Dole is to lay out and grieve. Ter (Eg.) is an extreme limit, boundary; ter, to indicate; ter, a quantity; ter, erect a limit; ter, a layer out, or mourner.

Men (Eg.) is a monument, a stone of memorial; men-a, death, or the dead; men-t, a bier; men, to arrive and rest. These sufficiently identify our dolmens as places of burial, but whereas the cromlechs may have been cemeteries, the dolmens seem to have been marked off as more especially individual tombs. The dolmen is, however, the same word as the Irish termon, and the Toda Dermane, a god's house or residence of gods. Inside the enclosure or Dermane there was a round tower called a boath, a kind of Pictish tower or conical temple. 'Round about the Boath,' says Marshall[88], 'there was a kromlech, and numerous stone kairns dotted about with the outlines of stone walls on a large scale surrounding all.' The Dermane was also named a gudi, i.e., temple. Kudi, in Sanskrit, is a house, and to curve round. Kudu or godu, in Toda, is to collect together; kattu (Tamil), build, bind, bond; ketui (Eg.), a building, a circle.

In Ireland a small piece of ground fenced off round the church was in some places called a termon. It was land belonging by sacred right to the church, and to this termon the criminal and other fugitives could flee for refuge, and were held in safety for a time when once within the prescribed boundary. The phrase 'termon lands' is [p.405] common in Anglo-Irish writings. The termon of course agrees with the Latin terminus, but that does not explain the right of refuge. The full significance of the termon lands and sacred boundary can alone be found in the fact that it was the dead who protected the living within their own domain, and that mena (Eg.), denotes the dead, and the ter (Eg.) is the limit, boundary, the word also meaning to hinder. The termon was the boundary-limit within which the dead were allowed to hinder the further pursuit of those who sought sanctuary from justice or from their foes. It was the dead who conferred a right of refuge, and formed an asylum of their sanctuary to the criminal or debtor who fled to them for protection from the living, and in this sense the precincts of Holyrood House were a termon-refuge for the debtor on Sunday. The termon is extant in Termon Castle, an ancient residence of the Magraths, also called 'Termon Magrath' in the 'Four Masters.' The Magraths were hereditary wardens of the termon, and in this we have another allusion to a termon, founded on the charge of the dead, the sanctuary of the dead and living, like that deduced from the name and customs of Caistor church. Dr. Joyce[89] says the termon in several places shows the former existence of a sanctuary. The O'Morgans were the wardens of Termonomorgan in the West of Tyrone. Mer (Eg.) is a superintendent, and the khen (Eg.), would signify the sanctuary of the dead. The termon suggests that the tors of Devon, the rock-towers, the natural round towers or Turagans, may have been early places of sepulchre.

Mis Tor is in Devon, and mes (Eg.) denotes the birth or rebirth of the dead in the meskhen and, it may be, in the Mes-Tor. Yes-Tor and Hessary-Tor (Devon) possibly represent a kes (Eg.) tor; this being a burial and embalmment, at which point the Kestor and Kester would meet, the tor being the natural mound and type of the later Kester, Castra, and castle, when the sanctuary and defence of the dead was turned into a place of defence and offence for the living.

Ketui, in Egyptian, is an orbit, circle, with determinative of house and plural sign. It is literally ketui-house built circularly, our 'Ket's Coity Houses,' khet meaning in Egyptian shut and sealed. The ketui is the gudi of the Todas, the enclosed temple and place of burial, exactly as our churches stand in an enclosure amongst the dead. The Toda enclosure was crowned and typified by the boath, the shape of which, as of the Picts' towers, is preserved in the extinguisher. This boath, God's house or residence of the gods, is the same word as the Assyrian bit, Hebrew beth, Scottish bothie, Egyptian paut and pauti, lastly put, the circle and the company of nine gods; the hieroglyphic being a circle three-fourths or nine-twelfths filled in á. Some of the stones were called coits; this name is preserved in the quoit or ring. Ket's Koity House is the koity, colt, or quoit, as the circle of the goddess Kęd. This circle of the goddess Kęd was a reality in spite of the Arkite lunacy of Bryant, Faber, and Davies, [p.406] and had its physiological and astronomical prototypes[90]. Khet, in Egyptian, is the secret, intimate abode. Khat is the womb, the secret, intimate abode of the creative powers on the physiological plane of the myth, and in the astronomical or eschatological stage, the ark, the circle, called by the name of Kęd. Koity fairly represents the Egyptian ketui, the circle, orbit, or quadrangular caer. The circle ketui or coity was the same as the Kibno-Kęd, the kafn (Eg.), or oven, the baking-place of the mother of corn or bread, and of the 'Pair Keridwen' of the Barddas[91]. But, whereas the earliest type was the cave, a natural formation, the stone circles and enclosures had to be erected, and ketui (Eg.) means built. Raising the stone of the Ketti was one of the three mighty labours of Britain.

Our 'Ket's Koity' is Kęd's ketui. The Welsh gwaith (as in Gwaith Emrys) means work, labour, workmanship, identical with kauti (Eg.), work, labour, especially to carry and to build. Gwaith Emrys (Stonehenge) is thus an enormous koity-house of Kęd, the bearer. Also gwaith (Welsh) signifies the course, turn, or time, and this is the Egyptian ketui, an orbit, circle, or course of time, showing the relationship of the building to Time as well as to the dead. Excavations made in the neighbourhood of Ket's Koity House showed that it was a burial-ground full of sepulchral chambers in groups, each single group being generally surrounded by a circle of stones[92].

About five hundred yards from the particular stones called Ket's Koity House is another monument, named the Countless Stones, and there are indications that the stones in this neighbourhood were countless. Ket's Koity House is but a perverted form of Kęd's Koity Hows, the bows or circles of Kęd, the Great Mother. Even without the name of the goddess, the words khet, to be shut and sealed, ketui, a circle of stones, an orbit, still suffice to identify the hows as the enclosures of the dead.

Khent, in the hieroglyphics, is a garden, and the English Kent is still called the Garden of England. Kent is our south land, and khent is the name of an unknown part of Egypt, but it was obviously one with the south, the way of the inundation and source of fertility. Horus, as Lord of the South, is designated the Lord of Khent.

In the Annals of Rameses III, the king, in an address to Ammon, says, 'I made thee a grand house in the Land of Khent.'[93] This is mentioned as one of the four quarters along with the north, east, and west. The Grand House in the south erected by the Cymry appears to have been represented by 'Ket's Coity.'

Both in Egyptian and Welsh, Kęd or khet signifies the enclosure. And this is applied also to Emrys, as Gwath Emrys or the enclosure of Emrys, which is Stonehenge. The name of Emrys is yet extant [p.407] on the spot, though transformed into Ambrose in the rechristening. It is also known as the Circle of Sidi and the structure of the revolution, that is, of the celestial bodies. Res, in the hieroglyphics, means raise up, watch, with the ideograph of the heavens. Am (Eg.) signifies to discover, find out. Am indicates a residence with a park or paradise, that is, an enclosure. So interpreted, Gwath Emrys may be the enclosure of the watchtower, observatory, or the stone of astronomical observation.

Horapollo[94] tells us that the scribes of Egypt have a sacred book called Ambres, by which they decide respecting any one who is lying sick whether he will live and rise up again, ascertaining it from the recumbent posture of the patient. In Egyptian, am-(p)-res would read 'to discover the rising up,' and this would equally apply to the celestial bodies. One wonders whether our Emrys, Ambres, or Kambers, may not include the rocking-stones raised up (res) for purposes of divination or discovery. Am, to find out, discover, has an earlier form in kem, with the same meaning.

Another of the three mighty labours of the island of Britain was building the work of Emrys, later Ambres. Dinas Emrys was the sacred place in Snowdon. Emrys is said to have been a sovereign at the time when Seithenhin the drunkard let in the deluge. A character in the British mythology, a supposed prince, who fought with Hengist, was Emrys or Ambrose, called the president and defender of the Ambrosial Stones.

Stone-henge is the Stone-ankh, the living-stone. As the vocabulary shows, we have the English equivalent of the Egyptian ankh. Ankh, to clasp, to double, is imaged in our hank of thread, a double loop tied or crossed in the middle (÷). Hank is to tie. A hanger is a fringed loop appended to the girdle for the small sword, and the Egyptian ankh was used as the buckle of a girdle. The ankh symbol was the ideograph of life, and united in one form the cross and circle.

This ankh sign is the original of Stonehenge; every upright and horizontal stone made the figure of the cross all round the circle itself: that was the ankh. It was built of stones: that was the stone ankh. The stones were of the hugest size and the most enduring that could be found this made the stone ankh a colossal image of eternal life. Ankh, the living, was also pre-eminently applied to the departed. Such is the signification of Stone-henge, read by Egyptian. The fact that hang also means to suspend, and these stones were partly suspended, may be thrown in. Stone-henge was a topographical and typical form of the ing, enclosure.

In Welsh, ang denotes the open capacious place for holding and containing, it may be embracing, which agrees with ankh (Eg.), to clasp. The stone-hank has its analogues in the Persian kank, or temple, and yanik, a grave; yinge, Zulu Kaffir, a circle; Chinese [p.408] ying, a sepulchre; Italian conca, a tomb or burial-place; Chinese, a kind of bracelet; ying, Chinese, a kind of necklace; ingu, African Ako, a circlet of beads; kunk, African Dselana, bracelet; kheung, Chinese, a stone bracelet; cingo, Latin, environ or surround.

It is quite possible that the horseshoe and circle of foreign within the outer circle of Stonehenge represented the earlier temp belonging to the Great Mother and her starry son. If the surrounding the inner ellipse were, as some authorities affirm, seven in number, they would form the perfect figure. If there were five of them, the ten uprights would still illustrate the Sabean-lunar reckoning, which was superseded by the solar nine. The outer range would represent the temple of the sun. Thus we have the Emrys, or Stone of Observation; the nineteen stones of the luni-solar cycle, seven triliths (or ten uprights) corresponding to the seven stars, or the planetary seven, with the outer circle representing the addition the later solar reckoning. The development of the Cult will account for the two periods apparent without implying two different races of builders. We may take the disk-shaped barrows of the Bronze age, for instance, to be typical of the solar circle, the latest of three, stellar, lunar, and solar, corresponding to the Palaeolithic, Neolithic, and Bronze periods.

Stone-henge or the Stone-ankh was the great national tomb-temple. Sir Richard Colt Hoare counted 300 tombs round Stonehenge, within twelve square miles, and in Stukeley's time 128 were to be seen from a hill close by[95].

The cursus or course at Stonehenge into which one of the avenues leads is called the 'ystre'; it is half a mile from the temple itself, and consists of a course ten thousand feet or two miles long, enclosed by two ditches three hundred feet apart[96]. The ystre is mentioned in the Gododin, a poem ascribed to the bard Aneurin[97]. It been already shown that the ster (Eg.) is the couch of the dead. The word means the dead-and-laid-out, to lie on the back, be laid out together, and is determined by the lion-couch of the dead (Z). The yster is either the ster uncompounded or a worn down form of the khi-ster or kester. It has been assumed that the sters, of which there are many in Caithness, as in Stemster, Shebster, Lybster, Ulbster, Seister, Scrabster, Thurster, are derived from the Scandinavian saetr, the name for a farm. The Egyptian ster, however, has now to be taken into account.

This meaning of ster (Eg.), to lay out, the place of laying out, a of the dead laid out, renders unnecessary the assumption three out of the four provinces of all Ireland, Ulster, Munster, and Leinster, were named as settlements of the Norsemen, from the seat or dwelling called a saeter, as a farm or homestead. They were [p.409] neither laid out nor settled nor named by the Scandinavians. The dead were the first laid out, and their burial-place was the primitive ster. The first minister was probably the Mena-ster as the layer out of the dead, the min-ster being the later place of laying out on the couch. Munster may derive its name from the place of the dead, the commonest starting-point of the living. Leinster would thus be the Llan-ster, the enclosure of the laid-out dead, which afterwards became the church as the Llan. This, of course, is not the only possible mode of naming the province. Ster is to lay out. Set is the Egyptian name of a nome, and the r (ru) means a mark of division, which in the Stour is a boundary river, and still the three sters are independent of Norse naming. The oldest spelling of the name of Leicester shows that the place was the Kester of the Leic, or laid-out dead. Manchester is probably a kester of mena (Eg.), as in minster, the ster of the dead.

The stool, the lowly seat or rest for the feet, is an extant form of the ster, couch. The redstart is the redtail, which is long and stretched out, as it is in 'Start point.' From this ster, latter end, comes the stern of the vessel. In one instance it is the tail of the bird, in another of the vessel, and in another it applies to the end of life. And from ster, to lay out, extend, etc., we probably derive the ster terminal in maltster, seamster and webster.

The ster, as the act or place of stretching out the dead in burial, has particular significance when we call to mind that the men of the Stone Age, Palaeolithic and Neolithic, did not lay out their dead, but buried them in a sitting and contracted posture, with bent thighs, their heads resting on their arms, and faces turned towards the daylight world beyond the mouth of the cave. Instead of laying out the dead, the cavemen folded them somewhat in the manner of Peruvian mummies, and left them in an attitude the exact opposite to those of the ster. The tomb being founded on the womb, this will at once suggest that the contracted crouching posture was adopted in imitation of the foetus, and the dead sitting in their caves were arranged according to the likeness of the child in the womb.

The reader has but to refer to the ground-plan of the chamber in the round cairn at Camster, Caithness[98], to see the likeness to the uterine type. The figure is that of the vagina and womb, which exists in a more conventionalised form in the hieroglyphic kha @, the ideograph of the khat, the belly and womb, and kha was the name of the Adytum of Isis, formed on the feminine model. Khem (Eg.) is the shrine, and ster means laid out, dead.

The ster of Caithness alternates with the name of cas or keiss, as Sinclair Cas, Dunbeath Cas, Berriedale Cas. Kas (Eg.) is the burial-place, the coffin, and denotes embalmment and burial, and in Berriedale Cas we seem to have the proof that the Cas has this [p.410] meaning. The Welsh cas occurs in Cas-Llychwr (Loughor), where there is a Roman altar. The Gaelic cos is a hollow scooped out of the hillside for a kind of dwelling, a very primitive habitation, as it may also be made in a tree.

The tree was an early kind of coffin. This type of the Great Mother, who personified the tree of life that bore the child as the branch, was likewise made use of in death and burial, and a scooped out tree, a cos, would be the kas (Eg.) coffin. The kas is the lowly dwelling-place of many languages, always traceable, like the khem or khen, to the birthplace. It is the khepsh (Eg.); gusa, M'barike; kosoa, Guresa; the quisse or coisse of the French euphemized as the thigh, and as the hip in the Gaelic ceos and Latin cossa. The kas is represented by the Latin casa or hut-house, as in the Casa Santa at Loretto; the cosh, English, a cottage; chez, French, house, home; also chose, peculiarly applied; quessa, Quiche, a nest; gaza, Persian, small hut; khuss, Arabic, house of reeds; sas, Romany, nest; soz, French Romance, an enclosure. The kas, a burial-place, supplies the names of Egyptian cities, as in kas-verver and kas-kam, opposite to Antaeopolis, therefore on the western side of the Nile, the side of the tombs. Kas-khem denotes the funeral shrine. Kesslerloch is the name of a cavern of the cavemen near Thayingen, Switzerland. Cayster was a name of the ancient plain upon which Ephesus was built. That is Keph-ster, Kak-ster, or Kas-ster, the ster of the sanctuary. Keswick is a kas renamed as a wick; there was formerly an oval at this place containing forty stones. At Cissbury, on the South Downs, near Worthing, there is an ancient British camp which was also used by the Romans. It is excavated with regular shafts and galleries. There is another at Chisbury, in Wiltshire. These have nothing to do with the Saxon cissa. The Bury as in Mena-bury Hill (Herts), near Aldbury, does but repeat the ciss or kes, the burial-place. No doubt the excavating for flints and iron-stone led to the formation of some of the chambered tombs.

The cheese-wring at Liskeard is a kas-ring, or circle of the dead. The wring is a place where cider is made, and not inappropriate for the place of the dead who were transformed into spirits. So the Egyptian name of the sanctuary kep also means to ferment and turn into spirit. The cheese-wring is a mass of eight huge stones, rising to the height of thirty-two feet. They have now the appearance of nature's handiwork alone, like the rocks at Brimham, in Yorkshire, probably on account of their extreme age. Sufficient time has never yet been allowed for a true judgment in the matter.

In the language of Wordsworth:

'Among these rocks and stones methinks I see
More than the heedless impress that belongs
To lovely Nature's casual work; they bear
A semblance strange of power intelligent,
And of design not wholly worn away.'[99]


Also, at times, the names of these stones are very arresting. One of these groups, supposed to be the effect of some convulsion of the earth, is named 'Kilmarth' Rocks (Scotland). Of course the marth may denote the old word mart, for wonderful. But the stones erected or hewn by human hands belong to the dead, who, in Egyptian, are the merti. Kar-merti signifies the circle or underworld of the dead, and this was kept by the dog Dor-marth, the British Cerberus.

From kas (Eg.), the funeral, to embalm and bury, comes kast (Eg.), the coffin, the enclosure of the body. This is our kist, and kistvaen. Fennu (Eg.) is dirt or earth; English fen, mud, mire. The kist-vaen would thus be the burial-place underground, or the earth-coffin.

Considering the importance of the burial-place as the point of impinging on the earth, the centre of the living group from the Llan up to the city, it is extremely likely that the Russian gostinoi-dvor of every large town is derived from kas (Eg.), to embalm and bury, and kast, the coffin or burial-place. This would account for its universal character as the bazaar, the meeting-place, analogous to the church amid the dead, the sacred place of meeting. We have the cos as the tree-coffin; the kistvaen as the earth-coffin; the Cas-Llychwr of the Welsh burial-mound, the casses of Caithness, and in the Mount of Belief at Scone, the 'Caislen Credhi,' where the word 'Caislen' includes the llan, enclosure, of the kas, coffin (Eg.), funeral and burial, identified with the Mount of Belief.

It was at a place named Keiss, in Caithness, that the burial-mound was discovered near the harbour, containing the implements of stone and bone belonging to the Palaeolithic age. Rude sepulchre had there been given to human bones supposed to have been previously split to obtain the marrow for eating[100]. We now claim the mound at Keiss as a most primitive form of the kas (Eg.) or kester, a place of preservation for the buried dead.

Castallack Round was an ancient circle, destroyed of late years, like so many others yet to be grieved for in vain. It stood in the parish of St. Paul's, Cornwall. Kes-ter-rekh, or Kes-ter-akh, the Egyptian equivalent, shows the kester of the dead, and as lack denotes stone, the Castallack is the stone circle of the laid-out dead.

Roskestal is another name containing the kes-ter, the circle of the dead. At Roskestal was one of the Garrack-zans, as at Sawah. Ross adds another Egyptian element to the rest. Res means to raise up, to watch; ras, the south. The Castallack Round opened with a doorway to the south. And there in the south, the place of the summer solstice, where Khepra made his transformation in the sign of the Crab, the Egyptians had located the land of eternal birth, which the sun reached on the 30th of Epiphi, our midsummer, the year began anew, and the spirit was 'at peace in its place, full at the fourth [p.412] hour of the earth, complete on the 30th of Epiphi,' and the person of the spirit (Eg.) was then in presence of the gods[101]. 'He has his star, or shade (or soul) established to him, says Isis, in heaven at the place where the goddess Sothis is. He serves Horus in Sothis. He becomes as a shade, as a god among men. He has engraved a palm on his knee, says Menka (or Maka, Irish Macha). He is as a god for ever, reinvigorating his limbs in Hades.'[102]

This theology was known to the kes-tel builders. Ros-kes-tal is the raised circle of the embalmed or buried dead. The burial-place was lifted up, as it were, in the arms of the mother Earth, and the outlook turned south to the land of eternal birth. The pathos expressed on the face of these early ideas, when we have lifted or seen through the veil of symbol, makes the heart ache.

One thinks the divine consciousness must surely feel a parental love for this our world and all its creatures in it, if only for the upward yearning of humanity in its infancy, the touching appeal of these primitive ideas and emblems in which the early men portrayed their deep unquenchable desire to nestle nigh and nigher to the ever living heart of all! And, as death was one of the first, profoundest teachers of man, it would be ghastly strange indeed if it had nothing to reveal after all, as the unknowers assume to know and assert, but a death's-head horribly agrin, as the type of the eternal, and this universal abode of life, were but a vast, hollow, eyeless skull, with no sensorium of consciousness within.

The Prose Edda[103] also says, 'At the southern end of heaven stands the palace of Gimli, the most beautiful of all, and more brilliant than the sun,' possibly because it was pre-solar.

One name is frequently repeated in connection with the stones in the forms of rath, roth, and rut. Rath-Kenney, Meath, is the seat of a cromlech. There is one also at Ratho in Midlothian. At Rothie­may, in Banffshire, there are remains of a stone circle. In Rudstone churchyard, there is a fallen monolith which once stood twenty-four feet above ground, and has been calculated to have weighed forty tons. Ruthven in Forfarshire, Ruthin in Denbighshire near which is the 'hill of graves,' Ruthwell, and many others of the same name, are all places where the stone monuments are found. With the interchange of the letters r and l, it still holds good as at Lethhani Grange, and Linlathen. Indeed, the Lothian Hills themselves, with the numerous remains and hut circles on their summits, appear to derive their name from the same origin.

Rat (Eg.). is a stone, a hard stone, a carved stone; the word means to engrave, cut, plant, to retain the form. To retain the form was the object of the stone hewers and carvers. Mummifying was a mode of retaining the form. Burial in high places, in dry ground, in stone coffins and beneath stone covers, was intended to preserve the form. [p.413] The Rath-mounds were chosen or made artificially, and circumvallated for the purpose of protecting and retaining the forms of the dead. Also the writing of the name of the deceased on the gravestone is an individualized mode of doing what was formerly done en gras.

This naming may be followed by the aid of ren or lin (Eg.), to name. Thus a name like Linlathen indicates the place of the stones (rat or lath), which retained the form of the dead in the mounds and the tumuli, or their memory in the mass, ages before the individual was separately distinguished by the name cut on his own tombstone.

One of the largest carved rocks found in Northumberland is called the Rowtin-Linn Rock. It contains fifty or sixty ring-cuttings and over thirty cup-cuttingsto quote the phraseology of Sir James Simpson[104]. Rowtin-linn as Rat(en)-rennthe linn here retains the double n, and represents the form of renn, to call by namedenotes the carven stone of naming. The mode of naming is of course symbolical or hieroglyphical, and is ancient in proportion to its rudeness. If they aspired to an individual record, they had not in those times the means of securing it, but there was a general record at the centre of each group of people, or appointed place of burial.

Some of the stone buildings of our goddess of the north were of the same simple, rude, massive type as was the temple of Buto or Uati. There was a Druidic stone at Locmariaker reputed to weigh 260 tons. These enormous stones were raised up and supported on other stones, and one of them in Cardiganshire was called the flat stone of the Giantess. The 'Maen Ketti' shows that the one of the 'three mighty labours of the island of Britain,' called 'lifting the stone of Ketti,' refers to these suspended stones.

Herodotus observes, 'Of the oracle that is in Egypt, I have already made frequent mention; and I shall now give an account of it, as well deserving notice. This oracle in Egypt is a temple sacred to Latona, situated in a larger city, near that which is called the Sebennytic mouth of the Nile, as one sails upwards from the sea. The name of this city, where the oracle is, is Buto, as I have already mentioned. There is also in this Buto a precinct sacred to Apollo and Diana: and the temple of Latona, in which the oracle is, is spacious, and has a portico ten orgyae in height. But of all the things I saw there, I will describe that which occasioned most astonishment. There is in this enclosure a temple of Latona made from one stone both in height and length; and each wall is equal to them; each of these measures forty cubits: for the roof, another stone is laid over it, having a cornice four cubits deep. This temple, then, is the most wonderful thing about this precinct.'[105] The temple of Latona made from one stone is the type of the ark of Kęd; and as the one was an oracle, so doubtless was the other. It represented the birthplace, and the place of new birth, and was consequently used by the Druids [p.414] and diviners as the place of consultation and for the utterance of heir teachings.

The next most wonderful thing to the oracle of Buto seen in Egypt by Herodotus was, he tells us, the 'Island of Chemmis,' situated in a deep and broad lake near the precinct in Buto. 'This is said by the Egyptians to be a floating island, but I myself saw it neither floating nor moving, and I was astonished when I heard that there really was a floating island. In this, then, is a spacious temple of Apollo, and in it three altars are placed; and there grow in it great numbers of palms, and many other trees, both such as produce fruit and such as do not. The Egyptians, when they affirm that it floats, add the following story. They say that in this island, which before did not float, Latona, who was one of the eight primary deities dwelling in Buto, where this oracle of hers now is, received Apollo as a deposit from the hands of Isis, and saved him, by concealing him in this which is now called the floating island, when Typhon arrived, searching everywhere, and hoping to find the son of Osiris. For they say that Apollo and Diana are the offspring of Bacchus and Isis, and that Latona was their nurse and preserver; in the language of Egypt, Apollo is called Orus; Keres, Isis; and Diana, Bubastis. Now, from this account, and no other, Aeschylus, the son of Euphorion, alone among the earlier poets, derived the tradition that I will mention, for he made Diana to be the daughter of Keres. For this reason they say that the island was made to float. Such is the account they give.'[106]

We also have an island of Buto, and the account furnished by Herodotus affords us the means of comparison and identification of the island in the north which was described by Hecataeus[107] and reported for us by Diodorus Siculus in his chapter on the Hyperboreans[108]. He tells us there is a British island opposite the coast of Keltica, lying to the north, 'which those who are called Hyperboreans do inhabit. They say that this island is exceedingly good and fertile, bearing fruit twice a year. They feign also that Latona was born in this island, in regard whereof Apollo is adored above all other gods. The men of the island are, as it were, the priests of Apollo, daily singing his hymns and prayers, and highly honouring him. They say moreover that in it there is a great grove or precinct, and a goodly temple of Apollo, which is round and beautiful with many rich gifts and ornaments, as also a city sacred to him, whereof the most part of the inhabitants are harpers, on which instrument they play continually in the temple, chanting forth hymns to the praise of Apollo, and magnifying his acts in their songs. These Hyperboreans use the proper language of the Greeks, but they are especially joined in league of friendship with the Athenians and Delians, for they say that certain Greeks came in times past to them, [p.415] and in their temple presented divers sumptuous gifts inscribed with Greek letters, whereupon one of them, named Abaris, passed into Greece and confirmed the amity which a long time before was contracted with those of Delos. Now they which command in this city and preside in the temple are Boreades, the progeny of Boreas, who hold the principality by succession.'

The name of the Boreades would seem to have travelled still further north and to be extant in the Hebrides. It has been erroneously supposed that the island was England, but it is self-identified by name and the mythological scheme as Bute, one of the seven isles of Bute­shire, the namesake of Buto, both being sacred to Latona and Apollo. Bute lies off the Celtic coast of Scotland, as the Celts or Gaels were then reckoned. Moreover, it has in Arran the twin island, which was called Chemmis in Egypt, and was known as the floating island. Aren is an Ark-Island, Aren being a name for the ark, therefore it represents the same floating island of the ancient symbolism. Also the seven isles of Bute are a form of the sevenfold seat of the goddess of the north and the seven stars.

The Irish goddess of wet or moisture is one with uat by nature, and as the divinity of Buta-faun, the temple of Buta, the present Buttavant, in the county of Cork, she is likewise identical with Buto. Buta­fane is the temple of Buto; the goddess was known to the Irish as Be-Baiste, and Peht, a form of Buto, was the divinity of Bubastes. Moreover, Bith or Peitho is a name of Venus in Gaelic, and Buto is the Egyptian Uati, goddess of the North, a humanized form of Khept, British Kęd, whose name of Wen or Ven, in Keridwen and Ogyrven, represents that of the Greek Venus, and Irish oine.

A floating island was an early form of the ark, a means of crossing the waters mentally or actually before boats were launched or bridges built. This constituted the land of life in the deep, the ankh-land or inch. Herodotus describes the floating island called Chemmis (the shrine of birth) in the lake at Buto, in which Latona saved Apollo when pursued by Typhon[109]. That island was the ankh-land. It was on account of this origin that the natural floating islands of the lakes were objects of great reverence and religious regard.

The tree-coffin, the boat scooped out of the tree, the Win (Aren) Cwch, Coracle, or ark, the cave in the mount, the beacon hill, the couch of Kęd, the bed of Tydain, the seat or quoit of Arthur, the ship of the earth, the kak sanctuary or skhen shrine, the kas and kester, tom and tun, stone cell and cromlech, Kistvan and Ket's Coity House, the Roundago, Mencamber, Kibno, the circle of the nine maidens, of Anoeth, of Sidin, Cor-Kyvoeth (Stonehenge), or Camelot, were each and all types of the mother to whose bosom the dead were committed for burial and rebirth; to these may be added the Island of Bute.


The Druid bedds, circular sanctuaries, sacred to Tydain and Kęd, were cemeteries, as beddau are graves. In those formed of nine stones, the tomb was just the womb. The bed in English is the uterus. This was the Egyptian put, the divine circle of the gods; and the bed of nine stones was its ideograph. Thus the dead were returned to the place of birth to await their transformation. This was why they were the enclosures of Kęd, the Great Mother, who took them to her bosom again as the nursing mother of eternal life.

A remarkable cluster of names occurs in the Duke of Hamilton's grounds in the Barony of Mawchane, in Lanarkshire, with their Lands of Carsbaskat, the Cross of Netherton, and the Moat-hill or seat of justice in the Haugh. Lan-ark is the ark-enclosure. Ark (Eg.), orch (Welsh), denote the end. This was the enclosure of the dead. Nuter (Eg.) is divine. Tun, the lofty seat. The makhen or makhennu (Eg.) is the bark (ark) of the dead. The kars (Eg.) is the place of embalmment and burial, bas (Eg.) means to hide and protect, transfer or transfigure, and kat (Eg.) is the womb or the circle of reproduction.

The haugh, in the Norse haugr, the hag-pen, the hogh, hawk-law, how, and hoe, were funereal mounds and enclosures of the dead. The hag in Northumberland is the womb, prototype of the hag-tomb. The kak is the old church. The Moat Hill is a most ancient form of the Egyptian Hall of the Two Truths or Maat. The goddess Mâ presided in the Maat-Hall. Her name in the hard form is Makh, the Irish Macha. Now, there is a great mound in Westmeath, the Mound of Moate, called Moategranoge, a name derived by tradition from the young Grace or Graine, who was said to be a Munster lady, Dr. Joyce refers her ladyship to the same origin as the Milesian princess, who, according to the legends, took on herself the office of Brehon, and from this moat adjudicated causes and delivered her oral laws to the people[110]. This moate we claim as the Irish maat or macha, who was goddess of justice and lawgiver in the Maat-Hall of the Two Truths in Egypt. The various moat hills were her seats, one being in the Hamilton grounds. The ham (hem) is the feminine seat and abode, and the original tenure of the Hamiltons, it may be inferred, was based on guardianship of the sacred ground belonging to the dead, the same as that of the wardens of the Irish termons and the lord of the manor of Hundon in Caistor.

The Irish sidh is an abode, habitation, cave in the hill, and subterranean palace of the spirits as fairies. The 'Wee folk, good folk,' the supernatural beings are called 'men of the Sidh,' the banshu is the bean-sidh. The sidhean is a fairy mount. The ancient name of the Rock of Cashel, and of several other fairy haunts, was Sidh-Dhruim. Rocks, mounts, and mounds wherein the dead were buried, are especial forms of the sidh. There is an ever-famous sidh at Ballyshannon, Donegal, where William Allingham[111] enshrined the [p.417] 'Wee folk, good folk,' in an immortal lyric. The 'airy mountain' is the Sidh Aodha Ruaidh, a great resort of the fairies. It is a hill now called Mullagh-shee, the hill of the sidh or fairy palace. It was lately found to have been a sepulchral mound; recent excavations have shown that it contains subterranean chambers. This was the burial-place of Aedh-Ruadh, father of Macha of the golden hair, his ark of the waters.

Sidh is also applied to the spirits themselves, who are called the Sidh. Sidheog means a fairy spirit. This, however, may be the spirit (akh, Eg., is a spirit and the dead) of the sidh. But the immediate point is this. In Egyptian the Irish sidh is represented by shet, a name of the chest, box, sarcophagus, another hiding-place of the dead. The shet is also a space, closed, secret, and sacred; a void, the tomb; all that is mystical and mysterious in relation to burial is expressed by the word shet, English shut. Shetu also denotes a kind of spirits, the spirits of wine. One sees how the hill of the dead would be transformed into a primitive kind of spirit-world, the home and haunt of mysterious beings, the palaces and mansions of the glorified dead.

On the sculptured stones of Scotland there is a representation of some fragments[112] of stone coffins from Govan, of which no account is given. Two of these are tortoise-shaped, and one especially is marked in a manner to suggest that it is a symbolical or conventionalized tortoise in stone. The tortoise is shet (Eg.), an ideograph of the mystery and secrecy expressed by the word. There is a 'Chapter of Stopping the Tortoise'[113] in the Ritual. It had then become an emblem of evil in the world of the dead.

If we are right respecting the direct Egyptian origin of our institutions and ideas, it is certain that our teachers, say in the second stage, that of the Celtae, must have inculcated their horror of the body's returning to the elements by the way of the worms, which amounts to an agony at thought of it, as expressed in the Book of the Dead.

At Chysauster, in Cornwall, there were a series of caves and excavated passages, which have been destroyed within living memory. The name of these tells us in the old tongue that they were places in which the mummy was preserved. Ki (Eg.) is the ground-plan of an abode, and means an inner region; khi is to screen, cover, protect; sau is the mummy; ster is laid out together, laid on the back, with the image of the mummy laid out on the lion-couch of the embalmed dead.

In almost every case where excavations have been made, it has been proved that the stone circles were places of sepulchre. Knockmany Hill at Clogher, Tyrorte, when opened, was found to contain sepulchres chambered in the rock. This may perhaps account for the name of the numerous Irish knocks, as the gathering-places of [p.418] the mena or dead. Cnuch, in Welsh, means to join together, and represents the Egyptian ankh. In English the cnag is a knot, or cluster; knogs are nine-pins; the knocking-place is one of general resort. The kank, Persian, is a temple; the ying, Chinese, a sepulchre; Italian, conca, the tomb. The kank or knock is an earlier form of ankh or henge, applied to the hill before the stones were erected on the plain.

There is a hill in Renfrewshire out of which issues the River Kart; the 'Kart Waters,' a synonym of the 'Black Kart.' Kart in Egyptian means the silent, stealthy, black as night. This makes it feasible that the name of the hill, the 'staick,' is likewise Egyptian. Stekh signifies to embalm, hide, to escape notice, lie hidden, make invisible. This, therefore, looks like a burial-ground. Hills were, of course, the dry places in our climate. Also this meaning of stekh, the concealed place, may perhaps identify the origin of our stocks as places hidden in nooks or by greenery. Woodstock was the place of the famous maze or labyrinth which may have been a primitive stekh, as the place of concealment that secured the sanctity of the dead.

In a charter of King Athelstan, dated in 939, printed by Kemble[114], there is a description referring to Avebury, one portion of which is called 'Collas Barrow.' This, in Egyptian, would be karas; where we find karas is the place of embalmment; karas, the funeral and embalmment. The karast is the mummy, the preserved body, our corse. The meaning of kars or karas lives in our kerse, to cover a wall with slate; clize, a covered drain; and a close, Cornish clush. Collas Barrow answers to the Egyptian karas, the place of preservation for the dead. The same description of Avebury mentions the hack-pen, taken by Stukeley to mean the serpent's head[115]. But if this be Karas Barrow, the burial mound, then the hag-pen is the hag, how or kak, the sanctuary, and pen is the mount; ben (Eg.), the height.

In Hebrew the karas is the belly or paunch, used as a vulgar expression for the ןטח or womb. In the Mishna it signifies the pregnant womb, and the mummy of the dead in the karas was the image of the child in the womb; a foetus of the future life. In another spelling charas (סרח) is identical with the Egyptian karas, as the clay-place; also the sense of earth, earthy, plaster, to be sticky, agrees with karas as the term for embalming the mummy and embedding it in the earth.

The coating of the body with ochre, which preceded the Egyptian mum or pitch-plaster, is implied in the Hebrew charas. Still another variant of the same word, as שרק, yields the boards of the Tabernacle, which was an image of the womb and tomb in one; the coffin, as the final form of the cefn, kafn, cabin, or kibno of the bringer-forth.


The temple of Classerness, which stood in the Western Isles of Scotland, contains the karas (Eg.), the place of burial and embalmment, in its name. Ser (Eg.) means the holy place; ness is the promontory or jutting of land. The 'Roundago' says the same thing more briefly. Ren, to name, is to ring round, whence round (ren-t), enclosed; and the akhu are the dead. There was a Roundago at Kerries, and karas in Egyptian again identifies the place of embalmment or burial. Kerries corresponds to Collas Barrow at Avebury, and to Classerness. Cresswell Cave, where the oldest traces of design and drawing on bone have been found in Britain, is probably a form of the karas, the place of embalmment and burial. The carved bones, reindeer horns, and ivory, like the jade stones, were early forms of the Fé and the inscribed tablet or papyrus buried with the dead; these are now represented by the tombstone erected over the dead.

The 'Kaer of the Gyvylchi,' in Snowdon, was a form of the enclosure of Kęd. The initiate, speaking of the mysteries, exclaims: 'I shall long for the proud-wrought Kaer of the Gyvylchi, till my exulting person has gained admittance. It is the chosen place of Llywy, with her splendid endowments. Bright-gleaming she ascends from the margin of the sea. And the lady shines this present year in the desert of Arvon, in Eryri.'[116] Llywy was a form of Kęd; the branch and token of the egg belonged to her, she presided over the mystical transformation.

Gavr-Inis is the name of a cromlech. Inis means an island, and the dead of Memphis were conveyed to the island of Tattu, in the Nile, there to await their change and transformation, whereby they were established for ever. This change is called after Khepra. And in the cromlech of Gavr-Inis we have a form of the island, the ark amid the waters, in which the dead awaited their resurrection.

In Egypt the beetle (khepr) was the type of transformation and resurrection, as were the Druidic egg and branch in Britain; both egg and beetle showed the same change, and the beetle is found in the barrows. In Egypt the beetle was observed to settle on the banks of the Nile just before the inundation, where the soil was moist and doughy. On this its eggs were laid in a pile and the earth heaped over them in a round mound; then it excavated and dug out the earth beneath, and thus shaped a sphere or ball of mould, with its eggs enclosed. Now the waters were beginning to rise, and it was a long way from the place of safety at the rim of the desert sand. But Khepra was equal to the emergency. Turning round and fixing the inward-curving hind-legs to the two sides of the ball, somewhat like the ironwork of the garden-roller, except that khepr was both handle and operator in one, the rolling began by the beetle pushing backwards the ball revolving on the axis of his legsi. At the edge of the sand and beyond high-water mark of [p.420] the coming tide, Khepra ceased to be a roller, and turned sexton. He dug down half a yard or more into the dry, pushed in his little world of future life, and then buried himself along with his seed to wait the transformation of the chrysalis. In inscriptions at Bab-el-Muluk and Abydos, Khepra is distinguished as the scarabaeus which enters life as its own son; a type that dispensed with paternity, and belonged to the time when there were only the mother and son, and the son was established in the place of the mother, as he was in the person of Khepra-Ptah. 'They say,' observes Clement Alexander[117], 'that the beetle lives six months underground and six above.' This is the type of the sun in the six upper and six lower signs. Watching the works and ways of Khepra the Egyptians conferred on the beetle the honour of being the symbol of transformation into new life. In Egypt they could bury beneath the soil without fear of damp. But in the north they learned that the chief dry places for the dead whom they desired to preserve would be the high places.

The first khep, or koff, of khepr, where the transformation occurred, was the womb; next the cave or cefn, then the caer of Gyvylchi, and the cromlech of Gavr-Inis. The final form is the chapel, the lady-chapel, as it is still designated, which, in Cornish, is the female cheber. The French ciboire, is the pyx; the Hebrew qeborah, Hindustani kabr, Swahili kaburi, Arabic kabr, and Malayan kubr, are names of the sepulchre. The cafell, Welsh, is the choir or chancel; the Gaelic and Irish caibeal is a burial-place; the Latin capuli, a bier; the Hindustani and Turkish kibla, a shrine, and a quarter of the heaven. Womb and tomb are synonymous, and in Irish kobaille means pregnancy; the kebil is a midwife, and in Gothic kipurt signifies birth.

Gyvylchi, in Wales, is identical with Kabal, or Gebail, names of Biblos, where the genetrix had her kep or sanctuary. The myth identifies the scenery, and Gyvylchi is the high earth of Gebail or Kabal, and one of the four supports of heaven. Khibur, the Egyptian name of Hebron, is the same mount in mythology. Cyverthwch is the name of another place in Eryri, the Cliff of Cyverthwch, the Druidic Kyvri-Vol, near Gower, is the ark or chest (vol) of Kyvri. The Egyptian imagery shall be identified past doubt.

The kep (Eg.), a concealed place, sanctuary, abode of birth, is our cave. The messiah is born in a cave of the rock or mountain. The cave of the Peak in Derbyshire is likewise called the Keb, a name for the Peak. The kep or cave was the type of the birthplace, the feminine abode. Hence the cave of the mountain is the sanctuary of the Great Mother, in the Keb of the Peak, as well as in Gebail, Khibur, or Hebron. Kep (Kęd) or Kheft, the typhonian genetrix, was represented by the khepsh, or hinder thigh, the thigh constellation. Now when Typhon was degraded in this country, as in Egypt, it was [p.421] the devil, and to show how definitely the Egyptian imagery was imprinted on our land, the keb or cave of the Peak, the symbol of the khep, as hinder-part, hinder thigh, is known at this day as the 'Devil's Arse.'

Avebury or Abury was a form of the mount, but reared by human hands. It is certain to be a type of the kep, the image of Kęd, and therefore the earliest form will be Kaf-bury. Af (Eg.) has an earlier form in kaf. The bury in this shape is explained by burui (Eg.), the cap, tip, roof, supreme height, which has the same meaning as ben, determined by the pile, obelisk, or pyramid; the Hag-pen being a part of Avebury. Af and kab (Eg.) mean born of. Av-bury is the lofty birthplace. The Barddas call it the Pile of Kyvr-angan. It was also a form of the ankh, that is, a symbolic image of life associated with the idea of transformation or transfiguring, a typical place of rebirth for the dead laid out together (cyvr), also used in the mysteries for the enacting of the doctrinal drama. The builders were imitating the beetle in burying their dead as the seed of future life, waiting in a dry place for the resurrection, and the receptacle was representative of the kept or kęd, the Egyptian meskhen.

Cor-Cvfoeth was a name of Stonehenge, and in Welsh cyfawd means to rise up; cvfodi may be rendered the Resurrection. Abury being a work of the builders, the name can be glossed by gober, Welsh, a work, operation, deed; goberu, to work; gephura, Greek, a mound of earth; keber, Cornish, cabir, Welsh, a rafter, roof-work; ceibraw, to joist, lay on rafters; civery, English, a compartment in a vaulted ceiling; kabara, Persian, a beehive.

There are writers, who like Goldziher in his Mythology Among the Hebrews[118], have imprudently characterized the system of British Druidism as a modern imposture and perversion of Christianity. But the truth is there is far more in it even than has ever been claimed by the Barddas. When the matter is tested by the comparative method, this will be proved.

The chair of the bards was a great symbolic institution, the chair of Keridwen. This is an identifiable type. The chair was the hes or as of the genetrix in Egypt. Hes, the chair, is likewise the Egyptian name of the singer, the bard, and means to praise, applaud, celebrate. Tut is to unite together, a ceremony, typical, and put is the divine circle of the gods; the put circle of nine in number. An earlier form of the circle is that of fut, the four corners, the quadrangular caer. Hes-tut-fut, the celebration of the singers in the quadrangular caer, the circle of Kęd, gives us the Eisteddfod continued, in keeping with its original character, to the present time, as an annual gathering of singers and reciters with the seat (hes) in the circle. The Eisteddfod is a living link with Stonehenge, the Stone of Eseye, and with Egypt. Further, as sill is an old English name [p.422] for the seat and throne, equated by the Egyptian tser for the temple or palace; ser the seat and rock of the horizon; it is probable that Silbury Hill is a form of the 'Seat of the Throned Bards,' who were likewise the lawgivers.

The language of the chair was personified in Kadeirath, the son of Saidi. Kadeir is chair, and in Egyptian att or uti, is a name for speech, utterance, language, the word.

The typical teacher of Druidic lore, Taliesin, characterizes his mystical utterances by the name of 'Dawn y Derwyddon.'[119] Dawn, in Welsh, is the lore; Dawn y Derwyddon, the lore of the Druids. The tan or tannu, in Egyptian, further identifies the kind of learning; tart, measure, extent, complete, fill up, terminate, determine: tennu, lunar eclipses; tennu, reckon, each and every amount. Thus the Druidic lore consisted in reckoning up each and every one of the circles and cycles of time. This is described as 'The study of the Circle, the Circle of Anoeth.'

'I know,' sings Taliesin, 'what foundations there are beneath the sea. I mark their counterpart each in its sloping plane,'[120] that is in the lower signs, the nether part of the circle of Anoeth, This circle as solar was called the precinct of Iôr, or the year. 'Iör, the fair quadrangular area of the great sanctuary,'[121] is the equivalent of the four-cornered circle of the Zend Avesta, made by Yima.

The stones of the circles are sometimes called dawns-men, and this title was perverted into dance-men, and the dancing men of legendary lore. Finally the dawns-men and dance-men were converted into Danish men, and the Danes take the place of the dawn made plural in dawns.

This dawn is Taliesin's Dawn y Derwyddon, the Druidic lore. The Dawn-Men are the Stone-Memorials of the Druidic lore, the knowledge of the time-circles registered in the stones. That they localized the circle of Anoeth in these islands is shown by the name of the parish in Scotland where the Stone of Kirckclauch was found[122], which is Anwoth. An (Eg.) also means to speak, hear, listen. Wothe (Eng.) means eloquence. Anat (Eg.) is the stone-circle. An-at is the circle of repetition. 'I require men,' says the god Hu, 'to be born again,' 'Ry Annet.'

The heaven was divided in two halves, sometimes represented by Nupe above and Neith below, Nupe (or Pe) bends over the earth and rests on her hands and feet in the form of a half-square, equivalent to the half-circle, and this figure was conventionalised. A stone in the Edinburgh Museum of Antiquities shows a figure that corresponds to the upper half of the heavens, represented by Nupe as the upper hemisphere, or by the human figure conventionalised into [p.423] mere line. A cross within the enclosure intimates the place of the equinox, the division of the two heavens, where the sun entered the upper one. Here was the 'Hall of the Two Truths,' whose duality takes so many forms. Here was the region of Tattu, the eternal. One sign of this was the wheel or cake symbol of the orbit, which became the ancient wheel-shaped theta of the Greeks. Thus the letter theta with cross and circle combined repeats Tattu or Teta, the established region in the zenith. This same sign is found on the Scottish stones. It is the especial emblem of the equinox as the place where the circle of the year was completed and renewed. Two such cakes or wheels denote the double equinox, as in the Hebrew םילבר־תב: (beth diblaim), the house of the double cakes or circle, and other forms of doubling. Har-Makhu was the solar god of this double horizon, with its station at the place of the equinox.

Now it is claimed by the present writer after long study, that the little house of the double-cakes, disks, or circles found on the sculptured stones of Scotland[123], is the Hall of the Two Truths in An or Tattu, the solar birthplace, and that the image of the Two Truths and dual circle is what is commonly termed the 'spectacles ornament.'

This is sometimes represented across the little house of the two circles as in plates 15, 17, 33[124], and at others by the double disk. In either case the double circle is crossed by the crooked serpent or the z-shaped figure. The Egyptians placed their equinoxes up in the zenith and their solstices low down on the horizon. The place of the equinoxes was a mount, and if we imagine an enormous and down at seesaw, we shall be able to realize their scales as they plank laid across the top, on the ends of which two figures ride up ascended and descended north and south. This seesaw of the solstices in the scales or balance of the equinox is necessitated by the one being in the zenith, the others on the two horizons. The seesaw on our stones is the serpent or z-figure oscillating across the double disk of the Hall of Two Truths. This can be shown. One name of the figure of the double horizon is tset. Tset is the serpent (tet), and this serpent tset becomes our zed. Thus the serpent and the z are equivalents as on the stones. The zed or serpent, then, belongs to the double horizon north and south, its head and tail are solstitial; these go up and down across the dual disk, which is therefore the Egyptian equinox in the zenith.

The serpent depicted in plate 37 of Stuart's Sculptured Stones from the monument at Newtown is the basilisk, the goggle-eyed or spectacled serpent, which is the especial warder of the gateway of the path of the sun[125]. In keeping with this character it is portrayed [p.424] with four wings, which represent the four corners of the earth. It is also depicted under the name of Hapu with four heads. And again, on the same sarcophagus, it appears in a fourfold form as apt, having four figures on it. Apt is the name of the four corners, and the basilisk is the serpent of the four cardinal points, that is, of the solstices and equinoxes, therefore, of the circle of the year.

Another basilisk on the same monument is three-headed, and it represents the trinity of father, mother, and son, or Osiris, Isis, and Horus which is perfected and completed in the conjunction at the time of the vernal equinox. The typical serpent of the Egyptian monuments has the same signification on the Scottish stones.

The Sweno stone, supposed to commemorate the defeat of Sweno, is to rue the shennu stone. Shennu (Eg.) is the circle of time consisting of two halves (shen or sen). Shen also means the brother and sister, the male and female halves. These figures are portrayed on Sweno's stone[126], and on plate 20 the two figures are bending over the child born at the place where Osiris, Isis, and Horus met in shennu at the crossing.

The hall of the double disk is found on stones at Tyrie and Arndilly. Both dilly and tyrie correspond to terui (Eg.), our tray, the circumference and limit of the whole, consisting of the two times called terui; which is also a form of sesennu and number eight, the total as the ogdoad, like the eight in the ark, here represented by arn.

At Bourtie[127] there are two stone-circles, the two disks of the drawings. There is also an eminence called the Hawk-Law. Two cairns were opened about fifty years ago. In each there was a stone coffin enclosing two urns of hard baked clay[128]. The name bourtie answers to per-ti (Eg.), the dual circle and double house in An.

A rock on Trusty's Hill, near Anworth, Galloway, has the double disk and z-sceptre. The equinox is in line with a conventionalised fish, and there is a sign pointing expressly at the fish. The worth is an enclosure, and An we claim as the solar birthplace, the celestial Heliopolis. An also means a fish in Egyptian, and here the equinox is in An; the monument in Anworth[129].

When the solar birthplace was in the Fishes, it was represented by the genetrix in the shape of a mermaid who brought forth the child[130]. Now the well-known symbols of the mermaid are the comb and the glass. These are frequent on the Scottish stones. The comb and mirror are depicted on the 'Maiden Stone,'[131] which thus becomes the stone of the mermaiden goddess, half woman, half fish, the Derketa, Atergatis and Semiramis, who was represented in Britain as the mother Kęd, our Keto.


The comb represents puberty, the first of the Two Truths in the mystical sense. At this period the maiden bound up her hair for the first time with the comb, plaited, knotted, and snooded it, according to Egyptian usage. The mirror is the type of reproduction, like the eye, which is likewise figured at the place of the vernal equinox. This was the symbol of the other of the Two Truths. Both were united in the mermaid or fish-goddess, or yet earlier water-horse. But where is the mermaid herself? She is represented by the elephantine monster of these drawings. This figure accompanies the equinoctial imagery of the double-disk in plates 2, 22, 24, 34, 39, 47, and 67[132].

The same figure accompanies the crescent or semi-circle in plates 4, 10, 40, 47. It represents the goddess of the Great Bear, whose type in Egypt was a monster compounded of hippopotamus, crocodile, the kaf-ape, and lioness.

The monster of the stones is the same ideograph as the mare with feet fettered fast around the cake-type of Tattu, the eternal, or depicted full gallop on other of the coins or amulets of Cunobelin. Hippa, the mare, is but a more European form of Kefa, the female water-horse.

The monster is the Scottish version of the conventionalised Bear, portrayed by the Welsh as mare and boat and bird in one image.

In either case the object was not to imitate nature, but to compound an ideographic symbol. It happens that the spectacles-shaped double disk is found on the Assyrian monuments, as a form of yoke, and is said to denote a four-footed animal trained to the yoke. Our word yoke and the Latin jugum are forms of the Egyptian khekh, the balance and the place of the equinox. The Roman jugum appears as a kind of cross[133]. Thus the cross, the balance, and yoke, are types of the equinoctial level, the crossing, and the word khekh names all three. The jugum as the top or ridge of a mountain also corresponds to the kekh of the horizon or height. In Eskimo, kek is the boundary; kakoi, in Japanese, means to enclose, clasp, fence round, and the four-footed animal trained to the yoke is our mare with fettered feet, and the monster whose tethered turnings round denoted the earliest year, that of the Great Bear. It was by aid of the Great Bear that the early observers determined the equinoxes and solstices. The Chinese say when the tail of the Great Bear points to the east, it is spring; to the south, it is summer; to the west, it is autumn; and to the north, it is winter. This was the constellation of the bringer-forth of the child as Sut, the Dog-star, in the pre-solar time.

The bird is often found on the stones, and on one of them[134] there is a form of the boat, with a paddle in the forepart.


The fish appears on the Edderton stone[135], and again on the Golspie stone[136], accompanying the symbols of the equinox. This can only indicate the colure in the sign of Pisces.

On the Mortlach stone[137], two fishes are portrayed, and they are joined together like the two of the zodiac. There is a figure of the Ram beneath, as if superseded by the fishes. Further, plate 118 shows a ram-headed figure over the fishes, or twin-fish, also an inverted human figure. This read hieroglyphicallythe inverted figure is among the hieroglyphicssignifies the reversal of the signs and says the colure has left, or is leaving, the sign of the Ram for that of the Fishes. The imagery is on the cross of Netherton, which in Egyptian, means the divine seat; this seat was denoted first and foremost by the cross of and at the crossing. It was at this point the hero Horus overcame the Akhekh dragon of darkness, the typhonian type of evil. And on the Golspie stone[138], the hero is portrayed fighting the battle of Horus against Typhon, which terminate at the spring equinox.

At the place of the equinox was the double holy house devoted to Anubis, the double Anubis who may be seen biformis, back to back. at the crossing in the planisphere of Denderahi. We know the Druids made use of the ape in their imagery, and this was one form of Anubis. This double Anubis as dual ape appears in plate 63[139]. The duality is curiously expressed in the way they are twined and intertwined together. The same twins are apparently intended in plate 45 from the Kirriemuir stone[140].

When the Great Mother was first typified by the bear, or water-horse, Typhon, Sut was her son, and his type was the Dog-star. As Apt she is expressly called the Great One who gave birth to the boy[141]. The boy in Britain was Beli, the star-god, and Belin, the solar Baal.

And in one of the archaic sculpturings[142], the so-called z-sceptre drawn with the double disk in a boat-shape figure, like that of the Hindu Meru, with the seven heavens at one end, and the seven hells at the other, on the north and south poles. The dog's head is appended to one end of the balance. It is repeated in fig. 34[143]. The dog is obviously at the head end, that is, in front, the south; the north being the hinder part, represented by the loop or tie of Typhon, and points to the Dog-star, the announcer of the solstitial year. Thus we have the mother and son, Sut-Typhon, as Great Bear and Dog among the earliest of all the Sabean types figured in the heavens.

Every type found in cluster on the stones connected with the cross ideograph of the equinox shows the astronomical imagery in the eschatological phase. The great mother, the sun-bird, the mirror, comb, serpent, and hall of the double disk, all denote the resurrection [p.427] or reproduction of the sun-god and the soul, and so proclaim and prove the monuments to be memorials of the buried dead.

Evidence of what may yet be called the Druidical cult, maddening as is the name to some, is not limited to the monuments, but survives in the names of places where the stones have been destroyed. So long as they stand, our hills will talk in the primeval tongue, and while Helvellyn lasts, its name will prove it to have been the seat and scene of the worship of Kynvelyn, the British Belin.

The present work has been partly written on ancient Druidical ground. The author was born in its neighbourhood, and has lived in the heart of it for many years; born in the shrine of Belin, at Gamble, which may be rendered the Khem of Baal. This is shown by the Bulbourne river, and the ancient city of that name. An old distich of the district says:

'When St. Alban's was a wood,
The ancient city of Bulbourne stood.'[144]

Bulbourne was the boundary of Baal.

If it be objected that the word gamble is an English name for the leg, my reply is the leg (hinder) is the especial hieroglyphic of the genetrix, who was herself the shrine of Baal. The Druidic ground is chiefly on the Chiltern Hills, at the corners of three counties, Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire.

There are three hoes; Ivinghoe, Totternhoe, and Asthoe. The seat or throne of Kęd is extant as the ten or den of Gad, divided into the larger and lesser Gaddesdens in accordance with the dual mapping out. The den or dun is a division as well as a seat, following the Egyptian tena, to divide, separate in two, and Nettle-den is the lower den, the nether of two (so a jakes is a nettle-house), like the neter-kar. The Dunstable crows are both black and white.

At Dunstable we have the Maiden-ing burn or bourne, possibly both in one. Pytte-stone implies the stone of the intermittent well.

Ashridge Park was anciently in two divisions, and one of these, the south-eastern, was always stocked with fallow deer, the northern with red deer[145]. These were as true symbols of the two halves of the solar circle as the white and red crowns of Egypt.

There is a tradition that the San Grael was at Ashridge, the house of the Bonhommes. Skelton, in his Crown of Laurel, speaks of 'Ashridge beside Barkanstede, that goodly place to Skelton most kind, where the Sang Royall is, Christ's blode so red.'[146]

Ashridge House has its legend of the cross, because it stands at the crossing. It stands in two counties, and is so completely divided that during the time the present writer dwelt in its neighbourhood a sudden death occurred, and a coroner's inquest ensued. The doctor [p.428] chanced to mention that the man had died in another room; this was in the next county, and another coroner demanded.

Here, then, was the crossing, the topographical and symbolical analogue of the astronomical crossing of the equinox, with the Hall of the Two Truths, an image adopted by the religion of the Cross. Hence followed the token of the crucifixion in the presence of the San Grael.

My conclusion respecting the meaning of 'Ashridge,' which has nothing to do with the ash tree, is that it represents the mountain-ridge which is pre-eminent in the Welsh esgair; Gaelic, eisgir; Irish aisgeir or eiscir, that is, the ridge of hills and mountains; the rocky ridge, ysger in Welsh, being the rock or stone, which is repeated in Asgr-ridge, or Ashridge. This is the Egyptian skaru, the name of a fort; the Assyrian ziggurat, a tower; the Hindustani ziarat or shrine. The fort or place of defence is recoverable in the Welsh ysgor, a circular entrenchment. As the Greek eschara, it is an altar for fire-offerings, and in the Hebrew הרכזא (azkerah) it also relates to sacrifice and memorizing. In Egyptian, as is the seat, throne, sepulchre, sacrifice; kheri means the victim bound for sacrifice. The mountain was the first altar, and its caves supplied the earliest tombs. The word as eskar has also been adopted by geologists for the isolated heap left by the ice or water at the foot of the hills or on the plains. In accordance with a common principle of compounding and, it may be, of interpreting names, the ridge does but translate the Aisgr.

The name of the ancient mother Kęd is extant at Cheddington, earlier Kettington, the ten (high seat) of the ing of Kęd. Kęd-tide is an old name for Shrovetide. We have also the river Gad. Wad's Combe (vulgarised into Ward's) and Wad-Hurst (as it is written in the old maps) are probably forms of Gad, or Kęd, and in the Hurst or wood of Kęd the greater part of this work was prepared.

Monybury Hill is a portion of the table-land of Gad (Gaddesden), and thus we may have our Gad and Meni on the same ground. The 'Gallows' Hill, Welsh gwalas, means the couch or bed on the high table-land, which was the lair or birthplace of Kęd. One of the hills next to Gallows Hill is still called Steps Hill. Cadr-Idris is said to have had 365 steps cut in it. The hill at Cheddington is cut in three vast coronal-like tiers, most distinct still, although it has been ploughed over for ages. The early men cut indelibly whether they worked in adamant, sienite, limestone, or only in the earth itself. Their seals and impressions were worthy of the divinity whose name, khet, means to cut and to seal.

These three steps are ranged towards the sunrise, a triad of tiers corresponding to the three solar regions, the upper, mid, and lower, found in all the mythologies, and with the three ranks and symbolical colours which were apparently disposed in the same way as in Egypt; [p.429] blue for the highest rank, white for the second, and green for the lowermost; blue for Ammon in the height, green for Num in the deep, and white for Khem on the horizon (to judge by white as the colour of Khem-Horus); and these three are the chord of colour found on the Druidic glains. 'We find some of them blue, some white, a third sort green, and a fourth regularly variegated with all these colours.'[147] On these three tiers or steps of gigantic heavenward stride, we may conjecture the Druids stood in their triple ranks at sunrise, and on gala days in front of a stone temple, crowning the Hill of Kęd, toward which these steps ascended. In the hilt named 'Steps' Hill, close to Gallows Hill, there is a vast ravine or gorge, not a natural formation, not the work of the elements, and unaccounted for as the work of human hands. But the name of the hilt itself suggests the clue it is the Steps Hill, and at the head of the ravine is the place, scope, and height required for an ascent of steps as at Cadr Idris. This hill leads up to Gallows Hill, the highest of all, otherwise known as the Beacon Hill. With the strange ravine and ascent of the Steps Hill we may compare the Egyptian Feast of the Dead, which was a festival of the steps and of the valley, or of the ascent from the valley.

We cannot but associate the Gallows Hill with the Gwal of Ast, the couch or seat of Kęd; ast being one of her names, as Gaddesden the ten or seat of Gad (Kęd) is close at hand, and not far off is Asthoe, the hoe of Ast, and near by is Aston; also with the Gallicenae and the Gwyllion of the Druidic mysteries, a plural of Gwyll or Gwely, the Gwal or Gwalas being the couch, ark, circle of Kęd, formed of the nine stones; the Nine Maids that stood in a circle, still represented by the circle trodden indelibly round the top of the Gallows Hill; the nine damsels who warmed with their breath the cauldron of Kęd, and the Nine Gallicenae, the Gahhi of the shen (Eg.), circle, the Welsh séon. These were the British muses, identical with the daughters of Mnemosyne in Greece, and the nine who attended Osiris in Egypt. And at Dunstablean ancient seat of the Catieuchlaniwe have the Maiden Bourne or Maiden-ing-burn.

There are no stone remains in all this region now, nothing but the cloven and circle-showing hills, and the imperishable records of the past preserved in names. Hills and ridges like these are not so easily carted away. There are three commons on this portion of the Chilterns, and commons are religious remains; the last relics of general property in land under the Druidic system of government, which was primally the land of the dead, the khem-mena (Eg.) a common place of the dead, being earlier than commons for provisions.

In one of the songs of poor old Myrddin, the Caledonian Druid, who uttered the death-wail of the ancient cult, he exclaims, 'How great my sorrow! How woful has been the treatment of Kedey'a familiar name of the Mother Kęd. 'They'the opponents'land [p.430] in the Celestial Circle, before the passing form and the fixed form, over the pale white boundary. The grey stones they actually remove,'as if the mournful fact were too pitiful[148] for credence! Now let us turn to the lands of the living.

An old distich says,

'By Tre, Ros, Pol, Llan, Caer, and Pen,
You may know most Cornish men.'[149]

These are prominent names of places after which the family or community were named. The llan is an enclosure in Cornish, also a church, the latest form of the sacred enclosure[150]. In Persian the lan is a yard. There are close upon one hundred llans extant in the village names of Wales. And Dr. Bannister has collected 300 proper names in Cornwall based on llan[151]. This, in the hieroglyphics, is the ren, the name and to name. The ideograph is the ren, ring, an enclosure, a cartouche, for the royal names of the pharaohs. We have the far more primitive ren-enclosure as a ran, the noose or band of a string, and in ren, to tie up. With the participial terminal ren is ren-t, the enclosed and named, and that is the formation of the enclosure named, a primitive mode of getting on the land. One form of land is the ground between the furrows in the ploughed field. Land is that which is enclosed and named or ren-t. The run-ring for cattle was an early llan, and the ren sign is a noose for holding cattle by the foot. The orbit of that run was a primitive llan, and the payment made for it was rent.

The same antiquarian has collected 500 pens, named from the headlands, the Scottish bens. Ben in Egyptian is the height, the point, cap, tip, roof; the ben-ben is a pyramidion. In the same list of names there are 400 ros; the ros is a rock or headland, a natural elevation, which would be seized upon first for its position. It is the same at root as the Irish lis, and English rise[152].

There are 1400 townlands and villages in Ireland having names beginning with lis. The lis is a raised place; it may be the natural or made mound turned into an earthwork. In the Book of Ballymote the rath is used to denote the entrenchment of the circle, and the lis is the space of ground enclosed. The lis was sometimes enclosed within several raths or entrenchments. The Egyptian res, to be elevated, raised up, to watch, be vigilant, best explains the nature and meaning of the lis, as place of outlook within the protecting circle, before towers and fortifications could be erected.

The Welsh and Cornish trevs, trefs, troys, or tres, are probably the Egyptian rep or erpe. The tre is understood to mean a homestead. The erpe or rep (Eg.) was a temple, a sacred house. With the article prefixed, this is t-rep, answering to trep, and many of the treps were certainly religious foundations. In Egyptian [p.431] we find the taru, a college; terp, the rites of Taht, a name for literature; and teru, for the circumference, the Troy. The teru is a modified form of the tref.

Dr. Bannister has collected 2,400 Cornish proper names beginning with tre, and there are a thousand tres as places[153]. This is the Egyptian ter, teru, and t-erp. Ter signifies all the people, the whole of a community dwelling together. The dwelling may be beneath the family roof-tree, whence the tref (tre) as the homestead, or it may be a village, as in the Dutch dorp and English thorpe. The habitation may be added to the ter by the pa (Eg.), a house, abode, place, or city, whence the terp, tref, thorpe. Without the t (the article the) the rep or erp is an Egyptian temple, the house of a religious community. Thus we have ter (Eg.), the community, and in Craven, trip denotes the family and the herd, while the worn down form of tre in Cornish means the homestead, dwelling-place, enclosure. The erp (terp) is the religious house. In Holstein the tref or thorpe is called the rup without the prefix.

In the Scilly Isles there were vast monumental remains in Borlase's time, especially in an island named 'Trescaw,' from whence, according to Davies[154], a graduate in the Druidical school was styled Bardd Caw, one of the associates. Cuhelyn ab Caw was a British bard of the sixth century. The songs of Keridwen were sung by the chanters of Caw. The plural caw is found in kaui (Eg.), a herd or band.

Trescaw, then, was a foundation of learning. The caw is the Egyptian khau or kaf. The khau as a scholar is implied by the khauit being a school, a hall of learning with cloisters or colonnades. The khau (Eg.) is a dog, and the priests of Kęd were dogs, i.e., kenners or knowers; the dog being a symbol of the knower with the Druids as well as in Egypt. The full form of the khau is the kaf ape, the cynocephalus, a type of Taht, the Divine Scribe; also of the priests and of letters[155]. With us, too, the shepherd's dog, the knower, is designated a cap; a cap being synonymous with a master or head. Hence the symbolic cap of the scholar. In Egyptian the skhau is the scholar and scribe, from skhau, to write, writing, letters. So in English for the caw we have the scholars, and Trescaw, otherwise Ynis Caw, was the island of the scholars. This was one of the Scilly Isles. The name of Scilly identifies the school. Skill means to know, to understand. The Scilly Isles repeat the name of Ynis Caw, the island of the scholars; which suggests that the trę in Tręscaw is a modified tref or trep, as t-rep (Eg.) the temple or sacred house, and that scaw may represent the skhau (Eg.), to write, writing, letters, the scribes and scholars. The ys in Welsh was added to augment and intensify words, and this would make Caw Yscaw. Thus ynis tre(f) scaw would be the island of the Druidic 'erp,' a temple of the [p.432] scholars; the school implied by the later name of the Scilly Isle. The tref as family became the trish treabh and English tribe.

We have a group of counties, or hundreds, anciently known sokes, in Essex, Sussex, Middlesex, and Wessex. Our soke is the Egyptian sekh, a division, to cut out, incise, to memorize, remember, depict, represent, rule, protect. The sekh is a division mapped out, marked off, cut out. The British soke was the territory on which the tenants of a lordship were bound to attend the court. Also the soke of a mill was the range of territory within which the tenants were bound to bring their corn to be ground. The word sekh has many meanings. It is a variant of uskh for water, the earliest of all natural boundaries and divisions of the land. Sekh, to cut out and divide, has the meaning of share. The right of socage is the right to a share, held in later ages on varying terms. For example, in the Manor of Sevechampe, Domesday[156] records that there were four sokemen; one of these held half a hide, and might sell it; another held one Virgate, and could not sell it without leave of his lord (Elmer); the third and fourth had right of sale. King Edward had sac and soke over the manor. In Egyptian suskh means free to go, have the liberty. As sock and suck have the same meaning, the soke is a companionship, the basis of the soke (guild), and the primeval socage was the freedom to graze cattle in a certain division, still extant in the right of common pasture, accorded to the company who held the land on the communal system. The earliest socage was so simple that it may be described as a right of suck or succour at the natural fount of life, the breast of the great mother of all, from which the children were not yet forcibly weaned, as they had not parted from their birthright and heritage. The socage then became a franchise, the parent of that liberty, freedom, frank-pledge, or what­not, now conferred by the honour called the freedom of the city. The primitive socage belonged to common ownership, the later to lordship, when the ownership was made special and several, with the right to levy soken, that is, toll. Port-Soken Ward, in the City of London, means a municipal district having the privilege of levying soken or toll in the shape of port-duties. Applied to territorial division on the large scale, the sekh gives us the plural sex, our four counties. In Essex, Sussex, Middlesex, and Wessex, we have a complete system of the territorial sokes, arranged according to the four cardinal points, and named in Egyptian. Uas is the west, a name of western Thebes. Wes-sex is Uas-sokes, the west divisions. Wessex was Hampshire. Robert of Gloucester calls Hampshire Suthamtshire[157], and sut-amt in Egyptian is south-western. Both sut and su signify the south, and in Sussex, Wessex, and Essex the English follows the parent language in dropping the terminal t. Sussex is the south sokes, and on the same principle Essex is the east sokes. [p.433] Ast, to be light, answers to our east. In this chart Middlesex is to the north. The northern boundary of the zodiac as well as of Egypt was called mat in the oldest records. Mat signifies the mid-middle division, which was the north-east quarter of the compass. Thus we have a circle of the sokes, with London seated on the water in the right position to represent the solar birthplace in Mat or An, the celestial Heliopolis. It will bear repeating that Sussex county was divided into six parts called rapes, each of which had its river and castle. Now as the castle is but a later kester, it looks as if the original rape may have been the Egyptian religious house called the rep or erp, just as the sekh or uskh was also the Hall of the Two Truths. Sus (Eg.) means six, and whether intended or not, Sussex reads the Six Sokes. A religious foundation connected with the dead is at the base of all our living institutions that are deep-rooted in the past.

Our sters, as before shown, are the resting-places of the dead. The hieroglyphic ster is variously compounded in the Min-ster, the ster of the dead the kester (ke-ster) a house, region, land, inside place for the stretched-out dead; and with the caer or enclosure of the dead. The Chesters are also known as the caers. Portcestre was formerly called Kaerperis, Gloucester was likewise Kaerglou, Winchester was formerly called Kaerguen, which shows that Win is the modified Guen. Guen answers to khen or khennu (Eg.), the sacred house, hall, or sanctuary. Thus Guen-chester is the sanctuary of the buried dead, who were shielded and sheltered in the Chester. Khen, the sanctuary, also signifies to alight and rest, and khen-khe­ster (Eg.) is the protected resting-place of the laid-out dead. The glou in Gloucester takes the place of the sanctuary in Guen-chester. Its equivalent kheru (Eg.) means a shrine, house, sanctuary, or cell, so that the significance is the same in both. Kher and khen are determined by the typical quadrangular enclosure, and the caers were called quadrangles as well as circles. Glou has the v sound in glevum, and kheru (Eg.) has the equivalent in kherf, a first form, the model figure, or type of the kher; it denotes the chief excelling, surpassing, sacred. The Egyptian kar is a hole underground, and with the terminal f for 'it,' we may obtain the grave as the equivalent of kherf, a first form, a model figure, whilst glev (glevum) in Gloucester is really synonymous with kherf, and grave, the inner place of the dead. In Cirencester both names are united, and kar-en-khe-ster (Eg.) is the enclosure of the Chester or protected place of the buried dead, unless we read the word Chester as compounded from kas (Eg.), burial, and tar, the circle or to encircle. We have both forms in Caistor (church) and Ros-Kestal.

As burial-places, the caers, khesters, and minsters acquired their greatest sanctity, and for that reason were adopted and continued as places of Christian worship and rites; for churches and cathedrals.


Deep digging beneath and round some of the Chesters and Minsters would reveal many a glimpse of our pre-Christian, pre-Roman, pre-eval past, buried alive and still calling dumbly for rescue.

The caers preceded the shires. And Nennius[158] enumerates the three kaers as the names of ancient British cities, and as caer is the hard form of shaer, it is evident these caers became our shires. Kart (Eg.) means dwelling in. The karrt is a name applied to dwellings of the damned in Hades. With us the s forms the plural instead of the ti in Egyptian. The Egyptian kars were the lower places from the south as they were in Wales, and in the mapping out of England the shires, or kars, are the lower counties. We have the meaning preserved in another way. The lower is also the left hand, and the car-hand is an English name for the left hand. When the Druids plucked the magical plant with the left hand, that was on the night side, and the transaction belonged to the lower world.

We owe the words weal, wealth, weald, to this same origin in the kar or orbit, the enclosure. Wealhcyn is not derived from the word Welsh as a name of race. That had a common origin in the kar, gower, gale, or weal. For example, hemp, the halter, is called Welsh parsley and the cuckoo is the Welsh ambassador, because the one makes the noose round the neck, the other makes the annual circle, each being a form of the kar or weal. In the same way the whelk is named from its spiral circles. To welke is to wax round like the circle of the moon, and the ring-dove is also called the wrekin-dove, wrek and welk being synonymous. Wales and Corn-wales are on the borders of the land; they are the outermost counties lying where they look as if conscious of being the first kars enclosed from the common waste. Next comes what used to be known as the Wealhcyn, or the Wreakin, as the word is found in Shropshire. Wealhcyn does not mean Welsh-kin; it is applied to the land as in the Wreakin, not to the folk. Cornwall, was one of the two Wales. Somersetshire and Devon were the Wealhcyn. Khen (Eg.) means within, inner, interior. The Wealhcyn are the interior or more inward of the kars, shires, or weals, i.e., an inland Wales. The people may change, but names are ineffaceable.

The inner Wales leads to the suggestion that the name of Cornwall is derived from kar-nu-wale. Nu (Eg.) signifies within, and kar-nu-kar reads 'kar within kar,' or the inner of the two kars called Wales. Cornwall was formerly Cornwales. Thus we begin with Wales the kars the lowermost counties, the west being the way to the underworld, and Cornwall was anciently known as one of the two Wales. Kar-nu-wale is Wales within, and the Wealhcyn is a still more interior Wales. In this way we see the advance inland from what looks like a point of commencement in Wales.

One name of Wales known to the Barddas, is Demetia[159]. Seithwedd or Seithin Saidi is represented as being the king of Demetia [p.435] or Dyved[160]. Dyved, later David, is a typical name of Wales, the land of Taffy. Temti (Eg.) is the total of two halves, the plural of tem, a place corresponding to the dual Wales. In the old maps Demetia is called Dyved. This, in Egyptian, indicated a figured point of commencement, from tef (tep), the first point of beginning. Tep, however, as commencing point, would by itself apply equally to Dover. But the tepht (Eg.) is the opening, gate, abyss of source. The tepht answers to the lower kars.

This name of Dyved as the tepht is illustrated by the 'Davy's locker' of our sailors, the bottom of the sea, which is the mythical dyved or tepht, the place of the waters of source, the pit or hole of the serpent, where the evil Deva or Typhon lies lurking. The Druids figured this underworld, or nether-kar, as the place from whence the visible world ascended, and as the place of the evil Gwar­Thawn. Cornwall, formerly called West Wales, was also known as Defenset, and its people were the Defaesetas. Tef-nu (Eg.) is Dyved within, the secondary form of Dyved or Wales. Here is a double tef as point of commencement analogous to Demetia and Wales.

In a map of Britain carefully collated from local maps and from Dr. Guest's researches by the author of the Norman Conquest[161], we find four counties named sets; these are Defenset, Dorset, Somerset, and Wiltset (later Wiltshire). These four counties should constitute a land once inhabited, mapped out, and named by Egyptians, for the set is the old Egyptian name of the nome, a portion of land measured off, divided, and named, i.e., nomed. These are the only four Egyptian nomes named as sets in the island.

Defenset, in accordance with its name, comes first after Dyved or Wales. Dor-set (in Egyptian, tur-set) means an extreme limit of the land, the frontier, the very heel of the foot or foothold. Dorset is the frontier name at an extremity of the land. Somerset is the water-nome. Su is they, them, or it. Mer (Eg.) is the sea. Somerset is the sea-nome. Wil-set, when equivalented in Egyptian, will be Hir-set, the upper nome. Hir is upper, over, above, high, uppermost boundary. The full form of hir as a place-name is hirt, and this may account for the t in Wiltshire. Hert was afterwards applied to the shire of the uppermost boundary of our shires. This goes to show that Wilts was once the uppermost limit of Egypt in England, as the highest of four nomes or sets.

Our set is the Egyptian set or sat, from sa, ground, which, with the participial t denoting the sa is measured or cut off, becomes the sat (as we say, sawed off).

The sa (sa-t) has the meaning, in measure, of one-eighth of a quantity of land[162]. Now, if our sets were divided and named on this principle, they would correspond also in number, and there ought [p.436] to have been eight. There are four sa-t or sets in England and dyved in Wales. Now dyved signifies a measure of four. We have it in the English tofet, tovet, and tobit, a measure of four gallons. Four gallons to one tofet is equal to four divisions of dyved. Moreover, the Egyptian aft denotes the four corners, and teb is a quarter, a place. Dyved was as surely the other four divisions as that four gallons make the tofet, and although they are not extant by name as the other four sets they may have been four kars, which they were. In the old map we still find Gower, Caeradigion, and two Caerleons. These are four cars, answering to the four nomes, called sets. Moreover, four kars survive as counties in Wales, Cardigan, Carnarvon, Glamorgan, and Carmarthen. 'Four caers there are, stationary in Britain; their governors are agitators of fire.'[163]

The Egyptians divided the circle of the heavens into upper and lower. The lower contained the kars. The lower half was to the north, the kar-neter, the kar divided from the upper half by the equinoctial line running east and west. Set was the south in Egyptian; the south was the upper country, and our four sets are in the upper country towards the south.

On the monuments these two halves or houses of the sun are figured as two quadrangular enclosures with an opening, as two houses named 'Iu.' And in the Druidic writings, the caer is sometimes designated a quadrangular enclosure. Two four-cornered enclosures give us the eight regions of Sesennu, as well as the twofold division of the total, temt, demetia. The map shows this scheme made geographical on British ground. The four sets are the southern and upper half of the whole. At the edge of Dyved, close to the dividing water, is Gower, answering to the Egyptian kar, the lower and divided kar­neter, our nether Gower. This kar is denoted in the hieroglyphics by the sign of a half-heaven, because the kar-neter was but the sun's course for half the round, the lower, northernmost half that begins with Gower.

The kar or kart is a course in Egyptian, an orbit or measure; in this case the sun's course through the lower half of the divided heaven. Two kars in the hieroglyphics read kar-ti; the ti duplicates the kar, and the determinative of kar-ti is two half-heavens. Karti, then, abrades into kart, the total orb, in English the garth, girth, garter, or quart. The Egyptian kar-ti, the plural of kar, have various forms as orbits, holes, passages, enclosures, prisons, showing they were enclosures of whatever kind, and the Welsh caers were known as fenced enclosures. Karti is the exact equivalent of Wales. Four kars in Dyved would complete the eight required to make the unit of the set of eight 'sa's. Four 'sa's or sets and four divisions as kars, make the total of Dyved, as in Egyptian tebt, the measure, which in one form is equal to our bushel, in another it is a table, with which we may compare the [p.437] Round Table, in another a sarcophagus. The teb or teb-t, as an unit of measure, was variously applied as dry, liquid, and land measure. Also we find the 'sa' divided into one-sixteenth of a measure of land, as in England the tobit is subdivided and differs in different counties.

The division of eight, however, is primary, and the look of the whole thing is that the land of Dyved was the twin-total, afterwards divided into eight nomes, four caers in Dyved, and four in Defenset, Dorset, Somerset, and Wilset considered at the time to be the two lands of Wales; Devonshire being called West Wales. Wales is Gales, Kars, Gowers, the plural of a course or total. That total being Egyptian was twinned, the lower and upper Kars, the two Kars, Gowers-Gales, Wales.

The two tebs in Dyved and Defenset, if designated in Egyptian, would be teb-ti, the dual teb, as teb-ti, a pair of sandals; and we find that the tebti-pehu was an Egyptian name of the 12th nome of Upper Egypt, meaning the Water Nome[164] of the double division.

Tibn-ti, the double Dyfen, appears on the monuments[165]. Our two tebs or tebn, Dyved and Defu, form the double division of the water nome just as does the tebti-pehu of Egypt. Also, Dyfen as the one-half of the whole, is extant in the Welsh dobyn, a half-pint measure. This total, these two halves, these eight nomes, four to the south and four to the north, yield the eight regions of Egyptian mythology, and an Egyptologist would expect to come upon the Sesennu or eight great gods of Egypt. These also were known to the Druids; they were the eight persons in the ark, assumed by Bryant[166] to be Noah and his family.

Taliesin sings: 'A song of secret significance was composed by the distinguished Ogdoad, who assembled on the day of the moon,' that is, on Monday, the day of Taht, the lunar deity, lord of Sesennu. They assembled, and 'went in open procession; on the day of Mars, they allotted wrath to their adversaries; on the day of Mercury, they enjoyed their full pomp; on the day of Jove, they were delivered from their detested usurpers; on the day of Venus, the day of the influx, they swam in blood; on the day of Saturn (lacuna); on the day of the sun, there truly assemble fine ships.'[167] Skene's version is somewhat different, still the eight are there.

In the Ritual where the solar imagery has become eschatological, and has to be read backward to recover the primary meaning, the solar (or spiritual) place of rebirth is in An, the On of the Hebrew writings. In this region we find the Hall of Two Truths in which 'a soul is separated from its sins.' One name of the hall is the uskh, the water-place, the limit, the division. The Uskh Hall has for determinative the three feathers, corresponding to the three feathers [p.438] of Wales, and Layamon, in his Brut, tells us that, when the good Belin had made the burgh of Caerleon, he called it 'Caer-usk.'[168] The ex and usk of our water-names sometimes permute, as do husk and huck, for a pod; and as before suggested, Oxford with its uskhs (halls) is not merely the water-ford, but represents that crossing of the boundary where we find the Uskh Hall in An.

The crossing is preserved by name in the Ex, X, or cross sign (Î). Exan is a name of Cross-wort and the Ex-ford is the ford of the crossing where the water and the Hall of the Two Truths are found in the solar circle. The Uskh-Hall is extant in the Esking, a name of the pentice or sloping roof.

Caer-leon, which had belonged to the Sabean naming, was changed by the sun-god Belin the Good, i.e., Nefer-Baal, into Caer-Usk. The quadrangular caer of the Cymry is the four-cornered kher of Egypt. This was the shrine of religion, the cell of the priest, the oracle of the divine word. The Cymric caer or car passed out as the Gadhaelic ku and English cell. There are 1400 kils in Ireland, a considerable number in Scotland, and some in Wales. These were not founded, although they were adopted, by the Christian missionaries, the cuckoos who did not build their own nests. The kirbys are the places of the ancient kirs and kils, which were there ready to be renamed.

The suggestion now to be made is that the four sets and four kars of the double Dyved were a localization of Sesennu, and that this region was the probable place of the first landing, colonization, and naming of the Egyptians in Britain.

In British fable, Devon is one of the heroes who came into the island with Brute, our Pryd. He is famous for chasing a giant to a vast pit eight lugs across; the monster, in trying to leap the chasm, fell backwards and lost his life. The giant is a type of the vast, the unmeasured; Devon is the mapper-out and measurer; hence, when Brute portioned out the island, this fell to Devon's-share.

'And eke that ample pit, yet far renowned
For the great leap which Devon did compel
Coulin to make, being eight lugs of ground,
Into the which returning back, he fell.'[169]

A lug is a measure of land, as is a league, it is the log or reckoning, Egyptian lekh, of various lengths, as a pole, a sea-mile, or three miles. The mythical pit represents the kar (Eg.), and it is the pit of eight 'lugs' across. Devon, according to Spenser, is followed by Corin, who gave the name to Cornwall[170]. These answer to the double kars or Wales. Devon, being a mythical name, applies equally to Dyved, and the eight lugs correspond to the eight sets and kars.

But we can bring this naming of the two lands, according to the [p.439] Egyptian imagery and mode of expression, to a yet finer point than in the double caers of Wales and Cornwales with the four sets and four saers on either side of the water. It will be suggested that the landing-place was in Menevia, now called St. David's. In Dyved we find the seven provinces of Sut-Typhon. Dyved from the ap or af is primal. This ap enters into Menapia as the primordial, ancestral district. Not far from this point and place of landing is Cardigan Bay. Into this runs the tefi, named like the land, as the first of the rivers of Dyved. Its water is the line of division between North and South Wales. Here then is the lesser and prior form of the dual circle of two halves; in Egyptian, this is karti, and karti-gan is cardigan. Khen (Eg.) means to alight, rest, a sanctuary, and a central apartment, or dwelling-place. And the central dwelling-place in the double orbit of north and south, the karti, still bears the name in Cardigan.

We may venture a little further inland. The first of the shires distinguished from the caers and sets is Shropshire. Shrop, scrob, or salop, are all derived from kherp (Eg.), the first form, model, figure. The first division, called a shire instead of a caer, would be Kherp (Eg.) -shire, or Kherf-shire, and in this county the name is extant as that of the river Corve. Moreover we see the people of inner Wales pushing farther in, as the first inhabitants of east Shropshire known in the pre-Roman times were the Cornavii.

The Romans called Salisbury, or Sarum, Sorbidunum, i.e., Kherp-dun, and the name in connection with Stonehenge on the plain shows that here was the sovereign sanctuary the kherp, the first, consecrated, excelling, surpassing, ruling seat (dun) of worship. So in Coptic the Egyptian kherp becomes sorb. The same root is represented by the royal name of Corfe, and the Glev of Gloucester.

This word kherp is the most probable original of the name of Europe, answering to the first quarter named in the north. This important root will be elaborately treated in the 'Typology of Naming.' Meantime it may be reiterated that kherp means first in form or any other condition of being. The kherp is the king as first person; the prow of the vessel as forepart; the paddle as primary means of propelling. It is the first castle as Corfe, the first shire as Shrop, and will equally apply to Europe as the north land discovered by the Cymry or Khafitic race.

Kherp meant to paddle and steer, at a time when both were one, and Europe, the isles of the Gevi, were the first lands steered for, therefore the kherp, whence Europe. This also is the most probable origin of Albion. Aristotle mentions the islands of Albion and Iërne four hundred years before Julius Caesar[171] is supposed to have named the land in Latin. 'Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called [p.440] Britannia; these are Albion and Iërne.'[172] The name is not derived from Albus (Lat.), the white. The ancient inhabitants are called Albionës. Uni is the Egyptian name for inhabitants. The kherpi­uni (Albioni) would be the first people of the isle, as the kherp. Such a derivation may be followed farther north to the land of the Lap (kherp), the first who prowled or paddled to that region.

The various names of Ireland, Eiri, Er Eriu, Heriu, Ieriu, Iveriu, Iberiu, Greek Ierna, Ptolemy's Iouerna[173], Mela's Iuverna[174], and the still earlier Hibernia, all point to a typical name corresponding to the form Iberia, and ib, iv, and hib all meet to unify at last in kheb or khef, a name of the genetrix. This name, first applied to the north by the Sabeans to denote the hinder-part of the heavens, the cave of production, when the Dog-star determined the south to be the front, was extended to the west, the Ament in the solar reckoning, and the kheb, or Sabean north, became the solar west. Hence there is a goddess Kheft, who is lady of the country, or heaven, the lady of the west, the place of going down of the sun and hinder-part to the east, the front, reckoning by sunrise. Now the persistence of the 'iu' in the variants Eriu, Ieriu, Heriu, Iveriu, and Iberiu (the n in Erin and Hibernia, is later) leads me to think it may be the Egyptian 'iu,' which is dual and duplicates. Thus kheb-er-iu would be the twin, secondary or duplicated division (er) of the kheb quarter, in short, the western kheb, and secondary to the north in accordance with the solar reckoning. Kheb-er-iu read as Egyptian is the secondary kheb, which was the western the solar kheb, whereas the northern was stellar[175], and Ireland is still the typical 'Land of the West.'

With the restored readings (no primitive word begins with a vowel), Kherp-ion (Albion) and Kheb-eriu (Ireland) will also yield the first and second in another sense, and in the order of Albion and Iërne[176], the final Great Britain and Ireland.

Romana was one of the native names of the island of Britain. Rumena in Egyptian signifies the extent of, extending as far as, the limit, or thus far. So read, Romana would be named as the farthest point of land. Thule is another name, which read as Egyptian corroborates that of Romana. Tur (Eg.) is the extremity, boundary, frontier, land's end, as in Ultima Thule, or the Dhur of the Butt of Lewis.

In the accounts preserved by the Triads one of the three names given to Britain is 'Glas Merddyn,' or the green spot defended by water; that is, the green island. Mer or meru (Eg.) is an isle. Mer and mer-t are names of the sea, the water-circle. Ten means to be cut off, divided, made separate; or mert is the water, and ten the seat, an early form of the tun. Mert-tun (Welsh dyn) yields the island as the sea-surrounded tun. [p.441] England, we are assured, is named from the Angles. But one begins, not without reason, to doubt everything currently taught concerning our past. To the people of Brittany this country was their Ancou-land; the land of souls, to which the spirits of the dead crossed over by night on the Ancou-car, as the souls of the Norse heroes passed to Britinia, the White Island of their mythology. Ankow in Cornish is death; but in Brittany the Carr-au-Ancou is the soul-car. The Egyptian word ankhiu is a name often used for the departed, and in the Inscription of Una[177] the coffin is called the hen en ankhiu, or chest of the living. In the German mythology and folklore England is a land of spirits, and when the revenant visits her mortal lover, nothing is more common than for her to hear the bells ringing, or the spirit-voices calling for her in England. But this could hardly be because some people called Angles once landed in the isle. Of course it is not the land we know, that is meant, but the name of England the island and England the spirit-land have a common origin. They are identical, because in Egyptian ankh is the word for life. Ankh-land was the land of life in mythology localized by name in England. And for the people on the mainland the white island beyond the waters was blended with the ankh-land that lay on the other side of the waters crossed by the souls in death.

England is thus treated as the land of life, or souls, and a similar thing occurs when Homer sends Ulysses to consult the dead in the north, the country of the Kimmeroi[178].

Khema is Egyptian for the dead, and rui, the isles. These were astronomical, and belonged to the underworld in the north, where the sun travelled in passing from the west to the east, and the Isles of the Cymry are located geographically in the same direction. There is another cause for this confusion or interfusion. England, according to the Roman report, was looked upon from the continental side as the supreme fount of Druidic lore. If, as is more than probable, the Egyptians made this their earliest seat and permanent centre, if this was the island first lighted up, the beacon first kindled to shine, across the waters as an intellectual Pharos to the mainland in the dark night of the past, the fame of the geographical England would also help to blend it with the mythical ankh-land. Moreover, there are reasons for thinking that this was literally the land of the dead (or spiritual living), used as such for the burial of those who belonged to the Druidical religion, and that to cross the waters for burial was a typical custom, a symbolical ceremony, whilst our island was the favourite funeral ground, an ark amid the waters, the ankh-land that was the ark-land.

Ankh-land is an Egyptian compound as ankh-ta, the name of a quarter in Memphis. Ankh-taui is the double land of life, or the land of death and new life. Between the two lay the water that was [p.442] crossed in death, and this passage was represented in the ferrying of the mummy over the River Nile. Britain and Brittany were the two halves of this water-divided land of life. And according to Egyptian ideas, the dead would be carried to the other side for the resting-place across the water. This would be the ankh-land to that, and Brittany to Britain. Thus we find the ankh-land there in Anjou and Angevin. The name of England as the typical land of life is illustrated by the mummers or guisers of Derbyshire, who perform a play of St. George. The opponent of the hero is Slasher, a type-name for the fighter. The equivalent of slash is found in sersh, an Egyptian name of a military standard. Slasher is slain, and it is the part of the king of England to restore the fallen Slasher to life again[179]. The monarch explains that he is the king of England, the greatest man alive (ankh).

'When Hempe is spun, England's done,' says the ancient distich. Bacon[180] interpreted this as a prophecy signifying that with the end of the reigns of Henry, Edward, Mary, Philip, and Elizabeth, whose initials form the word H.E.M.P.E., England would be merged in Great Britain. Such prophecies belong to the hieroglyphics. Hemp is synonymous with the hank as the hangman's noose. The noose is the ankh. The goddess Ank wears the hemp on her head; the ankh (hank), loop of twisted hemp or flax, was the sign of living; when this (as hemp) is spun out, the ankh-land is done. This seems to be an allusion to the living and to the land of life.

When Bede[181] calls his countrymen the Angli, it does not seem probable he should mean that the people of the island were Angles because of three boat-loads of Norse pirates having landed in Thanet, who were followed by hordes of Jutes, Saxons, and Angles. The British people could not have become the Angli in that sense any more than they had become Romans. Procopius[182], in the sixth century, mentions the Angili of Brittia, opposite to the mouth of the Rhine. Had Britain then received its type-name from the continental Angles? The Ang-ili, Inch-ili, Eng-ili, were the islanders. Ankh is an ethnological or topographical name in the texts as 'Ankh, native of a district.'[183] That district would therefore be ankh-land. The dead of Memphis rested in ankh-ta, the land of life. The eternal region was represented by an island, the Island of Tattu amid the waters of the Nile. Ankh-ta is ankh-land, and as an island or inch-land that was England in Egypt. Lastly, England has been the ankh-land ever since it was named Inis-Prydhain by the Cymry. Inis and Inch (as in Inchkeith) are identical with ing, eng, or ankh, and the island is the ankh-land, the inch-land, ynis-land, or England, because it was the island and the land of the ings, which name was afterwards turned into Angleland.

It has been suggested that the Euskarian or Iberic etan, as in [p.443] Maur-etan-ia, Lus-etan-ia, Ed-etan-that, Cos-etan-that, LaC-etani, Carp-etani, Or-etani, Turd-etani, and many others, is contained in the name of Britain. The present writer sees in the etan a form of the tun, as circle or enclosure. Aten or uten (Eg.) means to form the circle, and huten is the circle. The exact equivalent of Etan is utan (Eg.), later etan, the name of a consecration, sacrifice, offering, and libation. These were made in the tun, as the seat and circle of the dead. Uti (Eg.) is the name of the coffin and embalmment. Hudun in Arabic is burying; and as all the chief type-names for the dwelling-place are derived from the place of sepulchre, the Etan is not likely to be an exception.

The ancient Britons also called the country Inis-Prydhain, the Isle of Prydhain. Nennius[184] derives the name of Britain from Brute, whom we identify with Pryd or Prydhain, the youthful sun-god of the Britons. But it appears certain that Britain was inhabited by the men of the River-drift type in the Palaeolithic, if not the Pleistocene age, before Britain was broken off from the mainland to become an island, and it happens that an English word Brittene means to divide, to break off, divide into fragments. In Egyptian pri or prt signifies the thing or act in process, visibly appearing, bearing off, and running away; tna is to divide, separate in two halves. At one time the waterway was a mere frith, and prit, part, or brit is equivalent to Frith; ten, as in tine and tint for one-half bushel, is the Egyptian tena, to be made separate or twain. As we have seen, this principle of naming the land visibly divided and made separate was applied to the Isle of Thanet; and the Brittany on one side of the Channel and Britain on the other are geologically known to have been divided in two; the names are there in accordance with the fact as if to register it, and prove that they had been one, whilst Brittene in English and Prit-tena in Egyptian agree in showing they were named as the land that was known to be, was manifestly, even visibly broken and separated in twain. Britain and Brittany, then, we take to have been named as the broken and divided land; as the visibly-divided land, or as the land in the process of visibly dividing, separating, and becoming two.

So in a thousand ways and things, myths, rites, customs, folklore, superstitions, words, names of places, and persons, dead Egypt, so called, is yet living in Britain, and has but undergone her own typical transformation which the rest of the world considers to be death.





This page last updated: 04/05/2014