THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE DIEYERIE TRIBE
OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES

EMBRACING AN ACCOUNT OF THE CHARACTER OF THE RACE;
THE COUNTRY IT INHABITS; ITS RITES, CEREMONIES, AND SUPERSTITIONS;
ITS SOCIAL USAGES AND LAWS; THE DISEASES PECULIAR TO IT.

A CATALOGUE OF ANIMALS. PLANTS, WEAPONS, AND ORNAMENTS, ACCOMPANIED BY THE NATIVE NAMES
TOGETHER WITH
EXAMPLES OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE DIALECT, AND A COMPLETE VOCABULARY.

By SAMUEL GASON, Police Trooper.
Edited by GEORGE ISAACS.
 

[Extracted from Woods' The Native Tribes of South Australia, London, 1879, pp. 253-307.]



PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.


In submitting this small volume to the public, I have little to urge in recommendation of it, further than to say that it is strictly accurate; a sojourn of over nine years in the Dieyerie country, and constant intercourse with the tribe, having familiarised me with their language, and their manners and customs.

I deprecate criticism only as regards my notes on the construction of the language, which, unassisted by any works of reference, I have been able to base alone on the analogy of words, and, therefore, this part of my work may be defective, but I trust not so much so, but that it may form a foundation on which a philologist may build a more elevated structure.

The motives urging me to publication are twofold; firstly, that I thought a record of the characteristics and tongue of a race fast dying out, might possess an interest hereafter; and, secondly, but chiefly, because an acquaintance with them may be of some assistance to those pious missionaries and others, who are extending so greatly inland this vast continent, civilisation, through its gracious handmaiden, Christianity.

SAMUEL GASON.



EDITOR'S NOTE.

The part I have had in the production of this work is so very subordinate, that I would willingly have omitted my name to it, had not the author, with a too great diffidence in his own labours, and a too flattering sense of my services, pressed me for it; and I consented, only on being permitted to say that I did little more than arrange and classify the interesting papers confided to my charge.

 


 

THE DIEYERIE TRIBE OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES.

PART I.
THE TRIBE, COUNTRY, NEIGHBOURS, GOOD AND EVIL QUALITIES, LOVE OF BARTERING,
FOOD, DOGS, TRADITIONS OF THE CREATION AND OF THE SUN, SUBDIVISION INTO FAMILIES.

The Dieyerie tribe numbers about 230, the four neighbouring tribes,—the Yandrawontha, Yarrawaurka, Auminie, and Wongkaooroo, about 800—in all about 1030.

Their country is about 630 miles north of Adelaide, the capital of the Province of South Australia, and is bounded at the most southerly point by Mount Freeling, at the most northerly point by Pirigundi Lake (on the Cooper River), at the most easterly point by Lake Hope, and at the most westerly point at a part yet unnamed, but about eighty miles from Lake Hope. This country is traversed by Cooper's Creek—there only a chain of lakes without any defined channel.

Their language is understood by the four neighbouring tribes, with whom they keep up ostensibly a friendly intercourse, inviting and being invited to attend each other's festivals, and mutually bartering; but in secret they entertain a most deadly enmity to each other, although at the same time believing that they came from a parent stock, and even intermarrying.

A more treacherous race I do not believe exists. They imbibe treachery in infancy, and practise it until death, and have no [p.258] sense of wrong in it. Gratitude is to them an unknown quality. No matter how kind or generous you are to them, you cannot assure yourself of their affection. Even amongst themselves, for a mere trifle, they would make the life of their dearest friend, and consequently are in constant dread of each other, while their enmity to the white man is only kept in abeyance by fear. They will smile and laugh in your face, and the next moment, if opportunity offers, kill you without remorse. Kindness they construe into fear; and, had it not been for the determination and firmness of the early settlers, they would never have been allowed to occupy the country. The tribe is numerous, and if they knew (and it is feared they will eventually learn) their own power, the present white inhabitants could not keep them down, or for one day retain their possessions. They seem to take a delight in lying, especially if they think it will please you. Should you ask them any question, be prepared for a falsehood, as a matter of course. They not only lie to the white man, but to each other, and do not appear to see any wrong in it.

Notwithstanding, however, what has been said of their treachery, and however paradoxical it may appear, they possess in an eminent degree the three great virtues of hospitality, reverence to old age, and love for their children and parents. Should any stranger arrive at their camp, food is immediately set before him.

The children are never beaten, and should any woman violate this law, she is in turn beaten by her husband. Notwithstanding this tenderness for their remaining offspring, about 30 percent are murdered by their mothers at their birth, simply for these reasons—firstly, that many of them marrying very young their firstborn is considered immature and not worth preserving; and secondly, because they do not wish to be at the trouble of rearing them, especially if weakly. Indeed, all sickly or deformed children are made away with in fear of their becoming a burden to the tribe. The children so destroyed are generally smothered in sand, or have their brains dashed out by some weapon, the men never interfering, or any of either sex regarding [p.259] infanticide as crime. Hardly an old woman, if questioned, but will admit of having disposed in this manner of from two to four of her offspring.

Their whole life is spent in bartering; they rarely retain any article for long. The articles received by them in exchange one day are bartered away the next, whether at a profit or loss. Should any one of them, more shrewd than another, profit on one occasion by this traffic, he is sure immediately after to sacrifice his advantage, and the majority of their quarrels are caused by bartering or refusing to barter.

Their food is principally vegetable, animals being very scarce, if we except rats and their species, and snakes and other reptiles, of which there is an unlimited number. There are no kangaroo, and very few emu, the latter of which is their favourite food; and occasionally, in very hot weather, they secure one by running it down. In a dry season they mainly subsist on ardoo, but in a good season, with plenty of rain, they have an ample supply of seeds, which they grind or pound, make into small loaves, and bake in the ashes. They gather, also, then plenty of plants, herbs, and roots, a description of which, with their native names, appears in another place.

Their dogs, of which every camp has from six to twenty, are generally a mangy lot, but the natives are very fond of them, and take as much care of them as if they were human. If a white man wants to offend a native let him beat his dog. I have seen women crying over a dog, when bitten by snakes, as if over their own children. The Dieyerie would as soon think of killing themselves as their dogs, which are of great service to them—assisting them to find snakes, rats, &c.

Animal food being very scanty, the natives subsist chiefly on vegetable matter, so that eating the flesh of any animal they may procure, the dog, notwithstanding its services and their affection for it, fares very badly, receiving nothing but the bones. Hence the dog is always in very low condition, and consequently peculiarly subject to the diseases that affect the canine race.

[p.260]

THEIR TRADITIONS.—THE CREATION.

In the beginning, say the Dieyerie, the Mooramoora (Good Spirit) made a number of small black lizards (these are still to be met with under dry bark), and being pleased with them he promised they should have power over all other creeping things. The Mooramoora then divided their feet into toes and fingers, and placing his forefinger on the centre of the face created a nose, and so in like manner afterwards eyes, mouth, and ears. The spirit then placed one of them in a standing position, which it could not, however, retain, whereupon the Deity cut off the tail, and the lizard walked erect. They were then made male and female, so as to perpetuate the race, and leave a tribe to dispute their ancestry with Darwin's monkeys.

Men, women, or children do not vary in the slightest degree in this account of their creation.

CREATION OF THE SUN.

Their traditions suppose that man and all other beings were created by the moon, at the bidding of the Mooramoora. Finding the emu pleasant to the sight, and judging it to be eatable (but unable, owing to its swiftness, to catch it during the cold that then prevailed), the Mooramoora was appealed to to cast some heat on the earth so as to enable them to run down the desired bird. The Mooramoora, complying with their request, bade them perform certain ceremonies (yet observed, but too obscene to be described), and then created the sun.

MURDOO—(Subdivision of Tribe into Families.)

Murdoo means taste, but in its primary and larger signification implies family, founded on the following tradition.

After the creation, as previously related, fathers, mothers, sisters, brothers, and others of the closest kin intermarried promiscuously, until the evil effects of these alliances becoming manifest, a council of the chiefs was assembled to consider in what way they might be averted, the result of their deliberations being a petition to the Mooramoora, in answer to which he ordered that [p.261] the tribe should be divided into branches, and distinguished one from the other by different names, after objects animate and inanimate, such as dogs, mice, emu, rain, iguana, and so forth, the members of any such branch not to intermarry, but with permission for one branch to mingle with another. Thus the son of a dog might not marry the daughter of a dog, but either might form an alliance with a mouse, an emu, a rat, or other family.

This custom is still observed, and the first question asked of a stranger is "What Murdoo?" namely. Of what family are you?


[p.262]

PART II.

COUNCILS, TREATY, MODE OF RECEPTION, ARMED PARTY, LAWS.—CEREMONIES—HOLE IN THE NOSE, EXTRACTION OF TEETH, CIRCUMCISION, TO PROCURE HARVEST, TO INVOKE PEACE, OPERATION OF KOOLPIE, FUNERAL RITES, DEATH SPELL, MAKING OF RAIN, MAKING WILD FOWL LAY EGGS, MAKING IGUANAS, SUPERSTITION ABOUT TREES AND IGUANAS, REMEDY FOR ACCIDENTS, EXPEDITION FOR RED OCHRE, DISEASES AND DOCTOR, CURE FOR WOUNDS.

COUNCILS.

Should any matter of moment have to be considered—such as removing the camps, making of rain, marrying, circumcision, or what not—one of the old men moots the subject late at night, before the camp retires to rest. At dawn of the succeeding day, each question, as proposed by the old man, is answered at once or, should they wait until he has finished, three or four speak together; with this exception, there being no interruptions, and stillness prevailing in the camp. At first they speak slowly and quietly, each sentence in its delivery occupying three or four minutes, but generally become excited before the conclusion of their speeches.

TREATY.

Should there be any misunderstanding between two tribes the women of one are sent to the other as ambassadors to arrange the dispute, which they invariably succeed in doing, when women from the other return the visit to testify their approval of the treaty arrived at. The reason women are appointed in this capacity is that they are free from danger, while, should the men go, their lives would be in peril.

[p.263]

MODE OF RECEPTION.

A native of influence, on arriving at one of the camps of his own tribe, is usually received in the following manner:—On approaching the camp, the inmates close in with raised arms, as in defence; upon this, the person of note rushes at them, making a faint blow as if to strike them, they warding it off with their shields; immediately after they embrace him and lead him into the camp, where the women shortly bring him food. Should any females related to him be present they cry with joy. If he visits a neighbouring tribe he is received in the same manner as by his own.

A native of no influence or note, on returning after considerable absence, takes his seat near the camp without passing any remark. After remaining a few minutes as if dumb, the old men close round him, ask where he came from, and what befell him, when he tells them plenty of news, not forgetting to embellish. Then two old men stand up, one retailing it, and the other repeating the sentences in an excited manner. Upon this, as on all other occasions, the new comer is hospitably received, plenty to eat being furnished him.

PINYA.—(Armed Party.)

The armed band, entrusted with the office of executing offenders (elsewhere referred to), is entitled Pinya, and appointed as follows:—A council is called of all the old men of the tribe; the chief —a native of influence—selecting the men for the pinya, and directing when to proceed on their sanguinary mission. The night prior to starting, the men composing the pinya, at about seven p.m., move out of the camp to a distance of about three hundred yards, where they sit in a circle, sticking their spears in the ground near them. The women form an outer circle round the men, a number of them bearing firesticks in their hands. The chief opens the council by asking who caused the death of their friend or relative, in reply to which the others name several natives of their own or neighbouring tribes, each attaching the crime to his bitterest enemy. The chief, perceiving [p.264] whom the majority would have killed, calls out his name in a loud voice, when each man grasps his spear. The women, who have firesticks, lay them in a row, and, while so placing them, call out the name of some native, till one of them calls that of the man previously condemned, when all the men simultaneously spear the firestick of the woman who has named the condemned. Then the leader takes hold of the firestick, and, after one of the old men has made a hole a few inches deep in the ground with his hand, places the firestick in it, and covers it up, all declaring that they will slay the condemned, and see him buried like that stick. After going through some practices too beastly to name the women return to the camp.

The following morning, at sunrise, the pinya attire themselves in a plaited band painted white (charpoo), and proceed on their journey, until within a day's stage of the place where they suppose the man they seek will be found, and remain there during the day in fear they may be observed by some straggling native. At sunset they renew their journey until within a quarter of a mile of their intended victim's camp, when two men are sent out as spies to the camp, to ascertain if he is there, and, if possible where he sleeps. After staying there about two hours, they report what they have seen and heard.

The next thing done is the smearing of the pinya with white clay, so as to distinguish them from the enemy, in case any of the latter should endeavour to escape. They then march towards the camp at a time when they think the inmates are asleep, from about midnight to two a.m.; and, when within one hundred yards of it, divide into two parties, one going round on one side of the camp, and the second round on the other—forming a complete circle to hinder escape. The dogs begin to bark, and the women to whimper, not daring to cry aloud for fear of the pinya; who, as they invest the camp, make a very melancholy grunting noise. Then one or two walk up to the accused, telling him to come out and they will protect him, which he, aware of the custom, does not believe, yet he obeys, as he is powerless to resist.

[p.265]

In the meanwhile, boughs are distributed by the pinya to all the men, women, and children, wherewith to make a noise in shaking, so that friends and relatives of the condemned may not hear his groans while he is being executed. The pinya then kill the victim by spearing him and striking him with the two-handed weapon, avoiding to strike him below the hips, as they believe, were they to injure the legs, they would be unable to return home.

The murder being consummated, they wait for daylight, when the young men of the pinya are ordered to lie down. The old men then wash their weapons, and, getting all the gore and flesh adhering to them off, mix it with some water; this agreeable draught being carried round by an old man, who bestows a little upon each young man to swallow, believing that thereby they will be inspired with courage and strength for any pinya they may afterwards join. The fat of the murdered man is cut off and wrapped round the weapons of all the old men, which are then covered with feathers. They then make for home.

LAW OF MURDER.

If two or more men fight, and one of the number should be accidentally killed, he who caused his death must also suffer it. But should the offender have an elder brother, then he must die in his place; or, should he have no elder brother, then his father must be his substitute; but in case he has no male relative to suffer for him, then he himself must die. He is not allowed to defend himself, nor, indeed, is he aware of when the sentence may be executed. He knows the laws. On some night appointed, an armed party surround and despatch him. Two sticks each of about six inches in length—one representing the killed, and the other the executed—are then buried, and upon no occasion is the circumstance afterwards referred to.

Should a man of influence and well-connected, that is, having numerous relatives, die suddenly, or after a long illness, the tribe believe that he has been killed by some charm. A secret council is held, and some unhappy innocent is accused and condemned, and dealt with by the pinya as previously described.

[p.266]

LAW OF FELONY, &C.

Should any native steal from another, and the offender be known, he is challenged to fight by the person he has robbed, and this settles the matter.

Should any native accuse another wrongfully, he is dealt with in the same manner as for stealing.

Children are not punished on committing theft, but the father or mother has to fight with the person from whom the property was stolen, and upon no occasion, as stated elsewhere, are the children beaten.

MOODLAWILLPA.—(Hole in the Nose.)

This operation is inflicted on the boy or girl at the age of from five to ten years. The father generally proposes to the other denizens of the camp, to have his child's nose pierced, and one old man is selected to perform the ceremony, which is usually done at mid-day. A piece of wood, six inches long, from a tree called Cooyamurra (a species of acacia), is pointed at one end sufficiently sharp to pierce the nose, the partition of which the operator takes in his left hand, while he pierces it with the right. A few minutes before, and during the operation, the men and women sing, believing that by singing a great deal of the pain is taken away from the child. The hole being made, a large quill about a quarter of an inch in diameter is placed in it to prevent it from closing up, and kept there until the wound is thoroughly healed.

The word Moodlawillpa is derived from moodla (nose) and willpa (hole), hence, hole in the nose.

CHIRRINCHIRRIE.—(Extraction of the Teeth).

From the age of eight to twelve years, the two front teeth of the upper jaw are taken out in the following manner:—Two pieces of the Cooyamurm tree, each about a foot long are sharpened at one end to a wedge-like shape, then placed on either side of the tooth to be extracted, and driven between as tightly as possible. The skin of a wallaby, in two or three folds [p.267] is then placed on the tooth about to be drawn, after which a stout piece of wood, about two feet long is applied to the wallaby skin, and struck with a heavy stone, two blows of which are sufficient to loosen the tooth, when it is pulled out by the hand. This operation is repeated on the second tooth. As soon as the teeth are drawn, a piece of damp day is placed on the holes whence they were extracted, to stop the bleeding.

The boy or girl (for this ceremony is performed indifferently on either sex), is forbidden to look at any of the men whose faces may be turned from them, but may look at those in front of them, as it is thought that should the boy or girl look towards the men while their backs are turned from them, the child's mouth would close up, and, consequently never allow them to eat thereafter. For three days this prohibition is maintained after which it is removed. The teeth drawn are placed in the centre of a bunch of emu feathers, smeared with fat, and kept for about twelve months, or some length of time, under the belief that if thrown away, the eagle-hawk would cause larger ones to grow in their place, turn up on the upper lip, and thus cause death.

The Dieyerie, on being questioned, can assign no reason for thus disfiguring their children, than that when they were created the Mooramoora1 knocked out two front teeth of the upper jaw of the first child, and pleased at the sight, commanded that such should be done to every male or female child for ever after.

This ceremony has been witnessed by me on several occasions, and though it must be very painful, the boy or girl never winces.

KURRAWELLIE WONKANNA. (Circumcision.)

As soon as the hair on the boy's face makes its appearance, a council of old men, not relatives to the boy, is held; but no warning is given to him or his parents. Everything is kept secret. A woman, also not related to the boy, is then selected, and her [p.268] duty is to suspend a mussel-shell round his neck. Whereupon some appointed night, just before the camp retires to sleep, ordinarily about nine p.m., she watches an opportunity to speak to him, during which she contrives to cast over the boy's head a piece of twine, to which the shell is attached by a hole drilled at one end. He, knowing the meaning of this by having observed the same thing done to other boys, immediately runs out of the camp. The inhabitants of the camp upon learning what has happened, directly commence crying and shrieking at the top of their voices. The father and elder brothers at this become excited and quarrelsome, demanding by what right the old men of the camp seized their sons or brothers. However, after about an hour quarrelling (without fighting), they go to sleep as if nothing happened.

In the meanwhile the boy remains alone, camped by himself until the following day, when the young men (not relatives), find him, and take him away to other camps, fifty, or sometimes one hundred miles distant, for the purpose of inviting other natives to the intended ceremony. The lad, during the night keeps aloof from the camps he has been led to; at daybreak before the camp arises, being away hunting; and at night can be about four hundred yards apart from the other natives. During the boy's absence, his near relatives collect all the hair of the heads of the men, women, and children, till they are thoroughly shorn, spin it, and twist it into a fine thread about the thickness of ordinary twine, in one continuous length, without breaking it, about 500 yards. This is made for the purpose of winding round the waist of the lad after circumcision, when it is called Yinkalla.

On the day previous to that appointed for the ceremony, about four p.m., all the old women of the camp are sent in search of the boy, knowing where to find him; for, after proceeding as before described, a distance from his relatives, occupying so long as a fortnight, he returns homeward, and prepares the knowledge of his whereabouts by raising smoke twice or thrice each day, which also indicates that he is alive. They then bring him into the camp when he is directed to stand up for a few minutes until every [p.269] thing is ready. (The natives never can prepare until the very last moment, generally causing much confusion when the time arrives for work.) The father and near relatives walk up to the lad and embrace him, when immediately two or three smart young men rush at the boy, place him on the back of another man, all the men of the camp shouting at their highest pitch, thrice. The boy is then taken about one hundred yards away from the women, and covered up in skins, remaining so till daybreak.

The father and relatives of the lad now renew their quarrelling with those that ordered the shell to be suspended to the neck of the boy, and a general fight ensues, all able-bodied men joining in the fray, each helping his friend or relative, until by the time the row is ended there are many broken heads and bruised bodies—the women in the meanwhile crying, shouting, screaming, hissing, and making many other hideous sounds, like so many hyenas.

Subsequent to the suspension of hostilities, the men keep up an incessant humming noise, or singing (not dancing), and practising most horrible customs, until about four a.m., when the women and children are ordered off to a distance of four hundred yards from the camp, where they remain beating a kind of wooden trough with their hands once every minute (as in civilised communities bells are tolled for the dead), the men replying to the noise in like manner, until day dawns, when the beating ceases. Immediately before the boy's circumcision, a young man picks up a handful of sand, and sprinkles it as he runs, round the camp, which is supposed to drive the devil out, keeping only Mooramoora, the good spirit, in. As soon as circumcision has taken place, the father stoops over the boy, and fancying himself inspired by Mooramoora to give him a name other than that he previously had, re-names him, upon which he is taken away by some young men, and kept away for three or four months after, when he returns, virtually a man; for though only a lad in years, he is allowed the same privileges as a man, in consequence of being circumcised. I have omitted to state that, in the event of no father living, his next of kin stands in place thereof.

[p.270]

Decency has compelled me to suppress the worst features of the ceremony.

WILLYAROO.—(To procure a good harvest, supply of snakes, and other reptiles)

The next ceremony, following circumcision, is that now to be described. A young man, without previous warning, is taken out of the camp by the old men, whereon the women set up crying and so continue for almost half the night. On the succeeding morning at sunrise, the men (young and old), excepting his father and elder brothers, surround him, directing him to close his eyes. One of the old men then binds another old man round his arm, near the shoulder, with string, pretty tightly, and with a sharp piece of flint lances the main artery of the arm, about an inch above the elbow, causing an instant flow of blood, which is permitted to play on the young man until his whole frame is covered with blood.2 As soon as the old man becomes exhausted from loss of blood, another is operated on, and so on two or three others in succession, until the young man becomes quite stiff and sore from the great quantity of blood adhering to his person.

The next stage in the ceremony is much worse for the young man. He is told to lie with his face down, when one or two young men cut him on the neck and shoulders with a sharp flint, about a sixteenth of an inch in depth, in from six to twelve places, which incisions create scars, which until death show that he has gone through the Willyaroo.

When tattooed, a piece of wood about nine inches long, by two and a-half wide, and about a sixteenth of an inch thick, with a hole at one end, is attached to a piece of string eight feet or so long, and this is called Yuntha, which he is instructed to twirl when hunting, so the tribe may reap a good harvest of reptiles, snakes, and other game, and every night until his wounds are healed, he must come within four hundred yards of the camp [p.271] (but no nearer), and twirl it so as to acquaint his parents that he is alive; and they may send him some food, and in the meanwhile he must look upon no woman. After perfect recovery he returns to the camp, when there is great rejoicing over the missing young man. He remains there, however, only for a few days; when, accompanied by some of the tribe, he is sent away to visit other camps for the purpose of receiving presents, such as a spear, boomerang, or other native weapon or curiosity. This flying trip is called Yinninda. On the night of his return, these presents he hands over to those who operated on him, and a song, composed during his absence by a young woman selected for that purpose, is sung by her, the men, women, and children dancing, and this revel is maintained for about two hours.

MINDARIE.—(Festival to invoke Peace.)

After enduring the ordeal of the Willyaroo, the next ceremony the young man has to go through is that of the Mindarie, which is held about once in two years by this as by other neighbouring tribes. When there are sufficient young men in the tribe who have not passed this ceremony, and each tribe being on friendly terms with the others, a council is held, when time and place are appointed in which to hold it—some three months after it is determined on—to allow the hair to grow sufficiently long to be dressed in the manner hereafter described, and those young men whose hair at the termination of this period is not long enough cannot take part in the ceremony. Women are sent to the neighbouring tribes to invite them to the ceremony, the preparations for which in building wurleys, &c., occupy from six to seven weeks. Every day witnesses fresh arrivals of men, women, and children; and as soon as the first native heaves in sight, the Mindarie song is sung, to show the stranger that he is hailed as a friend. At length all having arrived, they wait on the full of the moon, so as to have plenty of light during the ceremony, which commences at sunset In the meanwhile, at every sunrise, and at intervals during the day, every man in the camp joins in the Mindarie song. They then proceed to dress the young men who [p.272] have not gone through the ceremony previously. First of all the hair of their heads is tied with string so that it stands on end. Thippa (the tails of rats) are then fastened to the top of the hair, the ends hanging down over the shoulders. Feathers of the owl and emu are fastened on the forehead and ears. A large Yinka (previously described) is wound round their waist, in which, near the spine, a bunch of emu feathers is worn, and the face is painted red and black. By the time the young men are dressed, the sun has set.

All the men, women, and children now begin and continue to shout with the full power of their lungs, for about ten minutes. They then separate, the women going a little way from the camp to dance, while the men proceed to a distance of about three hundred yards; the site selected being a plain, generally of hard ground, which is neatly swept. A little boy about four years of age, deputed to open the ceremony, is tricked out all over with down from the swan and duck, bearing a bunch of emu feathers on his head, and having his face painted with red ochre and white clay. He dances into the ring—the young men following him. and they followed by the old men. They dance for about ten minutes, when the little boy stops the dance by running off the dancing ground.

All the young men then recommence, going through many extraordinary evolutions, standing on their toes, then on their heel, then on one leg, shaking their whole frame at a rapid rate, and keeping accurate time, throwing their hands in the air simultaneously, and clapping; running one way as fast as they can go, they will suddenly halt, renew the dance with hands and feet both in motion, again run off, perhaps twenty abreast, and at the sound of a certain word, as one man, drop one shoulder, and then the other. Then they throw themselves down on the ground, dance on their knees, again clap their hands, and accompany these postures by shouting and singing throughout the night without ceasing, the whole keeping time as perfectly as a trained orchestra. By sunrise, becoming tired, the ceremony is closed, when they retire to rest, and sleep during the day.

[p.273]

The reason of holding this ceremony is to enable all the tribes to assemble and renew peace, by making presents to each other, and amicably settle any disputes that may have arisen since the last Mindarie. The natives are all pleased at this observance, and talk of the event for many days after.

KOOLPIE.

So soon as the hair on the face of the young man is sufficiently grown to admit the ends of the beard being tied, the ceremony of the koolpie is decided on. A council of old men assemble, fix the site, and appoint a day for the operation, on the morning of which he is invited out to hunt. The young man not suspecting anything, is at a given signal seized—one of the party placing his hand on the young man's mouth, while others remove the yinka (elsewhere described) from his body. He is then directed to lie down, when a man is stationed at each limb, and another kneels on his chest to keep him steady. The operation is then commenced by first laying his penis on a piece of bark, when one of the party, provided with a sharp flint, makes an incision underneath into its passage, from the foreskin to its base. This done, a piece of bark is then placed over the wound, and tied so as to prevent it from closing up.

This concludes the operation, and the young man goes away, accompanied by one or two others, and remains away from the camp until such time as the wound is thoroughly healed, when the bark may be removed.

Men who have passed through this ceremony are permitted to appear in the camp, and before women, without wearing anything to hide their person.

FUNERAL RITES—CANNIBALISM.

When a man, woman, or child dies, no matter from what cause, the big toes of each foot are tied together, and the body enveloped in a net. The grave is dug to about three feet, and the body is carried thither on the heads of three or four men, and on arrival is placed on its back for a few minutes. Then three men kneel [p.274] down near the grave, while some other natives place the body on the heads of the kneeling men. One of the old men (usually the nearest relative) now takes two light rods, each about three feet long (these are called coonya), and holds one in each hand, standing about two yards from the corpse; then beating the coonya together, he questions the corpse, in the belief that it can understand him, inquiring how he died, who was the cause of his death, and the name of the man who killed him—as even decease born natural causes they attribute to a charm or spell exercised by some enemy. The men sitting round act as interpreter for the defunct, and, according as the general opinion obtains, give some fictitious name of a native of another tribe.

When the old man stops beating the coonya, the men and women commence crying, and the body is removed from the heads of the bearers, and lowered into the grave, into which a native (not related to the deceased) steps, and proceeds to cut off all the fat adhering to the muscles of the face, thighs, arms, and stomach, and passes it round to be swallowed. The reason assigned for this horrible practice being that thus the nearest relatives may forget the departed, and not be continually crying.

The order in which they partake of their dead relatives is this:—The mother eats of her children. The children eat of their mother. Brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law eat of each other. Uncles, aunts, nephews, nieces, grandchildren, grandfathers, and grandmothers eat of each other. But the father does not eat of his offspring, or the offspring of the sire. After eating of the dead the men paint themselves with charcoal and fat, marking a black ring round the mouth. This distinguishing mark is called Mimamuroomuroo. The women do likewise, besides painting two white stripes on their arms, which marks distinguish those who have partaken of the late deceased; the other men smearing themselves all over with white clay, to testify their grief. The grave is covered in with earth, and a large stack of wood placed over it. The first night after the burial the women dance round the grave, crying and screaming [p.275] incessantly till sunrise, and so continue for a week or more. Should the weather be cold when a native dies, fires are lighted near the grave, so that the deceased may warm himself, and others they place food for him to eat. Invariably after a death they shift their camp, and never after speak of or refer to the defunct.

MOOKOOELLiE DUCKANA.(Bone Strike, or Death Spell.)

The words at the head of this chapter are derived from Mookoo (bone) and Duckana (strike), the compound word implying struck by a bone. As no person is supposed, from whatever cause, to die a natural death, but is conjectured to have been killed, either by one of a neighbouring tribe, or of his own, men, women and children are in constant terror of having offended some one who may therefore bear them enmity. Thus, so soon as a native becomes ill, a council is held solely to ascertain who has given him the bone. Should he remain a considerable time without a change, or his malady increase, his wife, if he has one, or if he has not, the wife of his nearest relative, is ordered to proceed to the person who is supposed to have caused the sickness. She does so, accompanied by her paramour (whose relationship is explained elsewhere), and on arrival immediately makes a few presents to the person suspected of her relative's illness, but makes no accusation against him, contenting herself with simply stating that her relative is fallen ill, and is not expected to recover; whereupon he sympathises with her, and expresses a hope that the invalid will soon be well again. He knows, however, perfectly well, though not accused, that he is suspected of having caused the malady; and, on the following morning, acquaints the woman that she can return to her relative, as he would draw all power away from the bone by steeping it in water. Accordingly the woman carries back the joyful tidings that she has seen the party who has the bone, and he has promised to take all the power out of it. Now, should the invalid happen to die, and be a person of any influence, the man who acknowledged to having the bone is [p.276] murdered on the first opportunity. Men threaten their wives, should they do anything wrong, with the bone, causing such dread in their wives, that mostly, instead of having a salutary effect, it causes them to hate their husbands.

This bone is not any ordinary one, but the small bone of the human leg; and one of every two of the natives is charged with having one in his possession wherever he may go; but, in my own experience, I have never seen more than a dozen, and those at one of their ceremonies; as for instance, when the whole tribe desire to kill at a distance, say from fifty to one hundred miles some influential man of another tribe, they order several of the old men to despoil the dead, that is to take the small legbones from many skeletons. Of these, the relicts of their own tribe they take from three to eight, which they wrap in fat and emu feathers; all the most noted men of the tribe taking them and pointing towards the place where their intended victim is supposed to reside; while doing which they curse the man they desire to kill, naming the death they would wish him. All present are bound to secrecy, and the ceremony lasts about an hour. Should they learn, after a few weeks, that the man they destine to destruction is still alive and hearty, they account for it by supposing that some one of the tribe of the person cursed had stopped the power of the bone.

So strongly are men, women, and children convinced of the power of the bone, that no reasoning can shake their belief. I have frequently asked why they did not give a bone to myself or any of the settlers, knowing that they mortally hate all white men, but they meet this by saying we are too superior in knowledge, so that the bone would have no effect on us.

THE MAKING OF RAIN.

This is one of their grandest ceremonies. When there is a drought or dry season, frequent in the Dieyerie country the natives have a hard time of it. No fresh herbs, no roots, nothing but ardoo have they to subsist on. The parched earth yielding no grass, the emu, reptiles, &c., are so poor as to be nearly value- [p.277] less for food; it is, therefore, easily perceived that to the natives rain is the supremest blessing. Believing they have the power of producing it, under the inspiration of Mooramoora (the Good Spirit), they proceed as follows:—Women, generally accompanied by their paramours,3 are despatched to the various camps to assemble the natives together at a given place. After the tribe is gathered, they dig a hole about two feet deep, twelve feet long, and from eight to ten feet broad. Over this they build a hut, by placing stiff logs about three feet apart, filling the spaces between with slighter logs, the building being of conical form, as the base of the erection is wider than its apex—then the stakes are covered with boughs. This hut is only sufficiently large to contain the old men, the young ones sit at the entrance or outside. This completed, the women are called to look at the hut, which they approach from the rear, then dividing, some one way, and some the other, go round until they reach the entrance—each looking inside, but passing no remark. They then return to their camp, distant about five hundred yards. Two men, supposed to have received a special inspiration from the Mooramoora, are selected for lancing, their arms being bound tightly with string near the shoulders to hinder too profuse an effusion of blood. When this is done all the men huddle together, and an old man, generally the most influential of the tribe, takes a sharp flint and bleeds the two men inside the arm below the elbow on one of the leading arteries—the blood being made to flow on the men sitting around, during which the two men throw handfuls of down, some of which adheres to the blood, the rest floating in the air.

This custom has in it a certain poetry, the blood being supposed to symbolise the rain, and the down the clouds. During the preceding acts two large stones are placed in the centre of the hut; these stones representing gathering-clouds—presaging rain. At this period the women are again called to visit the hut and its inmates, but shortly after return to the camp.

[p.278]

The main part of the ceremony being now concluded, the men who were bled carry the stones away for about fifteen miles, and place them as high as they can in the largest tree about. In the meanwhile, the men remaining gather gypsum, pound it fine, and throw it into a waterhole. This the Mooramoora is supposed to see, and immediately he causes the clouds to appear in the heavens. Should they not show so soon as anticipated, they account for it by saying that the Mooramoora is cross with them, and should there be no rain for weeks or months after the ceremony, they are ready with the usual explanation, that some other tribe has stopped their power.

The ceremony considered finished, there yet remains one observance to be fulfilled. The men, young and old, encircle the hut, bend their bodies, and charge, like so many rams, with their heads against it, forcing thus an entrance, re-appearing on the other side, repeating this act, and continuing at it until nought remains of their handiwork but the heavy logs, too solid even for their thick heads to encounter. Their hands or arms must not be used at this stage of the performance, but afterwards they employ them by pulling simultaneously at the bottom of the logs, which thus drawn outwards causes the top of the hut to fall in, so making it a total wreck. The piercing of the hut with their heads symbolizes the piercing of the clouds; the fall of the hut, the fall of rain.

THE MAKING THE WILD FOWL LAY EGGS.

After heavy rains, the smaller lakes, lagoons, and swamps are generally filled with fresh water, attracting flocks of wild fowl; and the natives go through a horrible ceremony, without which they believe the birds would not lay. On a fine day, after the rains, all the able-bodied men sit in a circle, each having a bone from the leg of a kangaroo,4 sharpened at one end, when the old men commence singing, and the others pierce their scrotum several times. This must be very painful, yet they show no sense of it. [p.279] They are generally laid up for two or three weeks, unable to walk. While thus torturing themselves, the women are crying. At this ceremony a song is sung, but it is too obscene to be translated here. It is useless to argue with them on the absurdity of this custom, for all answer they say it is impossible for white men to know their power.

THE MAKING OF IGUANAS.—(Kaupirrie Wima.)

Whenever it is a bad season for iguanas (Koppirries), one of the principal articles of their food, some of the natives proceed to make them. This ceremony is not observed by the Dieyerie, but as they are invariably invited and attend, I think it proper to describe it. On a day appointed, they sit in a circle, when the old men take a few bones of the leg of the emu, about nine inches long, and sharpened at both ends. Each old man then sings a song, while doing so piercing his ears, first one and then the other, several times, regardless of the pain, if not insensible to it.

I add the song, which is not in the Dieyerie dialect, and a translation of it:—

THE IGUANA SONG.

Pa-pa-pa. Kirra-a. Lulpara-na.
Mooloo Karla parcha-ra. Willyoo Una
Mathapootana morara Thidua-ra Mindieindie
Kartaworie-woriethiea-a.

Translation.

With a boomerang we gather all the iguanas from the flats and plains, and drive them to the sandhills,
then surround them, that all the male and female iguanas may come together and increase.

Should there be a few more iguanas after the ceremony than before, the natives boast of having produced them, but if they are as scarce as previously, they have their customary excuse, that some other tribe took away their power.

SUPERSTITIONS ON THE IGUANA.

The iguana is supposed to be a conductor of lightning, and during a thunderstorm all these reptiles are buried in the sand. And should any native become grey, or have much hair on its breast, when young, it is supposed to be caused by eating them when children.

[p.280]

SUPERSTITION ON TREES.

There are places covered by trees held very sacred, the large ones being supposed to be the remains of their fathers metamorphosed. The natives never hew them, and should the settlers require to cut them down, they earnestly protest against it, asserting they would have no luck, and themselves might be punished for not protecting their ancestors.

REMEDY FOR ACCIDENT OR RIDICULE.

Should a child meet with any accident, all its relatives immediately get struck on the head with a stick or boomerang until the blood flows down their faces, such surgical operation being presumed to ease the child's pain. In like manner, should any man or woman, by doing anything awkwardly, provoke laughter, he or she requests one of the men or women to hit him or her on the head till the blood trickles down the face, when the person thus relieved commences laughing, and appears to enjoy the joke as keenly as the rest.

INDESCRIBABLE CUSTOMS.

That of causing a plentiful supply of wild dogs, that of creating a plenty of snakes, that of giving strength to young men, and some other customs, are altogether so obscene and disgusting, I must, even at the risk of leaving my subject incomplete, pass them over by only thus briefly referring to them.

BOOKATOO.—(Expedition for Red Ochre.)

Every winter, in July or August, a council of all the old men is held, relative to the starting of an expedition for red ochre, to a place called Burratchunna Creek (west of the Blinman township), where there is a large mine of it. Old and young men are selected, a day fixed, and a leader appointed to take command; all being kept secret from the women, in fear they would persuade their husbands not to leave. On the day the party must start, the old men rise with the sun, and grasping their weapons and singing, promptly depart, without any leave-taking or farewell to their wives or children. The women then, conscious of the men's intentions, commence screaming, screeching, yelling, hooting, hiss- [p.281] ing, and making all kinds of hideous and uncouth sounds—calling on their husbands, sons, brothers, and friends, to remain, and not to be led into a strange and hostile country; they unheeding proceeding on their way for about five hundred yards, for the purpose of arranging with the old men who are left behind, to build wurleys (Bookatoo Oorannie), for the reception of the party when it returns. The site being selected, and instructions given to build substantial huts, farewell is taken, the expedition singing a rather mournful ditty, encouraging the young lads to keep up their spirits; and indeed some of them require encouragement, knowing that besides having to travel over three hundred miles through strange country, many a hungry belly they will have before reaching their destination, independent of the load of ochre they will have to carry back. The party travels about twenty miles a day, and on arrival at the mine each member of it digs out his own ochre, mixes it with water, making it into loaves of about 20 lbs. weight, which are dried.5 Each man carries an average weight of 70 lbs. of ochre, invariably on the head,5 and has to procure his own food; the party seldom resting a day while on the journey, which lasts usually from six to eight weeks, until within one day's stage of their camp—the Bookatoo Oorannie. On the return route they barter with the tribes they pass, giving weapons for old clothes.

Leaving for a while the returning party within one stage of the Bookatoo Oorannie, I will state what has been done in their absence by those who had to prepare those wurleys, which built, a space of about one hundred yards around them is cleared and swept. During these preparations, every morning the women are ordered away to a short distance and not allowed to return until sunset, and during their absence they collect seed, which is stored against the return of the expedition. The men of the camp keep up a continuous singing during the whole day and night, making, from the native cotton bush, sugarloaf-shaped bags, [p.282] about eighteen inches in length, and large enough at the orifice to admit the head; these being intended for the Bookatoo men on their return. During the making of the bags the following song is sung, of which herewith I give the original, with a free translation:—

Molka-a-a-a—wora-a-a,
Yoong-arra-a-a Oondoo-o-o,
Ya Pillie-e-e-e Mulka-a-a-a angienie,
Kooriekirra-a-a-ya-a-a-ya.

Translation

Put colours in the bags,
Close it all round.
And make the netted bag.
All the colours of the rainbow.

The women are supposed never to have heard this song, which is kept secret from them, and they fear that they would be strangled by the men should they ever overhear it.

I now return to the ochre party, who having, for fear of hostile tribes, made their way home, only resting at night, are now within two hundred yards of the camp prepared for them. They drop on their hands and knees, so as not to awaken its inhabitants, whom they desire to take by surprise, which they do when within a few yards distance, by loud yelling and clapping their hands and dancing two or three times round the Bookatoo Oorannie, after which they retire a little way. The men of the camp then rush out to ascertain whether all of the party have arrived safe. Women crying, children screaming, dogs fighting, altogether make up a discord language is unequal to describe. Now the sugarloaf bags are placed on the heads of the adventurers, the women prepare food for them, and dancing is kept up during the whole of the night, until sunrise, when the ceremony is over, and until when the women are not allowed to speak to their husbands or relatives. Afterwards, days are spent by the members of the expedition, in recounting anecdotes and incidents of their travel.

DISEASES.

Wittcha.—This disease is, I think, the itch. The symptoms are innumerable small pimples all over the body, causing considerable [p.283] irritation, only to be temporarily allayed by rubbing the parts affected with a sharp instrument or stone—the hand alone being insufficient to afford relief. It is very contagious, spreading from one person throughout the camp, and is probably caused by general want of cleanliness, and allowing mangy dogs to lie with them. They are subject to this disease once a year.

Mirra.—A disease which every native has once in his life, sometimes at three years of age, but more frequently at fourteen, or thereabouts. The symptoms are large blind boils, under the arms, in the groin, on the breast or thighs, varying in size from a hen's egg, to that of an emu's egg. It endures for months, and in some instances for years, before finally eradicated. During its presence the patient is generally so enfeebled as to be unable to procure food, and in fact is totally helpless. It is not contagious, and is, I surmise, peculiar to the natives, whose only remedy is the application of hot ashes to the parts affected.

Mooramoora.—Unquestionably small-pox, to which the natives were subject evidently before coming into contact with Europeans, as many old men and women are pockmarked in the face and body. They state that a great number have been carried off by this disease, and I have been shown, on the top of a sandhill, seventy-four graves, which are said to be those of men, women, and children, carried off by this fell disorder.

THE DOCTOR.—(Koonkie.)

The Koonkie is a native who has seen the devil, when a child (the devil is called Kootchie), and is supposed to have received power from him to heal all sick. The way in which a man or woman becomes a doctor, is, that if when young they have had the nightmare, or an unpleasant dream, and relate this to the camp, the inmates come to the conclusion that he or she has seen the devil The males never practise until after circumcision, and, in fact, are not deemed proficient till out of their teens.

Whenever a person falls ill, the Koonkie is requested to examine and cure him. The Koonkie walks up to the invalid, feels the parts affected, and then commences rubbing them until [p.284] he fancies he has got hold of something, when he sucks the pins for a minute or two, and then goes out of the camp a few yards. He now picks up a piece of wood, about one or two inches long; and returns to the camp, where, procuring a red hot coal, he rubs it in his hands to make them hot, and then feels the disordered parts again, and after a little manoeuvring, produces the stick which he had concealed in his hand, as if extracted from the patient's body, to the great surprise of all the natives, who conclude that this was the cause of the complaint. Koonkie's requested to try again, when he goes out a second time in a very solemn manner (the natives all looking at him with wonder), blows twice or thrice, returns, goes through the same performance as before, and then produces a long piece of twine, or a piece d charcoal, of course from the part affected.

This impostor won't confess to his trickery, and, indeed, from constant practice, at last deludes himself into a belief of his skilful surgery, which all the other natives have implicit faith in. And, indeed, the force of imagination is strong in some cases, that I have seen a native quite ill, and actually cry for the Koonkie, who, after his humbugging, appeared quite recovered. Should the Koonkie fail in his effort to relieve the sick, he is prepared with a ready excuse some Koonkie of another tribe, possessing more skill, has stopped his power. When a Koonkie is ill he calls in the aid of another Koonkie to cure him. As I have said elsewhere, no person is presumed to become ill naturally. The Kootchie (devil), or some native, has bewitched him.

CURE OF DISEASE OR WOUNDS.

Sores, cuts, bruises, pain, and diseases of all kinds, no matter how arising, are treated in one of two modes; if slight by the application of dirt to the part affected; if severe, by that of hot ashes. In cases of any kind of sting, leaves of bushes, heated at the fire, are applied to the part stung, as hot as the patient can bear it, and the smart almost immediately disappears.


[p.285]

PART III.

CATALOGUE OF ANIMALS, ETC.—RATS AND THEIR CONGENERS,. REPTILES, BIRDS, FISH,
VEGETABLES, INSECTS, MANUFACTURING PRODUCTS, WEAPONS, AND PERSONAL ADORNMENTS.

RATS AND THEIR CONGENERS. (All eaten by them.)

Chookaroo ..................................... Kangaroo
Kaanoonka ..................................... Bush wallaby
Wartarrie ..................................... Kangaroo rat
Pildra ..................................... Opossum (of rare occurrence)
Capietha ..................................... Native rabbit
Miaroo ..................................... Rat
Poontha ..................................... Mouse
Anitchio ..................................... Native ferret
Cowirrie ..................................... Rat (I don't know the species)
Thiliamillarie ..................................... A species of ferret
Pnlyara ..................................... Long-snouted rat
Koolchie ..................................... Specie of rat
Koonappoo ..................................... Species of monkey
Kolkuna ..................................... Species of wallaby (very swift)
Kooraltha ..................................... Spotted ferret
Kulunda ..................................... White and black rat (similar to the house rat)
Tickawara ..................................... Native cat

REPTILES. (Those not eaten marked thus *)

Kunnie ..................................... Jew lizard
Kopirri ..................................... Iguana
Patharamooroo ..................................... Black iguana (I have only seen three; they are very scarce)
Choopa ..................................... A slender lizard, about 5in. long
Kudieworoo ..................................... Red-backed lizard, about 3in. long
Wakurrie ..................................... Flat-headed lizard, about 5in. long
*Womaloora ..................................... Smooth-skinned lizard, about 5in. long
*Thitthurie ..................................... Small rough-skinned lizard, about 4in. long
Moonkamoonkarilla ..................................... Small black lizard, with short tail; generally found under the bark of trees
Oolaumi ..................................... Lizard, transparent skin, spotted yellow and black, about 5in. long
*Kulchandarra ..................................... Species of lizard, flat head, scaly back, about 4in. long; lives under the ground, and only appears above after heavy rains. The natives describe it as venomous, and affirm its bite is certain death, wherefore they are very frightened of it, and even avoid killing it, from fear of its poisoning their weapons
Woma ..................................... Carpet snake, from 6 to 12ft. long, large body; its bite not venomous

[p.286]

Thoona ..................................... Grey snake, generally about oft. long; venomous
Wondaroo ..................................... Green and yellow snake, very thick body, about 5 long, quite harmless, and has a sleepy appearance
Wonkoo ..................................... Light brown and grey snake, from 4 to 5 ft long; venomous and very vicious
Wirrawirrala ..................................... Large brown snake, with yellow belly, from 6 to 8 long; very venomous
Wipparoo ..................................... Long thin snake, black, shaded with other colours, about 7ft. long; very venomous, its bite causing instant death, so the natives an n cautious m killing it
Marrakilla ..................................... Large brown snake, about 7ft. long, it is very venomous and vicious
Mithindie ..................................... White and yellow spotted snake, small thin bed about 3ft. long; harmless
Koolielawirrawirra ..................................... Small yellow and black spotted snake, about 3ft long; harmless
Mulkunkoora ..................................... Black and green spotted snake, 5ft. long; venomous
Thandandiewindiewindie ..................................... Small black snake, small mouth, about 5ft. 6in. venomous
Kurawulieyackayackuna ..................................... Flat-headed snake, green back, yellow spots on bed about 4ft. long; venomous
Kulathirrie ..................................... Frog
Thidnamura ..................................... Toad
Pinchiepinchiedara ..................................... Bat

BIRDS. (All eaten by them.)

Curawura ..................................... Eagle hawk
Kunienundruna ..................................... The largest hawk excepting first-named
Thirriethirrie ..................................... Small speckled hawk
Thoaroopathandrunie ..................................... White hawk
Milkieworie ..................................... Large grey hawk
Pittiekilkatlie ..................................... Speckled hawk
Kirrkie ..................................... Whistling hawk (very swift)
Kookoongka ..................................... Kite
Windtha ..................................... Grey owl
Wurchiewurchie ..................................... White owl
Killawoloowolloorka ..................................... Dark brown owl
Moonyie ..................................... Mopawk
Woroocathie ..................................... Emu
Kulathoora ..................................... Bustard
Kudruncoo ..................................... White cockatoo
KillunkQla ..................................... Red-breasted cockatoo
Kooranyawillawilla ..................................... Cockatoo parrot
Poolunka ..................................... Parrot
Cathathara ..................................... Shell parrot
Willaroo ..................................... Curlew
Moodlubra ..................................... Pigeon
Mumpie ..................................... Bronze-wing pigeon
Woparoo ..................................... Flock pigeon
Koorookookoo ..................................... Dove
MuUiepirrpaoonga ..................................... Quail
Choonda ..................................... Red-breasted robin
Thindriethindrie ..................................... Shepherd's companion (a species of wagtail)
Thiewillasie ..................................... Small species of lark
Mulyamulyayapunie ..................................... Swallow
Poothoopoothooka ..................................... Sparrow
Kowulka ..................................... Crow
Koorabaukoola ..................................... Magpie

 [p.287]

WADERS.

Booralkoo ..................................... Native companion (large species of crane)
Ooroo ..................................... Nankeen-coloured crane
Caliemalyandarie ..................................... Black and white crane
Moolpa ..................................... White crane
Cooiechooie ..................................... Snipe
Dickadickalyerra ..................................... Species of snipe
Mootoomootoo ..................................... Species of snipe
Thanpathanpa ..................................... Slate-coloured snipe

WATER FOWL.

Tharalkoo ..................................... Teal
Thowla ..................................... Spoonbill duck
Kockadooroo ..................................... Mountain duck
Chipali ..................................... Whistling duck
Kooplnapina ..................................... Brown duck with red beak
Thookabie ..................................... Diver
Doolpadoolparoo ..................................... Black diver
Kilkie ..................................... Water hen
Muroomuroo ..................................... Black water hen
Wathawirrie ..................................... Species of water hen
Muloora ..................................... Cormorant
Boorkoopiya ..................................... Long-beaked cormorant
Kootie ..................................... Swan
Thaumpara ..................................... Pelican
Kirrpiyirrka ..................................... Gull

FISH AND OTHER FRESHWATER HABITANTS.

Are few and unimportant, being caught in the waterholes and lakelets, which can only be called creeks or rivers when the floods come down, the last of which occurred in 1864.

Paroo ..................................... A small bony flat fish
Multhoomulthuo ..................................... A fish weighing from 3 to 3 lbs
Mooillakoopa ..................................... A fish averaging 4 lbs
Koorie ..................................... Mussel
Kuniekoondiv ..................................... Crayfish

INSECTS.

Thiltharie ..................................... Centipede (sometimes 7in. long—its bite is venomous)
Murunkura ..................................... Tarantula
Kiekoonierilla ..................................... Black spider
Kuniekoondie ..................................... Scorpion
Pitchula ..................................... Species of spider
Pindrie ..................................... Grasshopper or locust
Ihirdie ..................................... Grub, caterpillar
Koontie ..................................... Mosquito
Kittaboobaritohaiia ..................................... Sand-fly

VEGETABLES ROOTS, HERBS, FRUIT, SEED, &c (Eaten by the Natives)

Yowa ..................................... Rather larger than a pea, found three inches deep in the ground
Winkara ..................................... A very starchy root, about 6 in. long
Munyaroo ..................................... A plant much eaten
Kunaorra ..................................... The seed of the Munyaroo, used when ground into meal between two stones

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Ardoo ..................................... (Often described in newspapers and by writers Nardoo). A very hard seed, a flat oval of about the size of a split pea; it is crushed or pounded, and the husk winnowed. In bad seasons this is a mainstay of the native sustenance, but it is the worst food possible, possessing very little nourishment, and difficult to digest
Cobboboo ..................................... A nut found on the box tree, on breaking which it discloses a grub; this is probably a gall
Wodaroo ..................................... A thin long root, obtainable only where the soil it rich and covered with turf. This is one of the best vegetables the natives possess, sweet and mealy
Coonchirrie ..................................... The seed from a species of acacia, ground and made into small loaves
Patharapowa ..................................... The seed of the box-tree, ground and made into loaves
Caulyoo ..................................... The seed of the prickly acacia, pounded and made into loaves
Wodlaooroo ..................................... Very fine seed taken from the silver-grass, growing in the creeks
Wirrathandra ..................................... Seed of an acacia
Mulkathaudra ..................................... Seed of the mulga tree
Yoongundie ..................................... Black fine seed, taken from a plant similar to clover
Mootcha ..................................... Native cotton bush. When the leaves sprout and become quite green the natives gather and cook them, and at some time they pluck and eat the pods
Kuloomba ..................................... Indigenous clover, when young cooked by the natives and eaten in large quantities
Willapie ..................................... A small watery plant
Yoolantie ..................................... The native fig
Bookabooda ..................................... The native gooseberry
Mundawora ..................................... The native blackberry
Thoopara ..................................... The native pear
Yegga .....................................

The native orange

VEGETABLE PRODUCTIONS USED IN MANUFACTURING.

Mindrie .....................................

A large root, from the outside of which is obtained, a kind of resin, which, when prepared at the fire and afterwards allowed to dry, becomes very hard and tough, called "kundrie," and is used in fastening; a flint to a short stick called "kundriemooko"

Mootcha ..................................... The stems of this bush (the pods and leaves of which afford food), when dry are pounded into a fine fibre, then teased and spun, after which it is made into bags, which are very nicely done, and occupy many days in their production.

WEAPONS AND IMPLEMENTS.

Kulthie .....................................

Spear

Kirra ..................................... Boomerang
Murawirrie ..................................... Two-handed boomerang, from 6 to 14ft. long and 2in. broad
Kimdriemookoo ..................................... Of semi-circular shape, 2ft. 6in. long, to one end of which is attached by resin a flint, forming a kind of axe or tool used in making weapons
Wona ..................................... A short thick stick, about 3ft. long, used by women who do not carry the shield, spear, or boomerang

[p.289]

Yootchoowonda .....................................

A piece of flint about 3in. long, with an edge like a razor, and at the blunt end covered with resin; this is concealed in the palm of the hand when fighting, and is capable of inflicting a wound like one might with a butcher's knife

Pirrauma ..................................... A shield, oval shaped, of solid wood, from 1ft. to 5ft long, and from 6in. to 1ft wide

PERSONAL ORNAMENTS.

Knltraknltra ..................................... Necklace made from reeds strung on woven hair, and suspended round the neck
Yinka ..................................... A string of human hair, ordinarily 900 yards in length, and wound round the waist This ornament is greatly prized, owing to the difficulty of procuring the material of which it is made
Mundamunda ..................................... A string made from the native cotton tree, about two or three hundred yards long; this is worn round the waist, and adorned by different coloured strings wound round at right angles. These are worn by women, and are very neatly made.
Kootcha ..................................... Bunch of hawk's, crow's, or eagle's feathers, neatly tied with the sinews of the emu or wallaby, and cured in hot ashes. This is worn either when fighting or dancing, and also used as a fan
Wurtawurta ..................................... A bunch of the black feathers of the emu, tied together with the sinews of the same bird; worn in the yinka (girdle) near the waist
Chanpoo ..................................... A band of about 6in. long, 2in. broad, made from the stems of the cotton bush, painted white, and worn round the forehead
Koorie ..................................... A large mussel shell pierced with a hole, and attached to the end of the beard or suspended from the neck; also used in circumcision
Oonamunda ..................................... About 10ft of string, made from the native cotton bush, and worn round the arm
Oorapathera ..................................... A bunch of leaves tied at the feet, and worn when dancing, causing a peculiar noise
Unpa ..................................... A bunch of tassels, made from the fur of rats and wallaby, worn by the natives to cover their private parts. They are in length 6in. to 3ft long, according to the age of the wearer
Thippa ..................................... Used for the same purpose as Unpa. A bunch of tassels made from tails of the native rabbit and, when washed in damp sand, is very pretty, being white as the driven snow. It takes about fifty tails to make an ordinary Thippa, but I have seen some consisting of 500
Aroo ..................................... The large feathers from the tail of the emu, used only as a fan
Wurda Wurda ..................................... A circlet or coronet of emu feathers, worn only by the old men
Pillic ..................................... Netted bag, made from the stems of the cotton bush and rushes, with meshes similar to our fishing net
Wondaroo ..................................... A closely-netted bag, made from the fibre of the cotton bush
Mirra ..................................... A trough-like water vessel
Mintic ..................................... Fishing net, made from rusher, usually 60ft. long by 5ft. wide

 


[p.290]

PART IV.

THE DIEYERIE DIALECT.

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION, EXAMPLES OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE LANGUAGE, SYSTEM OF NOTATION,
ASTRONOMICAL TERMS, LIST OF NAMES DISTINGUISHING AGE OR RELATIONSHIP,
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS, PARTS OF THE HUMAN FRAME, VOCABULARY.

The Dieyerie dialect, although of limited construction, yet his certain rules not oftener departed from than the languages of a more civilized people. Each word invariably terminates with a vowel; and, so accustomed are the Dieyerie to this form, that in acquiring foreign words terminating in a consonant, they always add vowels, as thus:—Bullock becomes bulakoo; hat, hata; dog, doga; and so on.

Beside the spoken language, they have a copious one of signs-all animals, native man or woman, the heavens, earth, walking, riding, jumping, flying, swimming, eating, drinking, and hundred, of other objects or actions, have each their particular sign, so that a conversation may be sustained without the utterance of a single word.

This dumb language, of which I possess a thorough knowledge, cannot, however, be described in words. A special feature in their language is that of distinguishing each other in their relationship, by which their names become transmuted in » variety of ways—at certain ages, on their being married, and after undergoing certain ceremonies—examples of which are here given.

Their system of notation, which is described further on, is excessively restricted, as is also their knowledge of astronomy. with which they have nevertheless an acquaintance.

[p.291]

The Dieyerie language extends far beyond the limit of their own possessions, being understood, though not spoken, by the surrounding tribes.

The alphabet used by me in the vocabulary consists of eighteen letters only, the Dieyerie dialect possession no equivalent for our F, J, Q, S, V, X, Z, while K answers in every respect for C, excepting where it precedes the letter H.

KEY TO PRONUNCIATION.

A, as in Hand, hat, fat, band P, as in Pope, puppet, pipe
B,  "  Bauble, bible, bride R,   "    Rare, rich, rather
D,  " Deed, did, deadly T,   "    Teat, tint, threat
E,  "  Treat, tact, tart U,  "    Cur, fur
G,  "  Gag, gurgle (never as giant, page, rage) W,  "   Wake, walk, weak
H,  "  Hay, heavy, hearty Y,  "    Youth, yonder
I,   "   Light, bright Au, as in Caught, taught
K,  "  Kernel, keep, kick, key Ch (tech) Child, church, chatter
L,   " Lilt, laurel Ie, as in Yield, thief, brief
M,  " Mama, marmalade Oo, "   Moon, soon, balloon
N,  "  Nothing, none, noon Ou,   " Cow. now, how, brow
O,  " Ormolu, ostracise, olive Th, " Teeth, truth, this, that

A LIST OF WORDS

Principally, and in some cases only, showing the construction of the language used with others, and then usually terminating them. Examples follow:

Ahi—No
Althoo—I
Alle—Us
Alyie—Few
Ami—To
Ana—inff
Anie—Me, my
Arrie—Same as
Athie—Do it
Aumpoo—Almost
Anni—Will, shall

Backa—Same as
Rolya—That two
Bootoo—With
Buckuna—Also
Buthia—Not

Chanmpana—Always

Elie—To, of

Goo—To yours, of yours

Ianna—We
Iannanie—Our

Kaunchie—Certain, sure
Koomoo—A, one
Kow—Yes
Kookoo—Yes, yes

Launi—Will, shall

Marpoo—Great, very
Marow—Do it (imperative)
Moonthalie—Ourselves
Moothoo—Most
Moolaroo—Great, very
Mullauna—Together, each other
Mundroo—Two
Mundroola—Only two
Murla—More
Murra—Fresh, new
Mutcha—Enough
Mi—To

Nandroova—She
Naniea—Her
Nankanie—Hers
Ninna— he, thee, that, it
Ninniea—This
Nie—My, mine

[p.292]

Nooliea—He
Nooloo—Him
Koonkanie—His
Nowieya—There


Oomoo—Good
Ori—Did, has, have

Parchuna—All
Parkoola—Three
Pilkie—Not relating to
Pilkildra—Something else
Pina—Great, very
Pothoo—Only
Polpa—Others
Poimie—None, no one


Thana—They
Thananie—Theirs
Thaniya—Them, those
Tharkuna—Incline
Thulka—Relating to
Tharuna—Together
Uldra—We
Una—ing, ed
Undroo—Together

Wadarie—Where, which
Waka—Little
Waukawaka—Least
Waokamoothoo—"
Wurana—Who
Whi—What
Windrie—Only
Wirrie—Of them, to them
Wodow—What, how
Wonthie—Had
Wulya—Soon
Wnlyaloo—Soon after
Wumie—Whose
Wurra—Of them, to them
Wurroonga—Whom

Yankiea—Many
Yinie—You
Yinkanie—Theirs, yours
Yondroo—Thou
Yoora—Ye, few 

A—Koomoo
All—Parchnna
Also—Bukuna
Almost—Aumpoo
Always—Champuna

Certain—Raunchie

Enough—Mutcha
Each other—Mullauna

Few—Alyie, yoora
Fresh—Murra

Good—Oraoo
Great—Marpoo, moolaroo, pina

Has or have—Ori
Had—Wonthie
He—Nooliea
Him—Nooloo
His—Noonkanie
Her—Naniea
Hers—Nunkanie
How—Wodow

I—Athoo
Incline—Tharkuna
It—Ninua

Little—Wauka
Least—Waukawaka, waukamoothoo

Me—Anie

Mine, my—Nie
Many—Yankiea
More—Murla

No—Ahi
None, no one—Punnie
Not—Butha
New—Murra
Not relating to—Pilkie

One—Koomoo
Only—Pothoo, wiri
Only two—Mundroola
Others—Pulpa
Of—Elie, thulka
Of them—Wirrie, wurra
Ours—Launanie
Ourselves—Moonthalie

Relating to—Undroo

She—Nundrooya
Sure—Kaunchie
Soon—Wulya
Soon after—Wulyaloo
Same as—Arrie, backa
Self—Moontha
Something else—Pilkildra

The—Ninna
Thee—Ninna
Theirs—Thananie
Them, those—Thaniya, Goondroo
They—Thana

[p.293]

That—Ninna
This—Ninna, numiea
Their—Yinkanie
To—Elie, thalk, goo, Ami, mi
To them—Wirrie, wurra
Together—Mullanna, tharana
Three—Parkoola
That two—Boliya
There—Nowieya


Ua—Alie

Very—Marpoo, moolroo, pina
With—Boothoo
We—Lannana, aldra
Will—Launi or Auni
Where, which—Wadarie
Who—Warana
Whole—Wumie
Whom—Wuronga
What—Whi, wodow

Yet—Kow
Yea yea—Kookoo
You—Yinie
Ye— Yoora
Your—Yinkanie

EXAMPLES.

Alie, us .....................Moonthalie, ourselves. Moontha, self—Alie, us
"    "  .................................Moali, hungry. Moa, hanger—Alie, us
"    "  .................................Mookalie, sleepy. Mooka, aleep—Alie, us
"    "  .................................Ianmanie, ours. Lmna, weAnie, me
Anie, me, my ............... Apinio, my father. Appinie, father—Me, my
"    "  ...........................Uldranie, of ua. Uldra, we—We, us.
Bootoo, with—Kintaloobootoo, with a dog. Kintalo, dog—Boothoo, with Bntha, not—Yoothabntha, not lucky. Yootha, luck—Botha, not
Aumpoo, almost—Aumpoonundra, almost a blow. Nundra, blow—Arnnpoo, almost
Elie, of ..................................Bankoelie, of nothing. Baukoo, nothing—Elie, of
"    "  ......................Bootchooelle, of the blind. Bootchoo, blind—Elie, of the
Goo, of or to—Yinkanigoo, of or to yours. Yinkani, yours—Goo, of or to
Kaunchie, certain, sure................Kooriekaunchie, thief for certain. Kooriellie, stealing
"    "  ......................Yadinakaunchie, liar for certain. Yadiena, lying
"    "  ......................Yapakaunchie, fear for certain. Yapa, fear
Koomoo, one—Poothookoomoo, only one. Koomoo, one—Poothoo, only
Murla. more................Oomoonmrla, better. Omoo, good—Murla, more
"    "  ................Wordoomurla. shorter. Wordoo, short—Murla, more
 Moothoo, most—Wordoomootha, most short. Wordoo, short—Moothoo, most
Mullana, together, each other—Damamnliana, cutting each other. Damami, to cut—Mullana, each other
Murra, fresh, new...............Karoomurra, hair beginning to get grey. Karoo, grey—Murra, new
"    "  ................Apamurra, fresh water. Apa, water—Murra, fresh
"    "  ................Noamurra, married couple. Noa, husband or wife—Murra, new, i.e. new relationship
 Poothoo, only—Poothookoomoo, only one. Poothoo, only—Koomoo, one 
Pina, great, very..............Yoothapina, great luck. Yootha, luck
"    "  ................Moapina, very hungry. Moa, hunger
"    "  ............Nooroopina, very quick. Nooroo, quick
 Thulka, relating toKumuthulka, relating to person of a blackfellow.
Kuma, person of blackfellow—Thulka, relating to
Thuruna, together—Mopathuruna, collect together. Mopa, collect
"    "  ............Kumpathuruna, collect together. Kumpa, collect
 "    "  ............Ookunathuruna, joined together. Ookuna, joined
Tharkuna, inclining, uneven.......Kookootharkuna, unlevel down hill
 "    "  ...........Doorathakuna, binding the body forward
 "    "  ...........Munatharkuna. gaping. Muna, mouth
Undroo, relating to......Apaondro, relating to water. Apa, water
  "    "  ...........Pirrundroo, relating to trough. Pirra, trough
 "    "  ...........Kumaundroo, relating to person of blackfellow. Kunu, a blackfellow

[p.294]

Love—Yoori....................................Had loved—Yoorawonthie
To love—Yoorami....................Will or shall love—Yooralanni
Loving—Yoorana........................Love each other—Yoorimallona
Loved—Yooranoari..................Love ye—Yooramarow
Did, has, or have loved—Yooranaori

To love—Yoorami. Loving—Yoorana. Loved—Yooranaori

I am loving—Athooyoorana
Thou art loving—Yondrooyoorana
He is loving—Koolieayoorana

We are loving—Uldrayoorana
You are loving—Yinieyoorana
They are loving—Thanayoorana

I did or have loved—Athooyooranaori
Thou didst or have loved—Yondrooyooranaori
He did or has loved—Noolieayooranaori

We did or have loved—Uldrayooranaori
You did or have loved—Yinieyooranaori
They did or have loved—Thanayooranaori

I had loved—Athooyooranaori
Thou hadst loved—Yondrooyooranawonthie
He had loved—Noolieayooranawonthie

We had loved—Uldrayooranawonthie
You had loved—Yinieyooranawonthie
They had loved—Thanayooranawonthie

I shall or will love—Athooyaralauni
Thou shalt or will love—Yondrooyaralauni
He shall or will love—Noolieayaralauni

We shall or will love—Uldrayaralauni
You shall or will love—Yinieyooralauni
They shall or will love—Thanayaralauni

NAMES GIVEN ACCORDING TO AGE AND RELATIONSHIP.

Kurawulie—Boy under 9 years old
Mockaworo—Boy over 9 and under 12 years old
Thootchawara—Boy over 12 years, after circumcision
Thume—Young man, when facial hair begins to grow 
Matharie—Man
Pinaroo—Old man
Koopa—Girl until married
Mnnkara—Girl on marriage
Kudlakoo—Woman of middle age
Widlapina—Old woman
Noa—Husband or wife
Niehie—Elder brother
Athata—Younger brother or sister
Adada—Grandfather
Andrie—Mother
Apirrie—Father
Athanie—Son or daughter, so called by mother
Athamoora—Son or daughter, so called by father
Noamurra—man and wife
Booyooloo—Near relative
Kaka—Uncle
Kakoo—Elder sister
Kunninnie—Grandchild or grandmother
Pirraooroo—Paramour
Piyara—Mother-in-law
Pulara—Woman appointed as ambassadress
Tliiclnara—Nephew
Thuroo—Father-in-law
Widlamurra—Women
Wowitcha—Distant relative.

PARTS OF THE HUMAN FRAME.

Auma— Breasts
Cootchara—Ears

Caupoora—Waist
Cauloo—Liver

[p.295]

Coopoodrompoo—Wrist
Imulhi—Swallow
Koodnabiddie—Intestines
Knndrieeooloo—Collar-bone
Moonanibirrie—Chest
Muttaduckoo—Ankle
Milkie—Eyes
Milkiecootchara—Eyebrows
Murra—Hand
Murramookoo—Fingers
Murrapirrie—Finger nails
Murraundrie—Thumb
Murrawootchoo—Forefinger
Milperie—Forehead
Muna—Mouth
Munanilyie—Gums
Munakirra—Jawbone
Munathandra—Teeth
Mongathanda—Head
Mieniie—Lips
Moodla—Nose
Mundra—Stomach
Mookoo—Bone
Oona—Arms
Oolcoo—Cheeks
Oora—Jjem
Puhethilcna—Groin
Pittie—Fundament

Pittiemookoo—Seat
Punchiethandra—Knees
Poondrapoondra—Kidneys
Poongno—Lights
Pida—Navel
Punkathirrie—Side
Pillperrie—Shoulders
Para—Hair
Thookoo—Back
Thilchaundrie—Calf of legs
Thinthabiddie—Elbow
Thidna—Foot, feet
Thidnamookoo—Toes
Thidnawurta—Heel
Thidnaundrie—Large toe
Thidnaulkie—Between the toes
Thidnathookoo—Insteps
Thidnapirrie—Nails of the finger
Thara—Thigh
Thilcha—Sinews
Thudacuna—Pulse
Thitha—Joints
Unkachanda—Chin
Unka—Beard
Urra—Heart
Woolcha—Hips
Yerkala—Neck
Yoorieyoorie—Veins.

SYSTEM OF NOTATION.

The only words representing numerals possessed by the natives are:—

Coomoo—One .............................   Mundroo—Two .............................. Parcoola—Three.

Should they desire to express any greater number, it is done by adding together the words above, for instance:—

4. Mundro-la-mundro-la
5. Mundroo-mundroo-coomoo, that is twice 2 and 1
6. Mundroo-la-mundroo-la-mundroo-la, that is thrice 2
                        And so on till
10. After which to 20, the term murrathidna, from murra (hands) and thidna (feet), is used, and the fingers and toes brought into play.

Their arithmetic is then exhausted, and any larger number than 20 is signified in the dumb language, conveying the idea of a more than innumerable quantity.

ASTRONOMY.

The Dieyeries have some slight acquaintance with the heavenly bodies, and also with the cardinal points. Not being informed in that science myself, I can only quote a few instances:—

Ditchie—Sun
Pirra—Moon
Ditchiethandrawauka—Stars
Amathooroocooroo—Evening Star
Kyirrie—Milky Way
Koolakoopuna—A bright star seen in the northern hemisphere in the winter months
Kurawurathidna—A cluster of stars representing the claw of an eagle-hawk, seen in the western hemisphere during the winter months
Apapirrawolthawolthana—Two stars seen in the southern hemisphere in the winter

[p.296]

Ditchiepittiekillkuna—Meteor
Kooriekirra—Rainbow
Ditchiecoomawoorkoo—The Sun's meridian also north on its declension
Wathararknna—The south, the quarter from which the wind is most prevalent
Ditchiedoonkuna—Sunrise
Ditchiewimma—Sunset.

PILLIETHILLCHA—THE AURORA AUSTRALIS.

Whenever this phenomenon occurs the natives become very terrified, believing it to be a warning from the devil (kootchie) to keep a strict watch, as the piro (armed party) is killing some one, also a caution to avoid wrongdoing, lest the pinya comes to them when least expected. The inmates of the camp then huddle together, when one or two step out and perform a ceremony to charm the kootchie.

SELECTIONS FROM THE TEN COMMANDMENTS.

1st. Athona yoora Goda
2nd. Watta yooudroo aunchana pitta, paroo, ya ya pittapilkildn windrie Goda yondroo aunchana
3rd. Watta Goda yoondroo baukooelie dikana
4th. Apirrie, ya andrie, parabara oondrana thana thipie aumannnthoo
5th. Watta yoondroo norrie nundrala
6th. Watta yoondroo piilakaunchie
7th. Watta yoondroo Koonekaunchie
8th. Watta yoondroo knrna komanelie, baukooelie ulchulchamuna
9th. Watta yoondroo bootoo thoola milkirrana ya, noa thoola watta yoondroo milkirrana baukooaumanuntho.

VOCABULARY.

Achea—Ask
Achana—Asking
Achaini—To ask
Achanaori—Has asked
Achanawonthie—Had asked
Adacla—Grandfather
Ardaunie—Believed
Ahi—No, no
Akuna—To flow (as water flowing or running)
Akoonga—To me, of me
Alie—Us
Alyie—Few
Alkooelie—Nice
Alkoonie—Very nice
Alkoo—Persons visiting a neighbouring tribe to barter
Alkoopina—Delicious
Althoo—I
Ami—To
Awa—In reality
Anaua—lueliuation
Anie—Me
Andrie—Mother
Autie—Meat, flesh, animal food
Antiea—The meat
Antiemura—Of the meat
Apa—Water
Apanie—The water
Apalie—Of the water
Apanundroo—Relating to water
Apulya—Watery
Apinie—My father
Apoo—Comprehend
Apoona—Comprehending
Apooapoo7—Dumb
Apoouna—To bathe, bathing
Apachunka—Damp, moist, wet
Apooriea—Silence
Apoonina—Silenced
Apirrie—Father
Arrie—Similar
Athanie—Son or daughter (so called by mother)
Athamoora—Son or daughter (so called by father)
Athata—Younger brother or sister
Aumami—To sit down
Aumuna—Sitting down, residing
Auminthina—Remain
Auminthieami—To remain
Auminthiemarow—Remain (imperatively)
Aumulka—Keep
Aumulkuna—Keeping
Aunchana—Caressing
Aumie—Flock (of sheep or birds, mob of cattle, &c.)

[p.297]

Auinpoo—Almcwt
Auncniemallmna—Consideration of peace offered

Backa—Husk, outer shell; also used as a terminal implying "the same"
Birrie—Danger
Birruna—Endangering, dangerous
Binina—Exchange places, turn and turn about
Boorkalie—Conscience
Boolkooruna—Home-sickness, desire to return to friends, relatives
Bookaundrinie—Scrub, shrubbery, more bushes than trees
Booka—Vegetable food
Boolyaroo—Soft clay, mud
Booyooloo—Near relative
Boolyia—Those two, that two
Boompoo—Bud, immature
Boompoonundra—To strike ineffectually, to hit with no force.
        (From Mundra—to strike, and Boompoo)
Booloopathuruna—Requiring change of scene
Booloo—White
Boonoonoo—Itching
Boonka—Grow
Booukuna—Growing
Boonkanaori—Has grown
Booukanawonthie—Had grown
Bonkanalauni—Will grow
Boorka—Wake
Boorkunaparana—Wading through or crossing water
Boroolkooyirrpaniutuna—Two persons crouching down,
     hiding from danger
Bootchoo—Blind
Bootchooelie—Of the blind
Bootchoondroo—Relating to the blind
Bootharoo—Shower of rain
Boongala—Shade
Boougalio—Of the house or hut
Boouga—Wurley, house, hut
Bootuo—Property, chattels: also used as a terminal "with"
Bootooundruo—Relating to property or chattels
Baukoona—Digging
Baukoo—Nothing
Baukooelic—Of nothing, with no purpose
Bukina—Skinning any animal without aid of instrument
Bukinaori—Has skinned
Bukinawonthie—Had skinned
Bukinalanni—Will skin
Bukuna—Also, Yoodroobuknna (Yoondroo—You)—You also
Bunkani—Ride, sides
Bunkie—Pride
Bunkiethoorana—Sleeping on the side
Bunkiebunkuna—Proud
Bunyabnnyina—A trotting pace

Champuna—Always
Chanoachanduna—Mimicking for the purpose of joking
Chandachandathie—Apt to mimic
Chakakuna—Doubting
Chakairrpamulluna—Doubting each other
Charpoo—White band worn across the forehead
Chika—Wrong, awkward
Chikala—Quite wrong
Chikaundroo—Relating to wrong
Chilpie—A knot
Chilpieundroo—To tie a knot
Chiunerrie—Scars raised on the body
Chindrina—Glossy, smooth surface
Chindriechindriethuruna—Very glossy, very smooth
Chirruna—Breaking of the skin by some accident
Chirkara—Sharp, keen edge, not blunt
Chirrinchirrie—Knocking out of teeth
Choondaroo8—Bed-ridden, paralysed
Choo—An exclamation to draw attention
Chookaroo—Kangaroo
Chuwchow—Awkward
Choopadoo—To play: when children wish to play they use this word
Chuboochuboo—A ball (played with by children)

Dalkoo—Clear, transparent
Damami—To cut
Damina—Cutting
Damamarow—Cut (imperatively)
Damathuruna—Cut together
Dainamulluna—Cutting each other
Danina—Bidding farewell
Daninaori—Has bidden farewell
Daninawonthie—Had bidden farewell
Daniiialaunie—Will bid farewell
Danthoo—Soft
Dapa—A sore, a wound
Darpami—To sweep
Darpuna—Sweeping, clearing a space
Daqmmarow—Sweep (imperatively)
Daralie—Bad season for food
Datharoo—Wait
Dauchoomuna—With care, handle or carry with care

[p.298]

Dieami—To strike, to hit
Dieuna—Striking
Dienaori—Has stricken
Dienawontkie—Had stricken
Diealauna—Will strike
Diemarow—Strike (imperatively)
Dikuna—Naming a child
Dikamarow—Name a child (imperatively)
Dikami—To name a child
Dikamuna—Gaping
Dilka—Thorn, purr, prickle
Dilkera—Edge, shore
Dilkerawirrtie—Along the edge, extreme shore
Dooknrami—To extract, loosen, unfasten
Dookuna—Extracting, loosening, unfastening
Doolkooro—Large hole or gully
Doonkami—To rise
Doonkuna—Rising
Doorootharkuna—Round shouldered, to bend the body forward
Doomodomoora—Round, anything round
Doolkamuruna—Gorged, sick
Dowa—Interfere, stop a quarrel
Dowuna—Interfering, suppressing
Doongiema—Cripple, a lame person
Doontouna—Echo
Dukami—To pierce
Dukuna—Piercing
Dukamarow—Pierce (imperatively)
Dukathnruna—Pierce together, we are piercing
Dukadukuna—Walking
Dulkana—Attracting the sun's rays
Dulkinathurina—Attracting heat
Dunkina—Meeting
Dungina—Breaking cover to start game
Duruna—A scratching noise
Durieirrpuna—A scratching noise
Durlarie—Ice (seldom seen in Dieyerie Laud)


Iana—We
Iananie—Ours
Imulla—The swallow
Inaloo—Below, beneath
Itcha—Frequently

Kaka—Uncle
Kakoo—Elder sister
Kakoo—Yellow, yellow ochre
Kakarurruna—Belching
Karchuna—Turning, revolving
Karchamulkana—Turning over
Kapara—Come
Kaparow—Come (imperatively)
Kararalie—Excessive heat
Kaparachilpie—A wart, horny excrescence on the flesh
Karoo—Grey
Karoomura—Greyish
Karpami—To sew, mend
Karpuna—Sewing
Karpamarow—Sew (imperatively)
Karka—Call
Karkami—To call
Karkuna—Calling
Karkamarow—Call (imperatively)
Karkathuruna—Calling together (we are calling)
Karkamnlluna—Calling each other
Kathie—Wearing apparel
Kaulkoo—Rushes
Kaunchie—Certain, sure; sudden appearance
Kaungoo—Perspiration
Kautoo—A breakwind
Kauloomuruna—Greedy
Kikubyeruna—Slipping
Killuna—Dancing
Kilchuna—Skinning
Kilchami—To skin
Kilchamarow—Skin (imperatively)
Kilpa—Cool
Kilpalie—Cold. Literal translation—Cool us
Kilpaoomoo—Very cold
Kilpanie—Winter; also, I'm cold
Kilkie—Water hen
Kilthie—Soup, juice
Kima—A swelling
Kimarrie—Is swelling
Kimuruna—Has swollen
Kinka—Laugh
Kinkuna—Laughing
Kinkaboolkaroo—Smiling
Kintalo—Doctor
Kinna—Climbing
Kirra—A native weapon (boomerang)
Kirrie—Clear-headed, sensible. Also used to order the way to
    be "cleared" to allow of passing
Kiminuruna—Teeth set on edge by hearing grating noise
Koodna—Excrement
Kookoo—Yes, yea. Also, hollow vessel
Koodakoodarie—Very crooked, irregular
Kookuna—News, intelligence
Kookathuruna—Telling the news
Kookootharkuna—Unlevel, down hill
Kookootharka—Topsy-turvy
Kookoonirruna—Noise of birds rising or alighting
Koolkami—To protect
Kulkuna—Protecting
Koolkamarow—Protect (imperatively)
Koolkathuruna—Under protection, protecting together
Koolie—Odour, scent
Koolkoorie—Game of hide and played by children
Koolkamuna—Jumping, springing

[p.299]

Koolkamunawirrica—To jump down
Koolpina—Searching for tracks
Koolpie—An operation fvkU text)
Koomanlie—Own friend
Koomarie—Blood
Koomuna—A dance performed by women, when they move their
     legs very rapidly
Kooooelie—Knowing nothing of it
Kooooanie—I know nothing of it
Koongarra—Rustling or whirring noise caused by birds rising
Koonthina—Sprinkling
Koondrakondroo—Coughing, a cold
Koonyillie—Debris of leaves used by swans in building nests
Koontie—Mosquito
Koonkuna—Walking lame
Koonabootharoo—Whirlwind
Koonkie—Native doctor
Koondagie—Storm, heavy black clouds
Koonkana—A grunting noise
Koontiekoontie—Crooked
Koopoo—Forelegs
Koopa—Child
Koopirrina—Sore from any cause
Koopulyeruna—Diarrhoea
Koopia—Calling a child, as "Come, child"
Koopawura—Calling children
Koopawuria—Calling children (authoritatively)
Koorie—Mussel shell
Koorieunda—Opening in wurley to allow escape of smoke
Kooriekirra—Rainbow
Kooriekuruna—Escaped, ran away
Koorookooroomulkuna—To hide anything, to keep secret
Koomooworkoo—Horizontal, across
Koomoo—A, one
Koorana—Laying, placing; also, bringing forth young
Kooranaori—Has laid
Kooranawonthie—Had laid
Kooralauni—Will, lay
Koorathuruna—Parrying, shielding
Kooriethuruna—Forgotten, loss of memory
Kooraffie—Certainly
Koorielie—Stealing
Koorickaunchie—Thief for certain
Kootcharabooroo—Deaf
Koothina—Out of sight, disappearance
Kootcha—Leaf, leaves
Kootie—Swan
Kootchie—Devil, evil spirit
Kootchieelie—Devil, evil spirit
Kaupirrieundroo—Relating to the iguana
Kow—Yes
Kowkow—Sponging, to sponge on any person
Kowakabona—Calling to account
Kubbou—Ejaculation to warn from danger
Kudlakoo—Middle-aged woman
Kulakula—Disgusted
Kuldriecharkuna—Bending the body backwards
Kuldrie—Brackish, bitter
Kulkawura—Afternoon
Kullula—Retaliation
Kulkana—Waiting
Kulkami—To wait
Kulawuna—Gathering up
Kulkulie—Slightly, slowly, gently
Kulie—That's enough, I have said it, that's sufficient
Kulthie—Spear
Kuma—Keep
Kumuna—Keeping
Kummie—Sister-in-law
Kumpuna—Gathering
Kumpathuruna—Gathering together
Kumpamarow—Gather (imperatively)
Kunninie—Grandchild or grandmother
Kundrie—Resin; also a native weapon
Kuntha—Grass
Kunthaundroo—Relating to grass
Kunthakoola—Green
Kungimina—Playful, merry
Kundriemookoo—A native weapon
Kunthakunthun—Shaking anything
Kupidie—Egg
Kurdie—Brother-in-law
Kuma—A native, aboriginal
Kumaundroo—Relating to a native
Kurdiemurkara—A large fish at the bottom of lakes, deep waters
Kurrakurrairrpuna—Feeling pain, sense of pain
Kurloomura—Two of the same age circumcised at same time
Kurlina—Obliterating
Kurta—Sound
Kurtie—Raw
Kurumba—Blaze of fire, flame
Kumirrie—Directly
Kurieami—To pursue
Kuruna—Pursuing
Kurra—Vermin in animals
Kurruna—Feeling
Kurrakurrana—Feeling with the hands, groping in the dark
Kura—Probably, in all probability
Kurrawelie—Boy before circumcised
Kutta—Lice, vermin
Kntchakutchana—Paining, continued pain
Kuttanylpa—Lice, nits

Marisuka—Raising or lifting up
Mathiena—Of course
Malthie—Cool

[p.300]

Malthiela—Inclining to be cool
Manathoonka—Morning
Marpoo—Many
Matha—Bite
Mathima—Biting
Mathanaori—Has bitten
Mathanawonthie—Had bitten
Mathanalauni—Will bite
Mathamuluna—Biting each other
Mi—Commence, begin; also To, attached to a verb
Miaroo—Rat
Midukuna—Driving
Mikarie—Deep
Milkitchaparawuma—Light-headed
Milla—Race, current
Milluna—Racing
Milliemuluna—Racing each other
Milkie—Not strange
Milkiela—Acquainted with, seen before
Milkirruna—Coveting, desiring
Milkiechenmuna—Opening the eyes, opened eyes
Milpera—Company
Millierieununanie—Dissolved
Milya—Any kind of food eaten by a native for the first time
Milyaroo—Dark, dust
Mina—What is
Minapitta—What is it
Minka—Deep hole, cave, burrow
Minanie—What else
Mindane—A ceremony
Mintie—Net
Mindriea—Run
Mindrina—Running
Mindrielow—Run (by command)
Mirrie—Above, the top
Mirrka—Small black ants
Mirrkla—Ignite
Mirrpami—To ignite
iMirrpuna—Igniting
Mitha—Earth, ground, dirt
Mithalkillyana—Loamy soil
Miyerra—Begin it, commence it
Miuandroo—For what reason?
Minarrauie—For what reason? Why not?
Mithathootina—Cover over with dirt
Moa—Hunger
Moalie—Hungry (hunger us)
Moanie—I am hungry (hunger me)
Moapina—Very hungry
Moodlathirruna—Frowning, looking cross
Moodlakoopa—A fish weighing about 4 lbs.
Mooduna—Finishing
Moodanaori—Has finished
Moodawonthie—Had finished
Moodalauni—Will finish
Moodlawilpa—Hole in the nose
Mongathandraparawwina—Crazy, insane
Moouiroa—Quantity, great many
Moolthabuna—Soaking in water
Moola—Quiet, tractable, harmless
Mooka—Sleep
Mookalie—Sleepy (sleep)
Mookoopaninar—Sleeping
Mookoothoorana—Lying asleep
Mooncha—Sick
Moochuruna—Sickness
Moonchaparana—Lying ill
Moonchoo—Flies
Moonchoelie—The flies
Moonchoondra—Flies
Moongara—Spirit, soul (I cannot describe this word otherwise)
Moongathandramiduna—Sick headaches
Moonkuna—Embracing
Moonkanaori—Has embraced
Moonkanawonthie—Had embraced
Moonkalaoni—Will embrace
Mookoo—Bone
Moonarrie—Precipice, bark
Moontha—Self
Moonthalie—Myself
Moonthabutha—Illiberal
Moonthapirra—Very liberal
Moongaworoo—Bead smeared with white clay (signifying grief)
Mongamuna—Striking on the head
Moonmananie—Punishment of elder brother for younger's crimes
Moonyirrie—A circle, current in a stream
Mopami—To collect
Mopamarow—Collect (imperatively)
Mopuna—Collecting
Mopathuruna—Collecting together, congregating
Mooroouna—Scratching or rubbing the body
Mooramoora—The Good Spirit, Creator
Mooromooroo—Disabled, deformed
Moothoo—Certainly, without food
Mooya—Dry
Mooyeruna—Drying
Muclanchie—Not good, unpleasant
Mulluna—Alike
Multlioomulthoo—A fish averaging 3lbs.
Mumuna—Begging anything
Munkalie—Careful
Munkara—Young woman
Mungarina—shy
Mungarinanie—I am modest, modest me
Mundracowellie—Jealous
Munumumna—Talkative, gabbling
Munacootlmruna—Tired of talking
Mundroo—Two averaging

[p.301]

Mundroola—Only two
Mandramindinji—To draw in the belly
Muna—Mouth
Munamoroomaroo—Black mark on the mouth, = eaters of human flesh
Munatharkuna—Gaping
Munyerruna—Parched lips
Munyoo—Good, pleasant to the taste
Mundathunina—Lazying
Mundathurathie—Lazy, want of energy
Mnnthaka—Unmarried
Muniea—Catch, secure
Munina—Caught
Munieami—To catch, to secure
Mnniemarow—Catch, secure (imperative)
Munkuna—Scattering, dispersing
Mundrunchoo—Pregnant
Murdie—Heavy
Murdawola—The under stone used in grinding seed
Mnrdacooparoo—The upper stone, do.
Murdoo—Taste
Muracherpuna—Groping with the hands in the dark
Muroo—Black
Murulyie—Red
Murookootoo—Black ochre
Murkara—A large fish
Murchamurchuna—Whimpering
Murla—Again, true, not false, boat (superlative)
Murlaloo—Without doubt
Mumie—Fat
Murchina—Noisy
Murrawirrie—Two-handed sword
Murra—Fresh, new
Mumwillpillpuruna—Numbed hand
Mumdiekilla—Waves
Mumdiekillundroo—Relating to the waves
Mnnlapooroo—Hailstones
Mutcha—Enough, sufficient
Mutchoomutchoo—Orphan

Nanieya—She
Nandrooya—Her
Nanied—She is here (after inquiry)
Nanka—Just down there
Nankuldra—Repeat
Narrie—Corpse
Nanienie—The dead, my dead
Niuna—Seeing
Niie—Seen
Niehie—Seen
Nianaori—Has seen
Nianawonthie—Had seen
Nianauni—Will see
Niamnlluna—Seeing each other
Niamarow—See, look, behold (imperative)
Niehie—Elder brother
Nieamurra—Brothers
Nieaundroo—Relating to
Nillanilla—Mirage
Nina—It
Ninia—This
Niniya—That, there
Nindrie—Body of anything
Ninthalie—Ashamed
Ninthapina—Very much ashamed
Ninthaputha—Not ashamed
Ninthaooroo—Shameless
Ninyillpuna—Turning inside out
Noa—Wife or husband
Noamurra—Wife and husband
Noandroo—Relating to wife or husband
Nokooloonokooloo—Continually repeating, reiterating
Nooliea—Strangle
Noolina—Strangling
Noolinaori—Has strangled
Noolinawonthie—Had strangled
Noolilaunie—Will strangle
Noolinamullana—Stranding each other
Noongkoongoo—To him
Noongkunie—His, belonging to him
Noora—Tall
Nooroo—Quick
Nooroocauko—Not quick, slow
Nooroopina—Very quick
Nooroonooroo—Be quick, hasten
Nowieya—There
Numpami—To bury, or cover
Numpuna—Burying, or covering
Numpathnruna—Buried, covered
Numpanaori—Has buried, or covered
Numpamarow—Bury, or cover it (imperative)
Numpamullnna—Covering each other
Numpunawonthie—Had buried
Numpalauni—Will bury
Nurieami—To order away
Numna—Ordering away
Nunga—Pour
Nnnguna—Pouring
Nungathnruna—Pouring out
Nungamarow—Pour out (imperatively)
Nunginaori—Has poured
Nunginawonthie—Had poured
Nimffalaunie—Will pour
Nundra—Strike it
Nundraori—Has stricken
Nundrathie—Will strike
Nundralanni—  "   "
Nundramulluna—Striking each other
Nunka—Press
Nunkami—To press
Nunkuna—Pressing
Nunkathuruna—Pressing it
Nunkamarow—Press it (imperatively)
Nunkamolluna—Pressing each other

[p.302]

Oolkuna—Watching
Oodlaka—Watchguard
Oodlakuthuruna—Watching or guarding together
Ooknna—Mixing, joining
Ookunathurung—Mixing or joining together
Ookiwnrana—Sick, retching
Ooldroo—Small mouth, small hole
Oolaulcha—Bubbles
Ooliekirra—New, bright, clean
Oolkaitcha—Betraying, a person unable to keep a secret
Oolkootharkuna—The elder brother's assistance asked by the
    younger in fighting
Oolyie—Gum
Oomoo—Good, nice, pleasant to the eye
Oomoomurla—Better than good, superior
Oomoomoothoo—The best of all
Oona—Arms, wings
Oonoo—Laid
Oonarrie—Right-handed
Oouchamuna—Recognised
Oonchami—To recognise
Oonduna—Thinking
Oonthana—Moving the body to and fro when singing (a customary
    usage with the tribe)
Oondrami—To think
Oondra—Think
Oondrathuruna—Thinking together, considering
Oonawillpillpirruna—The arm benumbed
Ooroo—Often
Oorooooroo—Hard, tough, strong
Ooroocathina—Lying at full length
Oorthie—Branches
Ootamanurie—Hat, covering for the head
Ooera—In front, ahead
Oothoooothoothunina—Stretching the arms together over the head
Ooyamuna—Remembering
Ooyella—To pity, commiserate, compassionate
Ooyellala—Pitying


Para—Hair of the head
Parayelchyelcharoo—The hair straightened on end from the forehead
Parakurlie—Large head of hair
Paramooroo—Thickly matted hair
Parana—Crossing over
Parabara—With force and strength
Parchana—All
Parkooloo—Three
Paroo—A small bony fiat fish
Paraparawumie—Foolish
Paruna—Stopping at a certain place
Parunaori—Has stopped
Parunawonthie—Had stopped
Parunaori—Will stop
Pathuna—Tired
Pathapathana—I am tired
Pathara—A box tree
Patharacoorie—Young tree, sapling
Paulkoo—Flesh
Piduna—Pounding, crushing
Pilla—Charcoal
Pildrapildra—Struck by lightning
Pillie—Bag
Pilkildra—Something else
Pilkiela—Another
Pilkie—Not relating to
Pilliethillcha—The Aurora Australis
Pillpillieunkuna—To flatten anything
Pina—Large, great
Pinaroo—Old man
Pinaenna—Increasing in stature, growing
Pinpanaori—Has shared
Pinpanawonthie—Had shared
Pinpalauni—Will share
Pinpuna—Sharing
Pindrie—Grasshopper
Pindrathie—Thin as a grasshopper
Pinya—An armed party
Pinyanie—My armed party
Pinyalie—Our armed party
Pinyaloo—Of the armed party
Pirra—Moon, trough, tub
Pirrauma—A shield
Pirramundroo—Shields
Pirramoonkt—A ricochet
Pirrakuna—Groping in any enclosed place with the hands
Pirrie—Gap, grove
Pirraooroo—Paramour (each man from two to six)
Pirrundroo—The trough
Pitta—Stick, piece of wood
Pittunlroo—it elating to the stick
Pittatlintliie—A piece of wood that has been used or cut
Pittacopara—Roots of trees
Pittaboobarichuna—Sand-fly
Pittie—Fundament
Pittiethawa—Harping on one subject
Piuthie—Nickname
Piya—Birds
Piyaundroo—The birds
Piyacooiluua—Noise caused by birds settling on land or water
Piyawola—The nest
Piyawolundroo—Relating to the next
Piyara—Mother-in-law
Poolkami—To blow
Poolkuna—Blowing
Poolkamarow—Blow (imperatively)
Pooldroopooldroounkuna—Meal ground from seeds
Pooloouna—Breathing

[p.303]

Poolpanma—Midday meal when hunting or gathering seed
Pontoo—Blunt
Pontoola—Blunt, an instrument not sharp
Pothoo—Only
Pothookoomoo—Only one
Poonthina—Taking different roads
Poopuna—A word of contempt. (Any person lagging
    behind or straggling out of a party is told "poopuna," to
    keep his place)
Pooraka—Dry waterhole, claypan dried up
Poorina—Fallen, to fall
Powa—Fine seed
Pukuna—Exploding, bursting
Pukicathic—Apt to explode or burst
Pukala—Frost
Pulkara—Night
Pulkami—To go
Pulkuna—Going water, dying out
Pulunaori—Has died out
Pulunawonthie—Had died out
Pulunauni—Will die out
Pulparoo—Surface
Pulpa—Others
Pulara—Women are so called when appointed to perform
    any special mission, such as assembling the tribes
Punga—A small fly, hardly discernible but capable of
     inflicting a sting as painful as that of the wasp
Punie—No, none
Pumlra—Cooked, not raw
Punkara—Level
Punthama—To smell
Punthamuna—Smelling
Punchietharkuna—Kneeling
Punlakunaori—Has brought
Purdakunawonthie—Had brought
Pulakalauni—Will bring
Punlakunna—Bringing, carrying
Punlie—Grub, caterpillar
Punla—Hold
Puluna—Holding
Punlamarow—Hold (imperative)
Punlanmiluna—Holding each other
Purdaini—To hold
Purdanaori—Has held
Purdawonthie—Had held
Purathuni—Smooth, flat, a bowling green
Purie—Under the surface
Pumrie—Beneath the surface, under Death
Purriewillpa—sky
Purriewillpanie—Heavens
Puthina—Early
Thalkoo—Straight
Thalpacooroo—Hard of hearing
Thalpina—Warm, not cold
Thandrana—Pouring
Thaugemana—With force
Thana—They, them
Thaniya—Those
Thanyoo—Dried fruit
Thanyoondra—The dried fruit
Thanpoortina—Caving in
Tharka—Stand
Tharkuna—Standing
Tharkami—To stand
Tharkiebuna—To stand anything on end
Tharalkoo—Ducks
Thatha—A crack in wood, stone, or other matter
Thatie—The middle
Thaubulyoo—Rotten egg
Thaumpara—Pelican
Thikamuna—Spinning
Thiewie—Flowers
Thieaoolraroo—Saw
Thidnayoonkurrie—Cramp in the toes
Thilohaumina—Impatient
Thidnara—Nephew
Thilpa—Tease, provoke
Thilpuna—Provoking
Thilpathumina—Provoking each other
Thilluna—To bubble up, effervesce
Thinthami—To lose, to spill
Thinthana—Losing, spilling
Thinthinanaori—Has lost or spilled
Thinthinawonthie—Had lost or spilt
Thinthi—Lost
Thinkabooroo—Dawn
Thipie—Alive
Thipieoondra—Regard for life
Thippirruna—To give life
Thirrie—Fight
Thirrina—Fighting
Thirriemullaua—Fighting with each other
Thirkana—A song sung at the circumcision, and sacredly kept
      secret from the women
Thitti—Ticklish
Thokundruna—Throwing down
Thookami—To carry on the back
Thookuna—Carrying on the back
Thookanaori—Has carried on the back
Thookanawonthie—Had carried on the back
Thookalanni—Will carry on the back
Thookamarow—Carry on the back (imperatively)
Thookamnllnna—Carrying each other on the back

[p.304]

Thoola—Stranger; also flint
Thooldrina—Playing
Thooda—Noon
Thoonka—Unpleasant smell, stench
Thoonkuruna—Stinking
Thoonchlmina—Sneezing
Thoondakunathoorana—Sleeping on the back
Thoondakuna—Anything lying on its back
Thoopoo—Steam
Thooroo—Fire, firewood
Thoorooduruna—Lighting a fire
Thooroomunya—Firestick
Thooroothiewillka—Sparks of fire emitted from flint or stone
Thooroothooroo—Very hot
Thooringie—Marrow
Thoorpuna—Twisting string or rope
Thootchoo—Reptiles, insects
Thootchoondroo—Relating to reptiles or insects
Thootchaworoo—A lad after circumcision
Thodaroo—Fog, mist
Thudaka—To vibrate, shove, or push
Thudakuna—Vibrating, pulsation, beating
Thula—Name
Thulara—Rain
Thularabooldriiia—The clouds gathering before breaking
Thularakooduna—Raining
Thularapolkoo—Clouds
Thularakiiiie—Lightning
Thularayindrie—Thuixler
Thuliekirra—To put the tongue of the mouth to denote
   that the person who does so is only jesting
Thumpuna—Walking softly on tiptoe to surprise
Thumpathumpuiia—Walking stealthily so as not to disturb prey
Thunkuriua—Going over
Thunka—Juice
Thunlie—Thirst
Thurdiealie—Thirsty
Thuroo—Father-in-law
Thurakami—To swim
Tliurakima—Swimming
Thuraka—Swim
Thunma—Flying
Tianii—To eat
Tiana—Eating
Tiala—Eat
Tianaori—Has eaten
Tianawontliie—Had eaten
Tialauni—Will eat
Tiamarow—Eat (imperatively)
Titituna—Masticating
Tithatitha—Pockmark

Uknrrie—Onn
Ulka—Spittle,
Ulkundroo—Spittle
Uldra—We, us
Uldranie—Of us
Ulchutchamuna—To threaten
Unakoo—Don't know
Unkana—Making, doing
Undrakoomoo—One of the flock or part
Unpa—Tassel made from fur of rats, worn to hide private parts
Unpundroo—Tassel
Undrawolpuna—Covered, not in view
Uila—Well
Utta—An Exclamation
Urrapuma—Startled, sudden fright
Urramurana—Gay
Urrathuriea—Attend, regard what
Urrathurruna—Paying attention
Urrina—Listening
Urraurraunkana—Breathing hard
Urrawordoo—Gasping
Urawa—Salt
Urraurruna—Caution, be careful, to avert danger when hunting
Urriena—To descend
Urriemutha—Floods
Urriemuthundroo—Relative to floods
Wadarie—Where
Waka—Small, not much
Wakawaka—very small, mite
Waranie—Refusal
Warapa—Inform
Warapami—To inform
Warapuna—Informing
Warapunaori—Has informed
Warapunawonthie—Had informed
Warapulauni—Will inform
Wata—Don't
Watawanie—Island
Wathara—Wind
Watharaundroo—Relating to the wind
Waukriebuna—Breaking
Waukanaori—Has broken
Whi—What
Wiala—Cook
Wiami—To cook
Wiiina—Cooking
Wiunaori—Has cooked
Wiunawonthie—Had cooked
Wiulauni—Will cook
Wiauie—Nonsense
Widla—Women
Willapina—Old women
Willamura—Women
Wilapathuruna—Anything in motion at a distance, e.g., trees

[p.305]

Wiemnia—Leaving the camp for a day's hunt
Wieilkami—To take charge of the child when hunting
Wieilknna—Taking charge of the children when hunting
Wilyaroo—A ceremony
Wilpuna—Whittling
Willpa—Hole
Willpawillpa—Full of holes
Willpalooloo—White hole; also stupid
Wimuna—Placing under cover, putting in
Wima—Put in
Wimma—Song
Wimmawonkuna—Singing
Wimamarow—Put in (imperatively)
Windami—To count
Windimuna—Counting.
Windrie—Only
Wintha—When
Winthnrie—Whence
Winya—Wither
Winyetmna—Withered
Wippa—Gully
Wippivirrie—Gutter, water-course
Wirrefyema—Level ground
Wirrileama—Leading a weak person gently
Wirrea—Under cover
Wirrunaori—Has gone under cover
Wirrunawonthie—Had gone under cover
Wirralauni—Will go under cover
Wirruna—Setting of the sun and moon
Wirrka—Fissures
Wirrkanie—Flats with many fissures, flooded
Wirrtie—Song
Wilohiena—Trembling from fear
Wittcha—Itch
Withie—Wound
Wittwittuna—The roaring of thunder
Wittawittanathurina—Continued roar of thunder without intermission
Wodarrie—Where
Wodow—What, how
Wodaunchoo—How many
Wodanie—What is it like
Wodaroo—What do you say
Wokbuma—Arriving
Wokari—Arrived
Wokumaori—Has arrived
Wokumawonthie—Had arrived
Wolpuna—To cover
Wolpaduknna—Covering over
Wolsfuna—Walking leisurely
Woltoami—To carry
Wolthona—Carrying
Wolthanaori—Has carried
Wolthaoawonthie—Had carried
Wolthanalaoni—Will carry
Wooloobnkanathoorana—Sleeping on the face
Wooloo—Terrific pace, very swift
Wolka—Offspring, the young of any animal
Wolthoo—Not firm, shaky, rickety
Wolkapurrie—Two red ochre marks on the stomach
Woliewoliebuna—Person who prevents a quarrel
Woliewoliebundroo—Relating to a peacemaker
Wompinie—In the shade, sheltered from
Wonka—Sin
Wonkana—Sinning
Wonkunaori—Has sung
Wonkunawonthie—Had sung
Wonkamullana—Singing together
Wonkulauni—Will sing
Wondrami—To show
Wondruna—Showing
Wondrunaori—Has shown
Wondrunawonthie—Had shown
Wondralauni—Will show
Wondramarow—Show (imperative)
Wondrala—Show
Wondaroo—Shower, indication of rain; also, closely knitted bag
Wonina—Tracking
Woninaori—Has tracked
Woninamonthie—Had tracked
Woninalanni—Will track
Woninamullana—Tracking each other
Wonchumi—To try, to taste
Wonchuna—Trying tasting
Wonchathuruni—Has tried, has tasted
Wonabunyie—The small bone of emu's or kangaroo's leg
Wonthawonthaloo—Travelling
Wonthawirrieyinknna—Travelling to a certain place
Wonthilcurie—Round the other side
Woonthatharka—A calling place
Wonthina—Search
Wonthinaori—Has searched
Wonthinawonthie—Had searched
Wonthilauni—Will search
Wonthithuruna—Searched in vain
Wopnna—Gone
Wopulkuna—Going
Wopunaori—Has gone
Wopunawonthie—Had gone
Wopulanni—Will go
Wopala—Are going
Worietha—Long way off, distant
Worami—To throw
Woruna—Throwing
Woranaori—Has thrown

[p.306]

Woranawonthie—Had thrown
Woramarow—Throw (imperatively)
Woralaani—Will throw
Woratharuna—Stumbling
Woorookarana—Barking
Worooworookuna—Rickety, shaky, not firm
Workoo—The other way
Woorookathieundroo—Relating to emus
Worookoomoo—The reverse end
Woraworana—To desert
Worapami—To tell
Worapuna—Telling
Worapunaori—Was told
Worapunawonthie—Had told
Worapulauni—Will tell
Worapathunina—Telling together
Wordoo—Short
Wordoopirrapirra—Short and thick
Wordoowauka—Very short
Woraunchoo—Left-handed
Woroola—Well
Woroo—Time past
Woroomurla— Long time past
Woroomoothoo—Very long time past
Wootchoo—Long and thick
Wotthiemookoo—The grave
Wotthina—Building
Wotthinaori—Has built
Wotthinawonthie—Had built
WotthaUuni—Will build
Wolthila—Built
Wowitcha— Distant relative
Wulpieunkuna—Plaiting
Wuldragunya—Summer
Wuldragunyaundroo—Relating to summer
Wulkularie—Sorry
Wulkulienuua—Sorrow
Wulkina—In pain
Wulkinaori—Has suffered pain
Wulkinawonthie—Had suffered pain
Wuldraeunyandroo—Relating to emus
WuldruTie—Warm
Wulya—Soon
Wulyaloo—Hereafter
Wauldrawirrtie—Yesterday
Wuraoong—Whom
Wurta—The butt, the trunk, the large end
Wurthanow—Where is it
Wurthuninkie—From where, whence
Wurdathulka—To where, whither
Wurunguna—To be distant, to show contempt, disowned, discarded
Wurrpuna—A cantering pace
Wumie—Whose
Wumieundroo—To whom does it belong
Wurriewarina—Exhausted, knocked up
Wurlie—Who will, who did
Wurana—Who
Warunganalawopia—Have disowned, have discarded

Ya—And
Yae—Desist
Yakulkami—To question
Yakulmarow—To question (imperatively)
Yakulkuna—Questioning
Yakulknnaori—Has questioned
Yakulkunawonthie—Had questioned
Yakulkunami—Will question
Yakulka—Question
Yadina—Lie
Yadinaori—Has lied
Yadinawonthie—Had lied
Yadinabunna—Will lie
Yadinakaunchie—Liar for certain
Yaniekaitcha—A bone
Yaniethnma—To place a stick through the arms across the back
    (native mode of lounging)
Yandrowda—Now, at present, about this time
Yapa—Fear
Yapalie—Fright
Yapalieunana—Frightened
Yapakaunchie—Extreme fear
Yapaooroo—Not afraid
Yarra—This side, nearest
Yarapara—That's right
Yarooka—Like this
Yarooldra—The same
Yatouna—Satiate
Yathamullana—Quarrelling together
Yathami—To speak
Y'athunaori—Has spoken
Yathunawonthie—Had spoken
Yathulauni—Will speak
Yathamarow—Speak (imperatively)
Yathala—Speak
Yathi—Have spoken
Yathuna—Speaking
Yaupunie—Afraid
Ycdlakoo—Very far off, long distance
Yellaloo—Together
Yelkyelkaroo—Extreme excitement; hysterics prevailing chiefly
  amongst the women, mainly caused by jealousy:
  once experienced its return is frequent
Yegga—Native orange
Yenmuna—I wait your return
Yeppina—Burning
Yeppiiiaori—Has burned
Yeppinawonthie—Had burned
Yeppulauni—Will burn
Yera—The other side, farthest away
Yerrawayerra—Away from you
Yika—To milk
Yikanunthoo—Milked

[p.307]

Yikana—Milking
Yiknnaori—Has milked
Yikunawonthie—Had milked
Yikaluni—Will milk
Yikyilljuie—Hysterics after excessive laughter
Yinkana—Giving
Yinknnaori—Has given
Yinkimawonthie—Had given
Yinkuluni—Will give
Yinkamullona—Giving each other
Yinkatharrie—Gave
Yinkiea—Give me
Yinka—Girdle
Yillthurala—Convalescence, recovery from sickness
Yinkanngoo—Of you
Yinkaunoondroo—Relating to you
Yindrami—To cry
Yindruna—Crying
Yindrunaori—Has cried
YindAuiawonthie—Had cried
Yindrulauni—Will cry
Yindramarow—Cry (imperative)
Yindrathuruna—Crying together
Yinie—You
Yinkathuruna—To succumb, to yield
Yinctha—You did it
Yinpa—Send
Yinpami—To send
Yinpuna—Sending
Yinpunaori—Has sent
Yinpunawonthie—Had sent
Yinpulauni—Will send
Yinpamarow—Send (imperative)
YinpamuUuna—Sending each other
Yinthina—Dozy, sleepy
Yirrinya—Thin, poor
Yirrirrsbula—Instruct, to commission
Yirrirrbuna—Instructed, commissioned
Yirrchiea—Awake, rise up
Yirrchuna—A wakening
Yirrchienaori—Has awakened
Yirrchiebunawonthie—Had awakened
Yirrchiebulanni—Will awaken
Yirrchiebuna—To awaken
Yookardie—Smoke
Yookardieoondroo—Relating to smoke
Yookabitchie—Spade, any kind of scoop
Yoolkami—To swallow
Yoolkuna—Swallowing
Yoolkunaori—Has swallowed
Yoolkunawonthie—Had swallowed
Yoolkunanni—Will swallow
Yooa—Debating
Yoondrathana—Across country
Yoola—You two
Yoondroo—Yourself
Yoondrooina—You did
Yoonka—Sulky, sullen, obstinate
Yoonkaruna—Obstinacy
Yoorkamuna—Roasting
Yoora—Few
Yoorala—Love
Yoorana—Loving
Yooranaori—Has loved
Yooranawonthie—Had loved
Yooralauni—Will love
Yoorootcha—Horns
Yootha—Luck
Yoothamurra—Great luck
Yoothapina—Very great luck
Yoothaoutha—No luck
Yootchoo—Signifies a string put round the neck of a person
     leaving to barter with neighbouring tribes
Yotchoondroo—Relating to Yootchoo
Youdanie—About here
Younieka—About this distance
Yowla—Breath
Yowara—Language
Yowerayinkuna—Dictating, literally your talk
Yowerie—The outer fat attached to the skin
Yuntha—A piece of wood (see Willyaroo on page 270)

FOOTNOTES

1—Mooramoora is a good spirit, god, or divine being; and, although they have no form of religious worship, they speak of the Mooramoora with great reverence.

2—The reasons assigned for this barbarous practice are that thereby courage is infused into the young man, and to show him that the sight of blood is nothing; so that should he receive a wound in warfare, he may account it a matter of no moment, but remark bravely that he has previously had blood running all over his body, therefore, why should he feel faint or low-hearted.

3—Each married woman it permitted a paramour.

4—It is said elsewhere that there are no kangaroo in the Dieyerie country but it must be remembered that in their expedition for red ochre they travel over the lands of other tribes where the kangaroo can be procured.

5—Just after collecting the ochre, having all the hair of their facet plucked out (not cut or burnt off).

6—The men carry their loads on their heads.

7—During nine years' acquaintance with the Dieyerie and neighbouring tribes I have encountered only one woman and one man deaf and dumb, and have conversed with them by native signs.

8—I have seen alive three perfect skeletonsmere skin and bone up to the neck and face, which were comparatively fleshy.