'They are Seven! they are Seven! Who were Watchers once in heaven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Who have never wooed nor wiven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Into sex they were uncleaven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! in the Deep that has no haven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Death and Hell to them are given.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Ever driving, ever driven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! In the Storm-clouds thunder-riven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! And their laughter is the levin.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Lo! they rush to blind and deafen.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Ruthless all to the bereaven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Grim destroyers never grieven.
They are Seven! they are Seven! Who were Watchers once in heaven.'[1]


It has been shown that the 'gods' of mythology in general are of two classes or types, namely those of the elementary forces of nature which dominated in Chaos, and the kronidae, or keepers of the time-cycles, who afterwards became the ruling powers in creation. The various 'creations' are identical with the establishment of the circles and cycles of time; and the gods who have souls in distinction to the earlier elementaries are intelligencers to men as the demonstrators, watchers, and keepers of their several periods of time. The goddess of the Great Bear was the mother of these continued from Chaos. She brought forth her progeny on the summit of Am-smen, the paradise of the eight gods. She is the mother-goddess of time, the 'Mother of the Revolutions' who was the 'regent of the birth-place' in heaven; the 'Mother of the Fields of the Aah-en-ru' (Aahru), the divisions in the celestial circle. Her firstborn in this new phase of time was Sevekh the dragon or crocodile, the earliest form of Saturn-Kronus in heaven. These two, as mother and son, Great Bear and Lesser (including the dragon), were the primal pair in the circumpolar heaven. They are a form of the typical Sut-Typhon of Egypt; Sutekh and Astarte (in a pre-lunar phase), Saturn and Gaea, the primeval dyad in mythology that were humanised as the first parents of our race who were placed in the [p.94] Garden of Eden, on the mount where stood the tree of the pole. Six other gods of constellations were associated with these two, and the genetrix was represented as being mother of the same number in the sphere of time as she had been in the previous phase of Chaos or limitlessness; the seven elementaries having now become seven keepers of time and period. The various mythical creations then were the result of establishing certain periods of time and season, and the 'Fall' was a consequence of the failure in keeping time faithfully, and of observing periodicity sacredly this being also mystically applied in a human phase.

The Kabbalists relate that after the fall of Adam the angels communicated to him the doctrines of the Kabbalah as the means whereby he might recover the lost paradise of his pristine condition. Kircher also quotes an Arabian doctor, who relates how Adam, one day after his fall, was meditating on the heaven he had lost, and the state of felicity from which he had lapsed, and he prayed to God for some alleviation of his misery. On the third day after his supplication the angel Rasiel came to him with a book that shone like white flame; in this there were letters traced by which Adam could understand all the events that ever had been or ever were to be; 'all the secrets of the heavens and their manifestations, the motions of the sun, moon, and stars, and their natures, together with all things by which the world is regulated.'[2] The constellations of the Two Bears, with which we identify the primal pair, figure in the Kabbalah as the two chariots. The Lesser Bear in Arabic is named Rakubah. These chariots were looked upon as bearers of the most hidden wisdom. Also the Buddhists have two classes of tradition, divided into the Mahyana and Hinayana, which are distinguished as sutras of the great and the lesser chariot. Now, the paradise that could be recovered by the Kabbalah and the true keeping of the time cycles had been lost through those that were untrue and untrustworthy. Time is that which is true, and the word true answers to the Egyptian teru for time, measure, and limit. Time is that which is measured truly. Tema or tsema (whence the variant sema) signifies the making true or accomplishing the truth[3].*

* 'Par substitution d'un impulsif un autre, Tma gale Sma dans le sens de faire la verit.' But M. Pierret omits the fundamental motive for keeping time as the object called the true, the true measure, the truth. Tem and sem both denote a total of two halves, the two times of teriu, such as those of the two solstices, or equinoxes.

'Har-Tema' is a title of the maker-true, whether as the star-god Shu, or as the solar Horus, in the sense of the true timekeeper. Hence he is the warrior enemy, and conqueror of the typhonian powers of evil, who would disturb the established order of things and break up the harmony of creation. These began with the darkness impersonated as the dragon, the akhekh or Apophis serpent, the [p.95] opponent, the swallower of the sun or its eye, and the natural antithesis of light and life. When the sun sets it enters the dark valley, where lurks the Kamite Apollyon waiting to attack, and twine round, and strangle the sun-god during the twelve hours of night. The winter sun growing weaker and diminishing daily is under this malign influence. Ra says of his evil opponents, 'Beware of those enchanters whose mouth is subtle, through whom I am enchanted myself I cannot preserve myself because of my old age.'[4] Hence the need of Har-Tema, his supporter in this perilous passage, as his avenger on the powers of darkness. Through his aid the sun comes to time in the morning, and keeps time annually.

The earliest intelligence manifested in heaven above to man below, which made the primal appeal to his apprehension, was shown in periodic recurrence; the intelligence of the starry serpent annually crawling round; and mythology proper begins with the founding of time on the cyclic movements of the heavenly bodies. The twin beings of the Avesta, who are the Two Truths of light and dark personified, are yet considered to be sons of time without bounds, who became the demonstrators of time within the primary bounds of night and day; the twins of twilight. It was by drinking the amrit juice of immortality that the dragon of darkness, as Rahu, was transformed into one of the keepers of time, and figured in heaven at the place where he had been cut in two. By drinking of this juice he had got 'time in his body,' and thenceforth could not be destroyed. The elementaries acquired their souls as timekeepers; the soul and time being synonymous as seb (Eg.). Rahu became one of the kronotypes as the dragon of the annual eclipse, because he now possessed a soul, or was fabled to have drunk of the immortal juice.

It is one of the kronian gods who is described in the Books of Enoch and Daniel as the 'Ancient of Days.'[5] Also the typology of parent and offspring or father and son applied to deity, was founded on the series and sequence of the time-cycles, as a human mode of expressing known phenomena, and not under a pretence of revealing the unknown. The god, whether stellar, lunar, or solar, was born of the cycle of time. Hence it is said of Amen-Ra, one of the latest because solar divinities, in the Temple of El-Kharjeh, 'He has not come out of a womb, he has come out of cycles.'[6] The first figure of formation is a circle, the image of a cycle. Hermes speaks of 'Every soul being in flesh (or embodied) by the wonderful working of the gods in circles.'[7] When the gods are discussing their plans of battle after the Assyrian fall, it is said, 'In a circle may they sit.' They were founded on the circle because they were born of cycles of time, even as men are born of nine solar months. The antithesis of the circle was Chaos, the deluge, and timelessness. In the Ritual the goddess Renen, the gestator, is said to receive the breaths (or spirits) of the departed, [p.96] those belonging to her, and to turn them into time, 'She has made each time of the breath, the time of the *** (lacuna),' as a mode of continuity in a future life. The mummy of the dead is figured as the bull of Renen, and she reproduces his spirit just as Keridwen reproduced Taliesin in nine months. Being reproduced millions of times is the Kamite expression for eternity[8]. 'My soul is from the beginningfrom the reckoning of years,' says the Osirified deceased in the Ritual[9]; and such was the origin of the kronian deities. The gods in heaven prepare their cycles of time according to the respective lengths assigned to them by their human creators on earth, ranging from the 'chiefs preparing moments'[10] up to Atum the solar lord of millions of years, or an eternity that is aeonian.

In Egyptian the oath and covenant are also synonymous with true timekeeping. The word ark denotes the thirtieth day, the end of a month; and to make the circle, enclose, tie up, take an oath, keep the covenant. Time and truth were founded on this covenant of the ark, or in arke.* In the Book of Enoch[11] we are told that the Most High established the oath of Akae 'by the instrumentality of the holy Michael. These are the secrets of this oath, and by it were they confirmed. Heaven was suspended by it before the world was made for ever. By it has the earth been founded upon the food. By this oath the sun and moon complete their progress, never swerving from the command given to them for ever and ever. By this oath the stars complete their progress, and when their names are called they return an answer for ever and ever.' Such was the nature of the 'Ark and Covenant;' the 'Ark to build, the Covenant to keep;' and such the oath taken by the timekeepers and appointed watchers of the heavens, as unfolded in the 'third parable of Enoch.'

* Compare akh (Eg.), to suspend, adjust, revolve.

To comprehend the Egyptian idea of truth and justice impersonated, we must know the types; the straight inflexible rule-measure; the scales at perfect poise, which could be turned by a feather; the tongue of their balance being a vase named full, as the type of absolute equilibrium. Truth was geometrical, the truth of the stonesquarers and the Masons, whose emblems are the square, the level, the compasses; the straight line of plumb-rule. When the true heart is weighed in the judgment scales it is described as balancing itself by its own bearing or deportment; that being a figure for uprightness. Such, and not abstract conceptions, is the base of all their building in the realm of thought. More abstract ideas were gradually evolved in later stages of development. The kronian deity being born of the cycle, the truth was established and the covenant fulfilled by the true timekeeper; and the eternal of mythology was evolved by a process of selection from the various cycle-makers, the goddess of the Great Bear and Sothis; [p.97] Sut-Horus; Shu and Seb the star-gods; Sut-Anup, Taht and Khunsu the lunar, and lastly the solar gods, ending with the survival of the fittest in the final sun-god. For the foundations of the eternal were based on that which was ultimately true in time, the order of things established by calculation, measure, and reckoning of the various periods. The sun at last became the perfected type of the true keeper of time or, what the Egyptians harped on incessantly, the maker of truth. This stage had been attained in Egypt before the time of Menes in the cult of the solar Horus, and in that of Atum-Ra; the sun had consequently become the truest god. As soon as the sun rises the reign of truth begins, with the god upon his throne; truth is united with his glory; he establishes truth in his bark; he becomes the producer and bringer forth of truth; he makes truth; and truth becomes identical with the god[12]. The sun who overthrows his enemies by his word, does so through that word being made or making truth, and he re-arises from the underworld as Har-Ma-Kheru, who is the True Word, the word that makes truth or the word made truth[13]. The word of Horus is truth. The word is truth against the enemies of the sun or the souls who are overthrown by the truth of the word, or the word made truth, as it was in the divine Ma-Kheru.

Shu and Har-Tema, the supporters of the sun in his weakness, were the makers of truth. Taht is master of the truth, he makes the truth; he is the 'fecundator of the truth,'[14] as he who constitutes the world, the established order of things, that is, as the reckoner and the keeper of the register of time and period. The antithesis of this is found in the 'Lying Speech' of the Avesta. When Yima forsook the true word or voice for 'Lying Speech' he fell. All who suggest evil thoughts, or who do bad deeds, are termed the 'Mithra Liars,' those who are false to Mithra. The origin of this lying speech is traced to Anra-Mainyus (Aharman, in the Bundahish), the Dark Mind, or devil of the dark, who is the reverse image of the good deity, his likeness in shadow, a dark silhouette of the Lord of Light.

Periodical time was so profoundly important a subject of the early thought, and the orbs of heaven were demonstrators so august and glorious, that no conception of unfaithfulness, of failing in duty, of being treacherous to all trust, could have been embodied in more appealing or appalling imagery than this of the stars, the eternal watchers in Heaven proving false to the watchers on earth, who had trusted them for their periodic time; the luminaries themselves breaking the law of light and siding with the dragon of darkness, the akhekh monster of eclipse, the primal cause of all obstruction, disorder, and confusion in external phenomena! When this was first observed, it must have seemed as if they had lost their one firm bit of solid foothold in the infinite; as if the uniformity on which they had based the stability of [p.98] the universe were found to be failing them. At least this is the impression made by the mythos.

The Persian 'Revelation,' as the Parsee writings are termed, contains some of the most valuable and definite matter extant for the understanding of the story of the Fall. In these scriptures the first creation is emphatically the birth of Time itself. For '"Three thousand years the creatures were possessed of bodies and (had) not (been) walking on their navels. The sun, moon, and stars stood still." In the mischievous incursion at the end of the period, Ahura-Mazda observed thus: "What advantage is there from the creation of a creature although thirstless, which is unmoving or mischievous?" And in aid of the celestial sphere he produced the creature Time, and Time is unrestricted, so that he made the creatures of Ahura-Masda moving, distinct from the motion of Aharman's creatures, for the shedders of perfume were standing one opposite to the other while emitting it. And observantly of the end, he brought forward to Aharman a means out of himself the property of darkness, with which the extreme limits of Time were connected by him, an envelope of the black-pated and ash-coloured kind.'[15]

The creatures of Aharman (here described as preceding time) that were unmoving and mischievous, are identical by nature with the elementaries of Egypt, the children of laziness, inertness, and revolt, who ruled in Chaos as the progeny of the evil Typhon. The ancient phraseology makes the matter seem remote, but it relates to the establishment of day and night, light and dark, and the limits of the grey twilight, in which the two powers met to mingle as co-partners in the production of time as a day and night, the time of the Asvins, or Sut and Horus. The evil spirit Aharman, the opponent of the spirit of light, in the Bundahish, is identical with the Apophis of the Ritual, the eternal enemy of the sun. Ahura-Mazda lives in a region of limitless light; Aharman dwells in a domain that is endlessly dark. Then the evil spirit arose from the abyss and came in unto the light which he saw[16], and rushed forward to destroy.

'Aharman came from accompanying Time out to the front, out to the star-station, and having darkness with himself he brought it into the sky, and left the sky so to gloom that the internal deficiency in the sky extends as much as one-third over the star-station.'[17]

So in the Bundahish, the evil spirit rushed towards the luminaries. 'He stood upon one-third of the inside of the sky, and he sprang like a snake out of the sky down to the earth.'[18] It is also said that his shadow covered one-third of the base of the sky in a downward direction, and that darkness, without an eyelid, was brought on by him. The same measure of darkness over-spreading the sky is employed in John's Revelation: 'And there appeared a dragon in [p.99] heaven having seven heads, and his tail drew a third part of the stars of Heaven and did cast them to the earth. And there was war in Heaven.' 'And the great dragon was cast out into the Earth, and his angels were cast out with him.'[19]

The attack of Aharman is not limited to indefinite darkness. It takes form in an eclipse, and the exact time of an assault on the celestial luminaries is given. 'In the month Fravardin and the day of Ahura-Mazda (that is at the time of the vernal equinox), he rushed in at noon, and thereby the sky was as shattered and frightened as a sheep is by a wolf.'[20] The time identifies this manifestation of the Evil One with the dragon of eclipse, this being the season of lunar eclipses, and the period of rebirth for the young sun-god[21].

The first demon named as an assistant of the Evil One is the wicked Gh, who is a personification of the impurity of menstruation. The Dark Mind, or Devil, Aharman, is represented as powerless, and unable to make a breach in the good creation until the coming of Gh at the completion of the three thousand years[22] of confusion that followed the first vain assault made by darkness upon the light. Thus menstruation, the dark shadow of periodic time, the solution of continuity, is here represented as an equivalent in one domain of nature to the dark break in the circle of light caused by Aharman's eclipse in the other. So when Ahura-Mazda had created Hapta-Hendu, the opposition of the dark deity was shown in producing irregular menstruation[23]. These, then, are two periodic breaches made in continuity, or time, considered to be the shadow projected on creation by the Evil Mind, the dragon of eclipse.

The next assault is described as having been made on the primeval ox called Gayomard, who is now to be identified with the star Sothis and Haptoringa, the seven Bearstwo stellar types north and south of her who was set in heaven as the mother-goddess of time. The primeval ox, the sole-created, is distinctly stated in the Selections of Zad-Sparam[24] to have been female at first. 'It was a female white and brilliant as the moon.' This agrees with the Egyptian form of Sothis described as the female bull which was originally the cow (or the water-cow). From the ox there were produced for Airyana-Vajo, a pair of oxen, male and female. This likewise agrees with the Egyptian beginning. The cow (or water-cow) is female in the north, and has a masculine character as Sothis in the south, the forepart being male.

As Plutarch says, 'The souls of the Gods are stars shining in Heaven. The soul of Isis is called the Dog by the Greeks, but by the Egyptians Sothis; that of Horus Orion; and that of Typhon the Bear.'[25] The soul of Isis (genetrix) was said to dwell in the Dog-star. So Gshurvan, [p.100] as the soul of the primeval ox Gayomard, is a female. She comes forth from the ox as its soul, after its fall, and asks the creator where is the promised seed, the man of whom it was said by Ahura-Mazda, 'I will produce him so that he may preach carefulness against another fall. And Ahura-Mazda said, 'You are made ill, O Gshurvan! you have the illness which the evil spirit brought on (the Gh). Forth Gshurvan walked to the Star-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Moon-Station and cried in the same manner, and forth to the Sun-Station, and then the Guardian Spirit of Zaratusht was exhibited to her, and Ahura-Mazda said this: "I will produce for the world him who will preach carefulness." Contented became the spirit Gshurvan, and assented thus: "I will nourish the creatures," that is, she became again consenting to a worldly creation in the world.'[26] This was when the adversary had prevailed over Gayomard, or as may be illustrated, if not interpreted, when Sothis was discovered to be lapsing and losing time, and the true, the solar timekeeper is promised to be brought forth by the ancient genetrix. Gayomard, as the ox (male), repeats the bull of the seven cows, or seven stars, in the Egyptian Ritual. Before the coming of Aharman, Ahura-Mazda had 'brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard so long as he might recite a prayer of one stanza. Moreover, Ahura-Mazda formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man of fifteen years, radiant and tall. When Gayomard issued from that sweat he saw the world dark as night ... the celestial sphere was in revolution, the sun and moon remained in motion; the world's struggle, owing to the clamour of the Mazinikan demons, was with the constellations.'[27]

This duplicating of Gayomard by a second creation is in agreement with the formation of the dual-headed Sut-Horus, or Sut-Anubis. Anup like Horus is a typical youth. 'His Majesty was like a young Anup.'[28] Now, Sothis (Sirius) is known to be the star Tishtar.

'The star Tistrya, the shining, majestic, we praise, who brings hither the circling years of time.'[29] The bull was one of the types of Tishtar, who, in the Vendidad[30] is expressly invoked as the golden bull. That is as Sut-Anta (Eg.). Also the female companions of Tishtar are invoked in the Khordah Avesta[31]. 'Tistrya praise we, the female companions of Tishtar praise we, the first (star) praise we, the female companions of the first star praise we; I praise the stars Hapto-ringa for resisting the sorcerers and parikas.' These are the seven Bears which, as the seven cows in the Ritual, are the seven female companions of the bull. They were also the sevenfold soul of the bull or Sothis. Thus Gayomard and the genetrix, who is called the soul of the bull (the giver of breath, or inspirer of life as the mother), are the same dyad, now identified [p.101] by the celestial phenomena, as the good Sut-Typhon. In the appointment of Time at first it was decreed that the period of Gayomard-Tishtar should be thirty years, the time of the Egyptian Sut-Heb, a Sothic festival. A reason is given for the failure or fail of Gayomard-Sothis, who came under the influence of the Dark Mind, the evil Aharman, the author of discord and dissolution, the antithesis of time and the law of light.

'In the Beginning it was so appointed that the Star Jupiter (Planet of Ahura-Mazda), was life towards the Creatures, not through its own nature, but on account of its being within the control (band), of the luminaries, (especially the signs of the zodiac, to whose protection the Good Creation was committed), and Saturn was death towards the Creatures. Both were in their supremacy at the beginning of the Creation, as Jupiter was in Cancer on rising, that which is called Givan (living), for it is the place in which life is bestowed on it. And Saturn was in Libra, in the great subterranean, so that its own venom and deadliness became more evident and dominant thereby. And it was when both shall (should) not be supreme that Gayomard was to commence his own life, which is the thirty years, (during which) Saturn came not again to supremacy, that is to Libra.' And 'at the time when Saturn came into Libra, Jupiter was in Capricornus.' That is while Saturn performed one revolution about the Sun, Jupiter performed two and a half his cycle consisting of eleven years and three hundred and fifteen days, so that when Saturn was again supreme, the reviving influence of Jupiter was at its minimum power, on account of the small altitude of Capricorn. Cancer and Capricorn were the two signs in which the end of a world was fabled to occur by a conflagration and a deluge. In consequence of this victory of Saturn over Jupiter, 'Gayomard suffered through those very defects which came and are to continue advancing, the continuance of that disfigurement which Aharman can bring upon the creatures of Ahura-Mazda.'[32]

Here it occurs to me, that the same mode of reckoning and adjusting the reckonings is described on the cuneiform tablet, when 'Bel goes to Elam.' 'At last, after thirty years the Smitten are restored the Great Gods return with them.'[33] This appears to refer to the cycle of thirty years, the Egyptian Heb-Sut or festival of the Triakontaeteridae, which was probably regulated by or in relation to Saturn's revolution, and thirty years of three hundred and sixty days. The restoration of the smitten, and the return of the Great Gods to their supremacy would then be a metaphorical mode of describing the readjustment of the year, and the reckoning according to the fixed rules.

The deviation of Sothis from the true solar timein its heliacal [p.102] risingwhich was allowed for annually, and rectified every 1,460 years, was considered to be the work of the opposing powers of disorder, falsehood, and chaos; these were depicted as gaining thus much ground according to the typical mode of representation, and such seems to be the meaning of this restoration of the smitten and the return of the Great Gods at the end of thirty years. The attack was made on Gayomard and Gshurvan by the evil power, the enemy of true periodicity, and he who had been brilliant as the sun, now waned in the shadow of eclipse. When he issued from his sweat or swoon in which the youth was formed out of him, the whole world was dark as night, and swarming with all kinds of noxious creatures of Aharman. And it was at the 'coming of a planetary star into planetary conjunction, and the moon and planets all at sixes and sevens; (literally in fours and fives), that many dark forms with the face and curls of Azi-Dahak suffered punishment.'[34]

The planetary star of Sothis was Mercury, who is Sut-Anubis under his planetary type; but there was also a lunar Mercury or Hermanubis. When Ahura-Mazda's creatures had been disfigured, then through the same deterioration his own great glory was exhibited; for he came within the sky like an intrepid warrior, who has put on metal armour; and the sky in its fortress (burgo, which also means the zodiacal signs), spoke these hasty deceitful words to Aharman, thus:

'"Now, when thou shalt have come in, I will not let thee back;" and it obstructed him until Ahura-Mazda prepared another rampart that is stronger around the sky, which is called "righteous understanding." And he arranged the guardian spirits of the righteous who are warriors around that rampart, mounted on horses and spear in hand in such a manner, as the hair on the head (or thick as hairs on the head); and they acquired the appearance of prison guards who watch a prison front outside, and would not surrender the outer boundaries to an enemy descended from the inside. Immediately, Aharman endeavours that he may go back to his own complete darkness, but he found no passage; and he recapitulated, with seeming misgiving, his fears of the worthiness which is to arise at the appearance of the renovation (of the universe) at the end of the nine thousand years. This was the first contest, that of the sky, with Aharman.'[35]

Thus, it is said, 'Both Spirits (the Dark and the light) have come to the body of Gayomard,'[36] which statement may be illustrated by the type of Sut-Horus or Sut Nub-ti with the double head, one black, one bright, denoting the dark and light spirits, the two representatives of time, as true and untrue, of order and disorder, of upper and lower, of heaven and earth, the horizon of darkness and death, and the horizon of the resurrection. The meaning is this: Sothis was [p.103] discovered to be losing timein its heliacal risingit lost one whole year every 1,460 years; and the lunar Hermes-Anubis (described later) came to the assistance of the lagging timekeeper, the two being compounded as Sut-Anup the golden dog of Sothis.

The first timekeepers were constellations, not the planets, but the stars of fixed station, which turned round with the sphere as do the Bears, Kepheus, Orion, Hydra, the Eagle or Vulture, and the rest. Next the planets were added and combined with these.

'All the original creations residing in the World' are committed to the keeping of the constellations which have especial charge of the welfare of creation: 'So that when the Destroyer arrives, they overcome the Adversary and their own persecution, and the creatures are saved from their Adversaries,' and 'As a specimen of a warlike Army, which is destined for battle, they have ordained every single constellation of those 6480 thousand small stars as assistants, and among those constellations "four chieftains," appointed on the four sides, are Leaders.' On the recommendation of these four chieftains, the unnumbered stars were assigned to the various quarters and places. 'It is said that Tishtar is the chieftain of the east, Sataves the chieftain of the west, Vanand the chieftain of the south, and Hapto-ringa the chieftain of the north.'[37] Hapto-ringa is the constellation of Ursa Major or the seven Bears.

Tishtar is identified with Sirius, the other two are less certain, but most probably Antares in Scorpio and Fomalhaut in Pisces Australis are intended. Also the four are certain to be the gods of the four quarters who are found in so many mythologies. In the Avesta these watchers in the four quarters of the heavens are called Tistrya in the east; Satavaesa in the west; Vanand in the south, and Hapto-ringa (the seven Bears) in the north. Furthermore, the Bundahish[38], says, 'Seven chieftains of the planets have come in to the Seven chieftains of the constellations. The planet Mercury (Tir) unto Tishtar; the planet Mars unto Haptok-ring (the seven Bears, the female companions of Tishtar); the planet Jupiter (Ahura-Mazda) unto Vanand; the planet Venus (Anahid) unto Sataves; the planet Saturn unto the great (one) of the middle of the sky, Gkihar*; and the thievish Muspar (or Mus-parika), provided with tails, unto the Sun, Moon, and Stars.'[39]

* Gkihar. Windischmann would read Gurgkihar, wolf-progeny[40].

The main point here, however, is that Mercury is the servant of Sothisits messenger, its dog, who became its bright and better half in the reckoning of time, the period of the one being corrected and kept by the other. Plutarch suggested that the horizon immediately before the rising and immediately after the setting of the sun was symbolized by Anubis[41]. Renouf says, 'I believe that he represents the twilight or dusk immediately following the [p.104] disappearance of the Sun.'[42] But Anubis is the guide of ways, the guide of Isis, and of Sothis, the discoverer of the sun, the conductor of souls. He was typified by the jackal that came out at dusk, and was painted with a black head, as guide of the western land, and the jackal was the golden dog, as the guide to the horizon of the resurrection.

What is needed here is a star of the dusk, that is a guide to the sun. This is to be found in the planet Mercury which is sometimes a morning and at others an evening star. This planet was given to Sothis as her guide and assistant, hence Anup accompanies Isis the genetrix in her search for the lost Osiris and is the guide of souls through the underworld of the dead, and was like Nebo the keeper of the morning and evening gate of souls, as well as of the sun, because he was the god of the morning and evening star. As evening star he presided over the burial of the sun, and was made the deity of embalmment and burial. As star of morning he restored the eye of the sun at the dawn of day not merely as the dusk or twilight, but as the herald light, the guide of ways, and conductor of the solar orb. Mercury watched at dusk over the closing grave of sunset, and at dawn he rose and preceded the resurrection of the sun. Sut-Anubis was Hermes-Anubis, who preceded Taht, in his lunar phase (yet to be described), and Mercury in his planetary character.

Moreover, there are seven spirits associated with the Great Bear. Anup makes their places, and stations them for the protection of the coffin of Osiris, i.e., the constellation of Ursa Major. The seven spirits are the gods of the seven constellations that preceded the seven planets and were finally superseded by them or compounded with them. There are eight altogether, considered as the genetrix and her progeny. The seven furnished a type which was continued in the lunar and solar phases of the mythos. They were typhonian at first, and Sut (Sevekh) was the chief of the seven. When lunar time had been established, Taht was made the manifestor, word or speech. When Ptah, a solar god, although not the sun, was created, the seven as the Khnemu are called his sons. And the eight-rayed star remained a type of the solar manifestor of the final pleroma of the godhead[43]. The eight are included under the type of the female dragon and her seven heads in the Akkadian legends. The original eight were elementaries in Egypt who had been represented under zoological types. These were afterwards more or less humanized when they became watchers and timekeepers, and personification had succeeded the earlier mode of representation. This is mentioned in passing because the change of type to the human form may have a bearing on the marriage of the sons of God who saw the daughters of men were fair, and took them wives from the women [p.105] of earth, who are charged with leading them astray in order that they might salute them[44]. In their second phase the seven (eight with the mother) became the watchers in heaven that failed to keep the true time; the betsh party who were degraded as the children of inertness, laziness, and revolt, and the sluggish 'Animals of Satan,' the standers-still, the 'Fools' and 'Sleepers' of later legends; they who, like Orion, were discovered to be bound in heaven and held to be fools and blind; or, as we say, they were fixed stars, that only turned with the sphere, not movers of themselves. Moreover, they were discovered to be losing time all together in the course of precession, and so they were fabled to have been lifeless laggards, or, it was said they had fallen in love with the women of earth and were of the earth earthynot true celestial beings, nor trustworthy watchers.


Hence the mythos of the fall in heaven. The fallen ogdoad survived in the Moslem traditions as the 'seven sleepers and their dog Al-Rakim.' In the Koran[45] it is asked, 'Dost thou consider that the companions of the cave, and Al-Rakim, were one of our signs and a great miracle?' In this version Al-Rakim takes the place of the dog, the companion of the seven sleepers of Ephesus. The companions of the cave are here said to have been struck deaf, and to have slept undisturbed for a long time, and then the Lord awoke them that we might know 'which of the two parties was more exact in computing the space that the sleepers had remained there,' according to which statement they were of the nature of timekeepers, and therefore belong to the astronomical allegory. 'Some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth,' as was the opinion of Al-Seyid, a Jacobite Christian of Najrn[46]. 'Others say they were seven, and their dog was the eighth.' 'And this was the true opinion.'[47] The four can be identified with the genii of the four corners, who are four of the seven spirits of the bear and the dog.

The time of their waking is that of the final resurrection of souls and the renovation of all things. There was a tradition at Ephesus that St. John was not dead, but sleeping there until the consummation or end of the world should come; and this points to the seven churches of Asia as having been founded on the seven constellations in the celestial heptanomis, the seven spirits of which appear 'before the throne' in the Book of Revelation[48] just as they do in the Egyptian Ritual[49].

It was in the time of the Nephilim (םיליפנ), as described in the Book of Genesis[50], that certain transactions occurred which led to a deluge. The Nephilim, called the giants, are the fallen ones. לפנ means to fall down, to fall down from heaven, to be overthrown, to be abortive, or an untimely birth. These fallen ones correspond to the celestial giants of the primary world or cycle of time who failed and [p.106] fell. In their time it is said the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair, and they cohabited with them[51]. The legend is developed at length in the Book of Enoch where they appear as the 'Watchers' of heaven. In this version of the mythos they are the celestial watchers in the astronomical sense, the disposers and timekeepers, recognized as seven in number. The language is not to be understood apart from the total typology of the subject. The crime charged against Samyaza, Azazel, and their fallen fellows is that they have known and taught a reprobated or unworthy mystery[52]; this they have 'related to women in the hardness of their hearts;' and by that mystery, they have 'multiplied evils upon the earth.' They 'have associated with women, that they might be polluted with all their impurity.' They have discovered crimes to them. It is said to them, 'You being spiritual, and possessing a life which is eternal, have polluted yourselves with women, have coupled in carnal blood, have lusted in the blood of men.' 'They have disclosed to the world all the secret things which are done in the heavens.' 'Enoch, scribe of righteousness, go tell the watchers of heaven, who have deserted the lofty sky and their holy, everlasting station, who have been polluted with women, and done as the sons of men do, and who have greatly corrupted the earth, they shall never obtain peace or remission of sin, they shall not rejoice in their offspring, they shall behold the slaughter of their beloved, they shall lament for the destruction of their sons.'[53] This doomed offspring is emphatically described in the Clementine Homilies[54] as 'bastards,' begotten of the 'fire of angels and the blood of women.' The language is typical, the imagery physiological. The offspring are giants, that is types of typhonian powers which were lawless, and existed before the establishment of time and period, hence the non-respect to female periodicity in the figures employed! Hence also it is said, 'The souls of those who are dead cry out and complain even to the gate of heaven,'[55] these are the souls that should have been human, waiting to be born, and frustrated in fulfilling their earthly existence, because of this non-natural relationship which has filled the earth with iniquity and corruption. The language of the myth has the same basis in physics as that of the eating of the forbidden fruit and consequent fall of man. The watchers are tempted like the Adamic pair to eat of the carnal tree; and as in the one fable the act brings death into the world, in the other the earth is deprived of her children that should have been born but were abortions. Indeed, one of the watchers, Gadrel, he who discovered every stroke of death to the children of men, is singled out and said to have been the seducer of Eve[56].

How the physiological origin dominated the figurative expression may be judged by the exclamation of Esdras for the climax of [p.107] confusion, 'and menstruous women shall bring forth monsters!'[57]the monsters and giants of the mythos, which relate to the keeping of time and period, first in the human domain, next in the celestial, and lastly in the spiritual sense. The fallen stars then are period-breakers, and the mode of expressing this is in relation to the feminine periodicity. They are spoken of as guardians of time who have proved unfaithful to their trust. They are 'Stars which transgressed the commandment of God before their tune arrived, for they came not in their proper season, therefore was he offended with them, and bound them until the period of the consummation of their crimes.'[58] Enoch is carried to the summit of a mountain which reached to the top of heaven and is there shown the seven deposed stars or constellations, which appear 'like great blazing mountains, and like spirits entreating me.' The seven are the watchers who in the beginning were high in heaven, but who together with their fellows failed to keep time, and were cast out until the end of the secret or great year of precession, when the heavens were to be renewed. They are seen by Enoch, bound in a desolate place 'in which nothing was completed, and there I beheld neither the tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth.'[59] They who first emerged from chaos had here returned to chaos; for in that place there was neither the 'tremendous workmanship of an exalted heaven, nor of an established earth' nothing but desolation. The seven appear as mountains because the mountain had been a figure of station and of the constellations; hence the seven mountains which represented them on earth. In like manner, the tree was not only imaged by seven branchesi, as it is on the Assyrian monuments, but also by the seven trees. The tree (vine) in the planisphere has seven branches, and this in the Codex Nazaraeus takes the form of seven vines[60]. So the staff of the twin brothers Kabil and Habil grew up into the seven trees. The total number of the stars that fell, leaders and followers together, who are described as alighting on Ardis, the summit of Mount Armon, was two hundred[61], and this is the exact number given in a Tongan tradition of creation which tells that when the islands were made, but before they were inhabited by reasonable beings, two hundred of the gods, male and female, took a great boat to go and see the earth which had been fished up from the sea by the god Tangaloa. So delighted were they with the newfound land that they broke up their big boat, intending to make smaller ones in which they should return. But after a time some of them died, and one of them, being divinely inspired, told them that since they had come to Tonga, breathed its air and eaten its fruits, thy should be mortal, and people the world with mortals. Then they were sad and [p.108] sorry that they had broken up their big boat. They set to work to build another, and went to sea hoping to reach Bolutu, the heaven they had left, but failing to find it they returned regretfully to Tonga[62]. Their great boat was the ark of the sphere in which the seven Cabiri had first sailed on their annual voyage through the celestial sea in the earliest cycle of time. The seven constellations may have included 200 stars.

It was as the seven that the Hohgates sailed in their boat when they were borne on and on to the edge of a vast cataract, and when about to disappear down the waterfall they were caught up to heaven and set there as the seven stars. An inverted way of identifying the seven that fell.

In the Norse Edda the temptation and fall are caused by the seducing women who came out of Jotunheim. Gangler asks, 'What did All-Father do after Asgard was made?' and Har replies 'In the beginning he appointed rulers, and bade them judge with him the fate of men, and regulate the government of the celestial city. They met for this purpose in a place called Idavoll which is in the centre of the divine abode. Their first work was to erect a court or hall, wherein are twelve seats for themselves, besides the throne which is occupied by All-Father. This hall is the largest and most magnificent in the universe, being resplendent on all sides, both without and within, with the finest gold. Its name is Gladsheim. Hence that age was named the Golden Age. This was the age that lasted until the arrival of the women out of Jotunheim who corrupted it.'[63]

One version of this mythos of the fallen angels has it that 'the mortals becoming proud and insolent married the daughters of Kronus and Taut.' This reverses the statement that the sons of God fell in love with the daughters of men, but agrees with the Norse account of the women who came out of Jotunheim to seduce mankind. As Kronus is time, and Taut is the lunar god, the reckoner, measurer, and recorder of time, the daughters of these must be the representatives of cycles and periods of time, and are equally illustrative of the typical fall from heaven. After the casting out of the unfaithful stars which in the Book of Enoch are primarily seven in number, and in Egypt were reckoned as the eight of Am-Smen (including the mother), they were merged with the evil powers of darkness, eclipse and death, so that Sut-Typhon, whether considered as the male Sut or the female Typhon, was held to be synonymous with the akhekh serpent, the Apophis dragon and devil of the deep. In this way it is possible to identify the Leviathan and Behemoth of the Book of Enoch. We learn that a great day of judgment is coming, a day of covenant for the elect, and of final confusion for the wicked. 'In that day shall be distributed (for food) two monsters, a female monster [p.109] whose name is Leviathan, dwelling in the depths of the sea, above the springs of waters, and a male whose name is Behemoth, which possesses the invisible wilderness. His name was Dendayen in the garden eastward, where the elect and the righteous will dwell when he received it from my ancestor who was manfrom Adam the first of men.'[64]

Here the sexes have been changed. Leviathan represents the dragon or crocodile, the son of Behemoth (the Egyptian bekhmut, the hippopotamus), called by Job 'the beginning of the ways of God.'[65] The two are the Bear and Dragon. Behemoth was not only in Eden, for the garden was in the circle that Behemoth formed in the beginning of the celestial ways. These types revert to their earlier status as the evil forces of physical phenomena. The same fusion occurs in the Akkadian form of the mythos. In this the dragon of darkness and the abyss of Chaos is confounded with Tiamat, who was the bringer-forth of the primitive creation, she who was said to have 'brought the heaven,' just as Typhon was designated the mother of the fields of heaven, or Aahru.

It is related in the rabbinical legends that Lilith, who was Adam's first wife, beguiled the serpent at the gate of Eden to lend her its form for the time and the purpose of temptation. The serpent, being a type of the Two Truths, has two aspects, and that Lilith represented both of these may be gathered from the tradition preserved by Comestor, that while the serpent remained erect it had a Virgin's head[66]. The serpent and Lilith were types of the Virgin Mother in mythology. Lilith, as already shown, was the Egyptian Rerit, the goddess of the seven stars, who was represented by Rerit the sow, the suckler named Ta-ur-neb-hept[67], the enceinte bearer, who was the good lady; also by the hippopotamus or rhinoceros, another type of Rerit or Lelit, the rabbinical Lilith. But Rerit is also the snake as well as the suckler, and this explains the serpent form of Rerit or Lilith.

When Tiamat is confounded with the indefinite monster of chaos, disorder, and distraction, her fall has taken place, and she has then been identified with the dragon of darkness, the akhekh of eclipse, the devourer death, the gape of the greedy grave, exactly as it was with the most ancient genetrix in Egypt, who was turned into the evil Typhon, the female Satan and Egyptian Hela, her name supplying that of Tepi for the typical devourer. These types of commencement did not begin in India to be continued in Akkadia, and to end in Egypt, as Typhon the genetrix of the seven stars who was the first in heavenfirst by name and nature. This process of derivation and development has to be reversed before we can reach the origins.

The Akkadian seven, as watchers, were founded on seven constellations of primordial time. These were the watchers in heaven that were found unfaithful and were cast out. They are called the [p.110] 'Rebellious Genii,' the 'Wicked Gods,' who, in 'the beginning,' had been 'formed in the interior of heaven.' They are especially described as the seven in the service of Anu their King, just as the seven spirits in the Ritual are said to be 'the Seven Great Spirits who are an the service of their Lord.'[68] They had been the first openers of heaven. 'That which had no exit they opened,' and 'the heaven, like a vault, they extended,' or hollowed out. In another version we are told that 'unto heaven that which was not seen they raised.' It was they who exalted on high the mighty God, the 'firstborn Supreme.' Like the seven great stars in the Book of Enoch, they once were watchers in heaven, for it is written, 'In watching (was) their office,' but 'among the stars of heaven their watch they kept not.'[69] They failed and fell. This was one form of their phenomenal origin then, as 'Watchers among the stars of heaven,' not merely as seven storm-clouds and typhonian winds, as the translator of the tablet seems to think. A group of seven storm-winds never watched in earth or heaven, whereas a group of seven stars or constellations are the watchers who were cast out as unfaithful to their trust, and were then associated with seven forms of phenomena, or elements, because the seven types had originated in these as the primary powers of Nature.

The seven likewise appear in the fragment of a Babylonian legend of the creation, in which we read of those 'Spirits who drank turbid waters, and pure waters did not drink,' and of the seven brethren who are called seven kings, the foremost of whom is the thunderbolt. A state of chaos is alluded to, and the 'evil curse which in blood he raised,' is mentioned. Following the disorder and bloodshed, the holy ordinances, or statutes, are said to be established. 'Seven against seven in breadth I arranged them.'[70] It is somewhat like the sevens entering the Ark against the Deluge. But, according to the present interpretation it refers to the appointment of the seven good spirits that were the opposite to the seven evil ones of chaos.

The seven elementaries in Egypt were translated into seven spirits of constellations, and continued by conversion. In Babylon, Akkad, and India, they were superseded by the creation of the seven stellar timekeepers who passed on into the final planetary seven. The fragment does not show whether the 'Seven against Seven' belong to the seven constellations or planets, as in the two sevens of Meru, but it does relate to the seven who fell in the so-called 'Revolt in heaven,' found on a cuneiform tablet. The harmony of the established order of things is portrayed by a concert of the celestial beings; a festival of praise is proceeding, when suddenly there is defection amongst the heavenly host, and a rebellion breaks out in the midst of the music. With a loud cry of contempt the children of revolt and discord broke up the sacred song, 'spoiling, con- [p.111] fusing, confounding' the hymn of praise. Then the god of the bright crown, with a wish to summon his adherents, sounded a trumpet blast which might wake the dead, and which prohibited return to those rebel angels. He stopped their service, and sent them to the gods who were his enemies[71].

Powers of evil are here postulated as being in existence before the revolt, and the rebels are sent to join them in eternal darkness. So the natural enemies of the sun-god are held to have been pre-extant in the Egyptian myth: 'My enemies,' they are called by Ra; 'let us smite the enemies;' also they are the 'followers whom my heart hates.' Of the same evil powers it is said in the Ritual[72]. 'The time when he made the heaven, creating the earth, creating all the accursed generation, cannot be found out.' This evil race, called the rebels in the Egyptian mythos, 'utter words against the majesty of Ra;' and in the Assyrian revolt they break up the holy song with a loud cry of contempt; spoiling, confusing, confounding the hymn of praise. In both, the destruction follows, and there is a new creation.

'In their room he created mankind.
The first who received life dwelt along with him.
May he give them strength never to neglect his word, following the serpent's voice, whom his hands have made.
And may the god of divine speech expel from his five thousand that wicked thousand who in the midst of his heavenly song had shouted evil blasphemies.
The god Assur, who had seen the malice of those gods that deserted their allegiance to raise a rebellion, refused to go forth with them.'[73]

We are told that the god then created mankind to fill the room of the fallen spirits, or celestial types. This mythos, like so many more, was continued by the Romish Church, which in the Middle Ages held the doctrine that mankind were created to fill the vacant place of the rebel angels who sinned and were cast out of heaven. The Assyriologist, Talbot, says, 'A friend has supplied me with some striking evidence that the medieval church also held the opinion, though it was never elevated to the rank of an authorized doctrine.'[74] This was a pre-Adamic Fall. Both can be explained by the astronomical allegory, with its series of creations, and in no other way. The serpent that raised the voice of the tempter in the Assyrian, appears as the 'enchanters' in the Egyptian revolt. In establishing the order of creation anew, Ra says to Seb, the god of planetary time, 'Beware of those enchanters whose mouth is subtle, through whom I am enchanted myself.'[75] These are spoken of as the serpents of the old time now superseded by the new. The serpents are simply types of time. Seb is both time and a serpent. Seb is called the father of these serpents, and the sun-god says to him, 'Be the guardian of their [p.112] children, for the hearts of their elders are perverted; through their intelligence they do what they like on the whole earth, through the charms which they have in their bodies.' Taht, also, the moon-god, is called upon to become the guard over those who do evil. Seb is to write in all the abodes of his serpents, saying, 'Beware to take hold of anything,' that is, they are to move in their circles unceasingly without pause, so that time may be correctly kept, and not become perverted like their elders and predecessors[76].

The seven evil spirits of the Akkadian mythos, who attack the moon when it is eclipsed, and who are also identified with, or are led by, the dragon of the deep named Tiamat, are regarded as the allies of the incubus and nightmare which in the Hebrew tradition is personified as Lilith, Egyptian Rerit, the typhonian mother of the seven.

The lunar eclipse is portrayed as the act of the seven spirits of darkness who make war upon the moon. 'Against high heaven they plotted evil and had none to withstand them.' 'When those seven evil spirits rushed upon the face of heaven, and close in front of the moon with fiery weapons advanced, then the noble Sun and Im the warrior side by side stood firm.' The seven ringleaders of the demons are mentioned in the Bundahish[77] where they have been confused with the seven planets; which furnishes an additional reason for suspecting a continuation of the particular chapter by a later hand[78]. The seven planets never were denounced and superseded as demons, and this evidently is a misreading for the seven stars that were degraded. The passage runs thus, 'Various new demons arise from the various new sins which the creatures may commit, and are produced for such purposes; who make even those planets* rush on which are in the celestial sphere. Their ringleaders are those seven; the head and tail of Gkihar and Alushpar provided with a tail, which make ten.' Mushpar or Mushparika is the comet, and the head and tail of Gkihar point to the severed dragon Rahu and Ketu whose head and tail represented the lunar nodes upon which eclipses dependas the dragon of eclipse. For Gkihar is related to the moon and is recognized as being its especial disturber. 'As Gkihar falls in the celestial sphere from a moonbeam to the earth, the distress of the earth becomes such-like as that of a sheep when a wolf falls on it,' distinctly expresses the nature of a lunar eclipse[79]. Moreover, it is probable that one passage referring to the end of things quotes Gkihar as the serpent or dragon who is to be consumed in molten metal[80]. These ten represent the seven evil spirits who assault the moon in her period of eclipse, with the addition of the dragon (head and tail) and the comet. Therefore the planetary [p.113] seven are mistaken for the typhonian seven of the Great Bear cycle, who were previously the seven elementaries; or the addition and reapplication has been made by an Agnostic.

* 'Planets rendered doubtfully,' West[81].

Now, the Book of Revelation is mainly Mithraic, as will be sufficiently demonstrated, and these ten are identical with the ten horns of the beast with seven heads which rose up from the pit. 'The ten horns receive power as kings one hour with the beast;'[82] and there is nothing in natural phenomena answering to that like the period of eclipse. It was at the vernal equinox that the young sun-god was annually reborn, and this is the time of the lunar eclipse. Plutarch says, 'There are some that will have the shadow of the earth from which they believe the moon to fall when eclipsed, to be called Typhon.' Also, 'The Egyptians believe and relate that Typhon at one time smote the eye of Horus, and blinded him, indicating by the blinding of him the lunar eclipse. This the sun cures again presently by shining on it, as soon as it hath escaped from the shadow of the earth.'[83] 'And there appeared a great wonder in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars, and she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered. And there appeared another wonder in heaven, and behold a great red dragon, having seven heads and ten horns stood before the woman was ready to be delivered, for to devour her child as soon as it was born. And she brought forth a man-child, who was to rule all nations with a rod of iron.'[84] This was the later luni-solar genetrix who brought forth the young sun-god, the Deo Soli, in the heaven of the twelve zodiacal signs, called her crown of twelve stars. She is represented, in the pangs of travail and the shadow of eclipse, as opposed by the whole powers of evil, impersonated by the dragon with seven heads and ten horns. Tiamat (or Typhon) was the dragon with seven heads; the ancient genetrix and her seven elementaries of chaos who made war on the moon, here represented as the mother in labour. Three horns or powers have been added to the seven which the Bundahish enables us to explain. The ten horns, ten powers. or ten kings, 'which receive power as kings one hour with the beast,' denote the seven evil powers of Typhon (the seven who were also outcast constellations in their secondary phase) together with the head and tail of the dragon of eclipse; and Mushpar (provided with a tail) is the comet, who has to be taken charge of by the sun[85] to prevent it from working harm. This identification of Gkihar with the head and tail of the dragon is further corroborated by the 'great one in the middle of the sky,' being the constellation into which Saturn is said to come. The seven heads of the beast in Revelation were the seven mountains on which the woman sat[86], and the seven mountains were the seven outcast constellations shown to Enoch[87]. Thus, the beast with the ten horns typifies the [p.114] typhonian totality of ten opposing forces that worked with the beast in unity for 'one hour' of eclipse, whilst opposing the rebirth of the young god of light, the deo soli invicti of the Mithraic cult, who as Osiris in the Egyptian was reborn of the moon.

The beast with the ten horns also appears in the vision of Daniel. This follows the beasts of the four quarters that rise up out of the seaone like a bear, one like a lion, one like a leopard and the fourth corresponding to the crocodile or dragonthe ancient Typhon, whose types were the crocodile, kaf, bear (hippopotamus), and lionthe four beasts of the four quarters. It was the fourth (or fourfold) beast that had the ten horns[88]. The imagery is identical in Daniel, in Revelation, and in the Persian scriptures, and it can only be interpreted by the astronomical allegory of that 'original creation' which gives its name to the Bundahish. In neither case would it profit us to pursue the tag of interpretation which has been appended to the celestial allegory, with some local application looked upon by the agnostics as 'prophecy.'

The outcast seven became the seven devils or demons of various myths. In the oldest of these, however, the seven are not the outcasts the stellar stage, but of the earlier elementary phase which preceded the astronomical. The Karen believes in seven evil demons that roam about seeking his life.

The primary seven are the Maruts and Asuras of India, who were elementaries at first and afterwards became kronotypes, as the gods who were once considered to have been true in Jambudvipa, of whom the Hindu poet speaks, when he says, 'the other gods were seven supreme Ahuras or Lords of the Persians,' as shown by the seven sent adrift like wizened old men, and Indra became the supreme. But the seven deposed Asuras of the Rig-Veda are identical with the Metres used in the Yajurveda which are marked by the title of Asuri[89]. The Gnostics held that there were seven mundane demons which they term the inferior hebdomad; the superior and 'holy hebdomad' being the 'seven stars which they call planets.' 'They declare that these are the seven mundane demons who always oppose and resist the human race, because it was on their account that their father was cast down to this lower world.'[90] The Gnostics not only identify the typhonian seven that were cast out from heaven to become devils on earth, and distinguish them from the planetary seven, they likewise show them by name to have been the seven Elohim of the Hebrews. For the inferior hebdomad consists of Ialdabaoth, Iao, Oreus, Astanphoeus, Sabaoth, Adoneus, and Eloeus, who were born of the mother alone, Jehovah-genetrix, the gnostic Sophia.

The seven good spirits or superior hebdomad are also the 'seven [p.115] white spirits' in the Book of Enoch. The Ancient of Days, or eternal keeper of time, commands these seven to bring before him for judgment the seven which fell down first of all, and were followed by the seventy. This shows us the seven against seven as in the Babylonian legend. In the gnostic remains the superior seven are known as seven powers, intelligences, angels, or heavens of the planetary series. These are also represented by the seven letters or vowel-sounds previously described. According to Marcus seven powers do glorify the word, the IAO of the hebdomad. 'The first heaven pronounces alpha, the next epsilon, the third eta, the fourthwhich is midmost of the sevenutters the sound of iota, the fifth omicron, the sixth upsilon, the seventh, which is also fourth from the middle, utters the element omega.'[91] These powers are now said to sound forth the glory of him by whom they were produced.

In the Popul Vuh the revolt and war in heaven, the fall of a race of beings called men, and the deluge are all combined in one great catastrophe. In this version the serpent of the Hebrew Genesis is personated by Thevetat, the dragon-king whose tempting tongue seduced the people of Atlan, and led them to become a wicked race of sorcerers[92]. The war in heaven began, and Atlantis or Atlan was submerged beneath the waters. Here it is noticeable that the tepht (Eg.) is the abyss of source, the place of the Kamite dragon.

In the Hawaiian legends relating to a fall of man and the bringing of death into the world, the gods had created a multitude of spirits'I Kini Akhua'who were not made as man was from the red moist soil of earth, but from the spittle of the gods'i-Kuha-ia'to be their messengers. A number of these disobeyed and revolted because they were denied the Ava or Kava, a sacrificial offering and sign of worship. The war in heaven followed, and they were conquered by Kane who thrust them down into uttermost darkness. The chief of these was Milu or Kanaloa, ruler of Po, the evil one[93].

A Russian legend relates that when Adam and Eve were first placed in Eden the dog was given to keep guard and watch over them. On no account was he to admit the Evil One. But the Evil One came to the gates of Paradise and tempted the dog with a bit of bread (or a fur tippet in another version), and the dog let in the devil[94]. This may be explained by the lapse of Sothis, the Dog-star, which was overcome by Aharman, the devil of darkness and disorder. But another Russian folk tale affirms that it is owing to the dog that any of God's corn was left growing in the world at all. For Ilya (Elijah) was so angry at the base use to which a woman turned God's corn that he began to destroy all the corn in the earth. At the dog's entreaty, however, Ilya left a few ears for seed. On this account ought mankind to cherish the dog. In another story a woman curses 'God's corn.'[95]


The woman was the genetrix of the seven stars for whom there was no recovery or restoration in heaven as there was for the dog who as Sothis or Sut-Anup, the lunar Mercury, was continued as a timekeeper of the Sothic year; and who as Assur did not join in the revolt with the seven. The dog as guard of Eden is illustrated by an old planispherei, in which the Dog-star is figured watching in the tree constellation near to Virgo, and the place of beginning in the Egyptian solstitial year. According to the Kamite legend related by Diodorus, Osiris and Isis lived together in Nysa or Paradise. Here there was a garden wherein the deathless dwelt. Here Osiris discovered the vine and Isis the wheat, and they lived in perfect happiness until Osiris was seized with the desire to drink the water of immortality. Then he went forth in search of it and fell[96]. This region of corn and wine has left some of the imagery at the place of commencement in the Egyptian year. The vine is still there in the decans of Virgo, and Virgo as Isis carries the corn in seven earsi. But an earlier couple than Osiris and Isis was Sut-Typhon or Sevekh and Ta-urt, who as the two constellations of the seven stars revolving round the tree or pole, were the primeval pair in paradise, she as the bear and he as her dog or dragon.

In an Iroquois myth the great mother lost heaven through being tempted with bear's grease. The first men lived alone, and feared for the extinction of their race. On hearing that a woman dwelt somewhere in the heavens they sent a messenger in search of her. He was borne aloft on the wings of many birds. He waited and watched at the foot of a tree until the woman came forth to draw water from the well. So in the Christian legend the angel Gabriel met the Virgin Mary as she went to the spring. Such meetings at the well are manifold in mythology. As she approached him he offered her the fat of bears, and then seduced her[97]. On seeing her shame the deity thrust her out of heaven and she fell. The tortoise, however, caught her on his back; then the fish of the sea brought clay from the depths to build up an island, and upon this floating island the Iroquois Latona brought forth her twins[98]. In this version the typhonian goddess of the bear is identified by the bear's grease and the tortoise. Her name of Ur (Ta-urt) also means grease or ointment. In the Parsee ritual the kidneys and their fat are sacredly consecrated to the Bear or to Hapto-ringa, the seven bears. A myth of the Warau tribe of Guiana teaches that in reply to the supplications of his creatures the Great Spirit created the waters which they were permitted to drink, but were forbidden to bathe in or evil would befall them. This injunction is disregarded by two wilful maidens who are sisters, and who venture into the prohibited pool. In the centre of this water [p.117] there is a pole or tree which must on no account be touched. The two women represent the two divine sisters into which the mother divides as Isis and Nephthys, the beginning and ending ones. The pole in the water stands for the tree in the pool of Persea. The boldest of the two sisters shakes the pole or tree and the spirit of the pool rises and seizes her. The transgression is followed by the threatened woe. The result is the birth of evil in the shape of a serpent-child. The monster when attacked by the brothers of the two sisters always takes refuge in the mother's embrace. In like manner Isis was fabled to protect Typhon against Horus-Tema the avenger[99].

The Hebrew legend of the 'fall' in the third chapter of Genesis is in particular accordance with that of the Persian scriptures; the title of the book being identical with the Bundahish or 'original creation.'

When the primal pair as Mashya and Mashyoi are created, AhuraMazda spoke thus:

'You are homo, you are the ancestry of the world, and you are created perfect in devotion by me. Perform devotedly the duty of the law, think good thoughts, speak good words, do good deeds, and worship no demons.

Both of them first thought this: that one of them should please the other, as he is a man for him , and the first deed done by them was this. And the first words spoken by them were these: that Ahura-Mazda created the water and earth, plants and animals, the stars, moon, and sun, and all prosperity whose origin and effect are from the manifestations of righteousness.

And afterwards antagonism rushed into their minds, and their minds were thoroughly corrupted, and they exclaimed that the evil spirit created the water and earth, plants and animals, and the other things. That false speech was spoken through the will of the demons, and the evil spirit possessed himself of this first enjoyment from them. Through that false speech they both became wicked, and their souls are in hell until the future existence.

And they had gone thirty days without food (or drinking water), covered with clothing of herbage; and after the thirty days they went forth into the wilderness, came to a white-haired goat, and milked the milk from the udder into their mouths. When they had devoured the milk Mashya said to Mashyoi thus: "My delight was owing to it when I had not devoured the milk, and my delight is more delightful now when it is devoured by my vile body."

That second false speech enhanced the power of the demons, and the taste of the food was taken away by them, so that out of a hundred parts one part (only) remained. Afterwards, in another thirty days and nights, they came to a sheep, fat and white-jawed, and they slaughtered it. And fire was extracted by them out of the wood of the date-plum (the kunar, a thorn-tree), and box-tree, through the guidance of the heavenly angels, since both woods were most productive of [p.118] fire for them; and the fire was stimulated by their mouths; and the first fuel kindled by them was dry grass, kendar, loto, date-palm leaves, and myrtle. And they made a roast sheep. And they dropped three handfuls of the meat into the fire and said, "This is the share of the fire." One piece of the rest they tossed to the sky and said, "This is the share of the angels." A bird, the vulture, advanced and carried some of it away from before them, as a dog ate the first meat.

And first a clothing of skins covered them; afterwards, it is said, woven garments were prepared from a cloth woven in the wilderness. And they dug out a pit in the earth, and iron was obtained by them and beaten out with a stone, and without a forge they beat out a cutting edge from it; and they cut wood with it, and prepared a wooden shelter from the sun. Owing to the gracelessness which they practised, the demons became more oppressive, and they themselves carried on unnatural malice between themselves; they advanced one against the other, and smote and tore their hair and cheeks (or tore their hair bare). Then the demons shouted out of the darkness thus: "You are man; worship the demon, so that your demon of malice may repose." Mashya went forth, and milked a cow's milk, and poured it out towards the northern quarter.* Through that the demons became more powerful, and owing to them they both became so dry-backed that in fifty winters they had no desire for intercourse, and though they had had intercourse they would have had no children.

* See plate in Drummond, Oedipus Judaicusi.

And on the completion of fifty years, the source of desire arose, first in Mashya and then in Mashyoi, for Mashya said to Mashyoi thus: "When I see thy shame my desires arise." Then Mashyoi spoke thus: "Brother Mashya, when I see thy great desire I also am agitated."

Afterwards it became their mutual wish that the satisfaction of their desires should be accomplished, as they reflected thus: "Our duty, even for those fifty years, was this." From them was born in nine months a pair, male and female: and owing to tenderness for offspring the mother devoured one and the father one. And afterwards, Ahura-Mazda took tenderness for offspring away from them, so that one may nourish a child and the child may remain.'[100]

This legend of the first parents who devoured their offspring also appears in a Pahlavi Rivayat. It needs to be interpreted by the comparative process. In the Avesta[101], Yima speaks of the evil mind having taught men to 'eat flesh in morsels' as a mode of leading them astray. The stanza is admitted to be utterly unintelligible to the translators. But the 'flesh in morsels' is to be read as a form of the forbidden fruit. Blood is liquid flesh, and on account of its typical nature the eating of it was prohibited to the Jews. The text, however, contains a allusion a metaphorical allusion to a certain manner of living in unclean intercourse which is equivalent to devouring the offspring.


Epiphanius has bequeathed a few fragments of the Gospel of Eve, a book of the Ophite sect who revered the serpent as the inductor of the primal pair into the mysteries of wisdom. These passages show that the Gospel of Eve, that is of the woman, instead of the seed, her son, contained the allegory of the fall in all its naked nearness to nature.

One quotation relates to the plucking of the fruit.

'Being on a very high mountain, I beheld a man of lofty stature. There was another who had been mutilated. Then I heard a voice as of thunder, and as I drew near, he spake unto me thus: "I am thou; thou art me, and wheresoever thou art, thou am I. I am dispersed throughout all and thou canst gather me wheresoever thou wilt, but in plucking me, thou gatherest thine own self."'[102]

The man mutilated is introduced as emblematic of this self-gathering against which the voice of thunder protested. The tree itself appears in the second passage with its meaning truly interpreted. 'I saw a tree bearing twelve fruits (one) every month, and he said to me, this is the Wood of Life.' This, says Epiphanius, they allegorize into the monthly-produced feminine flowers. That is, they retained the actual meaning of the allegory in its biological aspect. He further states that 'they forbid child-making by miring one with another, for not unto child-making is the deflowered one courted amongst them, but for the gratification of lust.'[103] The suggestion is that they practise the crime which the allegory of Eve's gospel condemns by the intimation, 'In plucking me, thou gatherest thyself.' That is probably a Christian calumny, for, says Ephraem, 'they shamelessly boast of their Gospel of Eve,'[104] and they may have had no reason to be ashamed. The object of the teaching in this instance was moral. likely enough they may have continued the primitive practices of the Shakti Puja and the Yonias in their mysteries, and illustrated the creative chemistry by 'mixing one with another' in a manner totally different to the one supposed. These practices are strange and revolting to us, but originally they were physiological demonstrations and eucharistic rites, intended to teach obedience to human law and bind to fealty by sacred covenants. They knew what the typical serpent was that beguiled the woman, and the true nature of the 'seed,' which is what their malignant opponents never have known[105].

The lament of Lamech, when read by the rabbinical gloss, can likewise be understood. 'Lamech said unto his wives Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice, ye wives, hearken unto my speech; for I have slain a man (שׁיא) to my wounding and a young man to my hurt. If Cain shall be avenged seven-fold, truly Lamech seventy and seven-fold.'[106]

The word שׁיא (aish) has more than one meaning. It also denotes male-essence, the life. Ash (Eg.) is liquid and the tree of life. The [p.120] Book of Jasher affirms that in those days men did not desire to have children, and they gave the women potions to keep them sterile, which, if not the whole truth, contains a hint of it[107].

The great sin of the fallen angel Kasyade was that he discovered to the children of men the wicked stroke of the embryo in the womb, and how to cause abortion, and the wicked stroke of the spirit by the bite of the serpent[108].

In Philo's version of the allegories contained in the Book of Genesis he says the 'Sacred Writer' is not speaking of any actual river 'Phison,' but of the correction of manners in relation to periodicity[109]. He tells us the name 'being interpreted,' or rendered mystically, means the change in the month, or the monthly change. Phison in Hebrew denotes the flowing, and there is but one form of the flowing or of monthly change in nature which can be connected with the correction of manners, that of the periodic purification and the teacher of purity.

The Code of Gentoo Laws asserts that the earliest men lost their primitive innocence through debauchery and iniquity, and by assuming the licentiousness of eating forbidden things[110]. The Fall is characterised in the Avesta as the departure from purity.

According to the Clementine Gospel, the Christ, in healing the man[111] who was born blind, is represented as saying that his blindness was the result of his parents having disregarded the new moons and Sabbaths, not wilfully, but through ignorance. Parvagami is the Hindu epithet applied to one who cohabits with his wife during the prohibited period. The first day of the new and the full moon are also parvas days, as they were with the Jews; and these had been disregarded.

The title of the Kabbalistic book The Zohar signifies the glory. According to this work, the primal pair were instructed by a voice from on high. So long as they attended to this, they were guided by the wisdom from above, and, like Yima, they wore the glory or garb of celestial light. The supernatural visitant, or Holy One, is also said to abide with man whilst the male principle is properly united with the female principle. Here, as elsewhere, an improper connection is the cause of the fall from paradise, and the loss of the glory.

It is said in Hesia that an apple must not be eaten on New Year's Day, or it will produce an abscess; a mode of memorizing which goes right to the root of the typical Apple-Tree! Other symbolic representations of this kind might be adduced and explained.

'Look not on the wine when it is red, when it giveth his colour in the cup,' says the proverb, in connection with the strange woman[112]. Various fables, amongst the Greeks, were derived from this origin. [p.121] Erymanthus, the son of Apollo, was said to have been struck blind because he had looked on Venus when she was bathing. A rainbow, says Legge[113], is regarded in China as the result of an improper connection between the yang and the yin, the light and the dark, the fire and the water. The sun shining during the shower is thus made emblematic of improper intercourse between the male and female. The Chinese say, 'Foo yin yuĕ king lae she keaou hŏ yin yang''To have sexual intercourse during the menses will cause disease.'[114] Hence the rainbow was a sign and symbol of keeping the covenant, on account of not keeping it. Because the rainbow typified the improper, therefore impure, intercourse of the yang and the yin, it is a sign of disease, and there is a good and bad rainbow or genii connected with the phenomenon. An old Namaqua told Dr. Hahn that Gaunab, their Evil One, who deceives people, would lead them into the fire of the rainbow, and there they die, and are then called 'devil-dying-people.'[115] The Zulus assert that the rainbow is disease. If it rests on a man, something bad will happen to him[116]. If a man meets the rainbow coming out of the water, they declare it will poison him and cause eruptions. If it catches a man in the pool where it lives and drinks, it will devour him. The Karens of Burma assert that the rainbow is a devourer of men; it devours their ka-la, or spirit. In some myths it is identified with the serpent. The Zulus affirm that it dwells where the snake is. The rainbow in a Maori myth plays the part of the serpent that gnaws at the Tree of Life in others; and in the battle of the tempest and forest it is said to have placed its mouth close to Tane-Mahuta, the father of trees, and continued to assault him till the trunk was snapped in two[117].

Such legends and superstitious beliefs were the result of the rainbow being a symbol of keeping the covenant; one of the nature-types made use of in the primitive object-teaching.

A great sin obscurely stated in the Avesta, partly through the decay of tradition, partly because translators have not penetrated the subject matter, is described as 'Knowingly approaching the hot golden boiling waters as if speaking the truth, whilst lying to Mithra.'[118] In the Gujarat version this is rendered as 'He who gives impure waters of various kinds, as of miscarriage or menstruation, and says it is Pure Water.' This is nearer to the original. Haug takes it to refer to a solemn ordeal used as a test of the truth[119]. But the rite would be founded on a primary meaning, the religious typology having had a natural genesis, as in the case of the symbolic rainbow. Whoever knowingly cohabits with a menstruous woman, says the Avesta[120] shall 'furnish a thousand young cattle and offer the fat of the kidneys [p.122] of all these cattle to the priest for the fire, and he should offer it to the Good Waters,' as the antithesis of the bad waters. The fat of the kidneys was typical of fertility, hence opposed to the infertile act.

Among the Assyrian fragments Smith found an allusion to one who was a lord of the upper region and of the lower region, and who drank turbid waters, and pure waters did not drink, and who is spoken of as that man[121]. Drinking the impure waters had become a metaphorical mode of describing the act of those who did not keep true to the covenant. The story of Atys is likewise linked to the mythos of the Fall. Rhea, or Kubele, was worshipped in two characters. She was adored in Phrygia as Idaia-Mater, the mother of knowledge, and held in her hand the pomegranate sign of her own full-wombed fruitfulness; a type also of the seed within herself. The sin of Atys was said to consist of an undue love for a nymph whose fate depended on a tree, and his passion for this nymph, who was Kubele herself in her other character, was an offence to the Great Mother[122]. The nymph represents the virgin motherhood, and Kubele, the Great Mother. The tree is identical with that on which grew the forbidden fruit, the Tree of Knowledge.

In the Hebrew Genesis, when the man has eaten unlawfully of the Tree of Knowledge he is turned out of the garden, now guarded by the fiery sword lest he put forth his hand and take also of the Tree of Life. This did Atys in the masculine sense. He ate of the Tree of Knowledge by cohabiting with the nymph, and then offered her the fruit of the Tree of Life by unsexing himself. The virgin of the mythos represented the first of the two feminine characters, variously called the Virgin, the Witch, Parika, enchantress, and even the fiend 'Gh,' or the insane woman. This was the Lilith of rabbinical tradition, who was Adam's first wife. The character of Lilith did not originate in any 'weird conception' of poetic imagination. The types of mythology represent facts, not fancies. She was the first wife of two, because the female has the two phases, menstrual and gestational. She was the serpent-woman, because the serpent typified the first form of feminine periodicity. This, in a later stage of thought, was portrayed as negational, evil, and at enmity with the Good Mind of the Persian scriptures. Hence Lilith was the witch-woman, the seducing serpent who strangled souls in her embrace or with the cincture of one single magical hair. She was then personified as the destroyer of infancy, because those who cohabited with the Lilith were non-procreators. She was only the mother of deathEve being the mother of lifeon account of her negational character. Hence it was fabled that Lilith assumed the serpent-form on purpose to enter Paradise, and induce the man, by means of the woman, to eat of the forbidden fruit with which she tempted him. According to the tradition, [p.123] it was in the power of Lilith to destroy children whenever she pleased, but this primarily depended on the human lover accompanying with her, like Atys with the nymph, which was a sin against the genetrix herself in her character as mother of life[123].

Stealing the flower was one form of the myth analogous to eating the prohibited fruit. And strange as it may appear, the little blue Forget-me-not growing in the water retains, in its typical name, the ancient appeal for purity of life in relation to the mystical waters. This is shown by the part assigned to it as the Luck-flower in folklore. This and the flower of the water-flag, the purple Iris, once uttered their mystical message to men in Britain, as the blue lotus did in Egypt.

One of the Mabinogi relates that there was, in ancient times, an island in the centre of a lake near Brecknock, with a door in the rock only found open on May-day. The place was invisible to all who stood on the margin of the lake, and no bird would fly over its waters. A secret passage led to the island and its enchanted garden, full of fruits and flowers. This concealed Eden was the dwelling-place of the 'fair, or fairy family,' called the Tylwyth-Teg, who presented their visitors with the choicest growths of the garden. All was given freely to those who pleased them, but nothing must be taken away[124].

One day some sacrilegious person stole a flower and put it into his pocket. As soon as he landed from the island he lost his senses and the flower vanished. The door of the secret passage closed never to open again. Paradise was once more lost through stealing the forbidden thing, in this legend a flower[125].

In the Rig-Veda[126] there is a cow too sacred to be milked, that must remain intact, untouched. This was the red cow of the rabbis, the mystery of which was only known to Moses and Akiba.* The crime of 'killing the cow,' for which the Brahmans say there is no pardon, originates in the same simple mystery, and the cow is not killed for food today because of its typical significance. The cow imaged the genetrix and the catamists were killers of the cow.

* The Akiba here acknowledged to be one of the most favoured keepers of secret tradition was the successor of Gamaliel the teacher of Paul. He was one of the authorities for the interpretation of the law in accordance with secret wisdom, being one of the 'Tanaim' or teachers of tradition.

The Mithra-lying-men in the Avesta are those who make the cow (or the genetrix) go the wrong way. She is called the 'Good Cow,' the 'Well-Created Cow,' whom 'Ahura-Mazda wishes to be active or furnished with fodder for the furtherance of the world.'[127] But the followers of Aeshma, the demon of lust, do not supply this fodder to the creative cow. What the maker of the cow said (that is made) pure they unmake by means of their impurities. 'This Manthra of [p.124] increase Ahura-Mazda created in agreement with Asha for the cow, and milk for those enjoying according to holy commands.' Whilst, 'unto these has Mazda announced evil to them who slay the soul of the cow with friendly speech (or, by maintaining that good will come of slaying the cow), to whom morsels are dearer than purity.'[128] 'Horrible are the dwellings,' says the Avesta, 'the abodes not blessed with offspring in which dwell the Mithra-liars, the wicked who openly slay the pure. In a horrible manner goes the cow walking on hoofs the wrong way, who has crawled into the narrow fastnesses of the Mithra-lying men.' 'Yatu' is the sin of uncleanness in relation to the menstrual period, which is dimly alluded to in the Parsee description of it as 'the infliction of a wound that cannot be healed in five days,'[129] as the other might be. It was a figurative form of murder, a passing of the seed through the fire of Moloch, a sin against the sun, the light, the hom-tree, or the glorious Haetumat.

According to Horapollo[130] the figure of Khem or Ptah with the 'penis manu compressa' denotes restraint and continence in a man. The whip sign is accepted by Egyptologists as emblematic of stimulating ($). In the portrait of Khem, the phallic god, the flagellum is suspended above with one hand reaching up towards it. Stephanus of Byzantium describes the deity of Panopolis as being imaged by a great statue, with the Priapus exposed, holding in the right hand the flagellum directed towards the moon. He says they call it the figure of Pan[131]. Herodotus identifies the Egyptian Pan as the goat-god, 'who did violence to his mother.'[132] Now if we take the whip as the sign of stimulating the moon, then we can read the figure of Ptah-Sekari when portrayed with the penis manu comnpressa and with one hand reaching toward the suspended whip. Sekar means to be silent, inactive, inert, assenting to quiescence; and the figure of Ptah-Sekari as the restrainer of the male whilst pointing to the moon evidently refers to continence during the lunar phase of feminine periodicity, and the god figured as the goat who did violence to his mother was the type of uncleanness denounced as typhonian. But, if this be the true reading for Ptah, it is possible the image of Khem conveyed the same lesson, and was a warning against doing violence to the mother.

In Egypt the portrait of the soul was painted of a blue colour. The mummy image called the shabti or double, the type of a second life, was made of red clay, which denoted the flesh, and glazed with a vitreous varnish that was blue, the colour sacred to the soul. This is the complexion of the deceased who has spiritualized. The soul is likewise painted blue in the act of leaving its red body behind. This colour is the symbol of human immortality. Blue is also the robe of wisdom whose bands are purple lace[133]. The Targum of Palestine [p.125] says, after the fall, 'the eyes of both were enlightened, and they knew that they were naked, divested of the purple robe in which they had been created. And they saw the sight of their shame.'[134] Losing the purple robe then was a losing of the soul by the act which occasioned the fall. This was equivalent to offering the seed to Moloch. The act was one of non-procreation described as making naked in the Book of Genesis[135]. After the pair had found themselves to be naked in their fallen condition, it is said, 'Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins and clothed them.' The skin is a type of clothing, and this is the language of the Ritual. In the chapter of 'Not letting the body flow away as the water,' at the place of dissolution for the wicked, the spirit who has just been re-embodied, says to the god Amen-generator, 'Thou makest to me a skin.' 'I make to thee a skin, my soul.'[136] That is the synonym of being embodied, or re-embodied. Also it is said to Amen-Ra, on his entering the Tuaut, or feminine receptacle, 'Thou hast joined a new skin, thy mother has been embraced;' and 'Each god has assumed thy skin; without shape is their type compared to thy form. Thou art the majesty.'[137] Here the clothing with skin may be compared with the symbolical nature of the nakedness.

According to the second recension of the Targum Jerushalmi, God is said to have clothed the pair with the slough of the serpent; he made them a garment of honour from the serpent's skin[138]. This typified periodic renewal; and it was the means of renewal which they had lost by the sin that caused their nakedness. On account of its sloughing, the serpent was also a symbol of healing. Another rabbinical tradition records the belief that the nails of the human body are the sole remains of Adam's coat or clothing which he wore previous to the 'Fall.' This, too, shows the Fall is related to the loss of virility and manhood of which the nail is a type. In Sanskrit, for example, the nail, unguis, is named kamankasa, the same as the male member. Blue, as the colour of soul or virile force, is the origin of the blue ribbon being the symbol of an Order. The first Order of the blue ribbon was instituted by 'Wisdom,' who recovered mankind from the fall in which they lost the blue robe or other form of covering. 'Her bands are blue (purple) lace.'[139] This Order of the blue ribbon was an ancient institution with the Jews. 'Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a riband of blue, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of Javeh, and do them, and that ye seek not after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye used to go a-whoring.'[140] Blue, the symbolic colour of the soul or spirit in Egypt, is identical with the French 'Cordon Bleu,' [p.126] the order of the Holy Spirit, which was at one time the highest order in France. It is exceedingly likely that the English Blue Ribbon of the Garter had the same typical origin, and that the story told of Joan, Countess of Salisbury, has picked up a dropped fragment of the ancient meaning. Many of our later legends have to be referred back for an explanation. In its latest form, the blue ribbon is still the sign of temperance or of total abstinence. It would be idle and vain for us to pursue subjects like the present unless we are prepared to probe and penetrate to the root of the matter. It is only at the root that we can demonstrate the unity of origin, and it demands the most plodding penetration to reach the root. Also, it should be borne in mind that the 'Natural Genesis' is not a book written for fools.


A re-adaptation or reapplication of the same original types to express the later, the extended, and lastly the more abstract ideas constitutes the history of mythology. The fall of the untrue timekeepers in heaven entered a kind of doctrinal phase relating to the human fall, in the teachings of primitive physiology. It has been pointed out how the so-called human creation reflects the various phases of the mythical. In the Bundahish[141], for instance, we are told that in the reign of Azi-Dahak, 'a young woman was admitted to a demon and a young man was admitted to a Farika (witch), and on seeing them, they had intercourse.' From this intercourse arose the race of black-skins, the Dasyus of India. The Azi-Dahak in the Avesta is the most powerful Druj, brought forth by the Dark Mind for the destruction of purity in the corporeal world[142], the serpent that seeks to make the seven Kareshvares empty of men[143]. Also, 'on the nature of the Ape and the Bear, they say that Yima, when reason had departed from him (or when his glory forsook him), for fear of the demons, took a demoness as wife, and gave Yimak, who was his sister, to a demon as wife; and from them originated the tailed ape and bear, and other species of degeneracy.' The ape and bear are two of the typhonian and elementary types in whose likeness certain totemic tribes were created, and in later times considered the accursed of the earth. The Yima and Yimak, or brother and sister of the Avesta and other Persian forms of the myth are one with the Mashya and Mashyoi of the Bundahish. These likewise lost the 'Glory' when they fell, as it is related in the account of their creation and fall.

'On the nature of men, it says in Revelation that Gayomard in passing away, gave forth seed; that seed was thoroughly purified by the motion of the light of the Sun and Neryosang (the angel who is said to be Ahura-Mazda's usual messenger to mankind) kept charge of two portions, and Spendarmad (the female archangel who has special [p.127] charge of the earth) received one portion. And in forty years, with the shape of a one-stemmed Rivas-plant (this plant is allied to the rhubarb; the shoots of it supply an acid juice used by the Persians for acidulating drinks and preserves), and the fifteen years of its fifteen leaves, Mashya and Mashyoi grew up from the earth in such a manner that their arms rested on their shoulders, and one joined to the other; they were connected together and both alike. And the waists of both of them were brought close and so connected together that it was not clear which is the male and which the female, and which is the one whose living soul (nism) of Ahura-Mazda is not away (or which of the two represented the creative power or soul). And both of them changed from the shape of a plant into the shape of man (or the human shape), and the breath (nism) went spiritually into them, which is the soul (ruban), and now, moreover, in that similitude a tree had grown up whose fruit was ten varieties of man.'[144]

In Zad-Sparam's version of this we are told that 'Spendarmad received the gold (seed, compare hiranya) of the dead Gayomard, and it was forty years in the earth. At the end of forty years, in the manner of a Rivas-plant Mashya and Mashyoi came up, and one joined to the other, were of like stature and mutually adapted; and its middle, on which a "glory" came, through their mutual connection (or like stature) was such that it was not clear which is the male and which the female. And afterwards they changed from the shape of a plant into the shape of a man, and the "glory" went spiritually into them.'[145]

This denotes the creation of races of men with souls in them; that followed the seven born in the likeness of the elementaries, which were unintelligent. With the personification in a human image, the 'glory' entered creation, and distinguished the one sex from the other at puberty. The glory, then, is a form of what we term the soul. That is certain, because in the Avesta this glory is the essential for the resurrection of the dead at the end of the world; it is that which makes the dead to rise again. But we have to distinguish which type of the soul, as there were several. Here it is the soul that entered the human being at puberty, when the tree or stem is dividedjust as it was split in two by Tiri.

In Egyptian, this 'glory' is the peh-peh, pehti, or pekti, generally rendered the double force. In relation to pubescence it is the duplicative force, which could be reckoned female as well as male, because both sexes are divided and doubled at puberty.

The majesty, the glory, and the power are early forms of the soul, the principle of a future life, the second of the Two Truths, or the doubled force. The masculine soul begins with the gold of Gayomard, the seminal seed, the mere seed of the animal or sap of the tree.

At this stage were created the men of the ape, bear, bull, and [p.128] dog types of the first time, and of the primordial imagery set in the planisphere. Hence the monkey-men, dog-men, bear-men, bull-men who are still extant among the outcast, that is the oldest of the decaying races of the world, like the hairy Ainus and others. In Central America the monkeys are held to have once been a human race. A Potowatomi myth shows how the Mannikins of the first creation, which is so frequently and variously depicted as a failure, only attained the status of monkeys. In South-Eastern Africa the apes are yet recognised as the preliminary people, the first form of men and women.

The Mbocobis of South America have a tradition of a great forest conflagration, in which mankind were consumed, all but one man and woman, who climbed a tree for safety, but in doing so were caught and singed by the flames, so that they were changed into apes, which contains matter of the same mythos as Yima's connection with the ape and the bear. The Zulu Kaffirs relate how the Amafene people were an idle race, who would not work but tried to live on the labour of others, saying, 'We shall live, although we do not dig, if we eat the food of those who cultivate the soil.' They were transformed into baboons, (fene (Zulu), a baboon, ben (Eg.), the great ape), and now they carry their hoes behind them, turned into tails[146].

The ape is a primeval type. It is one of four in the compound goddess of the Great Bear; and was continued as a type of Shu (Ma-Shu), who is the Kamite original of both Yima and Mashya. The statement that when Yima lost his reason he took a demoness to wife and begat the ape, is but a mode of representing him as becoming like the ape in practices connected with the fall of man. The bear and ape were first as totemic types, and this is a return to those types as a means of accounting for the fall of Yima and his sister, who had followed the typhonian powers of evil and been tempted to their fall.

The moral of the myth in relation to the apes may be read in the Jewish or Moslem legend related by Weil, of the men who would go a-fishing on the Sabbath day. A certain Jewish city stood beside a river that was full of fish which kept out of sight during the six working days and on the seventh came freely into view. This tempted the Jews to go a-fishing, whereupon they were transformed into apes as a punishment. They became ape-men through non-observance of taboo, like those who were so named in earlier times, because their actions were ape-like[147].

A most significant illustration of the motive for extracting, filing, or breaking the teeth is recorded by Bastian. This was given by the Penongs of Burma, who declared they broke their front teeth in order [p.129] that they might not resemble apes[148]. We know the practice was related to young-man-making and the rites of puberty when the males were sworn in as procreators and instructed in the ways of a manly life. One of the teachings was intended to distinguish the human being from the ape, who made no distinction of season in his sexual relationship. This sign of the broken tooth was intended to show that they were not as the apes, and therefore did not resemble or look like that undiscriminating animal. Such a mode of manifesting anxiety to distinguish themselves from the beast is indescribably pathetic.

The story of Yima's fall through begetting or becoming an ape is evidently related to Ma-Shu in the Kamite mythos, who is now claimed to be the original of Mashya. Shu was a lion-god of the solstice, who transformed into the ape kafi, and became a kehkeh. The word denotes an ape, also a crazy man, an obstinate mad fool. There is an allusion to this transformation of the lion-god in the Magic Papyrus, where it is said, 'Thou didst take the form of a monkey (kafi) and afterwards of a crazy man (kehkeh).' He is called the 'Ape of Seven Cubits,' and is said to dwell in a 'Shrine of Seven cubits,' from which he is transferred to a 'Shrine of eight cubits.'[149]

As Kafi or Kepheus, Shu was the son of Klsh (Khepsh). His planetary type is Mars, and this planet in the Bundahish is assigned to the Bear; the shrine of seven cubits may therefore represent the heptanomis of the first time which was followed by the octonary. Moreover, two types of the old genetrix, the ape and lioness, were continued in Shu and his sister, Tefnut, who, so far, were the ape and the bear in person. And where Shu became the crazy man or ape, Yima is said to lose his reason or the glory and to marry a demoness and to beget apes, bears, and other typhonian progeny. Kafi-Shu or Ma-Shu is the ape in Egypt. Yima is identified with the ape in the Bundahish. Nor is the ape-type missing from the Hebrew mythos. For the rabbis assert that Adam was created with a tail in the likeness of an orang-utan, which was afterwards excised. As they were not evolutionists this shows the survival of the Kamite typology[150].

According to the Parsee tradition, Yima had maintained immortality in the world, so long as he lived the life of purity. His purity is symbolised by the ufra, a fan or winnower[151], which is identical with the khu (or khekh), fan of Horus and the Christ, 'whose fan is in his hand.' This was a sign of spirit or the masculine seed, in contradistinction to the aut emblem of matter.

Immortality was continuity, which was first maintained by pure and proper procreation. Hence the typical hom-tree, called the healing and undefiled, the renewer of the world and producer of [p.130] immortality, was a type of the masculine source. When Yima fell, it was in consequence of the ape-like impurity which was destructive to the soul, conceived as the seminal essence. Then the glory departed, and he was figuratively said to fall and lose his immortality.

According to the natural genesis of the doctrine of salvation, the first mode of saving or winning souls was by insuring their propagation, which was looked upon as rescuing them from the clutch of the destroying powers of darkness that were opposed to life and light; and the teacher of propagation or human cultivation in purity was the saviour, who recovered mankind from 'the fall,' whether called wisdom or the Christ. Hence it is said, 'The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life, and he that winneth souls is wise.'[152]

The glory lost by Yima at the fall was fabled to be worn upon his face, during the golden age, in his heaven of the four corners, or the circle which he made. It was by this glory that he maintained immortality for the world; the mighty glory peculiar to the Kavis or Iranian chiefs of old, before the times of Zoroaster. It was said to have been created by Ahura-Mazda when he produced all that was employed propagating glory good, bright, shining and in life. The glory is precisely thy same in the symbolical language of Hosea. 'As for Ephraim, their glory shall fly away like a bird, from the birth, and from the womb, and from the conception. Ephraim is planted in a pleasing place, but Ephraim shall bring forth his children to the murderer. Give them, O Lord, a miscarrying womb and dry breasts!'[153]

The heroes of antiquity or of mythology performed their great deeds by aid of this glory or majesty which was the soul of their manhood. Hence the hair, as of Samson, was an interchangeable type of potency. In several letters of the popes addressed to Kings of England, 'Your Glory' is used as an expression synonymous with 'Your Majesty.'[154] When the primitive or archaic men had discovered the soul in the begetting source, they made much of it, and invested it with a halo of glory. At first it was possessed in common with the animals, and next it was held to persist in death and to be the means of rising again. It was the preserving and saving source; the glory, and the majesty, and the power of the male creator found out on the physical plane below, and then exalted to the heavens above, and personified there as the begetter of souls, and the re-begetter in death. In the Rig-Veda, the deceased is spoken of as putting on his tann, a body, or outward appearance in which he becomes glorified[155]. In Egypt the tahn had various representatives. In one form it was resin with which the corpse was preserved or tanned, as we say in making the skin more lasting as leather. The 'glory' was another type of preservation in death, and it is yet represented by the 'extreme unction' applied to the dying.

The 'oil of the eye' or 'oil of the face' of Horus was one of these [p.131] types. And here the African glory of grease attained a curious consummation in Egyptian mythology. In the fierce heat of inner Africa fat or grease is a preservative for the skin, and it was continued as a type of preservation in the oil of the face of Horus, the anointed son of the father. The Christ or karast (the embalmed and anointed mummy) is the greased, and the glory of the anointed was represented as the grease or oil upon his face. In fact, the divinity of Horus consisted in the preservation of the sacred oil that was always visibly shining on his face. Thus oil or grease, as a preservative and means of saving, became typical of the anointed one who was the saviour. We read in the texts 'I have anointed thy head (that of the god) with the oil of the face of Horus;' 'I have filled the eye of Horus with oil.' If the oil be destroyed, the glory, the divinity, vanishes. This glory of the god, represented by oil or ןמש was the glory worn on his face by Yima.

Certain of the eastern Christians are accustomed to eat the typical ointment. Tahn is a Turkish name of an oily paste which is still used by these Christians as food, to be eaten during Lent. This corresponds to the tahn or ointment of Horus, which was used in the Egyptian rite of glorifying the god. Also the eye of Horus, or the tahn, is a constellation placed in the planispherei on the colure of the vernal equinox at the place of resurrection.

From the unity or rather the bifurcation of yin and yang in the Chinese shape of the mythos, the female and male of source, the moisture and heat, the water and the breath, operated on each other and produced an intelligent being, or intelligence, who as he gazed up to heaven saw a golden blaze of light dart from a star and fall to earth. As he approached the phenomenon he perceived a creature in the likeness of himself, who is styled his Imperial Reverence by the messenger, whose coming with wings is connected with the primary manifestation of the procreative principle, i.e., the glory, the majesty, of Yima; the same that was attributed to Horus the kherp. The majesty or glory passed away from Yima, first to Mithra; secondly, to Thraetaona, who slew the snake Azi-Dahaka, the cutter-to-pieces of Yima; thirdly, to Keresaspa, because he was manly courage personified. Then the imperishable majesty was seized and preserved by the 'Navel of the waters' in the depths of the Sea Vouru-Kasha, from which the future saviour, Saoshyans, was to rise. 'There is the kingly majesty,' the Persian Christ, the last of the messengers, prophets, or messiahs and announcers of time, who was to be the bringer of immortality as the perfect type of the eternal[156].

The soul which the mother inspires into the child as the quickening breath of life, supplied a primary type that survived with the Yonias and certain gnostic sects, from the time when the genetrix was the [p.132] only known parent, and still survives in the cult of the divine virgin mother. Irenaeus says of the Gnostics, 'They declare those souls which have received seed from the mother to be superior to all the rest.'[157] In other sects, the soul of breath had been superseded by the soul derived from the fatherhood.

A curious study is afforded by the contention between the two, the soul of the mother and seed of the male. The first hebdomad of divinities derived from the mother alone, and when they tried to make man in their own image they only succeeded in forming a soulless, worm-like creature that could not stand erect, but only writhed and wriggled like a worm. They were not masculine begetters, because they were themselves created in the feminine mould without the fatherhood. In the Osirian cult the divine child was first produced by the mother alone as Har-si-Hesi, Horus, the son of Isis; and the adult Horus, the anointed one, was reproduced in the likeness of the father, with the unction derived from the masculine source; the oil of the Tree of Life. This was the glory of the seminal soul as physically portrayed in the Egyptian scenes, where the regenerator of the dead is their begetter for another life. Here the mode in which the mortal or the dead Osirian 'puts on immortality,' proves that the masculine principle had become the recognized source of a living soul, the 'man from heaven,' who quickened the matter of the motherhood, and transformed the earthly Adam, the being of mere flesh, and blood, and breath, into a spiritual creation by the incarnation of an essence conceived to be enduring and divine. The glory of the father was represented by the oil on the face of Horus, his anointed son, who as the Christ was one with the greased. Hereafter it will be argued that the doctrine of John and Paul is identical with the Osirian; at present the comparison is limited to the imagery and language. According to the Egyptian view the splendour shining in the face of Horus reflected the father's glory, and this was typified by the holy oil which never disappeared from his face. Horus was raised from the dead through the glory of Osiris, without which, in the form of the oil, the divinity was said to be destroyed. So in the language of Paul, 'Christ is raised from the dead through the glory of the Father.'[158] He also describes this glory as the 'Glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ.'[159] In the first chapter of John's gospel it is said, the 'Word became flesh and dwelt among us.' It is then added in an obvious parenthesis, 'And we beheld his gloryGlory as of an only begotten from a father!' Not the child of the virgin or seed of Sophia alone, but the representative of God the Father, the masculine re-begetter of souls in the later likeness of creative source. The tahn or glory of Horus was also representative of the solar effluence; rays of tahn are said to emanate from the setting sun[160]. This was that 'effulgence of his glory and the very [p.133] image of his substance' which was impersonated in Horus the son, exactly as it is described in the Epistle to the Hebrews[161].

The two Adams employed as types by Paul are the two images of humanity that have been broadly distinguished in the two creations of mythology, one of which belongs to the motherhood, the other to the fatherhood. The symbolical relation between the first and second Adam is based upon the one being the man of the red earth, derived from the matter of the motherhood, the other being the heavenly man, represented by the Kabbalist Adam Kadmon, derived from the 'father of the spirits of all flesh.' One bore the image of the earthly, the other the image of the heavenly, on grounds that were simply physiological at first.

The 'imperishable seed' by which man is born again in the later sense of the First Epistle of Peter had its far earlier phase as the ancestral seed of life and rebirth. The seed whereby man was reproduced physically supplied a type that was continued to indicate the spiritual rebirth. The earliest gods were not intelligences, and therefore were not credited with the creation of mind or noes in their human likeness. They were fatherless, and therefore did not represent the fatherhood. Thus, when Ialdabaoth, as chief of the fatherless hebdomad, boasted that he was primus, he was God the Father, his mother Sophia told him the father of all, Anthropos, was above him 'and so is Anthropos, the son of Anthropos.'[162] The gnostic Anthropos is identical with the 'Son of Man' in the Gospel of Matthew. The divine or doctrinal Anthropos is the representative of a god who is the father and begetter of souls. The dogma is comprehensible when interpreted on the physical plane of thought; and not only are the metaphors and figures of the later religious language drawn from the primary physics, but these supplied the foundations of the doctrines also. For example, it has to be, and will be shown, that the natural genesis of the 'anointed' son, or the Christ, can be traced to the transformation of the male child at the time of puberty.

The Gnostics knew and proclaimed, as is set forth by Irenaeus, that the great and profoundest mystery was concealed in the fact that the propator of the whole hierarchy of the heavens was Anthropos, the god first formed in the human image as a begetting father. 'This is the great and abstruse mystery, namely, that the power which is above all others, and contains them all in his embrace, is termed Anthropos; hence does the Saviour style himself the "Son of Man."'[163]

The 'anointed' Christ was Anthropos because the type set forth the begetter by means of the begotten, and Anthropos was the sower of the seed of the fatherhood; hence the saying 'He that soweth the good seed is the Son of Man.'[164] We are told that the Christ of the gospels only spoke in parables; and these parables are just the [p.134] shape in which the ancient wisdom had been formulated and stereotyped. Anthropos did not become the sower of seed until he had attained the adultship of Horus at thirty years of age. Previously he was the child of the virgin alone, the unanointed one just as he had been in Egypt.

The doctrine of the incarnation is physiological in its origin. The mother-matter of the first Adam being held to be inert, soulless, and altogether corruptible, the masculine source was personified as the saviour who commences as a phallic Soter, according to imagery still extant, a kind of redeemer in the flesh who revealed the earliest likeness of immortal life. Here the first spiritual substance was seminal, and the Gnostics describe such substance as being the 'salt' and 'light' of the world. This was the primitive saving source, that saved in the sole sense in which men could be said to have been lost by the 'fall;' and this, the representative of a visible fatherhood on earth, was the original type of an invisible fatherhood of human souls, or the 'spirits of all flesh.' The doctrine of salvation can only be interpreted when we have ascertained the genuine nature of the 'fall.'

Paul must have been familiar with the gnosis here unfolded. He affirms, Jew-like, that the woman beguiled Adam, and was the cause of the falling into transgression, but says: 'She shall be saved through her childbearing,' if the sexes 'continue in faith and love and sanctification with sobriety.'[165] The salvation of woman through her childbearing is the exact antithesis of the fall that was caused by practices inimical to the propagation of human kind. Paul's charge might perhaps be more appropriately brought against the woman in the present time; it is a calumny against the natural woman of the prehistoric past.

After the Fall in Genesis it is written that the desire of the woman 'moral' under a mask may be detected even in the doom of child is to be subject to the male for the purpose of procreation[166]. The same bearing which is to become her curse; even as the thorns and thistles divorced from a saviour who was first made flesh as the generator, are to be the curse of the earth for Adam.

The salvation of womankind that comes of childbearing cannot be the bringer of immortality to light, the personified source of creative life in the most physical phase of the type, which preceded the spiritual or the religious sense. The original type of the saviour of the world as ΣΩΤΗΡ ΚΟΣΜΟΥ may be seeni portrayed in Payne Knight's work on the generative powers[167]; the saviour by procreation who saves in accordance with the doctrine of Paul. This proves the brute nature of the beginnings that underlie the doctrinal gloss. On this ground the father-god was the begetter, the son was his begotten, and only the natural genesis can explain the type according to the very primitive revelation.


But to return. 'When he (Yima) untrue, began to love lying speech, then flew away visibly from him the Majesty, with the body of a Bird. When the ruler, Yima, the Shining, with good congregation, no longer saw the Majesty, then Yima, displeased, staggered away to evil thoughts, he fell affrighted on the earth:'[168] he returned to the beast condition, so far as he represented the human being, and, ape-like, disregarded the period. He cohabited with a demoness. It is a Parsee doctrine very prominent in the Avesta and other writings, that anyone who commits certain acts of uncleanness fornicates with a demon, the female Drukhs, who boasts that such an one is her lover, and that she conceives by him as women do with men[169].

As before said, the first demon created by Anra-Mainyus, the Persian Satan or Evil Mind, is the wicked Gh. Her creation is like a scene in Milton's Paradise Lost. In the conflict between the powers of good and evil the Gh is represented as being an active agent of hell. She shouts to Aharman, chief of the dark host: 'Rise up, thou Father of us for I will cause that conflict in the world, wherefrom the distress and industry of Ahura-Mazda and the Archangels will arise.' 'In that conflict I will shed thus (so) much vexation* (or venom) on the righteous man and the labouring or, that through my deeds life will not be wanted, and I will destroy their living souls.'[170]

* The word thus rendered is vsh or vish, which stands either for vsh, distress, vexation, or for vish, poison. Compare besh (Eg.) for menstruating, and pesh, to sting[171].

She then recounts her bad deeds, and the evil spirit is so delighted that he springs up and kisses the Gh, whereupon 'the pollution which they call menstruation became apparent in Gh.'[172] Such is the nature of one of the female demons, who is foremost in relation to the fall and consequent loss of the 'glory,' as destroyer of souls.

'A fiend so violent is that fiend of menstruation' that 'where another fiend does not smite anything with a look (akhsh) it smites with a look,' so that 'the sun and other luminaries are not to be looked at by her (the sick woman), and conversation with a righteous man is not to he held by her. She must not look on fire, and a fire must not be kindled in the same house that she is in.'[173]

To take three diverse races, the Persians, Ahts of North America, and the Fijians, we find that with each of them the menstruating female must not be seen by the sun; and so strictly was she confined during the period that not one ray of sunlight was allowed to penetrate her darkened chamber. But no people were more rabid in their righteousness on this subject than the Persians. The flow was looked upon as the Azi-damp by which the devil desired to extinguish the fire that Zarathustra brought from heaven[174]. The present writer has [p.136] collected evidence that shows the evil eye and the witch may both be traced to this origin in phenomena. The witch or Lilith is an enemy to procreation of souls on this ground. Also fire and sun are still recognized as opposed to the witch and the evil eye, as in the charm of turning a coal of the fire when the witch is in the house[175].

According to the Vendidad the sin of pederasty, one of the evil creations of Anra-Mainyus, is inexpiable[176]. This is also described in the Minokhird[177] as the greatest of all sins; masturbation and catamy come next. Those who commit that are devas (devils) before death. This is the unatonable and unpardonable sin, for which there is neither punishment nor purification; it is inexpiable for ever. In the Persian rules of what is proper and improper, Shayast La-Shayast, it is laid down that a child which is begotten at the wrong time, that is in violation of the feminine period, is a demon procreated by demons, and will be extinguished like the demonsall the creatures of evil being finally doomed to destruction. Also, the soul of him who commits sodomy will be annihilated, or, as it is phrased, the souls of such are not restored in the resurrection of the dead; there is no second life for them[177a]. This shows the natural genesis of certain theological doctrines was physiological. The Persian teaching respecting the seminal soul, and the sins against it, was continued in the gospel according to Matthew. 'Wherefore I say unto you, All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men but the blasphemy (against) the Spirit shall not be forgiven unto men, neither in this world, neither in the (world) to come.'[178] This doctrine was adopted by the Christians with no knowledge whatever of its real foundations. Nor can they explain it. No theologian has ever been able to tell the world what constitutes the sin against the Holy Ghost, or the ghost. And yet the ghost in the Christian scheme is identified with procreation and begettal. Mary was with child of the Holy Ghost[179]. Baptism is a rite of regeneration, and the Christ was baptized by the Holy Ghost in the form of a dovean emblem of the soul. He also baptized by means of the Holy Ghost and with fire[180], with the fan in his hand. Fire is another type of the soul, and the fan is borne in the hand of Yima and of Khem-Horus the regenerator.

Breath was the first representative of the soul or spirit. The seminal source was another, and the sin against this, as already described, was not only unpardonable, it was destructive for eternitythe eschatological reflex of the human phasewhich alone explains how the sin was unforgiven in the next world by non-restoration to life. That is, those who destroyed the primitive soul in the embrace of Lilith, the Gh, Parika, or demoness, or by an ape-like practice, [p.137] or lost the glory like Yima, or the blue robe like Adam, through non-procreation, were not to be reproduced themselves for another life. This reading of the nature of the sin against the Holy Spirit is appropriately supported in the verse following with its image of fructifying. 'Either make the tree good, and his fruit good, or else in ate the tree corrupt and his fruit corrupt: for the tree is known by his fruit.' The tree is known by fruit! The sin against the spirit was non-fructification through corrupt manners; this was the sin of Yima, Mashya, and of Adam, represented as being the cause of the Fall of Man. Paul taught the same doctrine. 'I forewarn you, even as I did forewarn you (previously), that they which practise such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.'[181] The seminal soul, the source of procreative power, was held to be the physical basis of the future being, and those who destroyed it here are thus threatened with death by non-reproduction hereafter.

When the genetrix complains of the triumph of the evil mind over the bull, and the want of fodder and pure tillage, Zarathustra is proclaimed as the future announcer of the law; and after the fall of Yima Zarathustra was born as the pure true word, the Egyptian Ma-Kheru. At his birth and growth all the creatures created by the holy one cried 'Hail.' He is said to have 'thought the good, spoken the good, and done the good, to the first priest, the first warrior, the first husbandman, who is active, who first made the wheel run forwards from the Deva of the Cold Man, who first of the corporeal world praised purity, annihilating the Devas.'[182] Zarathustra represents the solar god who frequently appears in mythology as the instructor of mankind in the art of tillage. He is denominated the 'Prophet of agriculture and civilization.' In the Avesta tillage is the natural antithesis to Dheva-worship[183]. Osiris is called the inventor of agriculture. Hu, the sun-god, is said to have taught the Britons the proper use of seed-corn. The Guaranis of Brazil worshipped their beneficent deity Tamoi, as the ancient of heaven, the creator and ancestor of mankind, and the lord of the celestial paradise. Tamoi, the great father, was reputed to have dwelt with them and taught them how to cultivate the soil. He was said to have risen to heaven in the East, and he had promised that when they died he would carry them from the sacred tree (planted in the garden which he had taught them how to till) into the higher life[184].

They say that Osiris, when he was king of Egypt, drew them (the people) off from a beggarly and beastly way of living, by showing them the use of grain, and by making them laws[185]. That is, it was under the solar regime especially, this being the latest established, that the evils of the earlier ignorance began to be abominated and [p.138] conquered. The human advance from the darkness of the remotest past is reflected in the mirror of mythology by the stellar, lunar, and solar degrees of light, and succession of the three dynasties of deities. Naturally some of the most bestial habits were primal, when the human being was most like the beast and unconscious of his condition. The efforts of the more enlightened to let in light for the mass of their fellowmen have for me the most appealing and pathetic interest howsoever few may share it. The most important aspect of mythology is the anthropological. It is related in an Iroquois myth that when the greater light dawned on the dark world, the monsters were displeased and hid themselves in the depths. This is repeated in other of the myths. So when man was emerging from the nightside of nature we see him trying to hide his sores, or get rid of his sins which were revealed to him; and the larger light of the solar mythos without becomes a kind of gauge of the dawning consciousness within. When it is proclaimed in the Vedas that Indra 'conquered the Black Skin,' the conquest is that of the solar god over the mythical beings with which the darkness of night had been peopled in the negroid image of humanity. Later, the same typology was applied to the dark and degraded races of India by the solarites who claimed to be the children of light. Indra subjected the Black Skin to Manu, or the Aryan man. He disclosed the light to the Arya, the Dasyu was placed on the left side. The fire-tongued gods of light made the Aryan man superior to the Dasa[186]. So in the Egyptian Ritual it is said of Osiris, 'Give ye Glory to him as to the sun, he is the chief the only one ever coming from the body, the head of those who belong to the race of the sun.'[187] Abominable practices are permitted among certain of the uncivilized races, African and Australian, up to the time of swearing-in of the boys; they are not looked upon as sins because they are not committed against the covenant. Initiation, or young-man-making, marks the new era, and the recognition of sin against the law which was established for the procreation and preservation of the race. Every one knows the story of the Peguan queen and her nave contrivance for insuring cleanliness of living[188]. When men had discovered the value of the seminal essence, and invested it with the 'glory,' they sought and strove in every way to protect it by hallowing it. As observed by Horapollo, the star which bears the name of the father-god Seb signifies amongst other things, the soul of a male man or a virile adult[189]. 'This is the star of soul,' they said, 'let us try to keep it pure and bright and shining star-like.' In the Yasna[190] mankind are called upon to unite with the stars as creatures, in common, of the light-god, to maintain the world of purity. They argued, 'This is the sun within us, the seminal source of [p.139] life, do not dim its lustre or cause it to suffer eclipse. Save your soul (seminal), and do not sin against the sun of light.'

There is plenty of evidence to show that the origin of syphilis and other venereal forms of disease was attributed to the non-observance of periodicity; and some of the ways in which the fact was implied are startling indeed. One of the strangest figures in the Mexican mythology is a syphilitic saviour. Not one who saves but who suffers from syphilisthe only likeness to so grotesque a creation is a modern one, the supposed saviour from smallpox, who is reported to be a syphilitic saviour. The Mexican divinity was a pre-solar one, a god before sunrise, a deity of the dark, who leaps into the fire and is consumed to be reborn as the sun[191]. He was one of the earlier star-gods, belonging to the night of the past through which the world has darkly groped its way, when men not knowing better engendered disease as the evil which was the projected shadow of their own ignorance; and the god who bore their image is in this case darkened with their disease. This deity had not been a true timekeeper like the sun. He was one of the slow, lazy, grovelling 'betch party,' of the typhonian darkness, which preceded the dawn and the supremacy of the later gods of light. By non-observance of the period disease had been brought into the world, and the untrue timekeeper was typified accordingly. Syphilis was one form of the divine disease leprosy was another. Leprosy is mystically said to be a result of drinking the sow's milk; that is the sow Rerit (Eg.), or Lilith, the multi-mammalian suckler. Amongst the Persians, leprosy was spoken of as the result of an offence committed against the sun. The inhabitants of Delos ascribed the white leprosy, with which they were fearfully afflicted, to the anger of Apollo. The existence of the lepers in Egypt was declared to be displeasing to the sun and they were cast out in consequence[192]. These were the Aatiu, the accursed, the people of the hinder-part, the north, in which the Aat as place was turned into the later Hades. The reappearance of the god as the sun in the orient denotes the same transformation as in the creation of Ra. The sun being the crowned representative of consummated time, and perfected type of Kronus, a disease that was traceable to such an unclean cause as the violation of female periodicity, was an especial form of offending the divinized representative of the highest truth, the judge of quick and dead, which the sun was that saw by night, when hidden with the dead in the dark of the underworld. On the tomb of Seti, there is a group of criminals in Ra's great hall (the world), who are described as 'those who have insulted Ra on earth, those who have cursed that which is in the egg;' 'those who have uttered blasphemies against Khuti,' the sun of the resurrection, and future life[193].

In the Hebrew laws of clean and unclean we read: 'The soul which [p.140] hath touched any such thing shall be unclean until evening. And when the sun is down he shall be clean.'[194] Which shows the sin against the sun in whose presence the criminal was considered unclean; the sun that became the judge of men, the Dayan-Nisi in the underworld, as the seer unseen.

The legendary lore of the 'Fall' is frequently found to be mixed up with the subject of tillage and agriculture. So prevalent is this, that one writer derives the myth of the Fall from the natural distaste of the nomad for farming[195]. The subject was related to agriculture but of the human kind, as is especially made manifest in the Persian scriptures. In them the natural opponent and conqueror of the Devi, the Drukhs, Gh, or Lilith, is the procreator and husbandman. In a Russian legend the propagator of human life, an old man, twice as young in appearance as his own grandson, is represented as having preserved the primeval seed of the earth, each grain of which is the size of a sparrow's egg, because, as he explains, he had lived according to the law of the Lord, and did not grasp at what belonged to another[196]. Some of the rabbis, as well as the Moslems, relate that wheat was the forbidden fruit which Adam ate. Wheat is the symbol of seed. The first seed, however, was assigned to the great mother. Ceres was the producer of corn; the mother of all seeds except the bean. Isis carries the seed-corn in her hand.

The Latin semen for seed in the masculine form is preceded by the Hebrew shmen and Egyptian semen, earlier hesmen, the menstrual substance. This was the food of the first physiology, the food of the flesh. Hermes Trismegistus[197] says, 'Some have thought the soul to be the blood, being deceived by nature.' We are told that 'Adam at the moment when he tasted wheat received the seed for the propagation of mankind. From the grain which he ate sprang up a tree; life in me and in thee is its fruit.'[198] The Dog-rib Indians near the Polar Sea told Sir John Franklin that the first parent (Chapewee) gave his children two sorts of fruit, one white, the other black, and commanded them to eat the white and not touch the black. Then he started on a journey to fetch the sun to enlighten the world. Whilst he was gone, they ate of the white fruit only. Then he went on a second journey to fetch the moon, and during his absence they ate of the black fruit. On his return he cursed the ground and said it should henceforth bear the black fruit only, and bring sickness and death. Afterwards, indeed, when his family lamented that men should have been made mortal for eating the black fruit, Chapewee granted that those who dreamt certain dreams should have the power of curing sickness and so of prolonging human life; but that was the full extent to which Chapewee [p.141] relented[199]. This goes back to the time of the primitive ignorance before the sun and moon were the established period-keepers, or time and season were observed in the sexual relationship. The poor isolated Dog-ribs were in possession of the Two Truths. In its way the legend tells us that they belonged to a race that was older than the creation of Ra or Taht the moon-god, and who dwelt under the reign of the ancient star-gods just as the Aztecs and others claim to come from the seven caves, and afterwards to have been witnesses to the creation of the sun. Bastian recovered a remarkable version of the Fall from old Calabar[200]. The myth has been slightly confused, but it rectifies itself. In place of the fruit forbidden in the Hebrew Genesis they have it that the soil was not to be tilled and men were not to propagate. That is a misapprehension of the mystical meaning. The rest is perfect. It is said that the primal pair were summoned to their meals with a bell which was rung in heaven for them by the god Abasi.

The bell is a type of periodic announcement, and this is a most touching mode of conveying the significance of being divinely called at meal-time! But the tempter was there in the shape of a female familiar, a friend of the woman. The woman's friend in scores of languages is the inundation that prepares the soil for the seed. This tempter supplies the means of tillage, and the consequent agriculture is the curse. The female familiar and friend at a time when only one woman is supposed to exist cannot be mistaken! The prohibition was against agriculture in the wrong season. The seed was to be sown when the inundation had prepared the soil. It is easy to see how the legend directed the curse against tillage of the soil in general. There is the same perversion of the myth in the Hebrew Genesis. The only soil accursed or prohibited was that which could but bring forth thorns and thistles if it were cultivated in the wrong season. The myth of cultivation is connected with the 'Fall' because it taught the primary tillage, before the earth had been ploughed and sown by man; the later language of the mythos having become agricultural. We read in the Avesta: 'When there are crops, the devils kiss; when there are shoots, the devils cough, when there are stalks, the devils weep; when there are thick ears of corn, the devils fly. The devils are most smitten in the dwelling where the ears of corn are found. To hell they go, melting like glowing ice.'[201] But in the Gujarat version[202] to be employed in cultivation is rendered 'to beget children.'

In the Clementine Gospel the Christ is portrayed in the character of the sun-god, the latest teacher of human tillage in the garden of earth, as the power of God which heals the sins of ignorance in the case of the man who was born blind because his parents had not [p.142] sacredly kept the law of taboo respecting the new moons, the Sabbaths, and the fast-days[203]. In John's version the man is said to be born blind as the result of parental ignorance, so that the works of God should be made manifest in him; and He, the Christ, has come to heal the sins of ignorance. He says, 'I must work the works of Him that sent me, while it is day: the night cometh when no man can work. When I am in the world I am the light of the world.'[204] There could be no more express declaration of the solar god.


Mythology affords a panoramic representation, if not a history, of mental development, which shows the ascent of man, and his gradual evolution of a soul, or the consciousness of one. Having attained that summit, the process was reversed, according to the representations in the later mysteries, and a descent of the soul into matter was postulated, the typology of the Fall being applied to this fresh point of departure downwards. The 'Fallen Angels' of the time-cycles were translated into the moral sphere or spiritual phase, and treated as celestial beings that descend into matter to work out their redemption, or increase in evil until they suffer final extinction the sons of God, for example, who are charged with having cohabited with menstruous women because this was a mode of describing the period-breakers. When the idea had been evolved that the soul of man was an enduring essence, his most permanent part, that lived beyond the world and the cycles of time into which it had to be born, then its birth in time and the sphere of matter might be represented as an imprisonment, the result of a fall from spirit-world. Next the earth was said to be a prison-house of fallen spirits created as such on account of the Fall, as it is in the Avesta. In the Divine Pymander the Creation and Fall have been sublimated and subtilized in a way that establishes a Greco-Egypto-Gnostic link between the mythology of Egypt and the metaphysics of India and Greece.

There may be a germ of the doctrine in the Ritual, where the soul enters the egg of Seb to be imprisoned in the human mould and born into the world of time (Seb). But the Egyptians did not look upon matter as corrupt and depraved by nature, or the body as impure, until it turned to worms. It was not considered as evil in itself, or the cause of evil. On the contrary, its preservation after death was almost as important as saving the soul. This later development was especially Persian, Brahmanical, and Greek. In the Pymander* we learn that:

* 'Pymander' is traditionally known as the shepherd; and men-t (Eg.) means a shepherd.

'The Father of all things brought forth Man like unto himself, whom he loved as his proper birth; for he was all-beauteous, having the image of his Father. For indeed God was exceedingly enamoured of his own form or shape, and delivered [p.143] unto it all his own workmanships. But he, seeing and understanding the creation of the workman in the whole, would needs also himself fall to work, and so was separated from the Father, being in the sphere of Generation or Operation. Having all power, he considered the operations or workmanships of the Seven but they loved him, and every one made him partaker of his own order. And he learned diligently, and understanding their essence, and partaking their nature, resolved to pierce and break through the Circumference of the Circles, and to understand the power of him that sits upon the Fire. And having already all power of mortal things, of the Living, and of the unreasonable Creatures of the world, stooped down and peeped through the Harmony, and breaking through the strength of the Circles, so showed and made manifest the downward-borne nature, the fair and beautiful shape or form of God. Which when he saw, having in itself the insatiable beauty, and all the operation of the Seven Governors, and the form or shape of God, he smiled for love, as if he had seen the shape or likeness in the water, or the shadow upon the earth of the fairest human form. And seeing in the water a shape, a shape like unto himself, in himself he loved it, and would cohabit with it;* and immediately upon the resolution ensued the operation, and brought forth the unreasonable image or shape. Nature presently laying hold of what it so much loved, did wholly wrap herself about it, and they were mingled, for they loved one another. And for this cause, Man above all things that live upon Earth is double; mortal because of his body, and immortal because of the substantial man. For being immortal and having power of all things, he yet suffers mortal things, and such as are subject to Fate or Destiny. And therefore being above all Harmony', he is made and becomes a servant to Harmony. And being Hermaphrodite, or Male and Female, and watchful, he is governed by, and subject to a Father that is both Male and Female, and watchful. This is the mystery that to this day is hidden and kept secret; for Nature being mingled with Man brought forth a wonder most wonderful; for he having the nature of the Harmony of the Seven, from him of whom I told thee, the Fire and the Spirit, Nature continued not, but forthwith brought forth Seven Men all Males and Females (compare the Seven Races), and sublime or on high, according to the natures of the Seven Governors. The generation therefore of these Seven was after this manner The air being Feminine and the water desirous of copulation, took from the Fire its ripeness, and from the other Spirit; and so Nature produced bodies after the species and shape of men. When that period was fulfilled, the bond of all things was loosed and untied by the will of God; for all living Creatures being Hermaphroditical, or Male and Female, were loosed and untied together with Man, and so the Males were apart by themselves, and the Females likewise. And straightway God said to the Holy Word Increase in increasing, and multiply in multitudes all you my Creatures nod workmanships. And let him that is endued with mind know himself to be immortal; and that the cause of death is the love of the body, and let him learn all things that are. Providence by Fate and Harmony made the mixtures and established the generations, and all things were multiplied according to their kind; and he that knew himself, came at length to the Superstantial of every way substantial good. But he that through the error of love, loved the body, abideth, wandering in darkness, sensible, suffering the things of death.'[205]

* This suggests the fable of Narcissus.

Hermes asks: 'But why do they that are ignorant sin so much that they should be deprived of immortality?' The answer is: 'Because there goeth a sad and dismal darkness before its body, of which darkness is the moist nature; of which moist nature, the body consisteth in the sensible world, from whence death is derived.'[206] This contains a doctrine of the 'Fall' in an abstract phase of thought; and, whereas the natural fall was the result of improper mixture of the twin sources, male and female, the male source or creative soul is here represented as falling in love with matter which was its means of embodiment. An immortal soul is postulated as pre-existent or prehuman; the [p.144] word that became flesh; the sons of God that fell in love with the daughters of earth. The descent into matter, as described by Hermes, was set forth by Plato, and elaborated by the Neo-Platonists as a sort of fall of the soul from a paradisiacal condition, by which teaching a mental mist was engendered, that multitudes have mistaken for a very mystery of wisdom and occult lore.

The teaching of the primitive physiology was directed against the mingling of live soul (seminal), with dead matter (menstrual), as that was a quenching of the spirit of life, that brought death or non-production into the world. That was consorting with the demon Gh, the impure Lilith, the witch, or other mythical character. Dead matter then came to be represented as the female principle, the woman of earth in opposition to the male principle now elevated to the status of an immortal, as the man from heaven. Next it was said the male νους, the intellectual spirit, suffered degradation in the union of soul with body, or matter as represented by the woman, the source of corruption and death. The doctrine is common to Hermes, the Brahmans, Philo, Plato, and the Neo-Platonists. Plotinus depicts the soul as descending from its pure estate into generation by immersion in matter, to be entirely submerged in which is nothing more than to fall into dark mire[207]. To be immersed in matter is the death of the soul, and true life consists in getting out of it; for to be plunged into matter is to descend into Hades and then fall asleep. Others, as Philo, have said the body was a prison in which the soul suffered its punishment[208]. These supposed abstruse doctrines cannot be fathomed, except in their physical beginnings.

In the Phaedo Plato 'venerates, with a becoming silence. the assertion delivered in the arcane discourses, that men are placed in a body as in a certain prison, secured by a guard; and testifies, according to the mystic ceremonies, the different allotments of pure and impure souls in Hades, their habits, and the triple path arising from their essences; and this according to paternal and sacred institutions; all of which are fill of a symbolical theory, and of the poetical descriptions concerning the ascent and descent of souls, of dionysiacal signs, the punishment of the Titans, the trivia and wanderings in Hades, and every thing of a similar kind.'[209] Plato also represented matter or the body as a kind of Circean cup, which held the drug of oblivion that enchanted the soul with its deadly drink of Lethe and forgetfulness, but for which she might have remembered all the glory of her former unfallen condition which she awakens to in dreams. In this he poetized and perfected the metaphysic of primitive man probably supplemented with some knowledge of the mysterious duality of consciousness, and, apparently, of personality exhibited at times by those who manifest the abnormal phenomena of trance.


The legend as related by Esdras will also help to show the transformation of mythical doctrine into religious dogma. In this is described a fall from a former state of being, and a world of larger liberties[210]. 'The entrances of the elder world were wide and sure, and brought immortal fruit.' But 'when Adam transgressed my statutes, then was decreed that which now is done. Then were the entrances of this world made narrow, fill of sorrow did travail; they are but few and evil, full of perils and very painful.' 'If then they that live labour not to enter' these straight and narrow ways, 'they can never receive those that are laid up for them,' or re-attain the wide entrances of that lost paradise which had been transferred from the sphere of time, and made a type of an eternal world in the eschatological phase of the mythos of the Fall. Philo saw in the Hebrew 'Fall' a history of the lapse and descent of the soul from some primitive pristine condition into the sphere of matter and the toils of sense[211]. Eve was the sense, or matter personified, and Adam was the pure unfallen and perfect soul, the nous, the god.

Job asks in a similar sense, 'How can a man be clean that is born of a woman?' That is the Adamic man who was born of flesh and blood; 'man that is a worm' on the ground of the feminine origin of matter which came to be degraded and despised in the later solar stage of thought, when the sun represented the paternal source of soulin the presence of which even the stars were not pure, and the moon had no lustre of its own[212]. Certain teachings of the totemic mysteries were well-intended as a deterrent from unclean and vicious practices, but one result of the later doctrines was to establish a system of saving up the soul by not squandering or even producing with the seminal source, which was considered to form a basis of the next life as well as of this.

The followers of Saturninus, according to Irenaeus, held that marriage and generation were from Satan[213]. The Valentinians, however, held that whosoever was in the world and did not so love a woman as to obtain possession of her, were not of the truth, nor could they attain to the truth. But whilst they were in the world they claimed to be not of the world, as were the non-spiritual or animal men[214]. When, in the Gospel According to the Egyptians the Lord is made to say: 'I am come to destroy the works of the woman; of the woman that is of concupiscence, whose works are generation and death,'[215] the doctrine is identical with that of the Shakers and the seminal salvation of the Celibates. It was this saving up of the spermatic soul as the seed of an immortal life that led to the establishment of the ascetics, who abstained from sexual intercourse, and were considered all the more sacred in consequence. When the doctrine [p.146] was developed to the extremity, it led to the devotees who became eunuchs for heaven's sake, the creators of soul for the life hereafter, instead of creating souls for this.

Many sought salvation by unsexing themselves (to make it sure), so as not to expend the soul, their super-substantial, on womankind; and others, being crazed with their ascetic conceit and aversion to 'moist nature,' sought to become perfect by abstaining from meat and marriage, and went forth into the desert to get desiccated, or as they thought, to secrete the jewel of spirit for their own immortal wear. The physical origin of such doctrines has only to be made known to explode their spiritual pretensions. There may be more vital relationship to the source of life in creating a life than in all the asceticism of those who are still unconsciously seeking to save their soul as a spermatic essence, a Light of the World that may be typified by a wax candle, as it was by the oil of Horus the Anointed. It is in giving that we receive. It is in action rather than contemplation that we can plumb the dark profound and touch bottom or obtain response. The abnormal has its side glimpses, but the natural is the true, the unconscious way to the conscious source of all.

The doctrine of the 'Two Truths' culminated at last in a creed which held the masculine soul to be of heaven, heavenly, the seed of salvation; and the female, the matter or mater principle, of the earth, earthy; whence all that are of woman born are created in corruption, and are by nature depraved, damned, and what the Persian Revelation[216] calls 'stinking;' in direct need of the saviour, the saving source impersonated, the salt of soul that saved matter from its rot of annihilation; the second Adam, who was to rescue mankind from the fall occasioned by the first.

This was an extension, development, and perversion of the primitive teaching, and a subtilization of its simplicity that makes one feel all woman in branding the doctrine as an imbecile blasphemy against nature. The value of such 'spiritual' doctrine, or rather its consummate worthlessness, can only be estimated by tracing it home to its ultimate elements, the physics from which it was falsely filched. Only in the physics of mythology can we reach the rootage and detect the perversions of theosophy, metaphysics, and theology, those foundlings of the mental world who are ignorant of their own natural progenitors. As George Eliot says, 'Science, whose soul is explanation, halts with hostile front at mystery.'[217] And no wonder, for there has been so much manufactured mystery, the result of misinterpreting the primitive thought of the past, that it is not surprising if science should class the false and true together under one ban, until all has been found out afresh.

The Kabbalists relate that two angels, Aza and Azael, complained to the deity of the creation of man and foretold his fall. 'You also, [p.147] angels,' said the Lord, 'would sin were you to enter the lower world.'[218] They were sent on earth, where they sinned by eating the prohibited fruit. After their sin, bodies of flesh were given to them, for an angel who spends seven days on earth becomes opaque and is substantialized. From these sprang the giants, born of earth, the red source, or flesh.

The Siamese tell a similar tale of the Rupa and Zian, a superior sort of beings who descended to earth after the production of a new world, or the renewed world, lured by the smell and taste of butter. As they ate this exudation they assumed the human shape, still living on this preternatural food. But being seized with the lust of possession the ambrosia disappeared, and their bodies lost their transparency and radiance and became opaque and darkened[219].

The Singhalese say that the Brahmas inhabiting the upper regions of the air were in the enjoyment of perfect felicity, but it came to pass that one of them at length beheld the earth and said to himself 'What thing is this?' One of his fingers having touched earth, he put it to the tip of his tongue and tasted it. The taste was deliciously sweet, and from that time thenceforth all the Brahmas became eaters of the sweet earth, and remained so for the space of 60,000 years. Hence their spiritual nature was changed, they communicated carnally with one another, and consequently lost their pristine glory[220].

In the Nepalese account of the source of sin, 'Originally,' says one of their Tantras, 'the earth was uninhabited. In those early tunes the inhabitants of Abhaswara, one of the mansions of Brahma, used to visit the earth. These beings who came and went were half males and half females, but had never yet noticed their sexual unlikeness or felt the sexual desire, until Adi-Buddha suddenly created in them an intense longing to eat of the earth. This they ate, and it had the taste of almonds. By eating of this they lost the power of flying back to their Bhuvana, and so were constrained to remain on earth.'[221]

The Buddhist legend of the Fall of the 'Tingheris' tells how the first inhabitants of this world fell from another. They were primarily the people of the seventh heaven, but they quarrelled and fought with each other. At the beginning of their earth life the Tingheris preserved their divine nature. They lived for 80,000 years, were of luminous aspect possessed wings, and needed no food. But there appeared on earth a certain fruit named Shime, which was as white as sugar. As soon as the Tingheris tasted this they lost their original brightness and other qualities of perfection; they shed their wings and began to need nourishment; their lives were shortened to 10,000 years, and became shorter and shorter as their sins increased. Ultimately, says the Lamaic Apocalypse, 'Men will once more become virtuous, and their age will again extend to 80,000 years, on the [p.148] appearance of a holy Burkhan Maidarin of wonderful stature and ineffable beauty.' All men will then be converted, become equally perfect, and be 'born again.'[222]

The British Barddas also taught that all living beings were made in the circle of Gwynvyd at one breath, but they would attempt to traverse the circle of Keuguant. This they could not do, and in failing they fell down into Annwn, which unites with death and earth, and where, in the extremest depths, is the beginning of all living owners of terrestrial bodies. That is, it is further explained, 'living beings knew not how to distinguish evil from good, and therefore they fell into evil and went into Abred, which they had to traverse until they came back into the circle of Gwynvyd.'[223] This is attributed to their ignorance, on account of their not knowing good from evil. The later interpretation found in the Hebrew Genesis has been read into this, the true rendering of the myth, and they are charged with also falling from a wilful determination to be as gods and traverse the circle of the gods.

Their fall of man was back again into Abred, the circle of negation and of 'dead existence' (figured in the Ritual as the place of dissolution in the Lake of Primordial Matter) 'after his original progression to the species and state of humanity in Gwynwyd.'[224]

It is arguable, of course, that cause is spiritual, and that physical evolution is but a process and a result, and that evolution reveals the procession of Mind through Matter. This the present writer is not concerned to deny, 'Howbeit that is not first (observed) which is spiritual, but that which is natural; then that which is spiritual.'[225] The perception of causation as spiritual evolution is of necessity late, not primary; it does not belong to the natural genesis of mythology. The soul, supposed to have fallen in its descent to earth, was not even postulated as an immortal principle of sequential life possessed in common by man and woman, it was only the 'Man from heaven' that fell in love with the woman of earth who was to derive her immortality from the male, and obtain her salvation by bearing children, just as the mother Achamoth was purified, established, and saved by Horus, whom she bore as her own child, and from whom she received an afflatus of incorruption, an odour of immortality.


There was more than one fall in heaven, or from it. Two have been especially described, and the type has been shown to serve for various purposes, all relating to periodicity and the true keeping of time, or the non-keeping of it. The first fall was that of the seven outcast zootypes, who, when promoted from space into time as watchers in heaven, had failed, and given place to the planetary hebdomad.


These seven belong to a pre-Adamite fall. They are earlier than the pair who were personified as human beings. They became the typical 'seven devils' of theology, whose number determines their origin. There is no reason known to any form of spiritualism why demons good or bad should form a company of seven, or infest and obsess the human being as a group of seven conspirators. These are the typhonian sami; they are the seven wicked spirits of the Akkadians, the seven demons of the Karens, the seven devils of the Christian gospels. The Great Mother gave birth to seven devils, which were cast out by the solar god, and seven devils are likewise cast out of Mary Magdalene by the Christ[226].

The Akkadian magical chants show the belief that seven evil spirits at once might enter a man. In one of these we read: 'The God shall stand by his bedside, those seven evil spirits he shall root out, and shall expel them from his (the sick man's) body; and those seven shall never return to the sick man again.'[227] These seven outcasts are described in an Akkadian hymn:

'1. They are Seven! they are Seven!
2. In the depths of ocean they are Seven!
3. In the heights of heaven they are Seven!
4. In the ocean stream in a palace they were born.
5. Male they are not! Female they are not.
6. Wives they have not! Children are not born to them!
7. Rule they have not! Government they know not!
8. Prayers they hear not.
9. They are Seven! they are Seven! Twice over they are Seven.'[228]

The fallen seven will account for the type of seven chief Powers of Evil, the seven Punishers of Sinsotherwise represented as the seven mortal sins in the Ritualthat lie in wait at the Balance where all hearts are weighed, to arrest the further progress of the soul[229].

The celestial heptanomis being subdivided by ten into the heaven of seventy divisions, there is consequently a group of the watchers that fell who are seventy in number; although the later the form of the myth the narrower is its area. The seventy fallen ones appear however in the Book of Enoch, and are described in the Jewish Kabbalah. The Superior Hebdomad are called the 'Seven White Ones' by Enoch; and when the seventy shepherds are found to be unfaithful, and to have killed more sheep than they should have doneor given short measure in reckoning timethe Seven White Ones are commanded to bring the seventy to the 'trial of the stars,' when they are adjudged to be guilty, and are thrust into the flaming abyss where they had been preceded by the seven great stars[230].

The seventy who encompassed the Throne of Glory were likewise [p.150] superseded when Jacob of the Ten Tribes was changed into Israel of the Twelve. Then it was said that the seventy princes were not the children of the true, i.e., later, God; they were not born in his image, and bore no likeness to him. These seventy were the souls of the celestial bodies, the appointed watchers and timekeepers in the heaven of seventy divisions or degrees that preceded the seventy-two[231].

The eight of the primary ogdoad, the ten of the succeeding decad, and the twelve of the duo-decad, became the aeons of the Gnostics, and formed their tripartite Pleroma of thirty powers which was composed of the ogdoad, decad, and duo-decad. These in the later phase are called spiritual and invisible, but the name of Aeons preserves their kronian nature, and the gnosis or unspeakable mystery consisted in a fundamental acquaintanceship with the celestial allegory, the doctrine of angels, and the total combination of the various cycles of time, by which the personifications were related to natural phenomena.

The number four alternates at times with the seven as in the Australian four spirits of disease; the spirits of the four elements and four quarters which were the more prominent of the seven. In the already-quoted Moslem legend of the seven sleepers and their dog, the statement that 'some say the sleepers were three, and their dog was the fourth,'[231a] shows that they also had the typical seven, four of whom were the genii of the four quarters.

Thus the jinn or genii of the modern Muslims are held to be of pre-Adamite origin, and a kind of beings who are intermediate between the angels and men. These are reckoned to be creatures of fire, capable of becoming visible and invisible at will. Such-like spirits are held to pervade the air and water and penetrate the solid earth.

These are the four spirits of Earth, Air, Water, and Fire, or the seven according to the number of elements.

In like manner the Christian devil, called 'the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience,' is the same being that was cast out as the leader of the rebel elementaries in Egypt and Akkad; and, according to the Hebrew Gnostic Paul, the Christian devil is identical with hurricane, as the 'Prince of the power of the Air.'[232]

The elementary spirits of mythology are to be found among the 'good folk' of fairyology, and also as the Will-o'-the-wisps. One form of those who were untrue in keeping time and measure is extant as the 'Jacks' on the island of Falster, where they are held to be the souls of those who in their life-time were the removers of landmarks, and perpetrated injustice in their measurements; they are now in purgatory, and one part of their punishment is to run up Skovby Bakke at the dead of night to measure the ground with red-hot irons, [p.151] exclaiming pathetically: 'Here is the clear and bright boundary, from here to here.'[233]

In Egypt the seven kronotypes were not simply damned and discarded as typhonian powers. They were also transmuted, and their number continued. They became the seven spirits, called the seven souls (baiu) of the sun-god, who was Atum, Osiris, or Sevekh-Ra, according to the cult. The Egyptian king was likewise said to have seven souls; hence the references in the texts to the souls of the pharaoh. The seven souls were also continued and contained in the gnostic Christ, who was the perfect star of the Pleroma, the outcome and consummate flower of the superior sacred seven who had been refined from the earlier elementary seven in the course of development.

Seeing that man was formed twice over in the likeness of the seven, once when they were mere elemental forces, and again when they had become spiritualized as the planetary hebdomad, it follows that he would be accredited with seven souls, principles or constituent elements, and that the early and later seven should be found contending for the supremacy. And so it is. Outside of man the 'seven against seven' are found to be arrayed in conflict. The Christ, in whom dwells the fullness of the godhead of the superior seven, casts out the seven mundane demons from Mary Magdalene. The natural genesis of the soul in certain systems of psychology has to be traced to the seven elementals before their terminology, to say nothing of their philosophy, can be comprehended. The original gnosis is determined by the number. An immortal soul was derived as the consummate flower and perfect fruit of the seven elements or pleroma of powers, exactly in the same way that the gnostic Christ was the culmination and container of the seven; and this soul was identical with the ideal Christ and divine Man of the gnosis. The individuality of an immortal being is still constructed on the same lines, with its basis in the seven elements; of these the sixth is called the spiritual ego, in the domain of philosophy. But in the physiological aspect it is the virile force represented by Bala (Rama) as the impersonation of a sixth principlesimply the seminal soul; the blossom or sixth principle of the Druids. The seventh principle is spirit itself. Divinity or immortal individuality is attained in the eighth stage, that of the perfected. Thus the immortal individuality is evolved in precisely the same way as the god from the seven elements or forces, powers or souls, and the gnostic Christ from the rest of the aeons as the perfect, eight-rayed star of the Pleroma. A soul of seven natures was first constituted on this basis and no other; it was built up like the onion-coat or shell system of the Ptolemaic astronomy; and there is great perplexity occasioned nowadays concerning the seven shells or onion-coats of a man's most inner [p.152] essenceor any lesser number that he may be limited toand their relative durability for another life. He can own all seven, and yet they may turn out to be the cast-out seven devils or mundane daemons. If they derive from the angelic seven, they are still subject to the contingencies of the elemental origin. One comes from water and to water may return; one from earth, and this may absorb and materialize an element more rare; the fire may be put out; the ethereal principle may prove abortive. The whole seven may fail you in attaining the eighth region of the Siddhas, the Buddhahood or Elijahhood of an immortal soul.

The seven as elementaries or powers in external nature were a phenomenal form of reality. They were real, too, as kronotypes in the inferior and superior hebdomads. But as seven spirits in the psychotheistic phase they pass out of the region of reality; and, in losing all foothold on earth, they do not acquire any future existence in heaven or hell as good or evil spirits; they are but phantoms of the mental world abstracted from the creations of mythology. Consequently the Christ who is the flower and outcome of seven such spirits is the essence of unreality.

Both the Christ of the Gnostics, who is recognised as the outcome of the seven preceding powers, and the human soul perfected in the eighth degree, are the result of the zootypes and kronotypes having passed into a psychotheistic phase; and the seven spheres of theosophy crowned by the eighth as the place and condition of the perfected are the shape taken in cloudland by the sevenfold planetary system, and the still earlier system of the mount of seven steps with its paradise in the moon. In each the eighth is the height. Hindu or other adepts may now read the typology backwards, but this was the course of its development.

According to certain teachings of the 'Theosophists' we may have to revisit earth after death as hollow-hearted and literally unprincipled 'shells' or elementaries, who, being emptied of our former and wanting in our future selves, will play the part of any spirit that may be asked for, as the ghouls of Ghostland craving for a gust of the old carnal life, without which we have to suffer final extinction[234].

It is impossible to bottom the metaphysics, which have been continued, according to the law of evolution, from the earliest phase, without fathoming that phase in primitive physics. The seven are extant, especially in India, where the 'skirts' of their personality have got somewhat 'fused,' and their origins are almost, if not absolutely, forgotten. They are at the bottom of a chasm that opens between a spiritualism reaching back to this elemental beginning, and one which is founded solely on the persistence and apparition of the spirits of the dead. The elementaries, however, did not originate as spirits of the dead, nor as spiritual entities at all, but simply as [p.153] elements, and the typology of the seven was continued and reapplied to man as it had been to the gnostic Christ, the Egyptian Ra or Persian Ahura-Mazda.

Thus, to summarize: the genetrix produced her progeny of seven elementary powers, the first of all the symbolic sevens. The earliest men were born in their likeness, or rather they were named after them, and totemically distinguished by their types, as the bird-men, ape-men, fish-men, and others of the seven. These are preserved in a group as the 'Seven Races' of the Bundahish or 'original creation,' and are scattered over the world as the outcast and despised beings who are still classed with the beasts. These descended from the mother alone. In the second stage the seven types were made kronian, and became intelligences, as the spirits or gods of seven constellations in the celestial heptanomis. They were the Ari or Cabiri, the seven Hohgates in their boat, the seven Rishis in the ark, seven Princes in the chariot, seven Amshaspands, and other forms of the companions that kabbed, guarded, or watched together (ari, Eg.). They are identified by the Gnostics as the inferior hebdomad, who, with their mother, formed the primary ogdoad. These seven created man in their own imageas the sons of Sophia or the Elohim of Genesisbut without a soul, as they did not include or represent the fatherhood; they were the children of the mother only, corresponding to the totemic tribes on earth. These seven kronidae were succeeded and superseded by the superior hebdomad of the gnosis, the septenary of planetary gods, the true keepers of time and period. Of these the solar god became supreme, the father of all; and the seven previously evolved were called his souls. This god, whether named Ra, Khem-Horus, Heptaktis, Set-Nub, Sebek, Iao-Sabaoth, or Har-Iu, contained the trinity of human factorsthe mother, child, and virile male in one divine type, whose threefold nature embodied the seven souls in a tenfold totality, as the All which was equally the two-one (in sex) and the ten-one, like the two hands and ten digits of the earliest reckoning. The human representatives of this deity 10, or god of the number ten, are the ten races of the Bundahish. Jacob was a form of this god when the tribes were but ten in number, which preceded the Twelve Tribes of Israel; the final solar deity being god of the twelve signs, seventy-two duo-decans, and three hundred and sixty-five days to the year.


The true nature of the mythical Fall was only known to the earlier teachers of the hidden wisdom, who had preserved the ancient meanings unperverted. Fragments of the sunken system gone to wreck come floating to the surface here and there. In the Book of the Apocrypha, the 'Hidden Wisdom,' it is declared that error and darkness had 'their beginning together with sinners,' but the 'gift of the [p.154] Lord remaineth with the godly.'[235] The doctrine of the 'Fall' belongs to the hidden wisdom, and the human fall was simply and solely the sin of ignorance. 'Error and darkness had their beginning together.' But, through wisdom, the enlightening holy spirit, personified as the Sophia of the gnosis, the 'ways of them which lived on earth were reformed, and men were taught the things that were pleasing unto thee, and were saved through wisdom.' 'She preserved the first-formed father of the world, that was created alone, and brought him out of his Fall, and gave him power to rule all things.'[236] Such was the doctrine of the Fall and of salvation as taught in the mysteries. Men sin in ignorance, but are saved by knowing and doing better. It was taught that wisdom is 'a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her: and happy is every one that retaineth her.'[237] In the Avesta wisdom is the personified conveyancer of immortal life to man. Also, in the Book of Wisdom it is said that 'To be allied unto Wisdom is immortality.' 'By means of her I shall obtain immortality, and leave behind me an everlasting memorial to them that come after me.'[238] Immortality was continuity. Wisdom first taught the means of insuring this by proper living; and then the gnosis was applied to the continuity of life hereafter, and immortality was held to be taught and conferred by wisdom, in relation, however, to the ignorance which had brought death into the world. The Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil is the tree of divine Wisdom or Sophia, in the Book of Ecclesiasticus, who identifies herself with the tree of various species. 'As the vine brought I forth pleasant savour. I am the mother of fair love, and fear, and knowledge, and holy hope ... Come unto me all ye that be desirous of me, and fill yourselves with my fruits. For my memorial is sweeter than honey, and mine inheritance than the honeycomb. He that obeyeth me shall never be confounded: and they that work by me shall never do amiss.'[239] This is the teaching according to the hidden or oral wisdom, which makes the tree a tree of life, and not a tree of death and damnation as it is in the published gospel of the uninitiated, who know not anything of the natural genesis of their supernatural revelation, because they have never been 'privy to the mysteries of the Gnosis.'[240] So in the Book of Proverbs it is written: 'Say unto Wisdom, Thou art my Sister,' the object being to be kept by her from the 'strange woman,'[241] whose 'house is the way to hell,' going down to the chambers of death the Parika, Lilith, Gh, or witch-woman of the mythos, not the prostitute simply.

Sophia played the part of the Wise Queen of the Peguan people. Venus, says Pausanias, was called the Bride Cabira, from having given birth to the Cabiri; and Apostrophia, on account of her having turned the race of men from unlawful desires and impious coition[242]. [p.155] By means of Wisdom, who knew 'the beginning, ending, and midst of times,' and registered all forms of periodicity, and 'all such things as are secret or manifest,' mankind were brought out of their fall, out of their red sea, out of their darkness, reformed and saved; and there was no room, no place whatever, for the Christian scheme of salvation, which was based on an entire misconception of the nature and significance of the 'Fall,' and the ancient mode of representation. 'Through perfect wisdom,' declares the Parsee tradition, 'every one possesses the knowledge of purity.' 'Through his own wisdom is Mazda the father of purity.'[243] 'It is now manifest the wise have created all. Evil doctrine shall not for a second time destroy the world. Evil choice had the bad lighted on with the tongue.' Henceforth 'He among you who will not act according to the spirit as well as the word (or the tongue of the Dark Mind), to him will the end of the world turn to downfall.'[244] In an Akkadian fragment it is written, 'The fruit of death may the man eat (and yet) the fruit of life may he achieve.'[245]

In the Epistle to Diognetus, attributed to Marcion[246], the writer says, 'Not without significance is it written that God originally planted the Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life in the midst of Paradise, pointing to this, that through knowledge cometh life. Since the first men have not made a pure use of the same (the Tree of Knowledge), they were tempted by the serpent and divested of the life. For there is no life without knowledge, and no certitude of knowledge without true life, for which reason the trees were planted beside each other.'

Even in the Dog-rib legend the god granted that those who dreamed certain dreams should have the power of curing sickness and of saving men somewhat from the results of the Fall. The dreamers being the seers and wise men. This also is a mode of correcting the errors of ignorance by means of wisdom, as in the teaching of the Apocrypha. By eating of the Tree of Knowledge the eyes were opened. So in the Greek allegory the mortal who looked on the goddess of Wisdom (Minerva) naked, to the loss of his eyesight, had his inner vision opened, and was said to become illumined with the power of prophecy. That is, he acquired foresight for the future. Also the victims of the worst diseases, from which men learned to become cleaner and purer, were honoured and held to be typically sacred in consequence.

The Mexicans knew the true significance of the mythos and the nature of the original sin. They had a form of baptism for children in which they prayed that the child might be cleansed from the original sin, committed before the foundation of the world. That is, when interpreted, before the order of things was established in truth, lawfulness, and righteousness; before men had been elevated from a 'beggarly and bestial' way of living, into cleanliness and purity of [p.156] life. Thus stated there is no such grotesque and ghastly mistake as was ignorantly committed by the founders of the Christian creeds. In consequence of eating the forbidden fruit, thorns and thistles are henceforth to curse the Adamic soil, and the allegory is charged with a doctrine utterly pernicious and fatally false. The labour of man, which is the food and sustenance of all healthy life; the labour of woman, on which depends the consummate delight of life and the fulfilment of the divine desire to reproduce, are accursed by an impious perversion of the ancient thought.*


'QuestionWhat is Original Sin?

AnswerIt is that sin in which we all are born, by means of the fall of Adam.

InstructionOriginal Sin was committed by the first man Adam, when contrary to the express command of God, seduced by the delusion of the Devil, and in compliance with the persuasion of Eve, he ate the forbidden fruit, from which ensued that fatal curse on all mankind"Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return." This would have been followed by everlasting exclusion from heaven, had not God through his pure mercy, promised to send a Redeemer to rescue us from this immense evil. This Redeemer was no other than God the Son, the Second Person of the blessed Trinity made man; for none but an infinite being could atone for an offence against an infinite being, nothing but infinite mercy could satisfy infinite justice.

Having forfeited original holiness by the sin of our first parents, we were born children of wrath, with a corrupt nature, and inclination to all kinds of sin. The only remedy to obtain the remission of this sin is that of Baptism, by which the merits of our Redeemer's blood and passion are applied to our souls. Baptism is, therefore, necessary to all, as none of the children of Adam can obtain heaven without it.'[247]


'Original sin standeth not in the following of Adam, but it is the fault and corruption of the nature of every man that naturally is engendered of the offspring of Adam; whereby man is very far gone from original righteousness, and is of his own nature inclined to evil, so that the flesh lusteth always contrary to the spirit and therefore, in every person born into this world, it deserveth God's wrath and damnation. And this infection of nature doth remain; yea, in them that are regenerated; whereby the lust of the flesh: is not subject to the law of God.

The condition of man after the fall of Adam is such, that he cannot turn and prepare himself, by his own natural strength and good works, to faith, and calling upon God.'[248]


'By the Fall of Adam it came to pass that as before man was blessed, so now he was accursed; as before he was loved, so now he was abhorred; as before he was most beautiful and precious, so now he was most vile and wretched; instead of the image of God, he was now become the image of the Devil; instead of the citizen of Heaven, he was become the bondslave of Hell; having in himself no one part of his former purity and cleanness, but being altogether spotted and defiled; insomuch that now he seemed to be nothing else but a lump of sin, and therefore, by the just judgment of God, was condemned to everlasting death.'[249]


'Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, through the temptation of Satan transgressed the commandment of God in eating the forbidden fruit; and thereby fell from the estate of innocency wherein they were created and all mankind, descending from him, sinned in him, and fell with him into an estate of sin and misery. The sinfulness of that state of man consists in Adam's guilt, his want of righteousness, and his corrupt nature whereby man is utterly indisposed to all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil and that continually, commonly called Original Sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions ... Original Sin is conveyed from our first parents by natural generation, so that we are conceived and born in sin, which brings upon mankind God's displeasure and curse, so as we are by nature children of wrath, bondslaves of Satan, and justly liable to all punishments in this world and in that which is to come.'[250]

Thus, as it has been said, men are damned by the theologians in order that they may run after them to be saved.


The Gnostics knew the symbolical nature of the serpent. In the hieroglyphics as the tet sign, it signifies speech, language, or to tell; and the Hebrew writer makes it 'talk.' The reptile being double-tongued by nature becomes the typical double-tongue in relation to the Two Truths, or the two aspects of true and untrue. The Persians, who were followed by the Hebrew writer, made it the representative of lying speech alone; the Gnostics knew that it was representative of both truths, and as such was a teacher, not a tempter. The Hebrew 'Genesis' is as unfair to the serpent as it is to the woman. In the Greek mythos the good serpent guards the Tree of Life and Knowledge, instead of tempting mankind to eat the forbidden fruit and cause their fall. So the goddess of wisdom is seen inviting Herakles or some other character to partake of it, and when he has slain the guardian dragon of the tree, the spoil itself is returned to the keeping of Athena, who replaces it on the Tree of Knowledge, as the fruit which rightly plucked is the food of Life; wrongly, is the fruit of Death. This is the true and perfect myth of the serpent. In the Book of Genesis we read: 'The Lord God said unto the serpent, Because thou hast done this, thou art cursed above all cattle, and above every beast of the field. Upon thy belly shalt thou go and dust shalt thou eat all the day's of thy life; and I will put enmity between thee and the woman, and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise his heel.'[251]

According to this tradition it is the saviour son, as the seed of the woman, who is to overcome the serpent, but who is vulnerable in the heel, like the other solar heroes with the one spot in their bodies left unprotected. The Romish Church has preserved a variant version of the Hebrew, and renders the passage, 'She shall bruise thy head and thou shalt bruise her heel,' in which the woman and not her seed is the opponent of the serpent. In the text of Jerome, as of the Itala, the virgin is the bruiser of the serpent[252].

In keeping with this form of the mythos, the Greek Diana, or Artemis, is portrayed with a headless serpent in her hands. Diodorus relates that in the temple of Belus in Babylon there was an image of a woman grasping the head of a serpent[253]. Both versions of the mythos are Egyptian, and as such explicable. It has been shown that the genetrix as the moon-goddess was the earlier slayer of the dragon of darkness, called the deluder; also in the later solar mythos Pasht and Isis are both portrayed in the act of bruising the head of the Apap serpent of evil. In other representations it is Horus, the [p.158] seed, the saviour son, who is depicted as the bruiser of the serpent's head. We may well say bruiser, for the serpent could not be killed outright. The conflict which was primarily that of light and darkness, the sun and the akhekh monster, the truth and falsehood, life and death, heaven and hell, was continued for ever[254]. Though wounded every night and vanquished every springtide, the dragon never dies, on account of the phenomena which gave it birth and being.

In the Ritual[255] the typical serpent, the eternal enemy of the sun and the souls of the dead, is he who 'has his wound given him' by the Osiris, he who 'was a male in the womb of his mother.' The serpent is described as 'walking on his belly'; and the Osirian in passing the serpent exclaims 'Veil thy head! veil thy head!' He rejoices, saying: 'I have taken the viper of the sun.' Again in chapter 150, in the fourth mystical abode the Osirian as the god addresses the serpent Sati and says, 'I am the male veiling thy head.' And the viper is said to be 'crawling on his belly.' The Osirian exclaims, 'I have come to catch Haker,' that is, the viper. Here the promised seed, the one who is born to give the serpent his wound, appears as the male, the masculine child in the womb of his mother. Also, when the sun entered the sign of Virgo, the mother, for his rebirth, the passage was marked by the total setting of the celestial Hydra, following which the fight began in the underworld between the dragon and the seed of Isis.

In a third picture the two variants are in a manner unified by the link of continuity. On the sarcophagus of Seti I, in the Soane Museum[256], the student can see both mother and son engaged in the eternal conflict with the serpent. In this delineation Isis-Serk has noosed the serpent of evil, and she, assisted by the Osirian, such a one as the speaker just quoted, has brought the enemy to Horus for him to bruise the monster's head, and give him his annual wound. The three interpretations were combined in the imagery portrayed in the planispherei. The virgin mother conquered the old dragon by producing her child, the seed in season, every year. She was portrayed as Virgo with the son in her arms, or the seed in her hands; and on the birthday of the sun, which has become our Christmas Day, the position of the sphere shows the figure of the virgin treading down or triumphing over the serpent that writhes prostrate at her feet. She is the bruiser of the serpent's head, through the birth of Horus the child.

We must now look to those who set the types in heaven if we would learn what they really mean, having been deceived overlong by those who did not know. The Egyptians made no pretence that these divine personages, the virgin and child who bruise the serpent's head, were historical characters, although [p.159] they got out of the imagery all that they had put into it. With them the subject-matter is not divorced from the natural phenomena, nor wrested from its mythical meaning. That process of perversion was left for those who were ignorant of the gnosis, and who were only in possession of such fragments of the ancient lore as were collected in the Hebrew writings, and left without the clue of the oral teachings. In its latest phase, the dogma of the 'Fall' is the helpless result of losing sight of the natural genesis, and the symbolical mode of conveying the ancient wisdom. It was ignorance of the natural genesis solely that led to these writings being elevated to the status of a divine revelation invested with a supernatural authority, empowered to command credence, and exert all means and appliances for creating, exacting, and enforcing belief, in defiance of all the facts in nature that are ignored, denied, contravened, or defied.

John Henry Newman has said, 'The Bible is the record of the whole revealed faith;'[257] that is the fatal fact. The Bible is the only record of the faith; and, as a divine revelation, it was foolishly supposed to be beyond the reach of the comparative process, by the application of which alone can the truth be ascertained concerning anything in the remoter past. Not one single dogma founded on that record could be properly appraised, or even understood, so long as we were entirely ignorant of the mythical origins, and natural genesis of religious dogmas. When the comparative method is applied, we find that mythology was the mould of the faith; and the mode of the revelation has been by misinterpreting the mythology. In the fable the wolf, on overhearing the nurse threaten to throw the child 'to the wolf;' believed that he was about to have a satisfactory supper; whereas she never meant what she said. So it is with the mythical legends. They never meant what they said or have been made to say; and great has been the consequent delusion for the ignorant and superstitious

Delusion that is perfectly complete
For those who die to find out the deceit.[258]

The fragments of ancient lore which formed the nucleus of the Hebrew writings, are part and parcel of the same system of primitive typology as the kindred legends found elsewhere. The creation, the tree, serpent, fall, deluge, exodus, and wars in heaven belong to the same mythology which is one in origin, and more or less universal in its range. It could not be known what the scattered remains first signified, until the puzzle-picture had been put together again and correlated to be read in the light of evolution, which points us toward a natural genesis that is certain to put an end to the Hebrew beginning; and the truth is that, whatsoever our [p.160] individual standpoint or sphere of thought may be, it is only in proportion as we are mentally grounded in the laws of evolution, and apply the doctrine of development to the phenomena of nature in the past as well as the present, that we can begin to think from the living root of thought, or find any real basis of beginning; without which basis the thinker may scatter his mental seed, the poet plant his flowers, the martyr pour forth his blood, to enrich a chaos that has no more cohesion or abiding place for growth than an ocean of shifting sand.

That which preceded the knowledge of evolution is chaos, and with evolution commences creation. The Fall is the antithesis of evolution, and the supposed descent of man is disproved for ever by his known ascent. It was the ancient mythos that in dying yielded up the metaphysical phantom, which haunts the modern race to frighten it out of life with dread of death and fill the human mind with servile fears, to make the kneeling suppliant accept the Christian scheme of redemption. The Golden Age is nothing more than glossan air-hung mirage over sterile desert sands, seen by the hallucinated who still continue to put forth volumes of gibberish, purporting to contain the mirage condensed into modern meaning, and the ideal gloss converted into real gold by sleight of interpretation.

There was no original condition of perfect purity, lost by man through any cataclysmal event, to which return could be made. This is but a foolish postulate of the non-evolutionists. It is not that the primary myth is false, but it is falsified by literal interpretation of a typical mode of expression. The condition of mankind at the time of the so-called lapse from paradisiacal purity was too low for any Fall. It was that of the beasts, the unclean, the incestuous, the catamites and pederasts who are summed up under one name, as the 'Sodomites' of apocryphal and gnostic tradition, who were without the consciousness by which comes the knowledge of sin. That fabled fairyland of religious belief belongs to a past that never was present, and it is horribly grotesque to compare its idyllic ideal with the reality of primitive man in his wilderness of a world.

So far from the Adamic man bearing the divine likeness, he was one of the animal 'men with tails; the Adam who is said in rabbinical traditions to have had intercourse in common with the other animals; and also to have had a tail.

There never has been a 'Fall of Man,' from which he could be saved by the suffering and death of god or man upon the cross; and the preaching of such a mode of salvation constitutes a miserable mockery. It is an utterly misleading aside from the real work of the world that remains to be done; and the money spent in sustaining the great delusion at home and propagating it abroad might [p.161] suffice for the extinction of poverty if preventively applied.*

* In the year 1856, a British Parliamentary Commission, of which Mr. Gladstone was a member, published the opinion derived from the whole range of the missionary area, that it was, 'Not the application of external means of civilization, but the preaching of Christ crucified that is the true agent for raising preaching of Christ to a higher state of culture, and that by the preaching of the Word of the Cross of Christ, and by this only, do the heathen obtain a true susceptibility for the outward ennobling of life.'[259]

Our social conditions are such as to generate and cultivate pauperism as one of the national products. We are manufacturers of misery. The earth is drained into reservoirs of riches for the few who are masters of all channels through which the wealth is forced to flow, and there are no adequate means provided for insuring a return and redistribution amongst the masses of the producers whose labour is the living source of all supply. What profits it to offer the word of a salvation hereafter to the miserable multitude who are damned indeed whilst here? they know they are fallen, but the explanation of their 'Fall' is false; and it is so fatal to the true, that the millions of those who will no longer listen to such foolish teaching must be looked upon as the great hope of the future. The 'Fall of Man' was an allegory set forth by the primitive 'Wisdom' which has been perverted into a falsehood by ignorance.

'Man hath not fall'n from Heaven, nor been cast
Out from some Golden Age lived in the Past!
Your fall is from the possible Life before ye:
Your fall is from a Crown of Life held o'er ye;
The falling short of an impending glory.'[260]

He is not half way up the human ascent which he has to climb continually. And the proffered salvation and mode of redemption from the evil effects of the supposed 'Fall' constitutes the greatest delusion of this life and the most fatal illusion for the next.

A theology or theosophy manufactured from the refuse and leavings of mythology and the misinterpretation of ancient thought and its mode of expression, with its doctrine of a human Fall that never occurred; the descent, degradation, and depravity that did not follow, and its redemption by the blood of an atonement which consequently could not apply, constitutes the sheerest insanity that mental aberration has hitherto shown. The fetishism of savagery exhibits nothing half so barbarous or so devoid of basis either scientific or natural. The creed of Christendom is professedly founded on the verity of events; the verity of the Fall of Man as the first event in human history is the foundation and corner-stone, the very timin, of the superstructure of the atonement and redemption; and Egypt, which was the parent of the mythos, has left the means of proving (1) that [p.162] the supposed fall of the primal pair was not a human event; (2) that it could not have been represented as human and historical except by those who were ignorant of its true nature; and (3) that later doctrines based on its being veritable human history are of necessity falsely founded. For, if the 'Fall of Man' is not historic fact, the personal redeemer and historical redemption have no raison d'tre nor standing ground. The antitype can only answer to the type. The Fall cannot be mythical and the redemption historical. A mythical 'Fall' can only necessitate or warrant or include a mythical saviour. These must go together, whether they stand or fall. The entire superstructure of doctrine and dogma has been erected on the original fallacy. The error is too radical for uprooting save by overthrowal of the system with which it has been entwined for life or death; and for such a product of thought peculiarly perverted, such a mode of mental torture, such a libel on all that is human or divine, there can be no escape from final doom, which approaches slowly in order that it may be the more certain and complete.


A few last words on the Regio Paradisi itself considered as a mundane locality. This has been sought for in many lands, and numberless attempts have been made to define and fix the site in accordance with Hebrew 'history.' Wherever there is a riverhead that can be made to run on all-fours, even by assuming the existence of water-channels no longer extant, the biblical Eden has been discoveredwhether in Asia, Africa, Europe, or America. Some writers have come to the conclusion that its features were effaced by the deluge; others have maintained that it disappeared with some lost Lemuria, or island of Atlantis. Livingstone coupled the four heads of the four rivers with the sources of the Nile; and the traveller died in search of the old lost Paradise of the 'Genesis.' He found there was a local report of four mighty streams which rose in a mountain west of Tanganyika lake; and in that region he hoped to discover the fountainheads as pictured in the Hebrew book; or the 'twin-source' as described by Herodotus[261].

And if there be an earthly original for the heavenly Eden, it will be found in equatorial Africa, the land of seething, swarming, multitudinous, and colossal life, where the mother nature grew great with her latest race; the lair in which the lusty breeder brought forth her black, barbarian brood, and put forth for them such a warm welling bosom as cannot be paralleled elsewhere on earth. This was the world of wet and heaven of heat; the land of equal day and dark that supplied the Two Truths of uati (Eg.); the top of the world; the very nipple (kepa) of the breast of earth, in which there is one vast streaming fount of moisture quick with life. So surely as a topographical Mru, the lake and island, is found in Habesh, so surely is the earthly paradise, the original of the mythical which was carried [p.163] forth over the world by the migrations from Kam, to be found there, if at all.

In Egyptian khentu is the interior, variously applied. It is the inner land, the lake country. It is also the name of the womb, the human birthplace. The khen (Eg.) is the Semitic gan, the Arab Al-Jannat for the Garden of Eden. Khen or khentu is the garden in Egyptian, just as our southern county Kent is called the Garden of England. Khentu also means delight. Thus in khentu, according to the Egyptian language, was the garden of delight, the pleasure-place, Paradise, Eden, or celestial birthplace of the mythos. Khentu being the interior, the matrix, kheptu is the hinder-thigh, as the place of outlet to the north, where the hinder thigh still denotes the birthplace figured in heaven by the constellation Ursa Major. These are the south and north of the African motherland as named in Egyptian; the Khepta-khentu, Hapta-hendu or Sapta-sindhu of the celestial heptanomis.

It was mentioned in the second volume of A Book of Beginnings that tanga in Xhosa Kaffir signifies the thigh[261a]; this is an express type of the birthplace. The thigh is also named:

dango, in Kano. dengalau, in Bnduma. tonge, in Mbamba.
dangala, in Mandara. tangbo, in Bulanda.  

These agree with thingee, for the thigh in the Australian dialects.

The following African variants also contain a common type-name for water:

angai, water, Afudu. nke, water, Eamon. ngi, water, Kanem.
aningo,   "     Orungu. nki,      "     N'goala. ngia,   "      Mende.
anyengo, "         " engi,    "     Munio. eanga, lake, Malemba.
nke,         "     Balu. ngi,      "     N'guru.  

Lake Tanganika (or Tanganyika) is the water or lake of Tanga, the mount or thigh of source itself. The writer has now learned that in or near Busma (north-eastern High Sudan), where the type-name for the mountain is Tanga, there is believed to be a very lofty mountain from which those who ascend never come down again. (In the Assyrian legend Ishtar is said to descend from her high mountain where she is unvisited of men[262].) The name for this very high and mythical mount is the Tanga[263].

Here then, in the African languages, the mount and the thigh are both one as Tanga. So is it with Meru, which is the mythical mount in Sanskrit, and the thigh in Greek. In West Java also there is a high mountain named Gunung Danka which is identified by the natives as the site of the earthly paradise[264]. As described in Captain Cook's last voyage, the 'author of most things' is known by certain of the South Sea Islanders as Kolla-fou-tanga who is said to [p.164] be the woman dwelling in the sky and directing the thunder, lightning, and waters[265]. She is likewise known as life, like Eve and Ank. The Red Cow (Arg-Roud), from which the celestial waters flow, is represented as resting on the summit of Mount Alborz. If Tanganyika be, as now inferred, the water of Tanga, that will be as the mountain of which Livingstone heard[266]. The natural genesis of the thigh-mount may be traced in the mother or water-source. So the Irish name for Waterford is Portlarga, which signifies the port of the thigh. There is a like primitiveness in naming from the ham. The ham or hem (Eg.) is a feminine type, the seat, and a water-frontier. The very high mount, tanga, and the thigh, tanga, are two types of the genetrix and the birthplace. The moon, another type, is tingalin, Tamul; tingalu, Canarese; tingal, Malayalim. Such types are interchangeable under the same prototypal name. Tanga, the thigh (Xhosa), is also a house for the unmarried men of a native kraal, and for strangers; also for a cattle-place on the high hill. This name of the dwelling is represented by Denka (Lat. 10 0' N., 30 0' E). Dangala, the thigh in Mandara, and dengalan in Buduma, are echoed in Dongola and Old Dongola (Lat. 16 0' N., and 18 46' N.); near to which (in Lat. 18 29' N., 31 44' E.) was Meruwe, another typical mount and thigh. The Danakil between Suakin and Arkiko, Red Sea and Abyssinia, also probably derive from this birthplace. They call themselves the Afer or Afar, whence Africa; ka (Eg.) being the interior land.

The Kabbalists have preserved a tradition of Paradise being situated in an equatorial land, where the days and the nights are of equal length. A rabbinical geographer of the fifteenth century says it is evident from the words of the learned that there is a Paradise on a certain portion of the earth's surface, and that four rivers issue from it. It is declared by those learned that Paradise is localized under the middle line of the world; where the days are always of equal length[267]. This mythical mount, which was localized in so many places, was identified by Milton with

'Paradise under the thiop line,
By Nilus' head, inclosed with shining rock,
A whole day's journey high.'[268]

If any actual river be meant by the Gihon (ןוהיג) which flows from the primal seat of mankind through all the land of Ethiopia, it must be the Nile. Moreover, it is the Nile river which was placed in the planisphere as the river of the division, the Iarutana, or Eridanus, named from tana (Eg.) to divide. Virgil[269] makes the Nile rise in India, but that is not the India of today. The words India, Hendu, and Sindha are three modified forms of Khentu, Egyptian name for the south, the southern and interior land. [p.165] It is noticeable that Camoens always calls the people of India Gentoos, not Hindus[270]. To the Egyptians Khentu was the interior land that lay south, and the country of Khentu or Ganda (U-ganda) is on the line of the equator 0 0', 32 45' east, where, if anywhere on earth, the first garden was planted on the summit of the world, and the animal attained to human consciousness.

In the Book of Genesis the first river Pishon is identified with a land of gold named Chavilah (הליוח). Chavilah modifies into Havilah and Savilah, therefore Chavilah might be identified with Sofalah as the land of gold; 'Sofala, thought Ophir,' as Milton sings[271]. Marsden, like Milton, places the Hebrew gold-land, Ophir, at Sofalah on the African coast[272]. But Sofalah would be still more applicable to Chavilah. Also Evilath is a name of the Hindu paradise at the fountainhead of Ganga, where stood the tree that bore the apples of gold.

In the languages of Atam the name for gold is asopu, as in Dsuku. Gold is tem-tem in Mbofon, tumbuta in Opanda; and tem or khetem in Egyptian; chetham in Hebrew. Etem is gold in Ekamtulufu. These names correspond to those of the Adamic land of gold, Kedem and Eden. It is noticeable that the Zambezi (Cuama-Mbesi) river debouches from the land of Sofalah[273]. Captain Burton says the central dome of the Highlands of Unyamwezi, or the moon, discharges northwards the first feeders of the Nile and westwards the easternmost branch of the Congo, and, 'It is possible that an early confusion of the Zambezi with the Rufiji derived the former (Zambezi) from the birthplace of the Nile and the Congo.'[274] Here then we have three great African rivers running from one central summit. It is not necessary to limit and judge the actual physical chart, by the mythical account of the Mosaic paradise in the Hebrew Genesis, or it might be suggested that from this centre, the mount of the equator, the four great rivers, the Congo, Nile, Niger, and Zambezi, were believed to run down into the surrounding seas; and certainly no better form of the four rivers has been found. Also there is a very sacred river in Hwida called the Euphrates or Eufrates. As khentu, the southern, is the earlier name of India, so we may now claim that the Congo is the African form of Ganga, which was continued in India. In the north-eastern High Sudan the type-name for the mountain is Gong; this offers an African name for the Congo and Kingani rivers; the Canga, Kiang (water, Chinese) Khungu, Tonquinese; Khonkha, Pali; Ying, Ostiak; Ngongi, Maori. In the Hindu mythos the fount of Ganga is fabled to be in the moon, whence the stream falls before it divides into four rivers, or in another version into seven. Now the typical mount that reached to the moon or was pre-lunar in mythology had seven steps, or was [p.166] represented by seven mountains and seven mountain ranges, and this imagery is traditionally associated with Mount Kenya and with the seven mountains of the moon, the 'Lunmontes' of Ptolemy[275]. These says Captain Burton[276], are evidently the Highlands of Unyamwezi, meaning the moon. The moon is

mbesi, in Kasands. mbesi, in Lubalo. moezi, in Marawi.
mbese, in N'gola. moezi, in Muntu.  

And the river Zambezi (or Cuama-Mbesi) is named as one of the rivers of the moon. Of course the four rivers might have had some more limited local application as they have in the Tanganyika legend related to Livingstone[277]. The four rivers in the Hindu version, and the four streams (of milk) in the Norse, issue from the cow as the typical mother. Heaven, named the P was represented by a cow in Egypt, and the cow itself is the

pe, in Kanuri. pe, in N'gtiru. vaia, in Bode.
pe, in Munio. pie, in Kanem.  

But the primordial type was the water-cow long before the land-cow could have been domesticated. The milch-cow was afterwards added to the water-cow when Ta-urt became Hes-ta-Urt, or Astarte, under the lunar-type. The water-cow shows the Kamite beginning beyond the Hindu and Syrian type of the cow. An inner African name for the cow is

nvaka, in Murnndo. nyaka, in Melon. anoko, in Basa.
nyaka, in Ham. nako, in Nupe. nikai, in Gbandi.
nyaka, in Pulo. naguo, in Goali. nika, in Mende.
nyaka, in Isuwu.    

Thus the name of Tanga-Nyaka includes the cow of the water, the thigh of the water, and the thigh of the cow, which was represented by the mount of the birthplace, and of celestial source. One Egyptian name for both cows is tep or teb, whence the mount of the cow is tepr or tabor. This is also an inner African type-name. East of Tanganyika there is a place and a Mount Tabora (Kase). And on the Gold Coast there is another Tabora, where the two great objects or types worshipped by the negroes are the mount and the cow. In Tabora we have the African form of Thabor, the sacred mount in Galilee, which is likewise associated with the worship of the cow or golden calf, by backsliding Israel[278]. The natural genesis of the typical mount is found in its being the water-source (also of division, whether in the human body or between earth and heaven), of which the thigh and the cow are two mythical types.

But if we were to find the four rivers issuing in four directions from one mountain source, the difficulty would still remain that the four [p.167] are not primary. They are but a figure of the four quarters which do not belong to the first formation. In all the oldest traditions of the human race the cradle and birthplace is the heptanomis, and not a land of the four quarters. in the Quiche account, the seven caves precede the four quarters, just as the sevenfold heaven was earlier than the Tetrapolis, and the seven races of men, whose types were the elementaries, are extant before the races of the four different-coloured quarters. The birthplace is everywhere figured as the heptanomis. Paradise was sevenfold, seven-named, the place of the seven, and of the Septentrion, in the Akkadian hymns, the seven great spirits of the bear in the Egyptian Ritual, the seven Rishis in India. This was the star-station attained by the Pro-Selenes long before time could be reckoned or space determined by the four quarters of the moon.

The waters follow the same primordial number. The seven waters preceded the four rivers. The Western Paradise of the Buddhists is the place of the seven pools. Moreover, the descent can be traced from the summit of the seven to the four of the lunar quarters.

Mount Meru is not mentioned by name in the Rig-Veda, whence it has been thought that the mythos must be later than the Vedic period. It is the Vedic system that is altogether later. The bed of the four rivers is spoken of as the work of Indra[279], and these belong to the later system; they were added to the typical mount when it was made into a figure of the four quarters, for the moon and sun, just as the pillar-cross of Ptah, is called the throne of the sun, whereas the summit was the throne of the seven superseded gods.

The source of Ganga is in the abode of the seven Rishis, and in its descent it travels seven times around the summit of Mount Meru. Then it falls into four lakes on four summits facing the four quarters which belong to the later four divisions of the moon. So in the Avesta the paradise of Airyana-Vajo, the sevenfold place of the seven Yazatas, was aloft on the summit, whereas the four-cornered circle, established by Yima against the deluge, was lower down the mountain.

So the Manu Vaivasvata, when he disembarked after the deluge, is described as descending the mount of the north. If we found the four rivers we should still have to look for the land of the seven streams in Africa, corresponding to all the other forms of the septenary, possibly in the seven mountain ranges about Mount Kenya, described by Ptolemy[280], from which the River Sabaki issues into the Indian Oceansevekh being number seven in Egyptian; subhu, seven in Arkiko; shabagh, in Hebrew. Meanwhile, whatsoever earlier African types there may have been, Egypt remains the land of the seven streams[281]; and the one water is first of all the White Nile, next the Blue and Red Rivers of Hapi-Mu, and lastly the [p.168] river of seven branches and outlets, in accordance with the typology which preceded the rivers or divisions of the four quarters.

If the human birthplace was in the equatorial region of the Lakes, the north would become the heaven of cool to the race that turned that way. In Egyptian the 'Meh,' is the north, the quarter of the waters, and the name of the cool wind that breathed new life. 'Throughout the whole of the Hottentot territory,' says Dr. Hahn, 'the northerly breezes are called Tu-oab, or rain-wind, showing that in the remotest ages the north wind was recognized as the rain-bearer.'[282]

They had gone from the north, or north-east of Africa, but we have now to follow those who went northward from the centre, through the tropical regions into Ethiopia. This was named the north as Khepsh (Eg.), that is Habesh and Ksh (שׁוכ), by a people who must have dwelt to the south of it to name it as their north. Khepsh (Eg.) is the north pole, and the constellation of the Great Bear, i.e., the water-cow. As they descended the Nile, the pole and the seven stars rose higher and higher. But it was not known that the earth was a revolving globe. Hence, when the group of seven stars went down and re-arose, they must have gone round something that intercepted them from view. This was the typical mount that rose on a flat surfacethe mount of the north. Of this mount it is said:

'The sun performing his daily revolution round Mienmo, is soon hid by that mountain, and darkness again commences. Men afflicted by this deprivation of light, and in perturbation exclaim: "O that light, which came to illuminate the world, how quickly hath it vanished!" While they are with ardent vows desiring another light, behold in the same eastern region, and in the beginning of night, the moon appears accompanied by all the stars, and all mankind are wonderfully delighted. Now they say to one another: "How timely is this appearance! This luminary has appeared as if it had known our necessity, let us therefore call it Zanta" (the Pali word for necessity). This appearance of the sun, moon, and stars happened on a Sunday at the full moon of the month Taboun, which corresponds partly with our March: "and at this very instant of the sun's appearance everything on the earth became such as it has ever since continued to be."'[283]

This points to the Noumenia of the spring equinox at which time the sun moon, and stars of the son (Horus) met in one sign.

The mount and the mother appear together in the Magic Papyrus, where it is said to Ra: 'In rapture is thy mother the goddess Meru, as thou dost emit the irradiation of light and encirclest the world with thy blaze till thou reachest that mountain which is in Akar,' behind which the sun set. At this point the goddess Meru or the mount received the god[284].


The goddess Meru is a form of Hathor, the cow-headed genetrix. But the earlier form of the typical mount was that of the seven stars, the mount of the water-cow, the mount of the pole, around which revolved the cow or sow, tortoise, water-bird, rhinoceros, or other of her types. This was the Mount Meru of the lake; Meru, the thigh; Meru, the cow, called Mehuru, the thigh of the great water[285].

And at Meroe in Khepsh (Kush) which means the hinder- (i.e., female) thigh, as the north, we find the African topographical Meru that became typical in the Hindu mythology. Meru in Greek was not only the thigh; the word μέροπες was a sacred expression used by the Greeks to denote mankind as those who were born from Meru, the mount of the birthplace. Also, Merops was a king of the Ethiopians, that is, of Ksh, the celestial north. Ksh (Egyptian Khepsh) becomes the Greek Ks, which was known as Merope. There was also a Merope described by Theopompus in the north or near the country of the Hyperboreans[286]. The island of Siphnos was another reputed form of Meropis. The original Khepsh will account for the names of Ksh, Kos, and Siphnos, which are all places of this mythical mount.

The one mount will be found under many names in various lands. It is the Ararat of the deluge mythos: 'As the first mountain, O holy Zaratusht, there stood on this earth the height Haraiti:' the mountain range; the Akkadian Urdhu, or mountain of the world; the Egyptian Arrtu, the ascent and the buttock; the Irish Art or Ard, the height; Welsh Alt, a steep glade; and English Old, as the 'old man,' a mountain.

In the Art we recover the Mount of the Great Bear, the British Art or Arth which was the constellation of Arthur; and this mount is still called Arthur's Seat; the summit of Edin, Dun-edin, in Edinburgh; one of the places where the mount and circle or enclosure (the Druidic 'barrier, the rampart of Eiden,' the 'Esgor of Eidin') were localized in Britain, according to the Kamite typology.

In Egyptian the ru (earlier reru or rera) is the mouth, outlet, gate, outrance, uterus, or rue des femmes. This was typified by the sow and water-cow named Rutra; and the milch-cow is called

erola, in Aku. erela, in Idsesa. erola, in Dsumu.
erola, in Egba. erola, in Eki. erela, in Dsebu.

In the same group of languages (Aku) the sky and heaven have the name of orure in Egba; orure in Yoruba; oru and aru in others. The rru or ru is an outlet for water, the earliest division of land, and the primary way. Hence the heaven was divided into waterways and the solar bark is said to be towed through the ru.s of the Rostau by water. Now this ru or lu is the universal type-name [p.170] for the rivers, some twenty or thirty of them, such as the Rusizi and Lubalo that issue from the central lakes at the summit of the world.

The emaning rru of the primeval birthplace was represented in Egypt by Rerit, the suckler (sow); Rerit, the gestator (hippopotamus); Rerit, the serpent-woman, as types of the nursing mother who first brought forth from the waters of earth, and was portrayed as the bringer-forth of time and of the gods in heaven, with the thigh (Ursa Major) for her constellation; she who as Rerit or Lilith was Adam's first wife, and who, as Kefa (or Kep), the Yoruban Ife, was the Kamite Eve, the Hebrew Chavvach, Adam's second wife, both of whom are accredited by tradition with being the cause of mankind losing the Regio Paradisi.





This page last updated: 19/03/2014