The kheri, p. 36.

These are two forms of the kheri or bound victim, intended to illustrate the text of Psalms 22:16.


Ibri, p. 118.

Perhaps the more exact meaning of the ibri or ירבע writing may be found in the Assyrian 'gabri' as in the phrase 'Ki pi duppi u lamadi labiruti Gabri Assur u Akkad,' occurring in a lexicographical tablet on which the two languages of Akkad and Assyria are arranged in parallel columns. Gab (Akk.) has the meaning of breast, thence abreast; kab (fig.) means double, to redouble; ri (Akk.) to place. Ru or rui (Eg.) denotes the writing, chapter, or section. Gabri signifies the doubly-written tablet or duplicated writing.


Balaam, p. 269.

Instead of rendering this name by am (Eg.), belonging to Baal, it would have been better to have suggested am (Eg.) or kam, to find, discover, interpret, or make known. Baal as discoverer is in keeping with Balaam the prophesier, who foresees and foretells of the coming sun-god, with Israel in the tents of the twelve tribes (or solar signs), and is thus self-identified with Bar-Typhon in his second type; that of Sut-Anup the solar guide. The two stations on the high place of Baal and the top of Pisgah, chosen as the two points for overlooking and making the announcement, agree with those of Sut-Anup which were represented by his double house. According to the Haggadah, Balaam was lame of one foot, and in this character he is connected with the first high place[1]. The lame phase further identifies the first type of the two assigned to the dual divinity, whether as star-god or later solar god.


The Egyptian Ritual or Book of the Dead.

'Dr. Birch's translation (of the Ritual) though made about thirty years ago, before some of the most important discoveries of the full meaning of words, may still be considered extremely exact as a rendering of the Turin text; and to an Englishman gives nearly as correct an impression of the original as the text itself would do to an Egyptian who had not been carefully taught the mysteries of his religion.'[2] A revised edition of this supremely important work ought to appear in Professor Max Muller's Sacred Writings of the World[3]. At present Birch's version is buried in the fifth volume of Bunsen's Egypt's Place in Universal History[4].


Zodiac of Denderah.

P. le Page Renouf, in reply to MacLennan, points out that, so far from this being a work of great antiquity, it belongs to the very latest period of Egyptian workmanship[5]. But he has not done what the Greco-Egyptian artists did who gave the Greek on one side and the Egyptian on the other. An inscription found at Denderah states that the building had been restored in accordance with a plan discovered in the writings of Khufu whilst another account of the same plan of the temple refers it to the time of the Shus-en-Har, and a leathern roll or parchment of that date is said to have been found hidden within a brick wall of the southern temple, which was built by King Pepi of the sixth dynasty[6]. Grant that Greco-Egyptian artists reproduced the ceiling of the temple of Denderah, that does not make the signs Greek. The Greeks were not the inventors of the celestial types which they copied. What had the Greeks to do with the origins of the types? with the ancient genetrix Typhon, the mother of the revolutions, placed at the centre of all? with the Seb (jackal) next to her standing on the bow of Seb or Time? or with Anup and the dog-headed ape, drawn back to back, as representatives of Sut and Shu at the equinox? or the full moon and the eight figures of Sesennu (Smen)? or Shu and Tefnut for the Twins, who were brother and sister? or the child Horus issuing from the lotus, held up in the hand of his mother, and figured also in the full moon of the autumn equinox? or Khunsu holding forth the pig in the disk of the full moon? What had the Greeks to do with originating these and many other types found in the planisphere of Denderah? The antiquity has to be judged by the age of the types, and not by the last time these were repeated.

Bunsen has stated that the Egyptians were unacquainted with the twelve signs of the zodiac[7]; they who can be proved to have mapped out the heavens and turned them into chambers of their mythological imagery. They could not have had the thirty-six decans without these implying the twelve signs. But more of this hereafter. In repeating the names of Sut and Seb it may be well to note that they are synonymous as representatives of the earth or lower heaven. The jackal, or wolf (Seb) is a type of Sut (Anup), and I look upon Seb as the undegraded form in which Sut was continued. The name of Seb is contained in that of Sebti, whence Suti and Sut, who was the dual representative of Seb (Time), and who is for ever related to Sothis, the primordial star of all time, as the duplicator or repeater. Sut could not be divorced from the phenomenal origin of time, whereas Seb was more abstract, a personation of time in general. Just as Nut took the place of the earlier genetrix Typhon, so did Seb supersede Sut as the first, the father of the gods, who was primarily the boy born of Typhon. The goose of Seb is Apt, a name of the oldest Great Mother, and Smen, a name for the place of the eight in the beginning, or from the egg laid by the goose. Seb, described as the earth, and Nut, his consort, as heaven, is too late, too vague, for the present purpose; it does not reach the origins. Proof that Seb was a continuation of Sut may be adduced in this way. The first four genii of the four quarters include Sut-Anup (who was earlier than Taht as the Hermanubis) called Tua-Mutf, the worshipper of the mother. And when the four genii were represented by the later four rams (as in the Inscription of Psametik[8]) and the Great Mendes Stele[9], the place of Sut is assigned to Seb.





This page last updated: 03/06/2009