Parents who feel the full responsibility of teaching a little child that accepts as truth whatsoever is seriously affirmed ought surely to consider it an unpardonable sin against the innocence of infancy for their children to be taught that the fables of mythology are the sacred and true 'Word of God,' if found in the Hebrew scriptures. Where this is done, simplicity and credulity are continually wedded for life in childhood, and we cannot afterwards get rid of a faith that has been founded on falsities without loss of some natural simplicity in the process of finding out how profoundly we have been deceived, how unfathomably befooled. There are persons who have retained their childlike simplicity and credulity undivorced, in whose presence we are made to feel as though acquiring knowledge were to undergo a veritable biblical 'fall.' When the late Lord Stratford de Redcliffe[1], in conversation with the present writer, once remarked, 'Well, as between Mr. Darwin and Moses, I prefer Moses,' it almost made him shrink, ashamed of knowing better. The childlike simplicity of such a man forced one to feel that 'knowing,' when compared with believing, was a sort of Zulu process of 'smelling out.'

When the news came that the legend of the deluge had also been found on the cuneiform tablets, there was great rejoicing at first over this further proof that bible history was true. There was a reaction, however, when it was understood that the deluge in this case only lasted six or seven days! Some who subscribed to certain funds for the purpose of exploration began to fear lest too much might be discovered.

The eleventh tablet of the Izdubar series contains the Assyrian form of the deluge legend. According to the version rendered by George Smith, we are told that Izdubar, the solar god, importuned Xisithrus[2] to tell him the story. Then Xisithrus said to Izdubar,

'Be revealed to thee, Izdubar, the concealed story, and the judgment of the gods be related to thee.'


He tells him how Hea, Lord of Hades, spake to him (Xisithrus) and said,

'"Surippakite son of Ubaratutu ... make a ship after this ... I destroy (?) the sinner and life ... cause to ascend the seed of life all of it, to the midst of the ship. The ship which thou shalt make ... cubits shall be the measure of its length, and ... cubits the amount of its breadth and its height ... Into the deep launch it." I perceived and said to Hea, "My lord, the ship-making which thou commandest me thus, when by me it shall be done (I shall be derided by) young men and old men." Hea opened his mouth and spake, and said to me, his servant, "... Thou shalt say unto them, ... he has turned from me and ... fixed over me ... like caves ... above and below ... close to the ship ... the flood which I will send to you (into it) enter and the door of the ship turn. Into the midst of it thy grain, thy furniture, and thy goods, thy wealth (?), thy women-servants, thy female-slaves, and the young men, the beasts of the field, the animals of the field, all I will gather and I will send to thee, and they shall be inclosed within thy door." Xisithrus his mouth opened and spake, and ... said to Hea, his lord: "Any one the ship will not make ... on the earth fixed ... I may see also the ship ... on the ground the ship ... the ship-making which thou commandest me which in [COLUMN II] strong ... on the fifth day ... it in its circuit fourteen measures ... its frame fourteen measures it measured ... over it I placed its roof ... I inclosed it. I rode in it on the sixth time, I examined its exterior on the seventh time, its interior I examined on the eighth time; with planks the waters from within it I stopped, I saw rents and the wanting parts I added, three measures of bitumen I poured over the outside, three measures of bitumen I poured over the inside."'*

 * Rameses addressing Ptah-Nun as god of the celestial water says: 'I made thy noble boat, Neb-Heh, lord of the ages, of 530 cubits, on the river of the great real cedar-trees, with a head of acacia.'[3]

The ark being stored and equipped, Shamas bids Xisithrus enter it and close the door. Then,

'That flood happened (of which) he spake saying: "In the night I will cause it to rain (v. it will rain) from heaven heavily." In the day I celebrated his festival, the day of watching a fear I had. I entered to the midst of the ship and shut my door. To close the ship to Busur-sadir-abi, the boatman, the palace I gave with its goods. The raging of a storm in the morning arose, from the horizon of heaven extending and wide. Vul in the midst of it thundered; and Nebo and Saru went in front, the throne-bearers went over mountains and plains, the destroyer Nergal overturned, Ninip went in front and cast down, the spirits carried destruction, in their glory they swept the earth; of Vul the floods reached to heaven. The bright earth to a waste was turned. [COLUMN III] The surface of the earth ... it swept; it destroyed all life from the face of the earth ... The strong deluge over the people, reached to heaven. Brother saw not the his brother, it did not spare the people. In heaven the gods feared tempest and sought refuge; they ascended to the heaven of Anu. The gods like dogs fixed in droves prostrate. Spake Ishtar like a child; uttered the great goddess her speech. All to corruption are turned, and then I in the presence of the gods prophesied evil. As I prophesied in the presence of the gods evil, to evil were devoted all my people; and I prophesied, "I, the mother, have begotten my people, and like the young of the fishes they fill the sea." The gods concerning the spirits were weeping with me (v. her); the gods in seats, seated in lamentation, covered with their lips for the coming evil. Six days and nights passed, the wind, deluge, and storm overwhelmed. On the seventh day in its course was calmed the storm, and all the deluge, which had destroyed like an earthquake, quieted. The sea he caused to dry, and the [p.173] wind and deluge ended. I perceived the sea making a tossing, and the whole of mankind turned to corruption; like reeds the corpses floated. I opened the window and the light broke; over my face it passed. I sat down and wept; over my face flowed my tears. I perceived the shore at the boundary of the sea; for twelve measures the land rose. To the country of Nizir went the ship the mountain of Nizir stopped the ship, and to pass over it it was not able. The first day, and the second day, the mountain of Nizir the same. The third day, and the fourth day, the mountain of Nizir the same. The fifth and sixth, the mountain of Nizir the same. On the seventh day, in the course of it, I sent forth a dove, and it left. The dove went and turned, a resting-place it did not find, it returned. I sent forth a swallow, and it left. The swallow went and turned, and a resting-place it did not enter, and it returned. I sent forth a raven, and it left. The raven went and the corpses on the water it saw, and it did eat, and wandered away, and did not return. I sent the animals forth to the four winds, I poured out a libation, and I built an altar on the peak of the mountain, by seven jugs of wine I took, at the bottom of them I placed reeds, pines, and spices. The gods collecteth at its burning; the gods collected at its good burning; the gods like sumbi* gathered over the sacrifice.'[3a]

* Sumbi, the devouring zebub fly.

This is neither mythos nor history, but a romance of mythology on its way towards becoming Hebrew history. It is one of a series of twelve legends of creation connected with the twelve zodiacal signs, and this, the eleventh, corresponds to the sun in the sign of the Waterman and the Akkadian month As a-an, the name of which signifies the 'curse of rain.' This is the Egyptian month Pa-Menat (Phamenoth), the month of the wet-nurse, who is portrayed as the suckler, the many-breasted goddess, the manifold fount of source in the sign of the Waterer (Hermean Zodiaci). Menat is the zodiacal form of the genetrix the earlier goddess of the Great Bear, Rerit, the suckler, whose type was the sow, or hippopotamus.

Such a title as the 'curse of rain' was calculated to turn the archaic myth into the legend of a great deluge and destruction by water, which became historic in the Hebrew version. But the archaic myth of the deluge did not originate in Akkad nor in Babylonia. According to Al-Biruni[4], the Persians and the great mass of the Magians denied the deluge altogether; they believed that the rulership (of the world) had remained with them without any interruption ever since Gayomard, who is, according to them, the first man. In denying the deluge the Indians, Chinese, and the various nations of the East concur with them. Some, however, of the Persians admit the fact of the deluge, but account for it in another way, as it is described in the books of the prophets. 'Know,' says Ibn Chaldn, 'the Persians and Indians know nothing of the deluge' (tufan = flood)[5]. That is, as an actual inundation by which the human race was nearly obliterated. It is known well enough in the ancient scriptures as the 'deluge of time.' The 'rulership of the world' that remained with the mages from the time of Gayomard (or Great Bear and Sothis in Egypt) signifies that the time-cycles had been kept from the first. There could be no deluge of destruction for those who knew. We [p.174] shall see later on, that 'the deluge' only applied to the ignorant. In this light we can read the statement that 'after the flood Titan undertook a war against Kronus,' which shows that the conflict was continued between timelessness and time, chaos and creation; and the Kronian nature of the deluge will be amply demonstrated in the following pages[6].


We are told by certain writers that there is some resemblance between the Hebrew and other versions of the deluge legend, but that the Hebrew account is so much more simple, more dignified, and noble. Which means that in the Hebrew writings the myth is made to look more like history. But there is no value in a false appearance however much it resembles truth. Celsus might well chuckle when he pointed out that the Christian's account of the deluge with its 'ridiculous ark that held everything inside of it' was 'apart of his own mythology which had been literalized and amplified by them.'[7] Such a literalization of the ancient typology proved to him what ignorant idiotes were these promulgators of the newest superstition.

The 'flood' or 'deluge' was an accepted epoch used in computations by the Babylonian chronologers, but this was not the one historical epoch of the bibliolaters, seeing that they reckoned several, like the Egyptian priests, who pointed out that the Greek reckonings only included two deluges, whereas their own chronology counted various floods. Berosus reckoned from the flood; and one of his classifications of the minor dynasties runs up to about the year 2400 BC[8]. This, as near as can be calculated, is the exact epoch at which the equinoctial colure entered the sign of Aries. Beyond these, he enumerates another series of eighty-six kings whose reigns likewise extended to the flood. Now, if we allow twenty-five years for the average duration of these reigns, 25 86 = 2,150 years is about the period during which the equinox was in the sign of Taurus, i.e., 2,155 years. In that case the flood would denote the end of the cycle of time (2,155 years) during which the equinoctial colure had remained in the sign of the Gemini, before it passed into the sign of Taurus; and so on round the backward circle of precession or recession; for M. Oppert has shown that the Babylonians dated a deluge, if not the deluge, by the year 41,697 BC[9].

According to Censorinus and Varro[10], the Jews calculated that the deluge of Noah occurred about 2360 BC, which is within some forty or fifty years of the time of the flood that took place when the equinox entered the sign of the Ram; and is quite near enough for a tradition, or for a computation short of the most exact. Again, the chronology of the Septuagint shows an interval of 2,242 years between the creation and the Noachian flood. And seeing that the exact time allowed for [p.175] the equinox to remain in one sign is 2,155 years, it looks as if that was the period of time they were groping after. In the language of the mythical typology the end of such a period would be described as a deluge of time. Ab-Ma'shar Albalkhi supposed that the deluge occurred at the place of conjunction of the stars in the last part of the sign of Pisces and the first of Aries[11]. Or, to reverse it according to the movement of precession, when the equinox passed out of Aries into Pisces; this was the ending of a time-cycle that may be correctly described as the deluge of 255 BC. In keeping with this reckoning the next great deluge is due in the year 1900, when the colure of the vernal equinox will pass into the sign of Aquarius; and from now till then there will probably be rumours and prophecies of great changes, which will be remotely related to the fact, the gnosis or tradition not being absolutely lost although dateless.*

* 'The late transit of Venus curiously proved the accurate calculations of the ancient makers of that famous horological curiosity, the Strasburg clock. A few days before the transit, the American Register tells us, visitors to the Cathedral inspecting the planetarium attached to the clock, noticed that one of the small gilt balls representing Venus was gradually moving towards a point between the sun and the earth, and on the day of the passage the ball stood exactly between them. Old Conrad Dasypodius, the Strasburg mathematician, superintended the manufacture of the clock and its accompanying planetarium, some time between 1571-4, the dates differing according to various authorities; and it is interesting to note that after 300 years of existence, the clock faithfully fulfils the calculations of its dead inventor.'[12]

The same identical myth of the deluge as that on the tablets may be found in the Vendidad[13] where the threatened destruction does not definitely take the shape of drowning at all. In Genesis the destruction of the world is the second act to the creation, which is the first. So is it in the Avesta. The first Fargard of the Vendidad describes the creation of the world by Ahura-Mazda. In the second a great destruction is prognosticated. 'Then spake Ahura-Mazda to Yima, saying, "Upon the corporeal world will the evil of winter come. A vehement destroying frost will arise. Snow will fall in abundance on the summits of the mountains, on the breadth of the heights."' So far as the 'deluge' is predicted, it is to be found only in the statement that 'The waters (will) flow in front' and 'behind is the melting snow.'[14] Nor are there any instructions given for building a ship, as in the Hebrew and Assyrian versions. Yet the meaning is the same in relation to the mythos or kronian allegory.

Yima is commanded to make a four-cornered circle. This is the literal sense, although the translators, thinking of earth only, have been perplexed in rendering the passage. The Gujarat version has a four-cornered square. But the four-cornered circle is celestial, containing the four cardinal points. This is to take the place of the paradise in Airyana-Vajo, and to become the dwelling for all mankind. Seed of all life, of human beings, cattle, birds, trees, of all that [p.176] is largest, best and most beautiful, was to be stored up in this enclosure with fire and water and all things necessary to replenish the earth. All the inhabitants were to be brought in in pairs. Then Yima created the enclosure as commanded, 'the length of a riding-course to all four corners,' as a dwelling for man; and 'thither he brought the seed of cattle, beasts of burden, men, dogs, birds, and red-burning fires.' 'There he collated the water to the length of a hatra.' 'There he made the birds to dwell; in the everlasting region (golden-hued), whose food never fails. There made he dwelling-places.' 'Thither brought he the seed of all men and women, who on this earth are the tallest, best, and most beautiful. Thither brought he the seeds of all kinds of cattle, which on this earth are the largest best, and most beautiful. Thither brought he the seeds of all trees, which on this earth are the loftiest and sweetest-smelling. Thither brought he the seeds of all foods, which on the earth are most fragrant. All these he made in pairs and imperishable; even to the men who were in the circle.' 'At the top part of the region he made nine bridges; six in the middle, three at the bottom.' 'Round about this circle (he made) a lofty wall, a window that gave light within,' like the window of Noah's ark. Then the question is asked, 'Creator of the corporeal world, pure one! of what kind are the lights in the circle which Yima has made?' and the answer is, 'Self-created lights and created in order (constellations). Of a single kind (one kind) and course are seen the stars, the moon, and the sun.' The other kind appear to be those that were figured or constellated by Yima in making his circle. Then it is asked, 'Who has spread abroad the Mazdayasnian law in this circle which Yima has made?' and the reply is, 'The bird Karshipta.'[15]

Of this bird which made known the true law, it says in the Bundahish, 'The Karshipt which they call the falcon (kark) was the first of birds' that was brought to the enclosure of Yima. It was the flutterer of revelation and a form of the word. The falcon agrees with the solar hawk as the bird of fire, light, or soul, and is an equivalent for the phoenix dove or eagle, which we shall find to be the lawgiver and time-teller in other myths of the ark and deluge. In the Bundahish the deluge takes place before the creation of man on the earth. So says the translator; that is, the deluge as a condition, not an event; because the heaven was the celestial water which had to he divided and bounded by the timekeepers. It is also the inundation of Tishtar who was a primordial timekeeper as the Dog-star, and whose lapse was a form of the 'fall' in heaven[16].

There is a river or source described in the Bundahish, which Zad-Sparam says comes out of the middle of the earth. It is called the Daitih river that issues forth from Airyana-Vajo and is full of noxious creatures. Traditionally this is understood to be a subterranean [p.177] channel or drain (avapam)[17]. It is referred to in the Avesta as the bait which comes out of Airyana-Vajo, 'while they perform work with it,' but 'some say that it comes out in a stream unless they perform the work of the place.'[18] This bait has only been looked for geographically. It is identical with the tt or tepht (Eg.), Welsh dyfed, English depth, and Chaldean thavthe. The meaning is, that it is the good bait whilst regulated, but if neglected, the flood follows, or the water rushes out in a stream, as the opposite of the good Daitih, the organization on which Airyana-Vajo was founded as the perfect place.

In the later Norse mythos the roaring cauldron of Hvergelmir is the central source of twelve rivers that answer to the twelve divisions of the zodiac, or the waters which they divided into twelve parts. This corresponds to the cauldron of Ked and of Pridhain which was a type of time, it boiled for a year and a day, and when not strictly attended to, it burst in two, causing a deluge of destruction.

The Mechoacans likewise relate that mankind became neglectful of their duties and forgetful of their origin, and therefore were punished by a deluge; the human family being wholly destroyed, except Tezpi with his wife and children. Tezpi shut himself up in a chest of wood with all kinds of useful seeds. When the waters began to subside he sent forth a bird which did not return to him. He sent others, and at last the smallest one came back with a green branch in its beak, and he then knew the deluge was over and gone[19].

The true doctrine of the deluge of time is expressed in the Srya-Siddhnta, where it is applied to the period of seventy-one or seventy-two years, which make one day of the great year, 72 360 = 25,920. 'One-and-seventy ages are styled here a Patriarchate (Manvantara) at its end is said to be a twilight, which has the number of years of a golden age and which is a deluge.'[20]

A deluge and a twilight then are interchangeable figures for the ending of a time. Zechariah, in prophesying the end of a period, uses both figures. A fountain is to burst forth. The mount is to be cloven in twain: 'And it shall come to pass in that day the light shall not be clear nor dark, but the day shall be one not day nor night.'[21] That is the typical twilight of the Hindu Manvantara.

In the supposed prophecy of Daniel, the messiah was to come, and the end of the restored city was to be with a food[22]. The typology has the same meaning in Esdras.

The Assyrian deluge ended on the seventh day, and the deluge is described by Esdras as a silence of seven days. He says, 'The world shall be turned into the old silence seven days, like as in the former judgments, so that no man shall remain. And after seven days the [p.178] world that yet awaketh not shall be raised up, and that shall die that is corrupt. And the earth shall restore those that are asleep in her, and so shall the dust of those that dwell in silence; and the secret places shall deliver those souls that were committed unto them. And the Most High shall appear upon the seat of judgment, and misery shall pass away.' But this deluge or day of doom being described according to the gnosis, it is expressly declared that 'the day of doom shall be the end of this time,' and the 'beginning of the immortality for to come.'*[23]

* As the time cycles were all connected in the total combination of Egyptian chronology, and the festival of thirty years was a most important factor, it may be pointed out that there was a difference of seven days and six hours every thirty years between the Egyptian solar and civil years. These seven days were timekeepers at the end of a period. This festival, called the Sut-Heb, was connected with Sothis, the lady of the year, who may be alluded to by Esdras as 'the bride' who comes with the son, as Isis did with Horus. It will be shown that a seven days' festival preceded a festival of the seventh day.

The year in Egypt consisted of three months deluge and nine months dry. Hence the dry-time and inundation were the 'Two Truths' of the year. The end of a time was a deluge, just as it is reckoned in inner Africa by the coming of the rainy season; and its antithesis of the re-beginning is symbolized by kindling the new fire. The end of an astronomical period being typified as a deluge, the period itself was a drought. Thus we have the symbolism of drought and deluge.

In the Chinese Bamboo Books we meet with a seven years drought[24]. That means to us seven years of famine; and so it has been translated in the Chinese books. But the meaning is not literal.

For example, 'drought' was personified by the Chinese as 'one of the six honoured ones' who was worshipped in connection with the sun, moon, stars, seasons, cold, and heat[25]. But they did not pay adoration to famine. The seven years are probably the seven Patriarchates or Manvantaras (seventy-one or seventy-two years) of the Hindus, which made the phoenix-cycle of 500 years, or a week in the great year. Enoch says he was born seventh in the week, at the end of which the deluge or destruction will take place[26], and in the 500th year of Enoch's life, in the seventh month, on the fourteenth day of the month, the cataclysm occurs. In that parable we find the phoenix-cycle of 500 years, which forms the seven great years drought or dry of the mythos.

In the second book of Esdras[27], Enoch is described as being one of two living creatures who were placed in two regions, Enoch being the ruler over the dry division and Leviathan over the wet or moist division, where he was merely confined and kept to be devoured at any time; the divisions being seven in number, corresponding to the seven Manvantaras of the Puranas.

The Hindu twilight of the gods, which is equivalent to a deluge, [p.179] occurs as a mist in a Chinese myth. In the fiftieth year and the seventh month, on the day of Kang-Shin in the reign of Hwang-ti, the phoenixes arrived and the heavens for three days and three nights were wrapped in mist. When the mist removed, Hwang-ti made an excursion on the Lo and saw a great fish. To this he sacrificed five victims, whereupon torrents of rain poured down during seven days and seven nights. Then the fish floated off to sea, and Hwang-ti obtained the map-writings. The dragon-writing came forth from the Ho, the tortoise-writing from the Lo, in the red lines and seal-characters; these were given to Heen-Yuen. In this account we have the arrival of the phoenix, a twilight or mist, a deluge of seven days' duration, together with the writings that were said to be lost or buried during the flood. It may be observed incidentally that the different appearances of the fish-man with the tortoise-book called the 'Great Plan,' containing 'all about the regulating of the waters,' in the Chinese mythos, is identical with those of the merman Oannes in the Chaldean account, who came up out of the deep to teach astronomy and other arts.

In the first two instances the Chinese fish-man is spoken of as the tortoise that bore on its back an inscribed great plan or tally, the river-scheme, afterwards called the 'Tortoise Book;' but the fish-man also appears in person to Yu, coming up out of the deep to teach, and then returning, just as in the Chaldean legend[28].

The arrival of the phoenixes agrees with the end of a phoenix-cycle. Horapollo tells us the phoenix in Egypt was a sign of the end of a long cycle of time or an inundation[29].

In the Book of Enoch it is intimated that at the time of the deluge the spirit of wisdom was withdrawn from the earth[30]. In other accounts it is the book of wisdom or the time-reckonings that has to be recovered from the waters which have burst their boundaries and buried the plan or register that was originally brought from the deep by the fish-man or, still earlier, woman of the waters, who was first represented in Egypt by the hippopotamus and crocodile of Typhon, and afterwards by the fish of Hathor.

In the Masonic mysteries the book is lost, and the initiates have to seek and find the mystic word in the shape of the lost register or record of the lawa plate upon which is figured the double triangle, called the seal of Solomon; that is the figure of the sixfold heaven, framed and built by Ptah and Ma; the heaven of nine divisions, completed by the abyss in the north, through which the sun-god voyaged in his ark and out-rode the deluge every year, or bridged over the dark break in the circle of light where the book was lost and the word has to be found.

Various avatars or manifestations of Vishnu are described as being [p.180] undertaken to recover the writings and other treasures that are drowned by the deluge.

A Marquesan myth of the deluge relates that the Lord Ocean, Fatu-Moana, was about to overflow the world, but granted seven days for preparation. A house was to be built which should tower high above the waters, with storeys, chambers, and openings for light. The cattle were collected in pairs, of all kinds, and marched into a vessel called a 'long deep wood.' The family saved consisted of four men and four women, the same as in the Hebrew myth. The storm burst, and the 'Sacred Supporter' of the universe slept like Brahma during the night of dissolution, when the earth and waters were all mixed up together, and chaos had come again. After a while the waters retreated, the mountain-tops reappeared, the Lord Ocean commands the dry land to emerge. The chief of the family offers to sacrifice to the Lord seven holy and precious things and seven sucklings. Then the dark bird 'te Teetina a Tanaoa,' whose name shows its dark colour, was sent out of the vessel over the Sea of Hawaii, but returned to it again. The wind sets in from the north. A second time the dark bird goes and returns. Another bird, called te Teetina a Moepo, is sent out. It alights upon dry land, and returns with young shoots or twigs in its beakthe branch of promise and peace. Then followed the debarkation from the 'long deep wood.' This is like a replica of the Semitic version, but both are derived from the far older source. It was not the Hebrews who set the deluge typologythe river, the inundation, the argo, raven and dove (or the black and light birds), the altar, and the man offering sacrificein the planispherei.

In a native chant there is an allusion to the words or books which were hidden during the deluge[31].

(1) 'O the Woman sleeping face upwards! (2) O Mannu, the mischievous! O the Waa-Halan Alii, O Ra Moku! Where were deposited the words of Pii, O Kama-a-Poe-Poe, the Woman of the Water-Bowl? (3) O the Great Supporter, awaken the world.'[32]

The woman of the water-bowl is fellow to the Egyptian Nu-Pe, who carries or pours out the waters from her vase; or to Menat, the wetnurse, who had been continued from Typhon the dragon.

According to a myth of the Red Indians the deluge was let in by the black serpent, the typhonian type of the disorder and chaos that preceded creation, order, and time.

'1. Long ago came the powerful serpent when men had become evil.
2. The strong serpent was the foe of the beings, and they became embroiled, hating each other.
3. Then they fought and despoiled each other, and were not peaceful.
4. And the small men fought with the keeper of the dead.
5. Then the strong serpent resolved all men and beings to destroy immediately.


6. The black serpent-monster, brought the snake-water rushing.
7. The wide waters rushing, wide to the hills, everywhere spreading, everywhere destroying.
8. At the island of the turtle was Manabozho, of men and beings the grandfather.
9. Being born creeping, at Turtle-land he is ready to move and dwell.
10. Men and beings all go forth on the flood of waters, moving afloat, everyway seeking the back of
      the turtle.
11. The monsters of the sea were many and destroyed some of them.
12. Then the daughter of a spirit helped them in a boat, and all joined saying, "Come help."
13. Manabozho of all beings, of men and turtles the grandfather.
14. All together on the turtle then, the men then, were all together.
15. Much frightened Manabozho prayed to the turtle that he would make all well again.
16. Then the waters ran off, it was dry on mountain and plain, and the great evil went elsewhere, by
      the path of the cave.'[33]

The story of Manabozho's deluge has also been told in the following pictographs: Number one is the earth; number two is Menaboju, a great brave and chief; number three is Menaboju's wigwam, in which he lived, sometimes with one squaw, sometimes with two; number four, the squaw's quarrel; number five, Menaboju caught between two trees, released by the bear, goes home and beats his wives; number six, the king of the turtles sat on the bank of a river, and when asked by Menaboju's grandson to help him over, made the river broader so that the little one was drowned; the king devoured him, but was caught in the act by Menaboju and killed; when the turtles on this declared war against Menaboju, and produced the great deluge, Menaboju first carried his grandmother on to a lofty mountain; number seven, He himself mounted to the top of the tallest pine on the tallest mountain in the world, and waited there till the deluge was over, there the loon and the musk-rat came to him; number nine shows two islands which Menaboju made, a little one which did not bear his weight, a large one which supported him and afterwards became the new world number ten, animals, which Menaboju sent forth to look for his grandmother, inform her of the new creation and lead her back to the mountain[34]. In this version the two wives, the turtles, the great tree, the lofty mountain, and the ancient grandmother are all recognizable types.

In an Arawak myth the waters had been confined to the hollow bole of an enormous tree by means of an inverted basket, the Wallamba or Warrampa, which repressed the swelling fountain within by magic power. The monkey saw this inverted basket, and thinking it must cover something good to eat lifted it up, when out burst the deluge. The monkey found he could not withstand the waters, but on seeing the duck triumphantly swimming them, he there and then acquired such a horror of the duck that his descendants have never since been able to look a duckling in the face. This story may be [p.182] said to be composed in hieroglyphics. The duckling is a sign of departure by water, equivalent to the boat, Ua. The Egyptian clepsydra, or water-clock, consists of a dog-headed monkey sitting on a basket, the neb sign; and neb, the basket, also means to float and swim. The basket that kept in the deluge was one with the basket of the Egyptian timepiece, and the monkey who let in the deluge by lifting the basket is identical with the monkey that keeps time while sitting on the basket, only the Egyptians were able to portray the same types visibly. A corrupt passage in Horapollo can be corrected by remembering that the ape kept the landing-place at the equinox which followed the crossing of the waters[35]. Sigu, the Noah of this deluge, escapes, together with his little community, by climbing up a tree, the coconut (?) palm. They were driven by the rising waters to the topmost branches. From time to time Sigu dropped some seed into the waters, judging of their nearness by the sound of the splash. At last was heard the joyful sound of the seed striking the soil of earth, and it was known that the waters had subsided and the deluge was over[36]. With this should be compared the tree in the planispherei with the dog in its branches and the virgin mother of the seed holding the corn in her hands, the time being toward the end of the inundation. It has been shown how the tree of two, four, seven, or twelve branches was a figure of the heaven that was divided on purpose to keep time. Thus the tree may be considered to contain and restrain the waters within its primitive boundary, and the deluge be represented as bursting forth from it. Also the tree of the four quarters, the tat-cross, was the pedestal of the ape of the equinox in Egypt.

As we have seen, the gourd or calabash was a figure of the first heaven that opened in the beginning. This likewise contained the waters. Hence the natives of Haiti have a tradition that the flood burst forth from a most capacious gourd. In this gourd were contained the swelling waters and fishes, likewise the bones of the only son of a cacique. The gourd was upset by some meddler who wished to spy out its contents, when out burst the deluge. The gourd or calabash was also a primitive form of the ark[37].

A myth preserved by the Pimas affirms that the only man, if, indeed, he were a man, saved from the deluge was Szeukha, the son of the creator, and he escaped from the general doom by floating on a ball of resin[38]. The ball of resin is also typified in heaven as a constellation. Resin was a substance of great mystical significance in Egypt, probably from its use in embalming the mummy. In the hieroglyphics resin (the tahn) is a type of preservation. In the Ritual the deceased or mummy is said to go 'purified in the place of birth.' 'He has been steeped in resin in the place of preservation.'[38a] [p.183] The place of preservation is where the body and soul are united to be saved. Resin is also said to be the eye of Horus the saviour. A plate of tahn was given to the dead who crossed the waters as a type of protection and salvation. This as the eye (or eyeball) of Horus (who like Szeukha is the son of the creator) was figured at the place of the vernal equinox, where the youthful sun-god emerged from the waters. It may be seen in the zodiac of Denderahi, placed on the colure between the Ram and Fishes. This is literally an eyeball of resin (tahn) figured at the exact spot where the father was reproduced as his own son who ascended in the solar bark after the passage of the waters, otherwise called the deluge.*

* Both the eye and resin were types of preservation and salvation, and therefore are interchangeable. In the Ute language the eye and seed have the same name; the eye reproduces the likeness, so does the seed, although in a different way. Thus the eye of the potato is the shoot of the seed.

It may be worth noticing for the sake of comparison that the divine ancestor of various North American Indian tribes, the Mandans, Crows, and Minetarrees, is their Noah who was saved from the great flood in an ark. They designate him Num-Ank-Machan. They bring offerings to him because the lord of life gave him great power. Sometimes they worship Num-Ank, at others he is fused with the lord of life and of breath[39]. Now, the Egyptian Num is the lord of the inundation, who, as Net is the lord of breath. He was elevated to the sphere as Canopus, pilot of the ark or argo. Ankh (Eg.) means life, the lord of life, and the makhen is the canoe in which the dead cross the waters in death and escape from the inundation of the underworld.

A Caddoque myth relates that the master of life appeared to Sakechak and told him of the world's coming doom. Sakechah was to be saved by gathering hemlock cones, with the trunk and leaves of the tree, which he was instructed to burn, along with dry branches of the oak, kindled with wild rice straw. When these were burnt, he was to take the ashes and strew them in a circle round the hill Weeheganawan. There was no need of collecting the animals within this charmed circle, as the living creatures sought it themselves, and retreated into it for safety during the flood.

'"Sakechah!" said the master of life, "when the moon is exactly over thy head she will draw the waters on to the hill. She is angry with me because I scourged a comet. I cannot prevent her revenge unless I destroy her, and that I may not do, as she is my wife. Therefore bid every living creature that is on the hill take off the nail from the little finger of the right hand, if a man; if a bird or beast, of the right foot or claw. When each has done this, bid him blow in the hollow of the nail with the right eye shut, saying these words, 'Nail become a canoe, and save me from the wrath of the moon.' The nail will become a large canoe, and in this canoe will its owner be safe." The Great Spirit was obeyed, and shortly every creature was floating like a boat on the surface of the water. And, lest they should be dispersed, Sakechah bound them together by thongs of buffalo-hide. They continued floating for a long time, till at last Sakechah said, "This will not do, we [p.184] must have land. Go," said he, to a raven that sat in his canoe near him, "fetch me a little earth from the bottom of the abyss. I will send a female, because women are quicker and more searching than men." The raven, proud of the praise bestowed on her sex, left her tail feathers at home and dived into the abyss. She was gone a long time, but notwithstanding her being a woman she returned baffled of her object. Whereupon Sakechah said to the otter, "My little man, I will send you to the bottom, and see if your industry and perseverance will enable you to accomplish what has been left undone by the wit and cunning of the raven." So the otter departed upon his dangerous expedition. He accomplished his object. When he again appeared on the earth, he held in his paw a lump of black mud. This he gave into the hands of Sakechah; and the Great Master bade him divide the lump into five portions; that which came out of the middle of the lump he was commanded to mould into a cake and cast into the water; and he did so, and it became dry land on which he could disembark; and the earth thus formed was re-peopled from his time. No matter whether the men of the earth be red or white, all are descended from Sakechah."'[40]

It is noticeable that the one who escapes from the deluge in the Carib myth is named Sigu; in the Pima legend his name is Szeukka; in the Caddoque version it is Sakechah; and that sekh is the Egyptian name of the flood-time or inundation of the Nile; the sekh or uskh is a boat, and the sekht is the sailor. This worldwide water-name can be traced back to the Albert Nyanza[41] and to Tanganyika, the inundating lake, which Stanley says is known by the native name of Uzige[42].

The Japanese have their land of the deluge, which was submerged in the sea in consequence of the degeneracy of its inhabitants. The king of Maurigasima, however, was a good man, the just man of the general legend, and he is warned in a dream of the coming calamity. He was told that, when the two idols which stood at the entrance of the temple should turn red in the face, the time would have come for him to embark in his vessel and escape. This injunction he obeyed and was saved[43].

In the story of Atlantis we are informed that there was once an immense island, larger than all Asia and Africa, at the entrance of the ocean beyond the pillars of Hercules. It was governed by Neptune. Here the god placed a single pair of human beings, Enenor and his wife, Leucippe, who had sprung from the dust of the earth. Neptune married their daughter Clito, who bore him ten sons. Among these ten sons Neptune divided his domain. Atlas was the eldest, and from him the island took its name. The island was a paradise of plenty and purity, and such was the content they could not be contented. Their happiness supplied no spur. They degenerated and fell. At the end of ten generations Atlantis was swallowed by an earthquake and washed down by a deluge. Whatsoever the interpretation, we find here the same reckoning of the ten generations as in the Hebrew version of the Noachian deluge; the ten that preceded the Chaldean [p.185] deluge in the account assigned to Berosus[44], and the ten races of men in the Bundahish.

Bunsen considered the Hebrew flood to be an actual event in human history; a cataclysmal catastrophe that overwhelmed the human birthplace in Northern Asia. He had no doubt that the oldest Hellenic tradition of the flood of Deucalion was derived from this historical deluge. But as the Egyptians had migrated from the primeval land before the great event occurred, they do not possess the deluge legend as we find it in the Hebrew scriptures, the Chaldean tablets, and other late forms of the legend[45]. In this way has mythology been converted into history. But the Egyptians not only knew of a deluge; they knew of various deluges where the Greeks spoke of one. They knew of all the deluges that ever were, because they knew the type of the deluge and all its applications to the various cycles of time, ranging from the deluge of five days found in Polynesia, to that of 25,868 years.

According to the report by Plato of the conversation between Solon and the Egyptian priests, neither of the two Greeks could have understood the symbolical language in which the meaning was half revealed and half concealed[46]. Yet, the moment we read the report with the knowledge that a deluge is a figure of speech quite natural to the people whose every year was an inundation, as the Indian gesture-sign for a year is a rain, and a rain is an inner African name for a year, the truth becomes apparent. 'Scarcely,' they said, 'had writing, amongst other things, been invented,' than down came the flood from heaven, at 'certain intervals, sparing only the ignorant and uneducated so that you had to start afresh from the beginning.' It was the learned alone, the reckoners of time, who were drowned in these deluges. This corresponds to the books which are lost, or were buried and preserved in safety, to be literally fished up again as they were by Vishnu in his Matsya avatar.

This loss of the 'log' in the deluge is also connected with the fall from heaven in the Book of Enoch, but it is rendered in a way that is easy to misunderstand, like the eating of the Tree of Knowledge. Because of the 'fall,' men were taught by the fallen angels 'to understand writing and the use of ink and paper.' Therefore, 'Numerous have been those who have gone astray from every period of the world even to this day. For men were not born for thisthus with pen and ink to confirm their faith!' Such language has confirmed the faith of the idiotes in their crusade against knowledge. Yet it only means in the one case that the 'fall,' in the other the deluge, was the cause of reckoning, registration, and bookkeeping, which was previously unnecessary[47].

The Egyptian priest tells Solon that the Greek genealogies are like juvenile stories. 'In the first place, you only record a single flood whereas there have been a great many.' An attempt to enlighten them [p.186] is obviously made in the words, 'and then you are ignorant of a most fair and excellent race of men that once inhabited your country.' This is typological; it belongs to the celestial quarters and reckonings of descent, whereas the vainglorious Greeks applied it to their own human history, and thought it made them out to be far older than, and superior to, the Egyptians, who looked upon them as the sheerest children, whose antiquities were puerile fables, like those of the Jews with which we have been so long beguiled. Diodorus Siculus also informs us that the Egyptians treated the Greeks as impostors who reissued the ancient mythology as their own history[48].

In reference to the invasion from Atlantis in the west, which was said to have overrun all Europe and Asia, Proclus observed that the Egyptians say the west is the place of noxious demons, and some interpreters held that the war against the Atlantidae was a war against those material demons who were adapted to the west. This was the opinion of Numenius and Porphyry[49]. Such is the true interpretation. In the course of precession the invasion and the deluge necessarily came from the south-west, as certain constellations sank in that direction and were whelmed beneath the waters.

The war, like those of Moses and Joshua, against the giants and the waters, belonged solely to the astronomical allegory, and was described in consonance with the deluge typology in diluvian language.

According to Berosus, when the Chaldean deluge was coming, the deity Kronus appeared to Xisithrus in a vision and gave him notice that upon the fifteenth of the month Daesia (the fifth month of the Macedonian year, answering to May-June, and therefore about the tune of the coming inundation of the Nile in the month Mesore, June 15) there was to be a flood by which mankind would be destroyed. He enjoined him to commit to writing a history of the beginning, progress, and final conclusions of all things down to the present term, and to bury these accounts securely in the city of the sun, at Sippara[50]. Here it is Time in person who prognosticates the deluge. Kronus in Egypt is identified as Seb, the god who appears in the ark and is called the 'Great Inundator' in the Ritual. The Osirian exclaims, 'By the blessing of Seb in the ark I have welcomed the chief dead in the service of the lord of things.'[51]

In the chapter of 'Being conducted in the boat of the sun,'[52] Seb, the father of the gods, is designated the 'Great Inundator.' It is said, 'The Osiris penetrates in the boat. They tow him along with the sun. The Osiris is towed in it by the rope-men, stopping the dissolution of the leg of the firmament' just at the perilous place. 'Seb and Nu are delighted in their hearts, repeating the name, "Growing Light"; the beauty of the sun in its light is in its being an image, as it is said, for the Great Inundator, the father of the gods.'[53] Thus we [p.187] learn that Time himself (Seb-Kronus) was the great inundator for whom the sun keeps time. This time was kept by the sun in his ark that crossed the waters as the ram-headed Num or Nef, the lord of the inundation or of breath.

The Hebrew Nuach, or Noah (חנ) is related to breath and breathing as in רחנ and םחנ and is equivalent to nef in Egyptian for breath, the element of life opposed to water and the deluge, which was represented by Nef, Num, or Nuh, the ram-headed breather during the inundation, who was designated its lord and ruler. Nuh, for rest, is also identical with nnu (Eg.) for rest and repose, which was the condition of existence in Egypt during the inundation.

Nnu or nu in Egyptian is both the flood and the time appointed. Nnu.akh (Eg.) would denote the ruler and lord of both. And as Noah was 600 years of age at the time of the deluge, he was an impersonation of the nu-akh, like Num of the Teba.

The types, however, must determine the philology. It is Time who appears to Xisithrus. Time is Seb, and one of his names is Nu (compare the name of No or Noe on the Apamean coins), whence the Hebrew חנ.

Seb in his ark, as the 'Great Inundator,' and Num in his argo are both related to the deluge of time which was annual in Egypt; and the flood of Noah is a deluge of time on the scale of one year. The account furnished by Berosus tends to show that Ubara-Tutu, the father of Ubara, the glow (compare the 'Growing Light')[54], is a form of Seb-Kronus, the father of the solar gods.

Not only was the arkite typology Egyptian, it was so ancient as such that it had passed from the natural genesis through the various phases of the astronomical allegory and become eschatological in the psychotheistic phase of mythology. The god who 'forms his own body eternally' (i.e., the eternal form of time) is denominated the one 'dwelling in his own bark.' The 'Great Ruler' is 'borne along in the river of millions and billions of moments.'[55] The 'Lords of Truth' 'who are for ever cycling for eternity,' are the voyagers of heaven[56].

The deceased prays to the conductor of heaven, 'Oh, let the Osiris prevail over the waters. Let the Osiris pass by the great one who dwells in the Place of the inundation.'[57] He exclaims, 'Hail ye good beings, lords of truth, who are living for ever! circling for ever! Passing me through the waters.'[58] 'He has made a boat for me to go by,' says the Osirified deceased, speaking of his saviour[59], and the boat of the shipwrecked is a figure of salvation[60].

In the chapter of 'Breathing air and prevailing over the waters in Hades,' the inundation actually occurs, and the deceased Osirian has to escape from its whelming flood by means of the makhen or ark made of plaited white corn, the paddles being formed of straw, perhaps [p.188] symbolising, as Dr. Birch suggests, 'the support of men by corn during the inundation.'[61]

The passage of the soul in the process of rebirth was termed 'going in the cabin.' The escaped one exclaims, 'I am not drowned in the good water. I see the repose of the meek one (Osiris) when he makes his stay under the poolsfor I have come forth.'[62]

On the day of the birth of Osiris it is said, 'The valves of the door open, the gateway of the sun opens. He has unclosed the doors of the ark. He has opened the doors of the cabin. Shu has given him breath, Tefnut has created him; they serve in his service.'[63] When the deceased in the resurrection arises on the horizon as the sun, it is proclaimed that 'He has unclosed the doors of the ark; he has opened the doors of the cabin' in which he made the passage of the abyss[64]. And before there was a boat with a cabin to it, the ark of Arctos, the womb of the hippopotamus, was the cabin that carried across the abyss in the north, when observed in a latitude where the seven stars dipped below the horizon! Yet earlier the seven constellations were the sailors in the ark of the sphere.

The 'flood' should be a figure of expression in Egypt if anywhere on earthas it was. In an inscription of the time of Amenhept III it is said they, the enemies, 'shall be overwhelmed in the great food.' In a papyrus at Turin the god claims to have been the creator of the abyss of waters whence comes the flood. 'I make the waters, and the Mehura comes into being.' But we can get beyond Egypt for the origins.

The Hebrew deluge is called mabul (לובמ) which with the interchange of m and b as in Syriac, is mmul. Nothing is known of its origin in Hebrew; and the word is only used for the flood of Noah and for the flood which the Lord sits upon as the celestial water of the abyss[65]. But this word is an inner African type-name for water, rain, and especially the rainy season, the time of the flood.

momel, is water, in Fulup. mbula, is rain, in Undaza.
momel,       "           Filham. mbula,       "         Bumbete.
mmeli,        "           Isoama. mbula,       "         Muntu.
mmeli,        "           Are. mbola,       "         Mbamba,
mmale,       "           Gura.  

and many more. But the most remarkable fact is that this is the express and widely-spread type-name for the season of heavy rains and foods, as

mbola, in Mbamha. mpfula, in Ntere. mfola, in N'gola.
mbula, in Undaza. mfula, in Kasands. mfula, in Lubalo.
mbulo-mobua, in Bumbete. mpfula, in Babnmba. mufula, in Kisama.
mbura, in N'kele. mpfula, in Nynrnbe. mpulan, in Matatan.
mpfula, in Musentandu. mpfula, in Basunde.  


These languages are chiefly spoken in Kongo, N'gola, and farther inland. But the type-word ranges south, east, west, and north-west. This shows the Hebrew flood, name and all, came out of inner Africa in all directions. In the North-West Atlantic group momel is also found as ml, and this modification leads to the Egyptian mel or mer for the sea; French mer, English mere, the lake, and the maelstrom. Mbul also modifies into bul (or ber) English bul, river, Welsh bala, the going or bursting forth, ber (Eg.) to boil, well up, be ebullient, English bore, and a force; bara (Heb.) a fountain; bur, Akkadian, to swell up; bura, Fiji, to emit, discharge; bur, Australian languages, a river or torrent.

When Kolb was at the Cape in 1713 the Hottentots affirmed that they descended from a man named Noh, who had entered the world by a sort of window and taught his children the art of raising cattle. The name of his wife was Hing-Noh[66]. We now know that Noh was the Nama Khnuib or Khnub, the lord of heaven (nom, for god, in Ham). Khnub, they say, has made us, and given us this country. He gives us the rain, and he makes the grass to grow. Khnub is identical by name with the Egyptian Khnuf, Num, and Chnubis. The name of his consort in Egypt was Ank, corresponding to Hing. Further, the Hottentots, says Casalis, preserve a tradition that their ancestors arrived in Africa in a great basket. Both statements are reconcilable by means of the hieroglyphics. The basket sign is nub signifying the lord or the lady, the all. It is the seed-basket carried by Nebt (Nephthys) the great mother. Neb also means to swim and float; and the basket of wattle-work was a very primitive kind of ark or boat[67].

Stanley found a deluge legend connected by the Wajiji fishermen with the origin of Lake Tanganyika. Once there was a vast plain where the water is now, and there was a large town which was carefully enclosed and fenced round with poles strong and tall. As was the custom in those days, the people of the town surrounded their dwellings with high hedges of cane, making enclosures in which their cattle might be herded for the night. In one of these enclosures there lived a man and his wife who possessed a deep well which supplied water in a beautiful stream. The well was to be kept a sacred secret, as on the day the possessors showed it to strangers they would be ruined and destroyed. But the woman could not keep the secret. She disclosed the mystery to her lover; whereupon the earth cracked and opened, and there was the deluge, where Tanganyika is now[68].


We cannot pass into the cave dwellings of the human mind in the far-off past as high-sniffing and 'bloody-browed Pharisees.' We [p.190] shall have to crawl on hands and knees at times to enter as very lowly explorers if we penetrate at all. In each direction of his limited range of thought the primitive man perceived the solid, essential, physical fact. A slight illustration of this may be seen in the chant of the Red Indian:

'The poor little bee,
That lives in the tree
(By the river),
Only one arrow has he
In his quiver.'[69]

That was why he should be commiserated by the wild and warring nomad whose quiver was full of arrows!

Perhaps no better subject could be found to test the truth of the present writer's generalisation concerning a unity of origin in mythology, his thesis of that origin being Kamite, and his method of showing likeness and relationship by means of typology, than this of the deluge legend. Nothing is older than water as an element of life, and there is nothing more initial than its influence on the mind of man as an agent of destruction, of death, of an ending, the water of death being the natural antithesis to the breath of life. The Mangaians hold that during the rainy season the spirits of the dead cannot ascend to the warriors' paradise, the element of water being so opposed to the power of breath.

The Latin ex for out of, or from; and iste for this, or that, whence existence as that which is 'out of;' is expressed by enti or nuti (Eg.) (the signs read both ways) for existence. Enti passes into entity. Nuti also denotes an escape, to have escaped; and this escape is finally reducible to an escape from the water; one form of enti or nuti being the froth or foam breathing out of the water. Thus the earliest perception of existence and cognition of a discreted selfhood is traceable to the consciousness of being out of the negational element of water and in the condition of breathing being.

The doctrine of baptismal regeneration had an origin thus profoundly simple. When, according to the Roman Church, 'the Holy Ghost suffered for us in Baptism,' the dogma is founded on the antithesis of water and breath. In a text rendered by Goodwin, it is said of Osiris in his baptism, Ut mergeretur in aquis suis, literally, 'he was drowned into the water,' or 'his life was merged in the water.'[70]

Baptism is a symbolical rebirth out of the water into a new life, enacted as a religious mystery; the afflatus of the new life being at one time represented by breathing.

The primary words will tell us more than the Aryanists dream of. As already shown[71], the word nti for 'out of' gives us the name of the net, and Neith who fished Horus out of the waters. Now the first [p.191] race of men that emerged or escaped were black; and the black man in Africa is named

noti, in Bulom. notei, in Ghese. eneidu, in Igala.
noti, in Mampa. nedo, in Salum.  

This type-name has various forms. Ntu is one of these. Ntu in Kaffir is the person, any human being, the race. Nta-nta, Kaffir, is to float and swim. The first ark or teba was the mother's womb, and to be borne in that is 'going in the cabin.' The second was the teph of the abyss; the third, the revolving sphere; the fourth the Great Bear. The arkite typology arose from the nature of things. In the beginning was the water, the condition of negation. Heaven was the celestial water, the Nun (Eg.) which is also the deluge or inundation. Water was adopted as the universal type of an ending in time as well as of life. The helplessness of primitive man in presence of the water-flood is plainly apparent in the deluge mythos. The typology of the ark also shows how profound was his delight in the power to form a barrier and enclosure. Ark (Eg.) denotes enclosings. Arca in Greek is a dam for keeping out water; arx, a bulwark; ahuriki, Maori, a fence against a flood. Various forms of the ark and arking are found under the one name, as arach, Gaelic, a bond, a tie; ark (Eg.) a tie; ark (Eg.) to weave; luka, Kaffir, to weave and plait; luchith, Hebrew, plank-work; ruga, Kaffir, to plaister with earth; lek (Amoy), dry land; liag Irish; llech, Welsh; rock, English, for the stone; lecid, Hebrew; lauh, Arabic, rock. The rekhi (Eg.) is the stonemason or builder. This was an inner African type-name for the stone or rock itself, which is

raga, in Limba. melak, in Nalu. pulak, in Sarar.
oraga, in Sobo. fulagn, in Bulanda. pulak, in Pepel.
luku, in Meto. pulak, in Bola. pulag, in Kanyop.
nluku, in Matatan.    

Every stone erected as a dam, and over a well or intermittent spring, was typical of this staying of the waters, and of bounding the inimical force. Hence the size of the stone was significant of the opposing force of man. The ark-stones in Britain were designated the stones of power. The Egyptian mastebahs are vast lids that shut down above the well. Without any idea of such an origin for the type, Mariette describes the pyramid built of enormous stones covering the well as with a massive lid[72]. Such was the great pyramid. The type was continued in the temples and other sanctuaries that contained the well. In some of these the conquest over the waters was celebrated yearly, and water was poured into the well called the water of the deluge. From the time that the first stone was suspended over a spring, pytte, or intermittent well, as the stone of Arthur was in Britain, it has been the custom to erect the sacred building over the water or the well by [p.192] which it was represented. As Dean Stanley has said, 'Every synagogue, if possible, was by the side of a stream or spring; every mosque still requires a fountain or basin for lustrations in its court.'[73] In the Birs-Nimrud Inscription Nebuchadnezzar says that, when he finished building the tower of the seven planets at Borsippa which former kings had begun, he found that 'the water-springs beneath it had not been kept in order.' This then had likewise been erected over the well just as were the pyramids of Egypt and the flat-stone of Arthur in Britain[74]. The Temple at Jerusalem was built over or upon the waters.

In one of the visions of Hermas, the Holy Spirit, or the 'old woman' who was the first of all creation, shows him a tower that was built upon a square by six young men, which tower stands upon the water as its foundation. Then said Hermas, 'Lady, why is the tower built upon the water?' She replies that it is because his life is and shall be saved by water. It is the same water as that of the well in the sphinx temple, and the holy wells over which the British stones were erected. Every ark or tabernacle configurated in the heavens whether as the ark of the seven stars, seven pillars, or seven horns, the ark of the four corners, the six, eight, nine, ten, or twelve divisions, had been founded on the celestial waters, and was thus a symbol of salvation. In Hermas the church takes the place of the pyramid and the rude stone monuments that were reared of old above the water-source. The water and the breath or spirit are the two truths of the tower, tabernacle, or church of Hermas just as they were of all the earlier buildings[75].

The mummy in Egypt was conveyed across the water to the mausoleum in the hill of the west. So in Fiji the king was carried over the water to the royal sepulchre[76]. In Bretagne it was the custom at Plouguel for corpses to be ferried to the churchyard by boat, over a narrow arm of the sea called passage de l'enfer, instead of their being taken the shorter route by land[77]. Here the water represented hell, the abyss of dissolution which was symbolically bridged, or the water conquered by the living on behalf of the dead. In placing the dead in the coffin they were put on board their boat; and the well represented the abyssal waters of the tepht, which they had to cross for the other world, even as the solar god made his passage in the ark through the three water-signs, the pool of Pant, the Meh or well of waters in the north.


The deluge legend had a natural genesis, and its types were set in the stars of heaven, where the imagery proves (at least) that the zodiacal phase in which all culminated at last was portrayed according to the [p.193] relations of time, place, and the three months' flood in the valley of the Nile. In the Bundahish the first conflict is waged by darkness (or the dark mind) against the light. Then it is said of the inundation ascribed to the Dog-star, 'The second conflict was waged with the water, because as the star Tistar was in Cancer the water which is in the subdivision they call Avrak (ninth lunar mansion) was pouring on the same day when the destroyer rushed in, and came again into notice for mischief in the direction of the west.'[78] This dates a deluge in strict accordance with the inundation of the Nile. The ninth lunar mansion is Sieu, δ Hydra, Chinese; Alesha, ε, δ, σ, η, ρ, Hydrae, Hindu; and Hydra announced the inundation in Egypt. The Dog-star being in Cancer is but figurative for rising about the same time. So Porphyry[79] says, 'With the Crab comes the star Sothis.'

Seneca tells us Berosus taught that events take place according to the course of the stars, and he affirms this with such certitude that he fixes the time for the conflagration of the world and for the deluge. He maintains that all earthly things will be consumed when the planets, which are now traversing their different courses, shall all coincide in the sign of Cancer, and be so placed that a straight line could pass directly through their orbs. But the flood will occur when the same conjunction of the planets shall take place in the constellation of Capricorn[80]. The summer is in the first constellation, the winter in the latter. These are the two soli-lunar stations at the birth of the inundation; the flood of fire belongs to the sun in Cancer (as it did to Sothis or Bar, the star of fire), and the water to the full moon in Capricorn. This type is applied by Berosus to the great year.

According to the papyrus found in the monastery of Abu Hormeis, (translated into Arabic 225 AH), the deluge was to take place when the heart of the Lion entered into the first minute of the Crab's head[81], at the declining of the star; which is obviously an astronomical observation relating to the inundation of the Nile. It is rendered backwards as if applied to the ending of a cycle in precession. But that is not the point of present importance. There can be no doubting or disputing the Kamite and Egyptian origin of this deluge imagery, because the celestial types are the reflectors of certain natural facts which are to be found in Egypt, and in no other land on this earth. The month of Mesore is the month of the rebirth (mes) of the river (aur).*

* The river was reckoned to come forth from its two chasms on the 15th of Epiphi (the last day of May in the sacred year), at which date a Nile-festival was celebrated. This twin source was the Crophi and Mophi of Herodotus[82]; the Copts held that these caused the waters to rise[83].

In the sacred year, this began on the 15th of June, and it corresponds, in what we may term the Ram calendar, with the sun's passage through the sign of the Crab.


In the oldest known Egyptian zodiacs, two beetles represent this sign instead of the crab. The beetle, Khepra landed in Egypt and swarmed on the banks of the Nile in the month Mesore, just when the river began to rise. There he prepared his little ark of future life by rolling up his eggs in a ball of cow-dungi (compare the Gobar figures and gbar, Hindi, for cow-dung), and burying it in a dry place where it would be safe from the coming deluge. There the seed was hatched, and came forth on the subsidence of the waters. Khepra (the scarabaeus) was the typical arkite of Egypt. As such, the boat of the sun was assigned to Khepra-Ra, and 'Khepra in his boat is the sun himself'[84] who was represented by the beetle in his ark. On this account the scarabaeus was set as a zodiacal sign in heaven, the solar herald of the inundation, and succeeded by the Crab; the Persian Changra, whence Cancer.

One form of the beetle was solar; but there was a lunar beetle sacred to Taht, whose bird, the ibis, also figures instead of the crab (Hermean Zodiaci)[85]. The beetle, then, was placed in the zodiac as the harbinger of the deluge. The beetle is also the symbol of the world, and the generation or creation of the world, that is the luni-solar year, with the sun's entrance into this sign. The sign of Cancer in Layard's Culte de Mithra[86], shows two figures which may be called crab-like or beetle-like, and these also point to the double beetle of the Egyptian zodiac as their prototype. 'A beast more like a water-beetle than a crab' is also portrayed in a manuscript of the twelfth century, belonging to the library of Durham Cathedral[87]. Such chimeras show the beetle that transformed into the crab.

The Egyptians denoted the inundation by a lion, says Horapollo, because one-half of the water which flowed during three months was poured out during the time the sun was in the sign of Leo[88]. Hence the origin of the lion's head which was commonly used as a waterspout in Egyptian temples. The third sign is Virgo, who typifies corn, and water the mother of corn; the tree also appears in the decans of this sign from which the waters of heaven were fabled to well forth. Here then we have three zodiacal signs relating to the flow of the inundation.

Besides these, Hydra, in its heliacal rising, and the raven perched on its tail announced the waters as two extra-zodiacal signs. Now, whilst the sun was making its passage through these three signs, the moon was rising at full in our three water-signs; Capricorn, Aquarius, and Pisces. The moon was the governess of floods, and the three water-signs were doubled in the zodiac on account of the luni-solar combination. At the end of three months from the birth in Mesore [p.195] (Crab or Beetle sign), the rise of the waters is suspended in the sign of Libra, at the time of the autumn equinox, when and where they attained that summit by which the Egyptians represented the equinox; the autumn equinox being the summit of the waters. At this point, instead of the Scales, we find two tortoises were depicted in the oldest Egyptian zodiacs. Also, one tortoise is portrayed at the same placei, in the Mithraic monuments[89]. In the Mandan creation the four tortoises are stationed at the four corners of the earth, and these are said to spout forth the waters[90]. In other North American Indian signs, a landing after a voyage is typified by the tortoise.

According to Schoolcraft and others, the tortoise (or the turtle) was a type universally held in great respect by the red men of America, and in all cases it is believed to be a symbol of the earth, and is addressed as the mother[91]. This agrees with the Egyptian tortoise, as a type of the earth, the underground, or ground under the waters. The Raratongans have a tradition that the deluge was produced by a king named Taoiau, or peace-bearer, who was greatly incensed against his people because they did not bring the sacred turtle to him. He therefore invoked the gods to send the deluge that is known as the overwhelming of Taoiau[92]. Turtle and tortoise are interchangeable types. Again and again from various regions, the scattered myth can be recaptured and brought back to the origin in natural fact by aid of the Kamite types. One of these is the tortoise. In various myths, the tortoise is an ark of safety amid the waters, that bears up the world on its back, and in Egyptian the tortoise and ark of the dead are synonymous as the sheta.

The zodiac in the ceiling of the Rameseum at El-Kurneh shows that the year opens with Sothis beneath the first day of Taht in the sign of Leo. Then follow three different representations of Horus of the inundation, who arose from the waters in a lotus, standing in a boat with the star-symbol of time on his head. The last of the three is beneath the two tortoises or shetu, corresponding to the sign of the Scales. In this sign Horus may be said to land, or touch earth again, and his boat may be seen empty in the decans of the tortoises or Scalesi.[93]. As the earliest world was created on the back of the tortoise, so when the tortoise sank there was a deluge. A Mandan doctor told Catlin that the earth was a vast tortoise which carried dirt on its back, and that once on a time there was a tribe of people who are now all dead, but they were white-faces. They used to dig very deep in the earth to catch badgers. One day they stuck a knife through the back of the tortoise, whereupon it sank, like Milton's kraken[94], till the waters ran over it, and there ensued a deluge, in which all were drowned with the exception of one man. In the [p.196] Mandan ceremonies they commemorated this event, and carried sacks of water made up in the shape of tortoises lying on their backs. These sacks of water had the appearance of great antiquity, and the Mandans pretended the water had been contained in them ever since the deluge[95].

Egypt alone can show cause why the tortoise should have been connected with the deluge legends on the ground of natural fact. As before said, the Egyptians placed two tortoises in the sign of the Scales, the measure of the inundation. These mark the exact time of year in the fixed zodiacand in accordance with the birth of the inundation in the month Mesore (summer solstice)when the waters had reached their full height, and the earth began to emerge again from the deluge. These were the tortoises of the inundation, set in heaven at that point of place which furnishes an original and actual significance to the Mandan tortoise-shaped sacks, said to contain the water of the deluge ever since the event; and only in Egypt can the event be thus identified with the tortoise-type, in relation to time and tide on earth.

One name of the tortoise is abshi (Eg.); abu being the hard thing, and sh, the water (pool or well of source). In Hebrew iabshi (שׁבי) denotes the dry ground emerging from the waters of the deluge[96]. The Quiche legend describes the earth appearing from the waters at the time of creation by the image of the shellfish. This was typified by the tortoise of the zodiac, the sign of the earth emerging from the quarter of the waters, or three months inundation. A pair of scales may be comparatively modern, although the balance, makhu, bears the name of the horizon and equinox, and of the most ancient solar god of the sphinx-temple, Har-Makhu; but either way, this was not the first form of the measure, as may be seen by the man with the scales in one hand, the measuring-rod or pole in the other, and the modius or corn-measure on his headia triple sign of the measure of the inundation. The earlier type can be seen passing into the later. An illustrated copy of Hyginus has a representation of the scorpion holding the scales in one of its claws[97].

The claws were the sign of holding ('claw-hold') at the point (in time) where the waters were retained. The Sanskrit yka for the scales, said to be from the Greek ξυγον (compare the Egyptian khekh for the balance, scales, or equinox, also meaning to check; and the English yoke), indicates the yoke which may be found in the Egyptian sign of the scales, as the original of the abbreviated d symbol. According to Achilles Tatius, the sign of the scales was likewise known as the claw of the scorpion[98]; Greek chelai, the claws; also El Zubanan, the claws, consisting of the stars α and β Libra, form the 16th Arab Manzil.


Following this hint we turn to the various ancient Egyptian zodiacs and find that the Sagittarius, or Centaur, is portrayed with a scorpion's taili. Thus the scorpion has its claws in Libra and its tail in Sagittarius, which shows that there was once a scorpion of the western quarter extending through three of the present signs, in accordance with the four quarters of the beginning, on which the zodiac was funded.

During three months from the sign of the Crab to the Scales the inundation rose to its height and was suspended, at which time the water was distributed. To this day, when the nilometer in the island of Rhoda, opposite to Cairo, shows that the water has risen to the height of fifteen ells, the sheikh of the Nile orders the cutting of the dam, which lets in the accumulated flood that fertilises the whole cultivated land.

During the next three months the waters ebbed, exhaled, and disappeared, as is indicated by the meaning of the scorpion's name. The rest is repetition in accordance with the dual luni-solar arrangement. Here then we find two quartersone of water, one of breathand these, when repeated in the dual luni-solar reckoning, will be found to constitute the total zodiac.

Each of the two sets of six signs in Egyptian planispheres ends with a pair of twins. The Gemini still remain. But in the oblong zodiac of Denderahi, Shu and his sister Tefnut are depicted in both signs, she being lioness-headed in each. This form of the twins may also be seen in the Sagittarius of the Denderah zodiaci[99]; these twins being the two primordial representatives of breath or wind (Shu), and moisture or dew (Tefnut). Thus the zodiac is further reducible to the two halves of the earliest division, founded on the Two Truths of Egypt, the north and south, first distinguished as the regions of water and breath, which preceded the four quarters.

The sign next to the Scales is the Scorpion, which in Egyptian is named Serk. This word has several meanings applicable to the end of the deluge, but not one to the stinger. The scorpion can only live in dry places, and could not come forth until the inundation was over or had abated. Serk (its name) signifies to disappear, be completely exhaled, or dried up. This described the waters with the sun in Scorpio, and was set in heaven as a type. Serk also means to supply breath and food, as it was the sign of the vanishing waters and also of the season for sowing seed.

The Scorpion and breath are connected in a passage of the Ritual. 'I am like the Sun in the Gates. I give the breath of life to Osiris. I have came like the Sun through the Gate of the Sun-goers, otherwise called the Scorpion.'[100]


Manilius had learned that the scorpion was a sign of increase[101]. It was so in Egypt on account of the inundation. Serk, to supply, is equivalent to increase, and the water was the source of the increase. When this vanished the Scorpion appeared after, just as the scarabaeus appeared before, the deluge.

In New Zealand the tail of the scorpion is identified as the fish-hook with which Maui fished the submerged land up from the waters. He is reported to have been three months in hauling the land above the water[102], exactly the time assigned to the inundation, which is also measured by the three water-signs of the zodiac. This was little Maui of the three brothers, the sun that passed through the underworld, and his three months' labour coincides with the Child-Horus in the boat during the three months' deluge of the inundation.

One of the brothers of Maui has been already identified with the Egyptian Mau (or Mau-Shu), who is the god of breath, and whose name is written with the feather of light and shade, an equivalent for the dove and raven of the planisphere. Shu is the archer in the sign of the Sagittarius. The name of this sign in the Hermean zodiaci is Nephte. Neft in Egyptian means the breathed, passed, or dried up.

Also in Cicero's Aratus the scorpion is called by the African name of nepa or nepas[103], that is napese in the Goali languages; and the tail of the scorpion is in Nephte.

In the ceiling of Denderahi (as in the planispherei) the raven is to be seen just above the tail of Hydra. This water-dragon announced the inundation by its heliacal rising. The raven is likewise an announcer of the waters. The black bird, whether as raven or the neh, is the type of Sut in the Sut-Horus. This, then, is the bird that tells of the waters; and in the Hebrew legend the raven is described as going to and fro during the drying up of the deluge. On the other hand, the dove is the bird that tells when the waters have dried up. We shall find the facts figured in the stars, and both birds in their places in the planisphere. The imagery is visibly founded on the actual inundation of the Nile as its natural genesis. It next enters the typological phases that require interpreting.

The raven, as a bird of the inundation in Egypt and as the keeper of the waters in the Thlinkeet myth, appears in Australia as the crow, the black bird which is at enmity with eagle-hawk, the bird of light. There the black bird causes the deluge.

Eagle-hawk was the chief ruler. Once on a time he left his son in charge of the crow, the second in authority. The young one growing thirsty asked the crow where he could get a drink. The dark one told him to go to the river, and went with him. There the crow made him drink until the young one was swollen to an immense size. [p.199] The crow then threw something at him, which caused him to burst. Then followed the letting loose of the waters in a deluge that overspread the country[104].

The child of Eagle-hawk corresponds to the Child-Horus, the sun of the waters, whose brother, the virile god, is hawk-headed.

The Chickasaw Indians relate that they obtained their first seed-corn, just after the flood, from a raven that flew over them and let fall some grains which the Great Spirit told them to plant. This they dibbled in with their fingers, and it grew[105]. Such is the language of the heavens, where the raven is portrayed; and the corn is held by the Virgin ready for sowing when the waters subsided in the land where the seed-sowing always followed the flood.

Virgo, it may be observed, is the bearer of seven ears of corni; and seven ears of corn were likewise carried by seven maidens in the processions of the Mexican goddess of corn.

The dove of the deluge is to be seen winging its flight across the decans of the Archer, the veritable sign of the dry earth. In another Egyptian planisphere at this precise spot the dove is depicted with the branch in its beak[106].

It is affirmed that Maui never would have succeeded in raising the land from the flood but for catching a dove. Into this he breathed his own spirit, and tethered the bird to the land by tying the fishing-line to its beak. Then he made the dove to fly aloft, and the land followed until it appeared above the surface of the water[107]. This imagery can likewise be read in relation to our three water-signs; for the raven is the bird of the three solar water-signs, and the dove, or the white vulture, of the three lunar water-signs.

Lucian tells us that the golden statue of Semiramis in the temple of Hierapolis marked the equinoctial point. The dove was called the equinoctial point by the Syrians themselves. Therefore, indeed, they tell us that this is the equinoctial point of Semiramis, i.e., the dove. It became the point of the vernal equinox 255 BC, but it is utterly impossible that this should have been for the first time[108].

Semiramis, Atergatis, Hathor, or Venus, combined the types of the dove and fish as the genetrix who brought forth the young sun-god in the sign of Pisces. At this point in the zodiac the genetrix is portrayed holding a dove or pigeon in her left handi, and the hieroglyphic sign of the corner in her right which represents the messianic corner-stone. The corner is apta (Eg.), the birthplace of the child. In another zodiaci, the mother holds up the child itself, the man-child with the rod of iron in his hand, as described in Revelation[108a]. Thus the dove which drew up the land at the end of three months in the [p.200] Maori myth appears in the third of the three water-signs, and, following this, the first station in the sign of Aries is assigned to the Egyptian Maui (Shu), in the form of the first of four rams, the ram of Shu; the ram being another type of breath or soul, and as such it follows the three water-signs on one side of the zodiac, as the scorpion of breath and Shu (the archer) do on the other.

Shu, the breather, was finally stationed in the breathing region, where the earth was recovered from the waters, and again in the sign of the Ram, where the sun-god once more attained the region of breath or became a soul, in keeping with the dual, i.e., luni-solar, character of the zodiacal signs.

In the most holy mysteries the dove was hailed as the restorer of the light. After the darkness or the deluge the people exclaimed 'Ιω μαχαιρα! Ααμπαδηφορος!' 'Hail to the dove! Restorer of light.' This would particularly apply at the time when the vernal equinox was in the sign of the Bull, i.e., in the doves or Pleiades.

One type of the luni-solar duality of the signs was the 'double-seated ship' or boat of the Egyptian gods. This reappears in Babylonia. It is said, 'In the month Tebet, Venus is the spark (star) of the double ship.'[109] The constellation of the Sea-goat is the zodiacal sign of the month Tebet. Now when the sun in Cancer entered the ark of Khepra, the beetle, to cross through the three northern water-signs, the moon rose at full in the Sea-goat to cross the three southern water-signs, and as they made their passage together, although on opposite sides, it was said to be made in the double ship or double-seated bark. The month of the Sea-goat or of Tebet is related to the waters, and has the name of the ark, the ark-city (Thebes), and of the ancient genetrix Teb, who was the ark of the great bear that first crossed the waters, as the pregnant hippopotamus, which brought forth from the waters at the vernal equinox. The Tongans also have the 'double canoe' of 'Tongans sailing through the skies.'[110]

In a planisphere that may be dated by the Sothiac cycle, BC 1322-2782, or earlier periods, eight persons are portrayed in the archaic egg-shaped boat, and when they issue forth they build an altar[111]. The number is in accordance with the eight great gods of Egypt, who were represented in Am-Smen by Typhon and her sevenfold progeny, and in Sesennu by Taht and the seven.

At the end of each great period of change, or the deluge, in the Chinese reckonings, the 'River Scheme,' as it is termed, is brought up out of the waters with its written programme; an altar is built to mark the spot where the fish-man emerges from the flood, and the River Scheme is laid upon the altar[112].

The first thing done by Xisithrus after landing from the ark was [p.201] to construct an altar and offer sacrifice to the gods. Noah likewise 'builded an altar to the Lord,' when the deluge was over. The boat of Horus in the third month, also the empty boat, is found in the sign of the Scales or Tortoises. This was the zodiacal sign of the seventh month in the Akkadian calendar named Tul-Ku, the 'holy altar.' The name of the eighth month is Apin-du, which Professor Sayce renders the 'prosperous foundation,' and he adds, 'It has clearly nothing to do with Scorpio,' the sign of this month[113]. Mr. Pinches translates the name by 'the place where-one-bows-down.'[114]

The name of the Holy Altar is repeated in the Aramaic Tisri for the same month Tisri being a Tiphel form of Esritu, a sanctuary; the Egyptian serit, a holy place, an altar, or stand for offerings, also the rock or mount, which was the altar, and the natural type of the ziggurat.

Thus the seventh month is that of the 'holy altar,' the eighth that of the 'bowing down.' Following these, in the decans of the Archer, a man may be seen in the act of cutting off the head of an animal in sacrifice, close to the flying dove; the 'Man with the Offering.'

This is probably the figure that passed for Noah with those who converted the astronomical allegory into history. He may be supposed to have left the ark, as there is the empty boat behind him. In another planispherei the altar can be seen near the pole, in full fume with its incense, which was so grateful to the Hebrew deity[115].

The quarters naturally preceded the twelve signs, and these three signs connected with the altar and sacrifice are in the three divisions of the Scorpion quarter.

The quarter of re-emergence from the waters or the ark, the boat in which Horus appears during three months, and the place of the altar, the bowing-down, the sacrifice which followed the inundation, were actual in the Nile valley, where the earth began to emerge from the fifteen cubits of water in the quarter of the Scorpion which was afterwards divided. And the men who set this imagery in heaven offered sacrifices on their altars at the end of the inundation for the promise of plenty and the blessing that it brought.

Ara, the altar, likewise denotes a sanctuary, a religious refuge, which is particularly applicable on Egyptian ground. The altar was a form of the mount which was single at first (with seven steps), then dual, then fourfold. The pillar-altar or tat-cross is a form of the altar, mount, or tree of the four quarters. Building the altar of the four quarters would be the first act that followed the deluge or end of a world in which the cycle of the year had previously been divided only in two halves.


In the decans of Scorpio stands the god Seb, who is Nu or Time in person, as well as lord of the Ark. He is portrayed in the decans next to the empty boat or ark. Seb is known by the bird on his head, a duck or goose named tef, a foreign bird; this month (Koiak) being the time marked in the calendar for the arrival of foreign birds[116], after the inundation. Seb was also the god of earth and his position is just where the earth, that was under water in the previous sign of the Tortoises (Libra), emerges from the flood of the actual inundation of Egypt! In another planisphere[117] the crocodile Sevekh comes up out of the waters and occupies this place of Sebi; and Sevekh, as before shown, was an earlier form of Kronus, also a type of earth, who was superseded in the orthodox cult by Seb as the father-god of a later creation in time.

We read in the Ritual of 'The abode of Seb at the balance of the sun (that is at the Equinox), who places the feather in it daily.'[118] The equinox (Balance) was in Scorpio, when Seb was stationed in that sign; and here the data for reckoning the year by nine dry months, or ten moons of twenty-eight days, and the inundation are visibly extant. Seb, who is designated the 'Great Inundator,' Lord of the ark, and the god of earth, is portrayed in the decans of Scorpio, the quarter assigned to earth because of its emergence from the inundation in that sign, which marked the drying up of the waters in Egypt. 'I stand at the Earth as Seb,' 'Lord of the evening,' is an exclamation of the saved osirified, in the Ritual[119]. And there in the west, the quarter of the dry ground, stands Seb or Nu (Kronus) with the arrow (or sunbeam) in one hand, and a torch in the other, as god of the re-illumined earth; guide of the time appointed for the end of the annual deluge.

The sacred year of the inundation founded on the four quarters, and the heliacal rising of Sothis, began with the sun's entrance into the Lion sign, and the heliacal rising of Hydra; so that if we reckon the Lion, Virgin, and Scales as the three water-signs, the Scorpion is the sign of dry earth; the first sign of nine months dry, or of ten moons, according to time as it was kept in Egypt. During three months Seb was the 'Great Inundator' who poured out the deluge; and during nine months he was lord of the dry earth. Now the 'ark of Seb,' or time, is of course typical, and the lord of such an ark has to make the passage continually, so that there is a period of nine months or ten moons in the Ark of Time, of Nu or Noah, distinct from the inundation, and this passage appears to be included in the Hebrew legend.

Osiris entered the ark of Typhon on the 17th of Athyr (October 5th, in the sacred year), when the sun passed into the sign of the [p.203] Scorpion. Noah entered the ark on the seventeenth of the second month, that is of Marchesvandating the lunar year from Tisriwhich agrees with November 5th in the Egyptian sacred year, or exactly one sign later. He left it on the twenty-seventh day of the second month in the following year, after being on board one year and ten days; i.e. within ten days of the true time of Seb in Egypt. Possibly the exact year might have looked less historical. Now follows another illustration of the dual, or luni-solar foundation of the zodiacal imagery, and of the natural genesis passing into the symbolical phase.

In one form of the mythos preserved by Plutarch we are told that in the month Athyr (Hathor), when the sun went into the sign of Scorpio, on the seventeenth day of the month, Osiris entered the ark which had been prepared by Typhon and the seventy-two conspirators. In that ark he was shut up, and the ark was taken to the riverside and set afloat, when it drifted out to sea through the Tanaitick mouth of the Nile. This happened in the twenty-eighth year of the reign of Osiris. But some say the date referred to the twenty-eighth year of his life, and not of his reign. The number twenty-eight applies to Osiris in his lunar character; hence we are told that Typhon tore his body into fourteen parts, the number of days assigned to the half-lunation. The inundation was also considered to be of full height at Memphis when fourteen cubits high, or a full moon of the waters to which Typhon as the evil power was opposed.

Hathor was the cow, a form of the Teba or ark which the sun was said to enter for the passage of the waters between the west and east, to be reproduced by the genetrix at the vernal equinox. Both the cow and empty boat are portrayed in the decans of Librai.

The seventy-two show the number of duo-decans in the zodiac, and these relate to Osiris in the solar myth. In this application the entrance into the ark is that of the sun's entrance into the arc of the six lower signs ranging from equinox to equinox.

The sun-god being now defeated by the dark power called Typhon, he was said to be buried bodily when the orb of light had entered the lower signs; but his spirit lived on, his light was reflected by the moon that rose at full and held up the lamp at night in the ascending signs. The soul of Osiris was safe in the ark of the moon. The child Horus is also portrayed in this form of the ark. Two days after Osiris was entrapped by Typhon and the seventy-two conspirators, on the nineteenth (of Athyr) at night, a little golden ark was carried down to the seaside by the priests, and fresh water was poured into it. Then altogether they gave a great shout of joy that Osiris was found. They also fashioned a little crescent-shaped image as a figure of the lunar ark[120] in which Osiris rode and out-rode the deluge of the dark.


The entrance of Osiris into the ark of Typhon about the time that the land of Egypt was re-emerging from the waters, accounts for the statement in the Ritual, 'The day of establishing the earth and completing the earth is the burial of Osiris, the soul created in Suten-Khen, giver of food, who has traversed the eternal path;'[121] thus, the sun-god, as Osiris, the elder Horus or Atum, entered the underworld, he descended and was buried to quicken the earth and send forth the corn in season, and so became a saviour of men, of those who lived from year to year by means of his burial and resurrection. This world was established when he died as it were to further found a path to the future life[122].

This passage may be reckoned as that of the inferior hemisphere including six solar or fourteen lunar signs. But the crossing of the waters was limited to the zodiacal three water-signs.

The Noachian deluge or downpour of rain is said to have lasted forty days. This is the precise time assigned to the deluge in some of the Polynesian Islands. But it was forty weeks or nine months before the earth emerged again. Here the typical number forty is of great significance. Forty weeks, equal to ten moons in the early reckoning of thirteen moons to the year, represented the nine months dry, or the period of gestation. During the other three the solar god crossed the waters.

The ancient reckoning was preserved by a symbolical forty days of suffering, of fasting, of probation, isolation, forty days of Lent, forty days in the wilderness, in the ark or the ark-island. These represented the negational or pluvial period, as the antithesis to the forty weeks, the rain of forty days being one of the figures or types of mystical meaning. The Mandans supposed that it required forty days to wash the world clean by the deluge[123]; and the Orinoko women like the Hebrew, were considered unclean for forty days after childbirth.

On coming forth out of the ark the altar was set up and the sacrifice performed. This, however, occurs twice in the constellations, in keeping with the dominant Two Truths and the double luni-solar reckoning continued all round the circle of signs. It was the real earth, in Egypt, that reappeared from the deluge of an actual inundation where the altar of the west was set up in the extra-zodiacal constellation Ara, which coincides with the Akkadian month of the Holy Altar, Tul-Ku, the seventh in the equinoctial year. But the first month, Barazigur, is also the month of the altar and the sacrifice of the Ram; the 'Altar of the Demiurge,' or the 'Upright Altar,' as it is variously rendered.

This is on the opposite side in relation to the Ram and the re-emergence of the sun from the three water-signs; his form of the deluge, where the full moon rose during the real inundation. Out of [p.205] these the sun was reborn of the fish-goddess Hathor, Atergatis, or Semiramis in Pisces; and became a soul, that is, a re-arisen body in the sign of the Ram. As Num-Ra he ascended, ram-headed, in the Argo constellationthe rising of which marked the sun's passage into Aries. The two altars and double sacrifice follow the type of the dual inundation and the double boat of the luni-solar year.

These two altars of the equinox were likewise represented by the two lofty pillars at Hierapolis, described by Lucian, which some supposed to be connected with the deluge of Deucalion. Twice in the year a man ascended one of these phalli, and stayed on the top for seven days; the same length of time that the Hebrews dwelt in the ark of green boughs. The climber had to watch without sleeping and it is said there was a scorpion ready to sting him if he appeared drowsy. Whatever was told of this scorpion was accepted as sacred tradition. Doubtless, this was on account of the sign of Scorpio, and its relation to the end of the deluge[124].

The Akkadian Elul is found to be double in the months. The second Elul is supposed to be intercalary. But in the saints' calendar it is marked as the festival of Anu and Bel, to whom the month Nisan is dedicated[125]. Here the two Elul belong to the two equinoxes, and are in perfect agreement with Al-Ul (Har-Ur) in his two characters on the two horizons as the Horus of the double equinox.*

* Etul. The identity of E1-U1 with Har-Ur, the firstborn Horus, the setting sun of autumn, may be shown by comparing Tammuz with Atum the red sun. Tammuz is addressed thus in one of the Akkadian hymns: 'O shepherd! Lord Tamnmur! the red one of Ishtar, lord of Hades, Lord of Tut-Sukhba! Understanding one, who, among the papyri the water drinks not! his brood in the desert, even the reed, he created not. Its bulrush in his can at he lifted not up, the roots of the bulrush were carried away. O God of the world, who among the papyri the water drinks not!'[126] This expresses the 'Mourning for Tammuz' during his passage through the underworld as the suffering sun; but at the same time it identifies the god Atum, who, as the setting sun, carries the red disk and is a deity of Hades. Atum is likewise god of the papyri plants, the 'sesh' of the writings, in which character he wears the Seshnin or lily-lotus for his crown[127]. Atum was the 'duplicate of Aten,' the Syrian Adon and Hebrew Adonai.

The duality explains why the twelve signs are reckoned by astrologers to be alternately diurnal and nocturnal. They were both solar and lunar at the same time, or by day and night. The Bull, marked by the great star Aldebaran, had been the earlier sign of this quarter of breath, following that of the waters, before the quarter was divided into the three signs of the final zodiac.

There are thirty-six gates to the Egyptian heaven. In the second of these the sun (or the soul) comes forth from the water-quarter (the meh) in his ark. It says in the text, 'He made the ark and its barge in his coming forth out of the quarter,' the quarter of the waters, not otherwise filled in. This is in the second gate, that of a ram- [p.206] headed god. The name of the next gate, the third, is 'Mistress of Altars! Great one of Sacrifices! Mistress of what is given to the Gods, letting the offerings pass.' Thus the actual facts of the astronomy are so ancient in Egypt that they lurk in the shades of the Ritual where they have become eschatological. This, however, identifies the point of emergence for the solar ark and the place of the eastern altar in the three first of the thirty-six Aalu, or the three first decans in the sign of the Ram[128].

The deluge was the water of life to the land of Egypt, and the descent of heaven itself in a liquid guise. In the three water-signs of the abyss through which the sun made its passage by night or in winter, the inundation became typical of the typhonian destruction and dissolution. The first altar of sacrifice was erected with a lively sense of future favours; the second with a feeling of gratitude for dangers passed.

In the Greek legend of the 'Altar,' Ara becomes the type of the victory of the gods (upper) over the earth-born giants and assailants of order and serenity, at the restoration of which 'Tunc Iuppiter Arae sidera constituit,' and 'Ara mundi templum est.'[129] A restoration at the autumn equinox would also be necessitated during the course of precession as the old guiding stars sank down south.

The submergence of the earth beneath the waters, and the passage of the solar god across the abyss, was celebrated in the mysteries as an awful event. 'After the oath had been tendered to the Mystae, we commemorated the sad necessity by which the earth was reduced to its chaotic condition. Then we celebrated Kronus through whom the world after a term of darkness enjoyed once more a pure serene sky: through whom also was produced Eros, that twofold conspicuous, and beautiful being, who had the name of Phanes because he was the first remarkable object that appeared to the eye of man in consequence of this great event.'[130]

The deluge was a break in time, a solution of continuity, during which men were all at sea. In one legend the child Horus was said to be drowned in this passage of the waters. The same death was bewailed in the mourning for Tammuz, the Akkadian Duzi. The Mexicans told the Spaniards that in their festival of the winter solstice on December 21st they celebrated the death and resurrection of that deity, through whose instrumentality the earth became visible once more after its being drowned by the waters of the deluge; they therefore kept his festival during the twenty following days in which they offered sacrifices to him[131]. This connects the deluge doctrine with the sinking and re-emerging of the annual sun during its passage through the three water signs, and also with the earth that was submerged in Egypt.


The Chinese keep their dragon-boat festival at midsummer. This is 'something like the bewailing of Adonis, or the weeping for Tammuz mentioned in Scripture,' says an eyewitness[132]. The legend relates that long ago Wut-Yune the greatly beloved was suddenly drowned in the river at the time of midsummer, and ever since, on the same day of the mouth, the dragon-boats go out in search of him, but the lunar having been earliest. The waters his body is never found. This answers also to the seeking for Osiris, only that was about the time of the winter solstice. Both passages were celebrated, and both festivals can be correlated by the double midsummer; the solar passage is in winter. In the was restored to life again, and it was proclaimed that they had escaped from a great calamity with the Two Truths of water and air (the three nine months dry), the two horizons of going down and re-arising; the two heavens, north and south. Then followed the subdivision into the four elements of water, air, earth, and fire, and the four corners of a zodiac. These are identified as the Lion, Scorpion, Waterer, and Bull, by the typical four creatures of the iconography, and the four great stars, Cor Leonis (Leo), Antares (Scorpio), Fomalhaut (for Aquarius), and Aldebaran (Taurus). From these four stars and quarter-constellations came the twelve, and the ancient zodiacs preserve the proof. The four great stars would be the earliest corner-signs of the zodiac, and the clothing of these as constellations would follow in accordance with the character of the four elements and seasons; but the typology proves that these were also extended to twelve in the valley of the inundation, and that the initial point was at the end of the actual deluge at the place where the god of Earth Seb-Kronus stands.

M. Ernest de Bunsen has shown that the Scorpion was the starting point of the year in a most ancient and primitive calendar[133]. This was in keeping with the re-emergence of the earth from the waters, which was a fact of annual occurrence in Egypt. In the astronomical sculptures of the Rameseum at Karnak, a symbol of the autumn equinox is found to be represented as one of the divinities of the first month of the year, and a symbol of the vernal equinox appears as a god of the seventh month. These point to a luni-solar year commencing at the autumn equinoxone of the oldest reckonings of the year, still observed by the Jews. The cuneiform tablets also show an Assyrian year commencing with the month Tisri instead of Nisan, as in two instances the intercalary month or Ve-Adar falls between Elul and Tisri[134]. The most ancient lunar year of the Hindus began at the autumn equinox, with the moon at full in the first mansion [p.208] of the Asvini asterism[135], corresponding to the Arab Manzil Ash-Sharatan, the 'Two Tokens,' i.e., of the dual luni-solar year. In the Chinese lunar sieus (compare Egyptian siu, a star, a division of time) the first one is Mao, in the Pleiades, and the year of the Pleiades was opened not by the sun in that sign, but by the full moon, with the sun in Scorpio, which may account for the fact that the Chinese reverse their signs of autumn and spring according to our reckoning. Other celestial imagery points to a beginning in that quarter of the zodiac. The tree for instance. The tree was planted after a deluge, as Noah plants the vine; and as it is said of the Assyrian gods, 'May they sit in a circle and plant the vine.' The vine as a tree with seven branches is constellated in an Egyptian planispherei, with its roots in the pool of the south and its top to the north. The tree here portrayed is stationed in the decans of Virgo, and the star Epsilon in Virgo is named Vindemiatrix, the female grape-gatherer, or Vintager.

In the Hindu lunar asterisms, the nineteenth is Mla, consisting of nine stars in the Scorpion. Mla, signifies the root. According to Bentley, Mla was originally reckoned to be the first of the asterisms, and thence its name denotes rootage and origin[136]. If only a conjecture, it can be corroborated, as Mla may have been figured the lowest or farthest down south, and therefore considered to be the root of the stellar tree. Moreover, the eighteenth asterism is Jyeshtha the 'oldest,' and this contains the brilliant cardinal star Antares. The sixteenth asterism Vikt (ι, γ, β, α, Libra) denoting 'the true diverging branches' appears to continue the same idea, and to show where the tree put forth its first two arms, extending north and west toward Arcturus on the one hand, and Spica Virginis on the other. Here the stellar tree of the heaven coincides with the lunar starting-point in the sign or quarter of Scorpio. The large, round, stationary harvest moon would be the opener of the earliest lunar year. This in Egypt coincided roughly with the end of the inundation. Our harvest moon was the Egyptian sign of seedtime at the drying up of the waters.

In the Hebrew version of the legend the deluge rises fifteen cubits upwards, and that is the standard measure of the Nile inundation. Fifteen cubits' rise in the waters was considered a good and sufficient Nile for plenty, although sixteen was the height for which the people prayed, as the plenitude of abundance. Sixteen cubits was the wished-for rise when Herodotus was there[137]. On a coin of the fifth year of Marcus Aurelius the bountiful overflow of the Nile is commemorated by the figure of a deity holding the cornucopia of a twin-source, with a troop of sixteen cupids sporting round him; the cupids being personified cubits[138]. Also, a statue of the Nile, carried to Rome by Vespasian and set up in the temple of peace, was surrounded with the [p.209] same sixteen cupids[139]. The cubit meh, the measure, has the name of number nine and of fulfilment. The period of fulfilment for the child, and another Nile was nine solar months. Hence the conceit of the cubit being identified with the child of Venus. A title of Hathor, the Egyptian Venus, was Meh-Urt, the first fulfiller and satisfier.

In the Toltec account of the deluge, the mountains are said to be covered to the depth of 'fifteen cubics' or cubits[140]another undesigned coincidence for the non-evolutionist who does not dream of the Kamite unity of origin as a mode of explanation.

Following the Hebrew deluge, a bow was set in the cloud in token of a covenant. Of course a bow set in the cloud for the first time, as a rainbow, has no meaning in nature or in mythology, which was entirely based on natural phenomena. It is true the rainbow was adopted as a type of peace after storm. It was an image of Isis and Keridwen; the smile of serenity dawning after the deluge. But there never was a time when the sunbeams and falling raindrops did not beget the bow on the dark background of heaven. There was, however, a special adoption of the rainbow, in relation to the solar god, which is portrayed in the British mysteries. When the elements break loose in the mythical deluge, the rainbow prophesies or becomes the 'dawn of serenity,' and scares away violence from the earth.

The 'chair of Keridwen' represents Gwydion, the British Mercury, as forming Iris into a consort for the sun-god. And we find the rainbow figuring thereafter as the girdle of Hu, like the rainbow-girdle of Billukai the Kamkadal divinity; and the rainbow round the throne of the god in revelation. But this is typical, and in nowise an attempt at upsetting any law of nature. Mythology was a science founded on the observation of phenomena, not a farrago of fable and foolishness as it has been made to appear. The rainbow as a typethe type of a time, the end of a period called a delugemay be illustrated from the Jewish Kiddushin[141], in which it is related that the Rabbi Jehoshua Ben Levi was admitted to paradise without dying, as one of the just or perfectly righteous men. He was then asked whether a rainbow had ever appeared on earth during his days. He answered yes. Whereupon they said, 'Thou canst not be the son of Levi, for the rainbow never appears whilst there is one perfectly righteous man living in the world.' The truth was, says the legend, no rainbow had appeared, but he was too modest of mind to admit the fact, as he would have been assuming that he was the 'just man' of the mythological symbolism. In this narration the rainbow is typical. The natural genesis of the type is to be found in the rainbow that follows the storm or downfall of waters, the glorious representative of the tempest over [p.210] and gone, that was adopted as a messenger to men. The rainbow as the token of manifestation at the end, and re-beginning of the time-cycle, is shown in the Persian rock-sculptures[142], where Cupid is portrayed seated on a rainbow as the type of a time, a measure, as we have seen by the identity of the cubit and Cupid, the child-image of a fulfilment, a period perfected, and therefore a promise or covenant for the future personified by the young child. Also, beneath the bow and Cupid there is a double row of nine men. Now the bow, pet, in Egyptian, has the name of number nine. Bow and number nine are synonymous because of the period of gestation, and because nine months was the time of fulfilment for another inundation which was represented by the child Horus. This was the origin of Cupid with his bow.

It was on account of the rainbow being a type of periodicity that such a thing of beauty is associated with disease and death, or takes on a foul form in relation to the feminine period and the violation of taboo. The girl at puberty was invested with her Iris (the female messenger), and such was the natural genesis of the rainbow of Isis or Keridwen in the mystical phase. Her period was announced by the messenger which in heaven above was the rainbow; and the rest is accounted for by the interchange of types. In this aspect of nature the rainbow and the flood are identical. The original bow that follows the deluge can be read in another way and in accordance with the meaning of those who set the sign in heaven; not as the Iris, but as the bow of the Archer.

The three months' inundation of the Nile is the fact of facts enshrined once and for ever in the zodiac. There the three water-signs are figured twice over, in relation to the sun and to the full moon, the bringer forth of the waters as the lunar genetrix. Thus in the fixed year the month Mesore (June 15) is named from the rebirth of the waters, corresponding to the sun's entrance into the Crab, the first of three water-signs on that side of the zodiac. The Scales show the point at which the three months' flow was suspended. The Scorpion is the sign of exhalation, disappearance, and drying up; and in the next sign appears the bow of the Archer. This sign is called Nephte which in Egyptian means breathed; nef being breath, wind, or the sailor. The archer in the Hermean or lunar zodiac is Shu, who is the god of breath and air; and his bow is the sign of the ended inundation. Also the bow is set in the ninth sign from the sign of Pisces, the last of three water-signs, and the bow and number nine are synonymous. Further, we can tell exactly how the bow got into the cloud of the Hebrew version. The Akkadian name of the ninth month, Can Ganna, is the cloud. In the Hermean zodiaci it is the month of Nephte the cloudy; and this was the month of fog, mist, and vapour in Egypt. The bow therefore is in the sign of the cloud; [p.211] the month is the 'cloud' in Akkadian by name; and so the bow in the cloud (month) is the sign of the Archer. The month Tybi or Tebi, modern Toubeh (Nov. 17, sacred year), the month of the Archer, is named from tebu, to draw water. In the ancient calendar instructions are given for filling the cisterns in this month, when the sinking Nile was in its most clarified condition[143]. Before we leave this sign another curious crossing may be noticed. The month of the Archer (Tybi in Egyptian) is the month Xisleu (Aramaic), Kuzallu (Assyrian), dedicated to Nergal, the 'giant king of war,' who is thus identified with Kesil, one of the 'fools' and giants of the earliest time; so that Shu and Nergal are both gods of the month Tybi and Kuzallu.

In the 8th month of the Egyptian year, the 12th in the Akkadian calendar, the seed that is held in the hands of Virgo, to be buried in the earth after the inundation, was reproduced by the goddess in her second character. This month is named Parmuti (Pharmuthi). Par is corn, grain, seed, to emanate; mut is the mother, the bringer-forth. The word mut also means to give. The zodiacal sign is Pisces. This was the place of rebirth or the resurrection of the second Horus, i.e. the god in his second character. Horus, as the child, brought new life to the land of Egypt, or renewed its life with the baptism of the waters Horus, as the anointed son, the begotten of the father, brought the bread of life when he arose from the earth, as the seed of the resurrection, in the month Parmuti[144].

The seasons of seed-time and harvest, and the imagery of the zodiac, will dispose of any claim that may be made on behalf of an Akkadian or Babylonian origin for the signs. In Akkad the cultivation of the earth was resumed after the deluge of the Waterman and the passage of the sun from Aquarius into Pisces marked the month 'Se-Ki-Sil' or the sowing of the seed; the Ve-Adar, an incidental month which followed this, is even called 'the dark month of sowing.' This is the exact opposite to the season in Egypt and the scenery of the zodiac. Parmuti, the modern Barrnoudeh, is marked in the calendar as 'the end of cultivation generally.' It is the harvest-time of lentils, beans, and wheat. The time for plucking the early figs from the sycamore tree of Hathor[145]. The time of seed-sowing in Egypt is shown on the opposite side of the zodiac where Virgo (Isis) holds the seed-corn in her hands; or spica, the wheat-ear, and the star Zara't (Arabic) denote agriculture. The cultivation of the earth following the inundation was resumed just after the autumn equinox. The bringing-forth of the harvest is reflected in the sign of Piscesinstead of the seed-sowingin the month of the mother of corn, Parmuti. The corn was represented as the child of the gestator; the [p.212] seed that in the Phoenician version is styled Dagan, 'which signifies Siton.'[146] Siton is corn; and according to Aelian[147], siton was a title of Ceres, the mother of corn. In Egyptian both set and teka are names of corn. Thus Siton is one with Parmuti, the mother of corn. Dagon, the fish and corn meet under one name, and Atergatis, the fish-goddess, was the Siton of Syria who brought forth the child in Pisces under the two types of the fish and corn; the original of Atergatis being Athor, who, with the fish on her head, gave birth to the child in Egypt as mother of corn, and mother of fruit as the sycamore fig-tree. The divine child was fabled to be fed upon honey, and in Egypt the first honey was taken in the month Parmuti.

Another illustration of the Kamite foundations which underlie the Akkadian and Assyrian year may be instanced. The Egyptian sacred year opened with the month Thoth (Taht), on the 20th of July. This point of beginning belongs to the Dog-star south and the Great Bear north, the Sut-Typhon of a time that was before Taht, who superseded Sut. The mapping out by north and south preceded the four quarters in the equinoctial year. Now the earliest known four quarters were marked according to this beginning; Cor Leonis (Leo) answering to Sothis as one of the first four corner stars; the others being Antares (Scorpio), Fomalhaut (Pisces Australis), and Aldebaran (Taurus). The month Thoth is the Assyrian month Abu, the Akkadian 'Ab-ab-gar,' rendered 'fire that makes fire.' The fire was that of the Dog-star, one of whose names, bar (Eg.), signifies fire in Akkadian. Also abu (Eg.) is a name of the dog. The name denotes that renewal of fire from the spark which was a sacred rite in many lands. It was the Baal-fire in Britain, rekindled at the summer solstice; the summit of the year. The seventh month from this beginning is Sabatu in Assyrian; Schat in Aramaic. And as it is named the seventh it necessarily belongs to a year that once began with Abu, the Egyptian year of the Dog-star, which preceded the establishment of the equinoctial year. Sabatu, the seventh month of the Egyptian sacred year is the eleventh month in the equinoctial year. This beginning with Ab or Abib has been mixed up with Nisan as the first month of the sacred year of the Jews, in the fresh beginning of the year under Moses[148]. But the original Ab or Abib was the first month of the Egyptian sacred year. The Hebrew records and reckonings are a good deal ravelled through the mixture of Egyptian and Assyrian data in the latest version.

Bara Ziggar (Nisan), the month of the 'upright altar' is the Egyptian month of the luni-solar god Khunsu, Pa-Khunsu, or Pashons in Greek. Khunsu was the child of the full moon which determined Easter in Egypt as it does in Europe. The pig, however, was, and is yet, the sacrifice at Easter, and Khunsu is represented in [p.213] the disk of the full moon holding forth the pig as an offering. This is the other 'man with the offering' for the altar of the vernal equinox, which in the zodiac of Denderahi has been adjusted and removed from the sign of the Ram into the sign of the Fishes. The sacrifice of the pig once a year by the Egyptians celebrated the triumph over the dark and evil Typhon of whom the sow had become a type, although it was once the honoured image of the most ancient genetrix, the good Typhon. Herodotus says he knew why they ate once a year that which was considered detestable all the rest of the year, but it did not become him to mention it[149]. The reason was because, although the pig had changed with the theology, it was still a type of time. The sow Rerit (the Great Bear) was the mother of time, and as such remained sacred once a year in a timekeeping sacrifice.

The two altars and sacrifices at the equinoxes correspond to the two Hebrew festivals of the year; the feast of tabernacles in the month Tisri, the first month of their civil year; and the feast of the Passover in Nisan, the first month of their sacred year, according to the luni-solar reckoning. At the feast of the autumn equinox they entered the ark or dwelt in הכם during seven days. 'Ye shall dwell in tabernacles seven days.'[150] The sekht was an Egyptian ark which becomes a typical tabernacle with the Hebrews. The succoth are especially related to the equinox: they were to be made half in light and half in shade; and in Egyptian sekhekh is to balance and adjust. Dating from Nisan the Jews entered the ark only two days earlier than Noah, and therefore the period is the same. The sacrifice of the altar on this side of the circle lasted seven days, ending with the octave of the feast which answers in time to the ogdoad in the ark. At the vernal equinox they celebrated the solemnity of the Passover, when the sun comes up out of the waters. These were the two great Sabbaths of the year, continued each for seven days, which preceded a Sabbath every seventh day. This brings us to the double origin assigned for the Sabbath in the two different sets of commandments. One account says the Sabbath was instituted because the Lord rested on the seventh day after his six days' work in creation. The other affirms that it was established to celebrate the coming up out of Egypt[151]. Both are true in the celestial allegory. Both belong to the luni-solar reckoning and the two equinoctial points of beginning the year; but always on Egyptian ground because of the inundation. The first Sabbath and sacrifice during seven days, and the dwelling in arks made of green boughs or in Succoth is coincident in time with the Egyptian rejoicings over the full and overflowing Nile, and the re-emergence of the green earth (sekht) from the waters. This, in [p.214] Egypt, was the creation of the world from the waters, actual and annual. Hence the altar erected in heaven at the spot that marked the recreated world, in the month named the 'holy altar' in Akkadian.

The Sabbath of the Passover celebrated the deliverance and ascent from the Egypt (khebt, the lower) of the mythological allegory in accordance with the sacrifice of the pig (or Fish, Ram, or Bull, as the sign might be), and the setting up of the altar at the time of the vernal equinox. The one is the festival of the re-emerging earth and the 'finding of the cross;' the other is the Sabbath of the re-ascending sun, whether in the sign of the Bull, the Ram, or the Fishes.

When Noah was commanded to build the ark, it was to be a theba. The same word is used by the Seventy and the New Testament scribes both for the ark of Noah and the ark of the sanctuary. The theba is Egyptian in several forms. The teba is a chest or ark, a coffin or sarcophagus of the dead in which they crossed the waters; the hold of the boat, and the ark of the Great Bear in which the Osiris crossed the abyss. The city of Thebes was a theba, an ark-city of the waters in which Num presided as lord of the inundation. Diodorus tells us how the Sesertosis caused 'a ship to be made of cedar, 280 cubits long, all gilded without, all silvered within, whereof he made an oblation to the god that was chiefly adored at Thebes.'[152] This typified the solar bark in which the god crossed the waters and so to say out-rode the deluge. Pliny reports a tradition[153] that the Thebeans of the Thiba in Pontus could not sink in water. This was because they were on board the Theba represented as a dwelling-place. We also have the theba in English as the tub, an ancient ship.

Such is the foundation in natural phenomena when once we get on the right ground; and by the facts in nature only can the mythical typology be read in heaven, or in the various sacred and symbolical writings of the world, or understood when reported by the tongues of tradition. The Akkadian months derive their names from the signs of the zodiac, but the primary nature of the signs determines their Egyptian origin. No serious student of the subject can doubt that the Arabic, Chaldean, Hindu, Chinese, and Greek systems of ancient astronomy were derived from a common source. Egypt alone is known to be old enough to account for that unity of origin; and the chief types constellated in the heavens are of Egyptian origin and belong to the Kamite mythology. We now occupy the ground and possess the data for giving such an account of the chief constellations and their relations to mythological astronomy, the celestial allegories and parables of the ancient wisdom, as will determine the Kamite origin at once and for ever. The beginning was not in Egypt itself, nor with the signs of the zodiac. The earliest observations were made and the results registered aloft in equatorial or tropical regions, [p.215] where the starry vast was figured as the revolving seven-headed serpent of the sphere, the Kamite serpent of eternity or millions of years, and then divided into the twin-serpent or double dragon of the two poles, which was followed by the four-headed serpent Hapu of the four corners. The primary type will explain why, in the course of development, the Egyptian planisphere should become a map that was scribbled over with serpents[154]. It is difficult for the mind of man to enter a second time into the matrix of the human mind, or to worm a way back to the absolute beginnings. The present writer, until lately, thought the serpent or dragon with seven heads might have been first represented by Draconis headed with the seven stars of the Lesser Bear. But he is forced to the conclusion that the primordial serpent of darkness had seven heads assigned it, i.e., seven constellations were called its heads, which crossed in the circle of the year or one turn round, and that this was represented by the sevenfold uraeus type in the Ritual, the seven-headed serpent of the waters in Akkad, and the seven-headed Sesha-Naga in India, as a figure that was anterior to the dragon of the pole; the general revolution being registered first. This distinction is important. For instance, in the Hindu astronomy the seven Rishis are identified with the Great Bear, and the seven in the ark are typified as or by the seven stars in the Bear; but they had a natural genesis previously which, if unknown, cannot be allowed for. Thus European astronomers are naturally perplexed by the Hindu doctrine of the seven sages or Rishis, the original seven in the ark. The ancient astronomers attribute to these seven an independent motion about the pole of the heavens at the rate of 8' annually, or of a complete revolution in 2,700 years[155]. Whatsoever the meaning of the statement which appears in astronomical textbooks, the first thing to be understood is that the seven Rishis are not limited to the Great Bear, that they were assigned seven constellations or asterisms, and that they have to be identified with other forms of the seven. In Egypt the stars that crossed by night were measured by the face and figure of heaven divided into seven parts[156]; and 7 52 days for a year probably preceded 52 7 days; the Mexican sacred cycle of fifty-two years might be pointed to as a typical deposit of the fact.

The seven, however, have various representatives; amongst others the seven zootypes related to the elements which were continued as kronotypes in the sphere of time, In both phases the seven were born of the great mother as Typhon the abyss or dragon at first, and next the goddess of the seven stars in Ursa Major. The abyss is Khepsh (Eg.) a name of the north and of the Great Bear. Locally Khepsh is Kush, or Ethiopia, which was named as the northern half [p.216] by a people farther inland. As they descended, the abyss receded from Ethiopia to Habesh, and Kep-kep (Nubia) to Coptus and Kheb, or Lower Egypt, the land of the inundation. The seven constellations and the polar imagery had been figured in heaven; these led the way to the lunar and solar zodiac. The seven divided by the four of the four cardinal points would yield the twenty-eight lunar stations which were followed by the twelve signs of the final zodiac. In these the river and the child Horus were reborn in the month Mesore (June-July), and the name signifies their rebirth as Mes-Aur or Mes-Ar. The sign here set in heaven was the beetle that rolled up its seed and buried its little globe of earth during the inundation. When the sun was in this sign the moon, the 'mistress of floods,' arose in the Sea-goat, the zodiacal sign of Sut-Anup, who was an announcer of the inundation as the dog or jackal, which is also stationed in the tree of the north and south in the decans of Virgo. As we have seen, the Egyptians portrayed the Lion because the Nile poured down one-half of the inundation whilst the sun was in that sign[157]. At this point the moon rose at full in the Waterer who as Hapi-Mu impersonates the dual Nile, and who as the genetrix, Menat, is the Dea Multimammae in the Hermean or lunar zodiaci. In the sign of Virgo the mother of corn carries the seed ready for sowing when the waters subside. This also represents the seed, her son. In the Scales the waters are suspended, they are held at poise in the balance. The earlier sign of the tortoise was the symbol of the earth buried beneath the waters, because the tortoise buried itself in and emerged again from the earthhence it is a co-type with the turtle. With the sun's entrance into the sign of Scorpion, Serk, which signifies the exhalation and disappearance of the waters, the inundation subsided and the dry earth began to reappear, wrapped at first in a mist or cloud.

The Archer being composed of Shu and Tefnut represents both elements. The three next are the three lunar water-signs that correspond to the three solar in relation to the actual inundation of the Nile. No river on earth can be compared with Nilus as the original of Eridanus,* which, like the Nile, is so emphatically the river, and so Nile-like as the twin river.

* The Eridanus of Ptolemy[158] has the shape of an enormous serpent, that comes winding out of the south, or Africa, overhead; the river and dragon in one. Such was the typical tann (ןנת) of the Hebrew writers, the dragon of the river of Egypt, or the water = dragon. The tan or tanmu (Eg.) is a destroyer in the water. In this sense the Arts Tanut would be the river = dragon. Tan is inner African, the serpent is the danawe in Udso, dunu in Yula, dana in Kasmtuna being the crocodile or alligator. Tuna is also a type name for rain and flood in the Mandenga language. Thus Arts Tanut is the dragon-river and the dividing river, both of which were portrayed by the one great serpent and two waters of Hapi-Mu, or Nilus.

In the star-catalogue of Ulugh Beigh[159] the source of the dual Nile is indicated by one star called 'Al Dalm,' the buckets, which agrees with the double- [p.217] spouted urn of the inundation. In Egyptian, aer or aru (alu) is the river; and tanid means to divide in twain, become dual. Aru or alu, with the definite plural article nai (the) prefixed, denotes the double stream, and explains the naialu, whence Nile, which is not derived from the Semitic nahar. Also the remotest southern star of Eridanus (a Eridani) called 'Akher-an-Nahr' (Achernar), the source or end of the river in Arabic, points to the Egyptian 'akar,' the subterranean region, as the fount of source. Eridanus reflects the unique one water of the world which issued out of the Akar in the far south, or in which, as it was represented, the primordial water of the celestial nun flowed in its mundane form, became two, and ultimately debouched from Lower Egypt in the seven outlets of Nile. The river is sometimes represented as the flowing female, the mother mystery, who is also the wet-nurse, called Canopus in the Hermean zodiaci. This was primarily the old Typhon or dragon Kep, whose name is that of the Nile (later Hapi) as the mysterious source of fertilization.

The chief characters in the Kamite mythology, which have been delineated in the foregoing sections, were finally placed in the zodiacal signs. The mother of all, who began as the abyss in space, and became the goddess of the Great Bear in the sphere of time, passed into the Hermean zodiac as the female waterer, the nurse Menat. The two sisters into which the great mother divided, reappear as the virgin (Virgo) and the gestator (Pisces), the two mothers of the double Horus. The two pairs of twins are also reproduced. The brothers, Sut-Horus, who may be termed the twins of east and west, or light and dark, were continued as the male Gemini or Dioscuri; and the male and female twins of north and south, breath and moisture, were combined to form the Archer. These four are representatives of the four elements, and of the four genii of the four quarters. Indeed the mythos of the Great Mother, the male twins together with the male and female twins, already traced, may perhaps afford a clue to the filling in of the signs between each of the four quarters.

The soli-lunar points of beginning in the Egyptian sacred year were in the Lion and the Waterer. As the moon was primary, the Waterer came first in the scenery by night. Menat, the suckler, or waterer, is the lunar form of the genetrix Typhon, the old first mother in earth and heaven, set in the zodiac. Now, if we turn according to the course of precession, we shall see that a form of the male twins is next in station, as we find them in mythology, for Sut-Anup is figured in the sign of the Sea-Goat, where the god who had been guide of the inundation as the Dog-star, guide of the genetrix as the male moon, and guide of the sun as the planet Mercury, was finally stationed as guide of the Abyss, represented by the three lunar water-signs. The male and female twins, Shu and his sister, form the Sagittarius. Thus the series of the most ancient genetrix, the male twins of light and [p.218] darkness, and the male-female twins of breath and water, lead round the circle of precession in the same order. Also, in accordance with the luni-solar arrangement, these three are repealed in the three opposite signs, where the Lion represents the old genetrix Typhonwho is a lion in her lower part, the Crab (or Beetles) is the sign of Hermes-Anubis, or the male twins that transformed in the lunar phase, and the Gemini are the male and female twins as Shu and his sister. Thus the signs reflect the primary phases of the mythos, and they show twice over that the filling in between the two solstitial starting-points was made in the course of precession, and not in the forward direction of the annual circlei & i. Lastly, the twelve signs and their decans are identifiable with the Kamite pantheon of divinities. The

Ram, with Amen-Ra, Kem-Ba, and Sebek-Ra.
Bull, with him, Osiris, Khem, and Ser-Apis.
Twins, with Sut-Horus, or Shu and Tefnut.
Beetles, or Crab, with Khepra (Ptah); also Taht as Hermanubis.
Lion, with the Great Mother and lion-gods.
Virgin, with Isis.
Scales, or Tortoises, with Har-Makhu, or Har-pi-Khart; also the tortoise-god.
Scorpion, with Serk, Seb and Sevekh.
Archer, with Shu and Tefnut.
Sea-Goat, with Sut-Anubis.
Waterer, with Hapi-Mu and Menat.
Fishes, with Hathor, or Iusaas, and son, also with Khunsu.


Typhon can be identified with the Great Bear.
Sevekh       "                       "          Draconis and Lesser Bear.
Shu            "                        "         Regulus.
Horus        "                        "         Triangle or Pyramid.
Ra              "                        "         Sun.
Sut, Taht, Aan and Aahti     "         Moon.
Shu             "                       "         Mars.
Sut-Anup    "                       "         Mercury.
Seb             "                       "         Jupiter.
Hathor       "                       "         Venus.
Sevekh        "                       "         Saturn.

The deluge had been the condition of commencement. 'This too is declared (in Revelation), that after the great rain in the beginning of creation and the wind sweeping away the water to the ocean, the earth is in seven portions a little above it.'[160] The great rain here is simply the celestial water, out of which the seven-portioned earth emerged, the typical heptanomis found in many lands. In the Bundahish the seven divisions are formed by means of the seven rivers, the Hapta Hendu of the Avesta. Also in Buddhist legends the four rivers of the earthly paradise first created are represented as being seven in number. This refers to the first division of space itself, called the waters, into seven portions. In one myth a five-portioned earth is described as emerging from the deluge. This is in accordance with the middle-earth of Seb which was added to that of the four [p.219] corners, continents, or islands, in the waters of space. From this beginning with water as a condition of negation and of existence as an escape, a deluge became the type of an ending in time which was variously applied. We are able to distinguish several deluges that correspond to the different falls in heaven. The first great catastrophe described is the deluge of the giants, from which seven were saved in the ark of the seven stars or constellations. The next is the deluge of the two solstices (or north and south), from which a male and female pair was saved. The flood of the moon and the first four corners follows, from which four, or with their consorts eight, persons were saved. The first two corresponded to the 'fall' of the seven giants from heaven, and the 'pair' from paradise. The earliest deluge, then, is that of the giants. According to Boturini, the Mexicans held that it was in the first age of the world the giants began to appear on the earth[161]. As it is said by Procopius Gazaeus, 'Those whom the Hebrews mentioned as Rephaim were by other people called giants and Titans.'[162] The giants and Titans of the foreworld, who bequeathed their large fossil remains to mythology, were the elemental powers, represented by the zootypes, that dominated the dawning mind of man, and frightened him with the hugeness of the Apap giant of darkness the akhekh of eclipse; the monster of the water that lurked to lay hold; the blustering, stormy winds, the loud lawlessness of the thunder, that slew with its lightning dart, and laughed till heaven rang and earth rocked. A giant of the foreworld vanishes under the type of the mammoth in a tradition of the red men. They say that at the close of the deluge the last mammoth sprang at a single bound over the Lake Superior and disappeared for ever in the wilds of Canada. In this version the huge mammoth takes the place of the Titan, the troll, the Rapha, as a type of the enormous nature-power typified as the monster of a god or a devil. The giant powers of nature were at length found out; they were non-intelligences to men; they were blind as they were big; and, therefore, unintellectual. Gradually they became the typical 'Great Stupids' of the human childhood; which character they keep in the nursery today, where the fables of our childhood yet reflect the typology of the human infancy.

These giants still survive in folklore as monsters without mind; big of body, with no heart in it; cyclopean in bulk, with only one eye. For all his size the giant is easily outwitted by the manifestation of Nuns in the least little physical shape of a Jack, Boots, or the victorious child Khunsu, the giant-killer. They are represented in an American myth as the 'Stonish giants' who sought to devour the chosen people, and were met by a stratagem on the part of the holder of the heavens. He induced them to lie concealed in a deep hollow just below the fort they were about to storm; he then ascended the heights and over- [p.220] whelmed them by hurling down masses of rock; only one escaped to announce the fate of the Stonish giants[163].

One of the Knisteneaux Indians on the Upper Missouri who presented Catlin with a pipe made of red stone related a legend of the deluge to him. The Indian said that in the time of a great freshet or flood the tribes of the red man all assembled on the Cteau des prairies to get out of the reach of the waters, but the deluge continued to rise and rise until they were entirely whe1med in a mass and their flesh was converted into the red stone from which they now made their pipes. This ground was held to be neutral, and a common possession belonging to all the tribes alike, from which they all might quarry the red stone that was once the flesh of their red ancestors[164]. In this legend the ancestors are identical with the buried Titans and those who transformed into the vine, the tobacco plant, and other types of the elementary spirits that were seven in number, like the giants. Here the flesh of the superseded race is preserved after the deluge. On the other hand, the Greenlanders have a class of spirits called Ingnersoit, which they greatly fear. These are the ghosts of those who died when the world turned upside down in the deluge. They were said to have been transformed into flames, and to have found shelter in the clefts of the rock[165]. These phantoms that rise up from the buried past did not originate in any theory of ghosts, and can all be traced back to the beginning with the elementaries or nature-powers that were typified at first, and have now passed into folklore and fairyology as their final form. But the giants have two phases as zootypes and kronotypes.

In the American myths seven of the giants in general escape destruction. The Indians of Southern California have a tradition of the beginning in which Quaoar, the Lord, when he first created the world placed it on the backs of seven sustaining giants[166]. In other forms of the myth these seven are all that survive a deluge that was universal. By the number seven we can trace the continuity of the elementaries into the astronomical stage where the giants of earth pass into the seven Cabiri of heaven, the seven Rishis, princes or companions in the ark. The Mexican and Aztec traditions state that the great cataclysm occurred when the land was peopled by giants. Some of these perished utterly, and some were changed into fishes. But seven brothers of them found safety by inclosing themselves in the caves of a mountain called Tlaloc[167]. The Indians of Cholula relate that all who did not perish in the great deluge were turned into fishesthe first inhabitants of a world all waterexcepting seven.

The coast people of California preserve the tradition of an ancient race who dwelt in the country, called the Hohgates, who were credited [p.221] with building the vast mound of mussel-shells and bones which is still visible on the tableland of Point St. George, near Crescent City. The origin of these aborigines was assigned to the landing of seven Hohgates who came in one boat, and who on emerging from the waters built for themselves houses above ground. These Hohgates were fishers, and one day when the seven were out at sea, they harpooned a huge sea-lion, who dragged them and their boat towards a great whirlpool which lay to the north-west, at the place where souls go down to the underworld. But just as they were on the verge and about to make the perilous plunge the rope broke, and they found themselves floating steadily up into the heavens, where the seven Hohgates were transformed into seven stars or constellations[168]. The seven Hohgates are one with the seven giants who support the world on their backs, or build the tower that is intended to reach the heaven. This legend shows us the same transference of the elementaries into starry kronotypes that we find in Egypt. They are also identical with the seven Cabiri of Ptah, of the Phoenicians, and of the Britons.

The Warau, an Indian tribe of Guiana, claim the invention of the canoe for a famous Warau, named Abor, who was the first mariner that ever crossed the ocean[169]. Abor agrees with the name of Abaris, the hyperborean who was said to have carried an arrow round the earth without eating anything[170]. And both correspond to the Cabiri, who were the first that ever sailed in ships, and who as the sons of Ptah or of the Phoenician Sydik are a band of seven brothers. 'Caba-Gaburi' is the name of a place in Guiana where one of the ancient shell-mounds is yet extant[171]. This too is a mound or mount of the seven constellations identified by the seven Cabiri, the companions who revolved and sailed in the earliest boat or ark, or dwelt in the seven caves of a mount. The seven, then, who are grouped about the North Pole in the Egyptian Ritual have to be conceived as the seven timekeepers of seven constellations that made their revolution once a year, as the Cabiri, Hohgates, Rishis, companions, giants, or others, in the ark of the sphere. These seven had various types in heaven and on earth. Seven caves in the mount (of the pole) form one figure of the seven constellations that would be earlier than the ark, as men found refuge from the waters in mountain-caves before they could build a boat. Other symbols were the seven mountains, seven pillars, seven altars, seven trees, seven islands, seven provinces, seven churches, etc., which have been continually confused with the seven planets that were immeasurably later, and all of which have different periods of time. Pausanias describes seven pillars that stood near Mount Taygetus in Laconia, which were arranged according to some ancient rule, and were supposed to represent the seven planets[172]. But he shows they were connected with the horse, hippos, or hippa, the mare, that is [p.222] the water-horse as Kepa (Eg.), the goddess of the seven stars, and mother of the earliest hebdomad.

The author of Druidical Temples argues, in common with other English writers, that seven trilithons formed the figure of an ellipse at Stonehenge, and that this ellipse imaged the ovum mundi, or mundane egg, of universal nature[173]. Smith, another writer on the subject, also considers the trilithons were seven in number, and that they represented the seven planets[174]. But the fact is, the British Druids, like the Egyptians, Babylonians, Chinese, and other ancient nations, reckoned the planets as five in number, not seven; the five star-planets independently of sun and moon. These writers overlooked the earlier seven of the inferior hebdomad of kronian deities that preceded the planetary seven the seven of the celestial heptanomis. In all the ancient kronian mythologies the pre-planetary Sept of gods were succeeded and eclipsed by the seven planets, and nothing fundamental can be established concerning them except in their primary phase. The seven great gods of Assyria end, but did not begin, as the planetary Sept. The eight-rayed star of Ishtar (as Ogdoas) and of Assur as the manifesting child shows they were identical with the eight pre-planetary gods in Egypt.

Philo tells us the Hebrew Al or El was the presiding deity of the planet Saturn[175]. Diodorus Siculus confirms this; he, too, says that in the Chaldean mythology Al was the presiding divinity of the planet Saturn[176]. But the planetary phase is too late to recover the character of Al by the comparative process. Al is the Egyptian ar, the son, the Phoenician Ilus. Al-Shadai was the son of the suckler Rerit, or the Great Bear. Her son was Sevekh-Kronus, god of the seven stars (those of the Lesser Bear and Draco) which preceded the planetary seven, to whom Saturn was assigned as his planet. Sevekh was the typical Sut in the male form who was the god Al of Israel.

The seven British triliths would equate with the seven mountains, sevenfold division of the heaven. The oval shape agrees with altars, trees, provinces, waters, giants, and other types of the the uterine figure of the birthplace and with the egg which is a solid oval. The first egg of time emaned by the serpent of the year was evolved in the circle of the seven constellations, not in any circle of seven planets.

Further, one of the mystical stones of the Druids is known as the seven stone or Sith stone. Sith or sidi is seven, and Stonehenge is called Kaer-Sidi by the Barddas, as the seat of the seven[176a]. Now, there is a British tradition that these lofty stones were brought out of Africa by giants, and first erected in Ireland on the Curragh of Kudare.

The tradition need not he literally interpreted to be true. If the stones of the giants were raised on an Irish plain before a temple [p.223] was built at Salisbury, the meaning would still be apparent. The stones themselves were giants, as they stood twenty-two feet in height. The giants likewise appear in the title of the 'Chorea gigantum,' or giant's dance, applied to the stones. Thus two different traditions identify the stones with the giants. Therefore it is possible the seven giants of the heptanomis once stood among the figures at Stonehenge, especially as one name of this ancient temple was the 'ship of the world,' a form of the ark of the celestial sphere in which the seven first sailed the over-sea.

The 'Seven Cities of Cevola' are supposed to have stood where seven ruins are found in the Chaco Valley, New Mexico. Coronado[177], the conqueror of Cevola, said: 'The seven cities are seven small towns, standing all without four leagues together;' and 'altogether they are called Cevola.' The Caon of the Rio Chaco, to the north-west of Santa Fe, still shows the traveller a ruined group of seven pueblos, the edifices which once held a whole community domiciled by the number seven, or as the sept.

The mount of the seven stars and of the seven divisions was represented by the group of seven hills wheresoever these were found as at Rome and at Great Grimsby the seat of the great mother Kd.

The Mexicans performed a ghastly series of seven sacrifices with children as their offerings instead of the seven ewe lambs of the Hebrew cult, on seven hills for the seven altars. In the first days of the first month of the year, which month is called in some parts of Mexico Quavitleloa, but generally Atlcaoalo, and begins on the second day of our February, a great feast was made in honour of the Tlalocs, gods of rain and water. Many children at the breast were brought from their mothers to be offered up in sacrifice. Those were preferred which had two whorls (remolinos) in their hair or were double-crowned. Some of these babes were slain on seven different mountains or spots connected therewith. The first place where children were butchered was Quauhtepetl, a high mountain in the neighbourhood of Tlatelulco; all infants, boys or girls, sacrificed there were called by the name of the place, Quauhtepetl; these were decorated with strips of paper dyed red. The second place was Yoaltecatl, a high mountain near Guadalupe. The victims were decorated with pieces of black paper, having red lines on it, and were named after the place Yoaltecatl. The third death-halt was made at Tepetzingo, a well-known hillock that rose up from the waters of the lake of Mexico opposite Tlatelulco; there they killed a little girl, decking her with blue paper, and calling her Qutezalzoch, an equivalent for this hillock's name. Poiauhtla, on the boundary of Tlascala, was the fourth hill of sacrifice. Here they killed children, named as usual after the locality, and decorated with paper on which were lines of india rubber oil. The fifth place of sacrifice was at the no longer visible whirlpool or sink [p.224] of the lake of Mexico, Pantitlan. Those drowned here were called Epcoatl, and their adornment was named epuepaniuhqui. The sixth hill of death was Cocotl, near Chalcoatenco; the infant victims were named after it, and decorated with strips of paper of which half the number were red and half a tawny colour. The mount Yiauhqueme, near Atlacuioaia, was the seventh station; the victims being named after the place, and adorned with paper of a tawny colour[178].

These seven altars of the Tlalocs constitute the sevenfold and natural type of the mountain Tlaloc, which contains the seven caves, and was also typified by the pyramid of the seven giants. Moreover, the Mexicans not only built the mount or pyramid of the seven stars and seven stages, they also erected a group of seven pyramids, corresponding to the seven altars of Ialak, and the seven mountains of the Tlaloc gods.

Mr. Haliburton states that in certain groups of the Mexican pyramids there is one pyramid for the sun, one for the moon, and a cluster of seven small ones for the seven stars which he erroneously identifies with the Pleiades[179]. The seven are the same as those on the Assyrian monuments and the Scottish stones, the seven primary constellations.

The two sevens are portrayed on one of the Babylonian cylinders where the five planets are represented distinctly apart from the solar god and crescent moon. They are all there, however, together with the eight-rayed star of the manifestor, and the connected group of the seven Amshaspands, the earlier hebdomad of powers[180].

It was because the mount of the seven stars had given shelter to Xelhua the architect and his six brethren that he went to Cholula and erected the artificial hill in the form of a pyramid. This memorial mount was built on earth to represent the celestial mount in which the seven giants took refuge from the deluge. The pyramid-mound was an earlier form of the Babel-tower, and we find the same legend related of its destruction that was preserved by the Semites. The edifice was intended to reach the clouds and to overtop any future deluge. The gods with wrath beheld this aspiring work of the builders, and they hurled fire down from heaven to destroy it. Numbers perished, and the work was forced to be discontinued. The monument was afterwards dedicated to Quetzal, god of the air[181]; which agrees with the shrine of the seven cubits assigned to the giant Shu, god of air in Egypt, who is called the giant of seven cubits, that dwelt in a shrine of seven cubits, which was changed into one of eight cubits.

The pyramid temple in Atehum, copied by Ellis[182], consists of seven tiers or stages. It was an immense pile, and the Tiava, or cornerstones (compare tebi, Eg., the pedestal of an obelisk), were hewn with [p.225] enormous labour and laid with great care. The oldest known Egyptian pyramid, that of Saqqara, is truncated, and has seven ascending steps. This the present writer considers to be the monument of the constellated seven; the mount of Meru within, that preceded the planetarium. Mr. Halliburton points out that the grouping of the Mexican pyramids of the sun, moon, and seven stars, agrees with that of the three pyramids of Giza[183]. But the Pleiades throw him off the true track. The two lesser pyramids are those of the sun and moon, and the Great Pyramid is a monument in which the pyramid of the seven constellations encloses the planetarium, an equivalent, therefore, to the double Meru.

The pyramid is a hieroglyphic figure of no. 7, founded on the square and triangle; the figure and number of Sut-Typhon, the goddess of the seven stars in the north and of Sothis in the south. Sothis is Sebti, i.e., seb (5) ti (2), the star of the seven stars in the Bear, and of the seven constellations. The pyramid of Saqqara has lately yielded up the information that some nine or ten thousand years ago the Egyptians were chronicling the Sothiac cycles, and thus reckoning time by the 1,460 years together.

The Great Pyramid contains what are known as the Queen's Chamber, the King's Chamber, and the Five Chambers of Construction. The Queen's Chamber is lowest, the King's comes next, and the other five are over these. Thus there are seven rooms altogether, besides the gallery. These seven answer to the seven planets, and the seven divinities associated with the seven tiers of the Babylonian towers.

The number of the seven chief constellations and the seven stars of the great mother of the seven kronotypes is made permanent in the Queen's Chamber, which is seven-sided, whilst the roof of the gallery next to the King's Chamber is formed of seven inverted stairs by seven overlapping courses of stone. Norden[184] observed that the roof of the Queen's Chamber was 'made like an ass's back;' the ass being an especial type of Sut-Typhon.

The number eight is registered in the Kings Chamber. Of this Sandys says 'the stones are so great that eight floor it, eight roof it, eight flag each end, and sixteen the sides;'[185] and in the solar mythos, Horus or Ra, the sun-god, was the manifestor of the pleroma of powers, the seven spirits or souls in the psychotheistic phase, following Taht in the lunar, and Sut in the luni-stellar myth.

The Great Pyramid bore, as its special title of honour, the name of Khuti, the 'Lights.' Like the American pyramids and the British ark of the world, it is intimately related to the deluge according to the legends.

The Arab traditions generally affirm that the Great Pyramid was a star-temple and a treasury of knowledge; built to preserve the records of all the profoundest sciencesthe hidden wisdomand the [p.226] means of keeping the chronology from the beginning to the end of time.

The mode of expressing this was that the writings, registers, engraved tablets, talismans, and other precious memorials were to be made secure in this stone-safe against the coming deluge. The deluge being the end of a period, probably that of precession.

Murtadi, who wrote in 992 at Tihe in Arabia, i.e., AD 1584, and whose work was translated in 1672, relates a story of one King Saurid, who dreamed of the coming deluge, and built the pyramid to secure the treasures of wisdom[186]. Serit is the Egyptian name for the keeper, the measurer, or builder. Saurid is also called Saiouph by Murtadi, that is Khufu, who was the builder; the Cheops of Herodotus[187].

He says further that the mage or magician Saiouph 'made his abode in the maritime pyramid along with Noah.' This is a deluge legend indeed! Yet it contains matter to make us listen more intelligently to Arab traditions. For Num-Khufu, the builder of the Great Pyramid, bore the name of the Kamite Noah, or Num, lord of the inundation, whose ark-city was Thebes.

The name of Num-Khufu was only discovered by Colonel Vyse in 1837 scrawled in the quarry-marks upon the stones[188], yet, says the Arab report, Saiouph, Shufu, or Khufu, dwelt with Num in the Great Pyramid, as he does in the cartouche. Of course Num or Noah has been rendered personally by means of the Hebrew tradition. In the cartouche it is but a part of the name of him who was the builder of a veritable ark of the deluge of time or Kronus.

According to Mariette the Temple of Seti at Abydos is 'one of those edifices the purport and meaning of which are most difficult to grasp. Properly speaking, it is composed of seven naves or bays, leading into seven sanctuaries as if dedicated to seven deities.'[189] My suggestion is that these seven are the spirits or gods of the seven constellations, the pre-planetary seven. Seti, as his name shows, was devoted to Sut. He supported the Typhonian Cult which had been continued from the time of the elementary gods.

The conical broch or pict-house of Scotland appears to have been a form of the storied pyramid. Sir Walter Scott has described Mousa Broch[190] as 'a pyramidal dovecot formed by a double wall still containing within its thickness that set of circular galleries or concentric rings which is proper to all the forts of this primitive construction.' On the stones the circles round the centre are sometimes seven in number as they are in the Kaer-drioia.

The tower followed the mount of the earlier time as a type of the ascent. Heaven considered as a tower or habitation is alluded to by Isaiah[191] so the sun and moon enter into the tower of heaven[192] (הלבז) and Baal, the Phoenician Saturn, was called Baal-Zebul (לובזלעב), Baal of the tower of heaven, the seven-storied planetarium. In Siam the [p.227] seven-tiered tower takes the shape of a seven-storied sunshade or umbrella, the savetraxal or primary symbol of royalty.*[193]

* Captain Burton observes that 'from India to Abyssinia, from Morocco to Japan, the umbrella is the sign of royalty.'[194]

We know the Babel tower of seven stages in Chaldea had passed into the later phase and represented the seven planets, as is shown by the scale of the seven planetary colours. But this was not the primary character of the mount, mound, or tower. We get a glimpse of this fact in the Assyrian legend of the tower of Babel. Broken and fragmentary as is the inscription, enough remains to show that the Babel-builders were pre-solar here as elsewhere. It states that Babylon turned corruptly to sin and 'small and great mingled on the mound.' The thoughts of the builder's heart were evil; he turned from Anu, the father of all the gods (as Khufu was said to have done in Egypt). Anu as father of the gods, like Ra, was a comparatively late creation in mythology. When the Babel tower of seven stages had become a planetary type, we find the hand of Anu is figured upon the ziggurat at the summit[195]. We are told that 'The City of Babylon owes its foundations to those who were saved from the catastrophe of the Flood; these were the giants, (Heb. םילפנ = fallen ones), and they built the tower which is noticed in history. But the tower being overthrown by the interposition of God, the giants were scattered over all the earth.'[196] As the giant builders were brothers, seven in number, these can be identified with the 'seven kings' who 'came as begetters,' in the Chaldean creation; the oldest of whom was the thunderbolt, in the ancient legend of the beginning. These were opposed by a later seven; the two being explicable as the two different gnostic hebdomads, the inferior first, and the superior planetary gods, the final seven great gods in Assyria.

The first world or formation that preceded any particular deluge of time was that of the seven divisions, mountains, islands, caves, or provinces. As it is related in the discourses prefixed to the Puranas, the most ancient Manu Swayambhuva, or Adim, whose consort's name was Iva (Hebrew, Eve; Egyptian, Kefa), lived in the country of Puscara and had seven sons, who divided the whole world, otherwise called the seven islands, between them; this was in the time before the deluge[197]. The same seven divisions were destroyed in the seven provinces of Dyfed, Wales, when the drunken Seithenhin let in the deluge and drowned the land. The Mangaians recognise in the seven islands of the Hervey group the outward shape or similitude of the seven isles of Savaiki or Avaiki,* which are supposed to be in [p.228] the underworld, beneath the waters.

* Avaiki. 'The Hervey group consists of seven inhabited islets. Each is supposed to be the body, or outward form, to which a spirit, bearing a distinct name located in Avaiki, belongs.'[198]

The sunken seven had various types; and as sesha the great serpent is said to bear up the seven patalas on its heads, we may see in this a form or figure of the genetrix who as Typhon or Tiamat was the seven-headed dragon, and who is represented in Revelation as sitting on the beast with seven heads as well as on the symbolical seven mountains[198a]. Thus Sesha, the teacher of astronomy, lying below the waters of the deluge, is one of the figures of the foreworld; its seven heads being another sign of the seven constellations equivalent to the seven submerged divisions of the sunken paradise, or the seven islands of the lost Atlantis. In the Book of Enoch the sevenfold scenery of this foreworld is reproduced. 'Seven high mountains I beheld, higher than all the mountains of the earth from which frost proceeds; while days, seasons, and years depart and pass away. Seven rivers I beheld upon earth, greater than all rivers. Seven great islands I saw in the sea and on the earth. Seven in the great sea.'[199] These seven islands in the great sea are also found as relics of the sunken Atlantis, of which Proclus in Timaeus says: 'That such an island (as Atlantis) formerly existed is recorded by some historians who have treated of the outward sea. For they say that in their times seven islands situated in that sea were sacred to Persephone; and three others of an immense magnitude, one of which was consecrated to Pluto, another to Ammon, and the one between them to Poseidon. The inhabitants of this last island preserved a tradition, handed down from their ancestors, concerning the existence of the Atlantis island of prodigious magnitude, which had really existed in those seas, and which during a long period of time governed all the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Such is the statement of Marcellus in his Ethiopian history.'[200]

This vast island-world that broke up into seven islands belongs to the astronomical allegory, and the seven isles are identical with the seven patalas of the underworld, the seven provinces drowned in Dyfed, the seven islands of Avaiki below, which are externalised or represented in the seven Hervey Isles. The Abb Brasseur de Bourbourg has adopted the lost Atlantis a geographical reality, and put forth the theory that the Quiches, Aztecs, Mexicans, and other American races must have migrated from the place of the seven caves where their ancestors lived in a certain crescent or half-moon shaped land, now lost in the Atlantic, where the deluge occurred through some vast physical cataclysm that overwhelmed the world and broke up or blotted out Atlantis[201]. A remnant of this ancient people were saved as he thinks in the seven chief islands of the Lesser Antilles. Hence the common tradition of a migration from the seven caves. The rescued remnant he imagines bewailed the loss of their friends in [p.229] the old land sunken beneath the sea, and they made it, with its crescent or half-moon shape, memorable for ever by adopting the moon for their divinity. 'It is the moon,' he writes, 'male and female, Luna and Lunus, personified in the land of the Crescent, engulfed in the abyss, that I believe I see at the commencement of this amalgam of rites and symbols of every kind.' The Abb is wrong, but not a whit more so than all the rest of those who, in utter ignorance of the manner in which the facts of past ages of man on earth have been preserved in the astronomical myths, have assumed that they merely related to history and geography. Geology knows nothing of such a cataclysm that could have occurred in the Atlantic within the memory of man. Besides which, mythology both claims and explains the matter in a satisfactory manner.

The tradition of a migration from the lost land of the seven caves, patalas, provinces, islands, or other forms of the heptanomis, is universal; and that lost land sank in the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean, the Irish Sea, and lakes innumerable, as well as in the Atlantis because these waters below reflected the heptanomis first formed in the waters of the firmament above, which was submerged by the deluge of time, and left the mythos for its memorial in many lands. The people of the seven caves were pre-lunarians wherever they may be found. They date from before the time of the moon, like the Arcadians. That is they preserve traditions of a world and a condition of things anterior to the reckoning of time by the moon; the world of Sut-Typhon and the seven in Egypt who preceded Taht the lunar god.

They came from the foreworld of the seven constellations, which was both pre-solar and pre-lunar, and in which the time of year was reckoned by the risings and settings of the stars alone, in relation to the revolution of the seven constellations with the Great Bear in Khepsh or Khebt (Eg.) and the heliacal rising of Sothis. That world was submerged by the deluge; and other, truer, timekeepers were appointed. In the South and Central American myths the people are said to have migrated from the place of the seven caves, which was their motherland. This locality, called Chicomoztoc in the Mexican myth, is described as being where the beginning took place, and the stone-knife, Teopatl, was born of the great mother, and fell from heaven as the first agent (or opener) in creation[202]. The Quiche tradition has it that they came from Tulan-Zuiva, the seven caves. This is glossed by the Nahua Chicomoztoc for the seven caves. Tulan Atulan, or Atlan (for there are various forms of the name) was the birthplace and native land looked back to in all the primitive traditions of American civilisation. But this Tulan is not merely mythical; it is mundane as well. The people look back to a Tulan over the seanot at the bottom of itfrom which the mythos was brought. They are said to have left, or been driven forth 'from [p.230] the other side where Tulan is, and it is there that we were conceived and begotten by our mothers and our fathers.'[203] 'Behold whence we set out together! behold the common cradle of our race whence we have come!'[204] They were pre-solar. They separated from their brethren in Tulan (which was in the east) before the solar cult or reckoning was established. They say, 'We were separated and our brothers still remain behind. Truly we have beheld the sun; but now the dawn has appeared, where are they?' They speak of other migrations before crossing the sea, and recognise more than one Tulan on the other side of the water. They had gone to Tulan-Zuiva in search of gods, and in that land four gods were assigned to their four leaders. These were the well-known gods of the four quarters, the divine directors of the migration when they set out across the water for the farther west.

Nothing can be more explicit than the statement, 'Four persons came from Tulan, from the direction of the rising sun;' that is one Tulan. 'There is another Tulan in Xibalba, and another where the sun sets; and it is thence that we cane;' and 'in the direction of the setting sun there is another where is the god, so that there are four Tulans, and it is where the sun sets that we came to Tulan.' Of these four Tulans two are in the native land, one in America, and one in the western heaven, a celestial Tulan. One of the first two was in a place where they had no gods of the four quarters; and they had gone to Tulan (number two) before the four quarters were established. With the making out of the four quarters, whose gods were assigned to their leaders, they were enabled to start for Tulan (number three), guided by Tulan (number four) in the western heaven, 'in the direction of the setting sun where the god is.' Here Tulan is identical with the western quarter. Now if this migration had been merely mythical, it ought to have immediately followed the catastrophe of the early world that sank beneath the waves of a deluge. But it does not. The four lunar quarters had been established before they left the old home. Moreover, it may be pointed out that Tulan is geographically extant at the present time on the western coast of Africa and on the western part of the Bulom shore. The Bulom country borders on the Timne country. Also in the north-western High Sudan we find the Mandenga group of languages, and one of these is the Tolonka or Toronka, the language of Tolon; and there is a capital named Tolon (Toron) where this Tolonka language is spoken. The position of Tolon (or Toron) is west of Konia, east of Sankara, south or south-west of Mande, and north of Toma[205]. Here then is a western land in the direction from which the blacks of America came, with one Tulon on its western coast and another lying northwest, farther inland and these, it is now suggested, may be the [p.231] two Tulans on the other side of the water, known to the Quiches who went west to the Tulan in America, guided by the Tulan above in the quarter where the god dwells.

This incidental suggestion can be supported. The west is the left hand, the east the right, both in Africa and America. The south is the front, the north the hinder-part. The west was the left hand, where the light went down, in gesture-language before it could have had a proper name. And in some African languages the inner hand, which is the left hand, is named talan, as in Bulom, and atalan in Timne; and these two dialects belong to the north-west Atlantic group of African languages. The same name for the inner or left hand can be followed in the Aku dialects.

It is now further suggested that the Atlantic Ocean is named from Atalan in the Timne language on the west coast, meaning the water on the left or inner hand, and that Tulan is the dwelling-place, so named from the left-hand side on which the sun went down and the Atlantic waters lay. It was in their second Tulan that the Quiches learned the division of the four quarters, in which the west is the left-hand side.

Atalan and Tulan are the left-hand and the place on the left-hand in Africa, and there would seem to be no farther need for deriving the most ancient of American dark races or their mythology and civilisation from a lost Atlantis sunk in the Atlantic or left-hand sea.

The people of Tulan or Turan are found elsewhere in Africa, which shows the indigenous nature of the name. Herodotus describes the Atarantes or Atalantes of Lybia, who cursed the sun as it crossed overhead on account of its scorching heat, and who were without personal names[206].

Tulan or Atlan may be found then in Africa together with a natural genesis for its name; and when once the track is struck and the African and American linguists join hands, the comparative process will determine whether this was the native land of the Quiches, Chichcomecs, Aztecs, Costa Ricans, or others of the old dark race.

In some legends Eden was submerged by the earliest deluge that covered the mount. The happy garden was believed to be lying at the bottom of Lake Van in Armenia. Paradise is now the Hades of the abyss. It was at the Lake Copais that the first Athena or Aaden, called the Minyae Orchomeus, was buried beneath the waters, and there the earliest Eleusinis or temple was erected and denominated 'the Son shall come,' or dedicated to him who comes[207].

Possibly Athena or Aaden may afford a clue to one meaning of the Egyptian priests with regard to the Athenians and the foreworld in which they are said to have dwelt. The Egyptian Hades or Aat, the earlier Khat and Khept or Khebt, was the lower world in the west and north, called the hinder-part. In the Magic Papyrus the seven caves have been turned into the 'seven great dungeons' of the [p.232] sunken world, the eschatological Hades, which are closed upon the damned with an eternal seal[208].

This Eden sunken beneath the flood is referred to by Ezekiel as being in the nether-parts of the earth, where he apostrophises Assyria. 'To whom art thou thus like in glory and in greatness among the trees of Eden? Yet shalt thou be brought down with the trees of Eden unto the nether parts of the earth. Thou shalt lie (there) in the midst of the uncircumcised.' This, he says, is typical of Pharaoh and all his company. Because the scene was in Khebt, the lower Egypt of the celestial nomes, that once formed the heptanomis[209].


In that foreworld of the seven constellations and the first cycle of time men spoke but one language. The sibyl says: 'When men still spoke but one language, they built a very high tower in order that they might go up to heaven. The gods, or the Almighty, however, sent a strong wind and threw down the tower. After that men spoke different tongues, from which circumstance the place was called Babylon.' This was the Chaldean sibyl, who is also called Noah's nurse, named Sambeth, she who foretold of the coming Christ[210].

The Mexicans preserved the tradition of a deluge which destroyed all mankind and animal life except one human pair, who escaped in a boat. The pair came to the foot of the mountain Culhuakan, and there brought forth a numerous progeny. But these were all born dumb. When they received the gift of speech one day, it was communicated to them by the dove, which had come and perched itself on the top of a tree, like the dove of warning in the Maori and other legends. Although they learned to speak they could not understand each other's language, and so they separated in the manner of the Babel-builders[211].

The Thlinkeets have a tradition of a deluge from which men saved themselves in a large floating building. When the waters subsided, the building drove on a rock, and by its own weight broke in two. Hence arose a difference of language. The Thlinkeets remained on the one side with their language; on the other were all the races of the earth[212]. This belongs to the first division of the whole into two halves. The Kaibabit account of the diversity of languages contains a similar mythos. According to this, Si-tcom-pa Ma-so-its, the grandmother-goddess of the sea, brought up mankind from beneath the waves in a sack, which she delivered to the Cin-au-v brothers, the great wolf-gods of their mythology; and told them to carry it from the shores of the sea to the Kaibab-plateau, and there to open it, but they were by no means to open the package before their arrival, lest some great disaster should befall.


The curiosity of the younger Cin-au-y overcame him, and he untied the sack and the people swarmed out, but the elder Cin-au-y, the wiser god, ran back and closed the sack before all the people had escaped, and they carried the sack with its remaining contents to the plateau and opened it there.

Those that remained in the sack found a lovely land, a great plateau covered with mighty forests, through which elk, deer, and antelopes roamed in abundance, and many mountain-sheep were found on the bordering crags. It was a beautiful land that was given to these, the favourites of the gods. The descendants of this people are the present Kaibabits of Northern Arizona. Those who escaped by the way, through the wicked curiosity of the younger Cin-au-y, scattered over the country and became Navahos, Moquis, Sioux, Comanches, Spaniards, Americanspoor, sorry fragments of people, without the original language of the gods, and only able to talk in imperfect jargons[213]. This version goes back to the earliest division of mankind, which belongs to the time and the mythos of the twin brothers.

The Popol Vuh says all men had but one language in the beginning, and they did not invoke as yet either wood or stones; they only remembered the word of the Creator, the heart of heaven and earth. And they spoke while meditating on what was the hidden spring of day. The myth of the Quiches divides the one people and one language into four. When all the tribes were gathered together in Tulan where they received their gods, their speech was confounded and they no longer understood one another. The one original language of the four ancestors of the human race became four languages. This is identical with the division of the circle into four quarters. 'For many ages,' says Hyginus, 'men lived under the government of Jove without cities and without laws, and all speaking one language. But after that Mercury interpreted the speeches of men (whence an interpreter is called Hermeneutes); the same individual distributed the nations: then discord began.' This was in the time of Phoroneus[214]. The earliest form of the Kamite Mercury is Anup or Sut-Anubis, who is said in the Ritual to have arranged the positions of the seven great spirits in the service of Osiris and to have placed them around his coffin, which was also the meskhen of new birth, the constellation of the thigh (Ursa Major) in the northern heaven[215]. This division and dispersion of language or naming and distinguishing was further extended into the seventy languages or divisions of the Hebrew heaven of the ten tribes.

The Targum of Jonathan says that at the overthrow of the Tower of Babel the Lord said to the seventy angels who stood before him, 'Come now, and let us go down, and there let us confound their [p.234] language. And the word of the Lord was discovered against that city, and with it the seventy angels, according to the seventy nations, and their respective languages, which each angel respectively wrote with his own hand.'[216] As one language denotes the undivided circle or heaven, so the seventy languages represent the seventy divisions of the first, sevenfold heaven subdivided by ten.

The natural mount and artificial mound, the tree and tower, being places of refuge from the waters when in flood, these supplied types for the imagery of the inundation that was set in the stars of heaven and applied to the deluges of time. In one legend the mount or means of mounting the heavens is a ladder. A Dyak tradition tells us that at a very early period of Dyak history an ancestor of theirs determined to construct a ladder that should reach to heaven. But as the work went on, and the ladder towered aloft, a worm ate into the foot of the ladder and suddenly brought it all down[217].

It was this origin that led to the ark-islands, the ark-stones, the ark-citadel or enclosure on the summit, the Argos and Arcadia. The ark-city on the top of the mount was identical with the ark said to have been stranded on Ararat and other sacred summits.

According to Plutarch the earliest name of the mount of the citadel of Mycenae was Argion (Τό Άργιονόρός)[218]. Argos and Mycenae were confused on account of this arkite origin. Homer also calls Mycenae the altars of the Cyclops, i.e., of the giants who built the ark, the pyramid-tower, or sustained the world on their backs[219]. What Dr. Schliemann came upon at Mycenae was one of the ancient ark-mounds or citadels with the seven tiers or stages, one form of which was the seven-storied Pueblo of the American races[220]. And as Argos is a form of the ark which interchanges with Mycenae, it is possible the latter name may represent the Egyptian makhennu, the ark or boat of the dead, which was represented above by the ark of the genetrix (Ursa Major), and by the ark of her seven children. The ancient name of Apamea was Kibotus, the Ark. The Troy, whether in Greece or Wales, was a figure of the sevenfold, seven-circled, or seven-walled mount. The Kaer-Drioia, or Kadeir-Drioia, stone-mazes, were seven-circled centres, as shown by the figures still cut in the sod; and these forms of the Troy or the ark-city are derivable from the Egyptian teruu, which was a form of Sesennu, the region of eight, the summit of the seven. At the top of the Babylonian towers or babels there was a ziggurat or altar erected to the gods. Thus the tower is a sevenfold altar that equates with the seven altars elsewhere, just as the sevenfold mount interchanges with the seven mountains, and the seven-topped or chambered pyramids with the [p.235] seven pyramids. Now, the peak on which the ark of Tamzi is said to have rested is called the ziggurat of the mountain of Nizir[221]. That is the mount on which the ark of Xisithrus grounded and the inmates landed.

In the Hebrew version the ark rested in the seventh month upon the mountains of Ararat. The seventh month is that of the altar, in fact of the two altars according to the luni-solar reckoning; and the twin altars of the equinox are but two aspects of the one altar of the mount which is portrayed near the polar centre, as one, in an Egyptian planisphere[222]. Mount Nizir is, therefore, identical with the Egyptian zer, called the mount of the horizon in a later setting the rock of Israel. Nizir is one with Ararat, and both are mounts of the seven stars, around which the ark revolved, on which it rested, and across which it was broken in two. The Armenians also identify the Garden of Eden with Mount Ararat, upon which the ark was stranded after the deluge. M. Lenormant has shown from the lexicographical documents of the Palatine library of Nineveh that the Assyrio-Babylonians sometimes called the Ararat or Aryarad of Armenia by the name of Urtu; whence, he says, we may conclude that they read Urartu or Arartu as Ar-artu, the Mount of Artu or Urtu[223]. This name of Urartu or Arartu is frequently found in the documents of the Assyrian kings applied to the north-east part of Armenia. Now, as before mentioned, arutu or rtu in Egyptian means the buttock, the hinder-part, the feminine fundament of the northern heaven, represented by the genetrix Ta-Urtu (Urtu or Rurit), the goddess of the seven stars, which are also called the hinder-thigh; and she was the ark as Arctos, the teba as the hippopotamus or bear. Arurut (Eg.) is the ascent, the staircase, an equivalent to the seven steps of Menu. And with ar (har) for the ascent, Ar-artu or Ar-arat is the mount of the hinder-part, the Egyptian hinder-thigh of Khepsh (Kush), the Greek Merit for the thigh, the mount of the North Pole.

In the Koran Muhammad described the disembarkation of Noah as occurring on a Kurdish mountain named El-Judy; Judy or Youdi being the Arab name of the north polestar. El-Judy is also identified by Arab writers with the Ark-Mountain, known as Mashi or Massis, given by Strabo as Masion[224]; and in Egyptian mes denotes the source, the place, or point of turning round and rebirth; the mount of the north pole being the meska, meskar, or meskhen. According to Obry, one name of the mythical mount which the Aryan tribes looked up to as the birthplace of the human race was Aryratha[225], rendered the chariot of the Aryas or the Aryans, who are identified in the Vedas as the seven Rishis of the Great Bear that revolved round the summit. The seven companions (Eg. ari) of the chariot are well known to the Kabbalists. If we read 'ratha' for the chariot, the word represents the Egyptian urt, which is the chariot, and the genetrix of the seven [p.236] stars or hinder thigh, Ta-urt. The Great Bear was known to Homer as the chariot. Nicolas of Damascus calls the Armenian Ararat Mount Baris[226]. Bari is the Egyptian name of the bark, and on Mount Baris the stranded ark was said to be shown. Baris, however, may be a reduced form of Berezat, another name of the mythic mount, the Hara-Berezaiti in Pazend, and Hara-Banjat in the Persian form. These together with the cuneiform Allabria appear to unite the ar (har) mount with the bari (Eg.) for the ark, whatsoever may be the value zat or zati. Sad in Assyrian is the mountain, identical with the Egyptian tzet, and the word has been found as an equivalent for Arru, construed Ar, the mountain. So that the terminal zat in Bere-zat makes the meaning identical with that of Mount Bari or Allabriia, the ark-mountain. This ark of the mountain is common the world over. The Bari also appears in Mount Berecynthus in Phrygia, a holy mountain which was the dwelling of the goddess Rhea or Kubele. It is found in Ireland connected with the boat or ark on the summit; our English Aid-bury is an ark-height, aid, ard, or arth being the height; and the bury is a form of the bari or bark, which has various types of the enclosure on the hill, ranging from the boat to the burgh. In the Vei language the bara is the umbilicus; in the Celtic the br is the womb, the primordial human ark, which was represented by the pregnant goddess of the pole, the mount, the bear, who was the ark.

The 'mount of peace' was a title of this hilt of heaven so named in Jerusalem, the arru (Eg.), ascent of Salem or Peace, because it represented that polar centre and pivot of starry motion where all was still, in the visible place of peace. In Egyptian, peace or rest, the ark, and number seven have one name as hept. There was Eden, the place of precious stones. There was Meru, Jambudvipa, and as a celestial locality there was Nirvana. There was Jerusalem above (Jerusalem is dual in Hebrew), the model of Jerusalem on earth.

The seven spirits of the polar region are described as planks in the body of the makhen or boat of souls, in which souls were saved from the waters[227]. The makhen is here represented by the ark of the Great Bear that voyaged round the mount of the pole as the boat of the seven constellations, or the Great Bear, and had passed into its eschatological phase; but by thinking back we recover the natural genesis, and can read the imagery of the mount, the tree, or horn, in relation to the ark of safety. For example, when the great waters were about to be sent, a chief of distinguished piety and wisdom, named Marrewna, was informed of the coming flood, and saved himself and his family in a large canoe. Being desirous not to drift over the ocean, or far from the home of his fathers, he had prepared a cable of 'bush-rope' of great length, and with it he tied his bark to the trunk of a large tree. When the waters subsided, he found himself not far from his former [p.237] abode[228]. His canoe had been made fast to the pole. The same myth occurs in another form when it is related in the rabbinical legends that the rhinoceros was enabled to swim the flood because it had been tied by its horn to the side of Noah's ark; a reversal of the Hindu myth, in which the ark was saved during the deluge by being made fast to the horn of a great fish. The rhinoceros, Rerit, was the polar constellation, a form of the ark itself, and its horn was a type of the pole. The Hindu version tells us how

'Early in the morning they brought water to Manu to wash himself. When he had well washed, a fish came into his hands.

It said to him these words: "Take care of me; I will save thee." "What wilt thou save me from?" "A deluge will sweep away all creatures; I wish thee to escape." "But how shall I take care of thee?"

The fish said: "While we are small there is more than one danger of death, for one fish swallows another. Thou must, in the first place, put me in a vase. Then, when I shall exceed it in size, thou must dig a deep ditch, and place me in it. When I grow too large for it, throw me in the sea, for I shall then be beyond the danger of death."

Soon it became a great fish; it grew, in fact, astonishingly. Then it said to Manu, "In such a year the deluge will come. Thou most build a vessel, and then pay me homage. When the waters of the deluge mount up, enter the vessel. I will save thee."

When Manu had thus taken care of the fish, he put it in the sea. The same year that the fish had said, in this very year, having built the vessel, he paid the fish homage. Then the deluge mounting, he entered the vessel. The fish swam near him. To its horn Manu fastened the ship's rope, with which the fish passed the mountain of the north.

The fish said: "See! I have saved thee, fasten the vessel to a tree, so that the water does not float thee onward when thou art on the mountain-top. As the water decreases thou wilt descend little by little." Thus Manu descended gradually. Therefore to the mountain of the north remains the name, "Descent of Manu." The deluge had destroyed all creatures. Manu survived alone.'[229]

This version contains the mount of the north, the tree, or pole, the horned fish in place of Rerit; and the ark that voyages round made fast to the mountain of the north and to the tree of the pole. Such is the ignorance of the learned regarding the nature of mythology that Wilson argues for the priority of the Mahabharata over the Vishnu Purana, because in the former Manu collects the seeds of existing things in the Ark, and ropes are made use of to fasten it to the horn of the fish; whereas in the latter he brings them together by the power of yogawhich is based on chronologyand employs great serpents for his cable. Whereas all the primitiveness lies with the yoga and the serpent that served for a type before ropes were made[230].

The mount of the seven steps, seven stages, seven giants, seven constellations, was the figure of the 'star station' that reached up to the moon. Here the four quarters were added to the mount which had [p.238] now attained the lunar station, the region of the eight, where the moon superseded the goddess of the seven stars. This development is apparently described in the Magic Papyrus, where there are mystical allusions to the celestial heptanomis, called the shrine of seven cubits, which was succeeded by the shrine of eight cubits. The 'giant of seven cubits' who has the head of a kaf-ape, a type of Shu, one of the seven elementaries, is addressed as he 'who took the form of a monkey, and afterwards of a crazy man,' or a fool. 'Get made for me,' it is said, 'a shrine of eight cubits.' 'And as thou wast a giant of seven cubits, I have said to thee, thou canst not enter this shrine of eight cubits. And giant of seven cubits as thou art, thou hast entered and reposed in it,' i.e., in the shrine of eight cubits which followed the shrine of seven[231], as a new temple of the heavens, the heaven of the four quarters and the octonary of the eight corners. Four of the seven giants were continued at the four quarters, and these with their consorts constitute the typical eight in the ark.

Another change from the seven to eight in the ark is observable. There are seven great spirits in the ark of the Great Bear, the boat of souls, seven planks only in this form of the makhen. Four of the seven were continued as four paddles in the boat of the four quarters and there are eight planks in the body of this makhen or boat of souls named Amset, Hapi, Tuantmutf, Kabhsenuf, Hak, Tiemua, Mantefef and Arnafgesf[232].

The ark of the four quarters is represented by the square box on the Apamean medals. The four quarters followed the two halves of the year which are denoted by the male and female in the ark as they were by Shu and Tefnut. The four-square box typifies the Tetrapolis. In the iconography of the catacombs the ark of Noah is generally a small square box which is sometimes placed within a boat.

The ark of Yima may be described as a figure of the four corners, an inclosing circle, and a formation consisting of nine bridges. These are all combined in a heaven or zodiac of the four quarters, one of which contains the water and the other three the nine dry divisions.

In rabbinical tradition the deity is said to dwell in a shrine of four cubits. So in the Ritual a 'boat of four cubits' represents the solar bark[233]. That is as a figure of the heaven of four quarters, which in Egypt was a symbol of actual measurement, as meh, the cubit, is also the name of the northern quarter and of the number nine. This, when the quarters are subdivided into the nine Aahlu or decans, four meh (cubits or quarters), is equal to the heaven of thirty-six divisions4 9 = 36which identified the habitation with the heaven of the four [p.239] quarters and thirty-six decans; on account of which the tetractys or sacred quaternion was equivalent to the number thirty-six[234]. The four paddles of the solar boat are the four genii of the quarters, and therefore identical with the four in the ark, one female and three males, or one human and three zootypes; these are the 'four gods of the upper place;' the four white men in the Book of Enoch[235]. We seldom meet with the four in the directly arkite legends, which may be attributed to the fact that four consorts were given them as human beings, and thus the number became eight.

In the Quiche myth, the four brothers Balam are the four gods of the cornersgods of breath, or spiritsand these with their four wives, who are related to water, make up an ogdoad distinct from that of the genetrix and her sevenfold progeny. These answer to the ogdoad in Noah's ark, who are described as four males and their four consorts, and the eight who were saved in the Fijian myth. In an Irish arkite legend the four do appear in a form of the ark. Grace, in his Annals of Ireland, relates that Cesarea, the niece of Noah, being aware of the coming flood, sailed for Ireland and was the first person who arrived there. She was accompanied by three men only. The four landed at 'Littus Navicularum,' and finding the country was uninhabited and waste, she hoped it might be saved from the impending judgment[236]. Although Noah has been foisted into the myth, four in the boat are not identical with eight in the ark. The legend tells the same story as various others relating to the founding of the four corners. In Egypt the four divinities or genii of the four quarters were originally one female and three males, as Uati, Seb, Shu, and Ra (or Horus); they remain so in Britain, as columbine, pantaloon, clown, and harlequin.

Ireland is the land of the west, Iar, named according to the mapping out in four quarters. Iar is worn down from Heber who was personated in Irish just as in Hebrew and Egyptian. Heber is the crosser in Hebrew. Aper (Aphru or Ap-Uat) kept the crossing of the equinox and was the guide of the western land. Aper is the equinoctial Sut-Anubis. And Heber is one of the four types of the four quarters of which Heber-land, Iver-iu, Iar-land, is simply the west. Heber is also one of the eight Milesians of whom Heremon was the youngest but one. These were a form of the eight in the ark, although they were said to have arrived in 120 ships as Scythians (compare the sekhti (Eg.) mariners) 'on Thursday in May, 2934 AM.' It is difficult to extract the history from these legends because they belong to mythology, and anything that was historical would be shaped in the mythological mould.

In the traditions of the Andaman Islanders only four individuals of the whole human race survived the great flood that put out all their fires or lights. In this instance the bird that recovers the fire [p.240] after the great calamity is the kingfisher[237]. These versions of the mythos relate to the establishing of a heaven on the four quarters.

Although the lunar station may be considered higher because it followed the star station, yet a 'come-down' from the height was also recognised. After the fall of Adam there is a marked descent from the summit of commencement, the Gan Eden that in some legends is submerged, to the Adamah of a second, lower landingstage, as if from the polar summit to the zodiacal station of the four quarters, with a slewing round from the north to the east as the initial point of a new circle. The Chinese describe a deluge that separated the higher from a lower age of mankind; and this division preceded the appearance of Fohi (or Yu) on the mountains of Chin[238].

On the banks of the Orinoko, the Essequibo, Berbice, Corentin, and other South American rivers, there are graven rocks, but the language in which the hieroglyphics are carved is unknown. They are chiefly found near cataracts or rapids, and the natives call them Timehri[239], but have no explanation of the name. They state, however, that the sculptures represent the height at which their forefathers sailed in their canoes before the time of the great waters. They also point to the rock which is held to mark the spot where one man and one woman were saved from the deluge[240].

In the primary circle of time there was neither solstice nor equinox; the four quarters of a zodiac not being as yet established. Then followed the division into two halves, north and south, marked by the twin-pool, the mount that divided, the tree of the north and south. Many legends relate to this division into two; in consequence of it, time was reckoned in lesser lengths, by the half year instead of the year. The Chippewa Jack the giant-killer, the Tom Thumb and Khunsu of their legends, who killed the giants, is described as hacking them into little bits, and saying to the pieces, 'In future, let no man be larger than you are now.'[241] That was but the cutting up or the bounding of time into smaller quantities, the final reckoning being 365 days to the solar year.

This division of the first circle of creation in two is well shown by the legend of the ark that struck the top of the mount and was broken in two, or was changed into the ark of two. For this division is also represented by the deluge from which only two persons were saved, a male and a female. The two appear on the well-known coins of Apamea, as a male and female in the ark which has on it the letters Noe, now claimed to represent the Egyptian Nu, as the deluge of time. They are accompanied by the raven and dove, the birds of the [p.241] earliest division into dark and day, that were continued as kronotypes. The two had been set in heaven as the stars or constellations which denoted the inundation.

When the rabbis tell us that the windows of the rain from which the deluge poured down from the fountains of source above were opened by the taking out of two stars[242], they preserve a fragment of the original gnosis or Kabbalah concerning the deluge of time. The two stars might be the two birds of the solstices, the black raven and white vulture, or the raven and dove.

The cause of the deluge in the Fijian legends was the killing of Turu-kawa, a favourite bird belonging to the deity Ndengi, by two mischievous lads called the grandsons of the gods. The flood followed the death of this bird. When it occurred only eight persons were saved. Two races of the human family became entirely extinct. One of these had consisted altogether of women the other race had a tail appendage like that of a dog.

The highest point of Koro Island has a name connected with the idea of a bird sitting there and lamenting over the submerged island. A chant says: 'The Quiqui laments over Koro because it is lost.'[243]

So in the Maori legends the bird Rupe, the dove, is heard lamenting in the night. The type of one catastrophe had become the foreteller and warning voice of others. The race consisting of women only contains a datum akin to that of the 'Two Women' from whom the Kamilaroi claim descent, and represents the motherhood alone. The dog-tailed tribe bear the image of the dog that let in the deluge.

The two races that became extinct on earth do but represent the celestial and totemic types that were superseded in heaven because they let in the deluge through not keeping true time.

In the Russian folktales the dog is charged with being tempted by Satan to admit him into the human paradise, when he caused the fall of man. The dog is likewise the culprit in several deluge myths.

In the Bundahish the deluge is produced by Tishtar[243a], who is identified with Sothis, the Dog-star. The Dog-star was found at length to be losing time when judged by the inundation of the Nile, which never varies during thousands of years. It was fabled to have let in the deluge as an untrue timekeeper; and this bequeathed a type of the mythical deluge of all times, and for all time. Egypt alone supplies the natural genesis for the mythos of the Dog-star letting in the deluge in consequence of its losing time as an indicator of the inundation.

According to the Assyrian legend it is the god Bel who is charged with letting in the deluge. One text says: 'Of old, whenever this deity came to celebrate the great festivals of heaven with his companions, those gods I never rejected from my side at my table (of alabaster or [p.242] lapis-lazuli); in those days I received them kindly. Never at any time did I reject them. The (other) gods may still come to my table. But Bel shall never more come to my table, because he fell in a rage, and made a deluge.'[244]

Bel had become a solar god in later times, but had an earlier role as the Akkadian Bar or Bilgi, who corresponds to the Egyptian Bar-Typhon, that is, Sut, who divided in the image of Sut-Horus, just as Bel was cut in two in the beginning of creation. This serves to identify Bel with the deluge let in by the Dog-star. The British Seithenhin who caused the deluge is also a form of Sut.

It is the earlier races, however, who have preserved the most primitive forms of the myths. Those 'great astronomers' the aborigines of Victoria can shed clearer light on these matters than do the Hebrew or Assyrian legends. They have their stellar, lunar, and solar series of types. They say the earth is flat, and it was in total darkness until the sun was made by Puppurimbul. He was one of the ancient pre-solar race who then inhabited the earth, called Nurrumbung-uttias, or the old spirits. These possessed fire, and had the same characteristics as the present race, but were translated in various forms to the heavens before the present beings came into existence. The celestial bodies, as well as the manifestations in space, are attributed to them. Certain animals therefore which typify them must not be killed for fear of letting in a deluge. This shows they knew something of those stars that were the earliest timekeepers represented by totemic zootypes on earth.

The Puppurimbul, or Estrelda-Temporalis is one of these star-gods and kronotypes in a material form, and to kill one would cause a deluge[245].

They say also that before the moon was set in the sky, he (our satellite is always spoken of as male by the aborigines of Victoria) was very wicked and went about doing as much harm as he could. The Gippsland blacks assert that he turned the first lot of men into ducks, and left them so. He visited the eagle on one occasion, who had been out catching kangaroos, and having come home with two, offered the moon some of the flesh. He devoured both, and then killed and swallowed the eagle. Afterwards, in going through the forest, he met the two wives of the eagle, who guessed the moon had swallowed their husband. The moon asked for water; they pointed to a well. He went to drink, and whilst doing so the women struck him with a stone tomahawk, cut him open, and extracted the body of the eagle, who came to life again[246].

The eagle and crow were the time-tellers who were superseded by the moon, hence the myth of the moon swallowing the eagle. The [p.243] native cat is now the moon; so the cat, the seer by night, with eyes that were luminous in the dark, was a lunar type in Egypt. The two solstices were followed by the lunar four quarters, there being a deluge, and an ark in which four persons were saved.

In the Muysca myth of Bochica and his wife, the beautiful but wicked Huythaca, represents the old typhonian genetrix who was mother of the elementaries, and goddess of the seven stars in the pre-lunar time. She is described as being of so malicious a nature that she plotted against her husband, and sought to destroy all his good works. By her secret magical arts she caused the Funzha (Rio Bogota) river to rise and overwhelm the whole high plain of the country with a flood. Only a few of the inhabitants escaped by fleeing to the mountain-summits. This so excited the wrath of Bochica that he banished her from the earth altogether, and transformed her into the moon, just as Ta-urt passed into the lunar goddess Ishtar, or Astarte. Here the deluge was timekeeping; and we are told that when Bochica had made an opening in the wall of rock and drained off the deluge, he introduced the solar (or luni-solar) cult; the genetrix and her progeny having failed to keep time correctly. Bochica is portrayed as a bearded old man, and as he is the establisher of a truer chronology for the people, we may compare him with Seb-Kronus, or, earlier, Khebekh, who became a sun-god as Sebek-Ra. It may be noted also that the most ancient name of the Muyscas is the Chibchas.

At Hawaii the deluge was designated the 'Flood of the Moon.'

In the Polynesian story of the deluge of Raiatea, given by Ellis[247], the survivors are saved on an island called Toa-marama or the moon-tree, the tree reaching to the moon.

After the deluge of Nnu, in another version of the Hawaiian legend, there occurs a change in the divine type or object of worship. When Nnu had left his vessel on the evening of the day after the flood, he took with him a pig, coconuts, and ava (piper-methysticum), as an offering to the god Kane. As he looked up he saw the moon in the sky, and he thought this was the god, saying to himself 'You are Kane, no doubt, though you have transformed yourself to my sight.' So he made his offering and worshipped the moon. Then Kane descended on the rainbow, and spoke reprovingly to Nnu, but on account of his mistake Nnu was forgiven by Kane, and the rainbow was left as a token of his forgiveness[248]. Obviously he had not previously worshipped the moon. Also Kane, whose great highway is the east, is a solar god, the creator of the rainbow.

The sevenfold mount or tower of the hebdomad was not always overthrown at the time of the dispersion of language. This is shown by the Mount Meru, which was continued in the upper Meru of the planetarium above the mount, and by the Great Pyramid of Giza that contains [p.244] the planetarium within the mount of the earlier seven. Meru is likewise shown to be the mount which reached to the moon, and became a figure of the four lunar quarters, as is proved by the crescent or half-moon shape of its four corners. Hence the tradition that paradise was preserved during, or was exempt from, the deluge, because it was on the summit of a mountain that reached to the moon[249]; which shows the continuation of the typical mount of the seven stars into the lunar phase of timekeeping where the mount of the four quarters carried Eden with it.

The genetrix gave birth to the embryo which was divided into seven parts. These were the seven Adityas; the seven elementaries, who, with the mother, composed the primary ogdoad of powers. The genetrix is Quanwon in Japan, where she is identified with the ogdoad composed of eight heads, a typical figure equivalent to the eight-rayed star of Ishtar and the eight-rayed symbol of Hathor. The Japanese regard this image of Quanwon and the ogdoad as an emblematic portrayal of the birth of the gods[250].

The seven zootypes were continued as kronotypes, and the Japanese likewise reckon seven original spirits, known as the three elder and the four younger, of whom the spirit Kunito-Ko-Dats-No-Mikotto, who first arose out of chaos, was the eldest. The three elder are said to have had no wives, but the four younger were wedded, each having his own proper consort. These four correspond to the gods (four of the original seven) that were established at the four corners, which, with their four wives, made up the eight in the ark, as in that of Noah, who are so far distinct from the earlier seven.

The last of the seven (who answers to Sevekh, the seventh by name) was held to be the parent of an order of five other gods[251]. This is the exact equivalent of Sevekh the son of Typhon, who passed into, or produced Seb, becoming the father of an order of five gods, as did the Greek Kronus. Again the Rig-Veda Sanhita says, 'Of those that are born together, sages have called the seventh the single-born, for six are twins, and are movable, and are born of the gods.'[252] These six have been supposed to be the six rita or seasons revolving round the stationary earth. But they are three pairs of the four, and the seventh as Sevekh (in Egypt) was paired off with the genetrix, Typhon, as her first child that was born in time as Sevekh-Kronus, who became the father of the five planetary gods.

We are now able to distinguish different deluges. The first is that of the seven who were saved in an ark. This was the ark of the sphere, the 'dwelling in space,' as the hull of the boat or ark is called; the ark of heaven first personified as the genetrix, the [p.245] 'mother above, ogdoas, or, with a masculine reference, Lord.'[253]*

* When the lord takes the place of the lady, the seven become the seven sons of Swayambhuva; the seven Khnernmu of Ptah; the seven sons of Sidyk; the seven sons of Jesse; the seven dwarf sons of Pinga, or the seven in the ark with Arthur.

The pair in the ark may be traced to the first keepers of the solstices, north and south, one form of which was the twin lion-gods, who as male and female were Shu and his sister Tefnut, possibly representatives of Kepheus and Cor-Leonis as the two-one. The four in the ark belong to the four quarters, and the eight to the eight corners of the celestial octonary. Seven in the ark cannot be confounded with eight in the ark, because the seven are males, companions, fellows, whether called giants, Cabiri, Khnemu, or the Nnu; and the ark represented the mother. Whereas the eight are of both sexes, described as consorts, and were the keepers of the four quarters duplicated in the heaven of eight corners.


The first deluge known is that of the seven giants. But the race was not absolutely extinguished. The rabbis tell how the giant Og escaped destruction during the deluge because he was of so tall a stature. He did not sink in the course of precession. The same story is told of another giant.

Orion, says the Jewish legend, was one of the giants who was not drowned during the deluge. He was so tall that he waded through the waters, holding on with one hand to the ark. Og, as a remnant of the giants, is said to have left his bedstead in Rabbath[254]. Possibly this maybe identified, as the bed is found in the lunar mansions, composed of four stars in the Lion (δ, , β, and 93 Leonis), i.e., in the Phalgunyas, the eleventh and twelfth of the lunar signs. And on the opposite side of the zodiac it reappears in the constellation known as the 'square of Pegasus.' In each case the bed is understood as being double or twin[255]. The giant constellated in the north is Kepheus (Shu as a lion-god) or Regulus, who is also represented by the star Cor Leonis.*

* Shu, portrayed in the decans of the Watermani.

This, then, is the giant whose bedstead may be found in an early form of the zodiac reaching right across (figuratively), because it marked the division of the solstices, or the north and south of an early circle of time.

Here we find one giant of the seven who was saved from the deluge of a foreworld, to be placed as a keeper of the solstice in the heaven divided by north and south. Such a giant appears in the Norse mythos. According to the Edda, the sons of Br slew the giant Ymir, and when he fell, there ran so much blood from his wounds that the whole race of the Frost giants (the wicked race) was drowned in it, except a single giant (Bergelmir), who saved [p.246] himself with his household. He escaped by going on board his bark, and with him went his wife.

'Ages past counting,
Ere the earth was formed,
Was born Bergelmir;
Full well I remember
How this crafty giant
Lay secure in his skiff.'[255a]

Afterwards, they made the vast ocean of Ymir's blood, 'in the midst of which they fired the earth, and set a dwarf at the corner of each of the four quarters.' These are a pair in the ark. Shu and his sister Tefnut, who as the male and female lion-gods of the north and south were keepers of the solstices, form another pair in the ark. When the four quarters were established, the giant fish, the giant ape, the giant bird, and giant jackal (wolf or dog) became four of the corner-keepers, and this arrangement will enable us to read some of the legends.

The Tlascalans say that after their deluge those who were preserved were changed into monkeys, who afterwards grew into human beings[256]. In the Codex Chimalpopoca, it is said that the result of a great hurricane was to change men into monkeys[257]. Here the men have been imaged in the likeness of the ape, which in Egypt was the representative of howling rage, and of the storm-wind. The ape was one of the giants, one of the elementaries, one of the seven. It was placed at one of the four corners as Hapi; when the four genii were established. The Egyptians also symbolised the habitable world by the ape, as Horapollo asserts, because they hold that there are seventy-two primitive countries of the world[258]. This was the celestial world. But in the world below men bore the likeness of the ape that escaped the deluge.

Commentators on the Koran repeat the ancient traditions of the Adite progenitors of the Arab race who were of prodigious stature, and who were afterwards changed into monkeys[258a]. The Arabs also claim descent from Kahten or Kften. Now Kaften in the Arabic is known as the 'King of Ethiopia,' or Kush, i.e., Kepheus in the planisphere, a constellation of Shu, as the lawgiver of the solstice; and the Kaften is the great ape. Further, it may be suggested that this Kaften is the original of the Norse Ytun, and Scottish Etin, the giant. The giant of the north blows through his beard. The giant ape was the angry blower, and Shu is the god of breath or wind, one of whose types is the ape.

The dog is represented in the American myths by the coyote or prairie dog. A Mexican legend tells how the coyote prepared his ark to meet the coming deluge by gnawing down a large cane that [p.247] grew by the river bank. This he entered, and stopped up the end of it with a kind of gum[259]. In a Peruvian form of the mythos when the waters ceased two dogs were sent out of the ark which came back foul with mire. A second time the dogs were sent out, and they came back dry. Then it was known that the deluge was over, although for a long time afterwards they were sorely troubled with serpents[260]. The dogs are two in the planispherei, and after the Egyptian deluge of blood the serpents of Seb were adopted by Ra as the types of time-cycles. In some legends mankind are changed into dogs after the inundation. The Bonaks or root-diggers said the first Indians that ever lived were coyotes or prairie dogs[261]. In South America the Chichimecs were 'the dogs.' The hairy Ainus of Japan claim descent from the bear as their mother and the dog as their father. The Indians told Catlin that when the race of the foreworld were all drowning in one mass a young woman, who was a virgin, named Kwaptahw (the virgin mother of mythology), caught hold of the foot of a very large bird as it was flying past her, and was carried by it to the top of a lofty cliff that was not submerged by the waters. Here she brought forth twins, and their father was said to be the war-eagle. From these twins the world was afterwards re-peopled[262].

In a myth of the American Pimas it is the eagle that takes the place of Maui's dove, the eagle-hawk of the Australians and the hawk of the Sut-Horus in Egypt. The eagle warned a prophet that a great deluge was at hand, but the prophet took no heed, and the deluge came and overwhelmed the world. From this eagle and his wife and child are descended that great and ancient people called Hohocam, the ancients or grandfathers, who were led in all their wanderings by an eagle, and who eventually passed into Mexico. The eagle, then, denoted the deluge that followed the timekeeping by the two solstices only, which was followed by the establishment of the four corners when the equinoxes were added. An English legend describes the magpie, our black and white bird in one, as being the only bird that did not enter the ark, but sat outside and 'jabbered over the drowned world.' The eagle in Egyptian is akhem, and this is also the name of an overwhelming wave of water, and means to extinguish. The eagle, or bird of fire and air opposed to the black bird of the waters, the deluge or the dark, would warn on earth because it had been typified as one of the timekeepers in heaven[263]. If for the eagle we take the vulture, mu (Eg.), that is the symbol of foreknowledge, a boundary and a year, also of heaven. This was the white vulture. The black vulture (neh) was the raven or crow. The raven in the south heralded the waters. The white vulture was set in the heavens where it marked the passage of the sun in Aquarius, and the spot where the full moon was found every year which served to denote the [p.248] time of the Olympian games. This was the vulture or eagle of Prometheus, which will show us the origin of the legend. The vulture, says Horapollo, denotes foreknowledge[264]. Prometheus impersonates forethought. The vulture indicated the place of the sun, or the solar fire in the abyss of the inferior hemispherethe fire that Prometheus was fabled to have snatched from heaven; and Herakles as the solar god was said to have slain the bird which preyed on Prometheus. The Egyptian eagle was a phoenix of fire. In the sixth month of the sacred year the month Mechir (began December 17th); one of the phoenixes, the Bennu-Osiris, expressly designated 'the bird,' rose, as a starry landmark, just when the solar god in the underworld was struggling amid the waters of the typical inundation. Here it may be remarked that stealing the fire was also equivalent to the eagle's warning regarding the deluge; the fire being the sun in the underworld, whose position was indicated by the vulture or phoenix (aquila)[265].

The put (Eg.) circle may be described as the nine in the ark; and there is a group of ten in an ark. Taht is represented conducting a boat with the solar disk on board. This disk is divided into two hemispheres in which ten deities are seated, five in the upper and five in the lower half[266]. If not portrayed in an ark, the ten precede the deluge of Noah as patriarchs; the Chaldean deluge as the ten antediluvian kings who were giants in the time before the Chaldean deluge, and the ten sons of Neptune that ruled the ten divisions of Atlantis before it was submerged. These represent the division by ten that followed the seven, the subdivision of which, seven by ten, formed the seventy who overthrew the Tower of Babel, and who constitute the seventy elders in the mount. A form of the ten may be found in the lost ten tribes of Israel. These were carried away captive 'over the waters' into another land that they 'might there keep their statutes which they never kept in their own land.' They hardly needed an ark for their passage, because as 'they entered into Euphrates by the narrow passage thereof,' the 'Most High showed signs for them, and held still the food till they were passed over.'[267] The ten who crossed the flood were superseded like the seven who made their passage in the ark. My own reading of the facts is that the ten which preceded the flood of Noah and Xisithrus typify the mode of reckoning the year by ten moons (imaged also by the Asherah Tree) of twenty-eight days each, and the inundation, or water-quarter.

When the solar zodiac was finally established, we find nine dry signs and three for the waters; the nine solar months being equal to ten twenty-eight-day moons. In this last, the put-circle or ark of nine dry signs, the waters were confined to the abyss; all inclosing of space and time being considered a war against the [p.249] waters. Across this abyss the sun-god sailed in his ark, or swam as a frog (Ptah), or crawled as an eel (Atum), or was represented as walking the waters. He who 'alone treadeth on the waves of the sea,'[268] the god who was called the 'water-walker' by the Greeks[269]. In the Masonic mysteries a pair of feet are shown walking on the sea[270]. This water-walker, who was continued in the Christian mythos as the walker on the waves, is explained by Horapollo; he tells us that the Egyptians signified the course of the sun in the winter solstice (the abyss) by two feet conjoined and advancing, and that the same symbol denoted an impossibility (i.e., a miracle), equivalent to a man walking without a head[271]. This statement is corroborated by the headless god, or the disk-headed Af-Ra who is the ruler of the abyss of waters, the sun-god in the underworld, the ruler of the floods who rode them, walked over them, or sat upon them.

As already stated, the Chinese sacred records contain a series of deluges. In the opening of the Bamboo Books the mother of the first mythical emperor is Foo-Paou or Fu-Pa the lady of heaven. She supplies the means whereby Hwang-ti puts a stop to the extraordinary rains that were caused by the enemy. She is identical with Nu-pe the wife of Seb who is called lord of the inundation in the Ritual. Fu-Paou was the mother of the gods, and she became pregnant with Hwang-ti in consequence of witnessing a great flash of lightning which surrounded the star Ch'oo (Dubhe) of the Great Bear[272]. This was the constellation of the genetrix Kefa (Ta-urt) who was the earlier form of Nupe, as Kebekh her son was the earlier form of Seb.

We also meet with the mythical giant Shin, a man of enormous stature who reigned before the deluge of Yu, but he failed to keep true time, for we are told that in his days the computation of years had fallen into confusion, and the celestial globe was invented on which the constellations were mapped out for future guidance. This time is admitted to have been anterior to the first imperial dynasty, and therefore belonged to the divine periods of the mythological astronomy. But the giant Shin, like Shu or Og, survived the deluge he had caused, and was one of Yu's assistants when he mastered the waters, and portioned out the land in nine different allotments and cut the dykes that were to prevent any future inundation. The Chinese deluge of the four quarters was followed by the subdivision of three of these into nine signs. The deluge of Yu began at the equinox. Yu's report is that, 'By the dark influence of sun and moon the mountains Hwa, Yoh, Tai, and Hang alone remain above the waters. On them rested the beginning and end of my enterprise. When my labours were completed, I offered thanksgiving at the solstice.' Yu in describing how he dealt with the deluge says: 'I mounted my four conveyances.'[273] In these he travelled [p.250] along the hills to make his survey. They answer to the four corners previously established. Yu dreamt that he was bathing in the Ho, and drank up the water. He had also the happy omen of a white fox with nine tails. As he was looking at the Ho, a tall man with a white face and a fish's body came out and said: 'I am the spirit of the Ho.' He then called Yu, and said 'Wăn-ming shall regulate the waters.' Having so spoken, he gave Yu a chart of the Ho, containing all about the regulating of the waters, and returned into the deep. When Yu had done regulating the waters, Heaven gave him a dark-coloured mace, with which to announce his completed work[274].

The fox with nine tails is a valuable numeral type. In the hieroglyphics the fox or jackal is Seb, the wise animal, and Seb is Kronus or Time. The Seb was stationed at the point of the spring equinox as guide of the sun's courses just where he came up out of the three water-signs to pass through what may be termed the nine land-signs; and Seb himself is portrayed where the earth emerged from the three months' inundation of Nile. Thus a fox with nine tails as a figure of nine times is the image of the nine divisions into which Yu partitioned the waters of heaven and the land of Chin. The Emperor said: 'The earth is now reduced to order, and the influences of heaven operate with effect. Those six magazines and three businesses are all truly regulated, so that a myriad generations may perpetually depend on themthis is your merit.'[275] In this description of the work done by Yu, the nine divisions of the earth, heaven or oversea, appear in the shape of three businesses and six magazines. The order now introduced by Yu into heaven and earth is perfect and perennial. In one of the most ancient Chinese traditions Yu is impersonated as the potter. Shin, who preceded Yu as the 'general regulator,' is likewise described as having been a potter. 'As a potter hast thou made all things,' is a favourite expression with the Chinese, applied to the Creator, who is personified as the potter[276]. The potter, who is also preserved in Moslem poetry, is an Egyptian type of the Creator as Num and as Ptah, both of whom are portrayed sitting at the potter's wheel shaping the vase, the ideograph of the waters and of their receptacle. Menkha (Eg.) is pottery, and Menkhat (Ment) was the potteress as feminine creator. One mode in which Yu as the potter deals with the deluge is by the moulding of nine vases. Each one of these vases had on it a chart of one of the nine provinces into which Yu had divided the dry land. These nine vases, said to have been extant in the time of the Chow dynasty, were looked upon as the palladia of the empire.

The Egyptian vase is a hieroglyphic of measure, and is related to time and water. The vase was an emblem of that which contained [p.251] the waters. To contain the waters is to restrain the deluge whether in the mystical or astronomical domain of time. The vase or feminine receptacle contained the waters during nine solar months, and this reckoning might have been applied anywhere in nature. But in Egypt only do we find the exact three months' flow of the inundation. The nine vases as types of containing water have precisely the same significance as the nine bridges for crossing it which Yima was commanded to build, 'six in the middle and three at the bottom.' The put-circle consists of nine, and from the first dry sign, the ram (type of breath) to the archer, we have nine signs, the bowman being ninth; or, if we take the signs the other way, the beetle is the sign of Khepra-Ptah, who established the divine circle of the nine gods upon the waters or the water-quarter of the three next signs; and this sign (Cancer) is the ninth from the end of the inundation in the sign of the Tortoises. Put, the root of putah (or ptah), also signifies the number 9. Now the bow is also named put and here it is in the ninth sign preceding our three water-signs of the solar zodiac. The nine vases are also said to have been cast from metal contributed by the nine pastors of the nine provinces[277]. The Egyptian nine is put, and the put confederation of the nine bows or shepherd tribes called the 'Mena ta Put' were pastors. They are literally the nine shepherds or pastors. The Egyptian put are also the circle or pleroma of nine gods, established by Putah or Ptah. The state in China contains nine degrees of rank, with nine totemic marks of honour drawn from the animal symbols of heraldry, corresponding to the nine divisions mapped out by Yu[278].

A pillar was said to have been erected by Yu on Keu-leu, one of the seventy-two peaks of Mount Hang, to commemorate his conquest over the deluge. This pillar is also described as a spirit-like thing which could appear and disappear at pleasure[279], like the grave of Moses, of which it is related in the elder Midrash on Deuteronomy that explorers were sent by a Roman emperor to find this grave. They came where they could see it but could not reach it. When the seekers were below they saw it above; when they went above they saw it below. It was what the word Maui (a name of the Egyptian Moses, Shu) means, a movable barrier. Both were celestial; and it is useless to seek the pillar of Yu or the grave of Moses on earth. The seventy-two peaks only apply to the celestial mount of the circle which finally contained seventy-two duo-decans. The gods became twelve in Egypt, Assyria, India, Greece, and Rome in relation to the zodiac of twelve signs. The nine belong to a zodiac of nine solar months (or ten moons) and an inundation, or the quarter of the waters, out of which the ark is said to come forth[280]. And according to the [p.252] present interpretation the nine vases, nine divisions, nine signs of Yu the potter, are identical with the circle of the nine gods founded by Ptah the potter in Egypt upon the nine dry signs and a deluge, depicted by the figure of the put-circle and the number nine. Amongst other superstitions current with English sailors is one of a phantom frigate that has nine decks which still haunts the ocean; and this is perhaps a ghost of the ninefold heaven, or ark of the nine signs, the put-circle in a phantom form. In like manner the mermaid of the folktales is one with the fish-tailed goddess who is figured in the zodiaci.


The arkite typology was nowhere more certainly enshrined than in the stone monuments, the myths, mysteries, and Druidic lore of Britain and Ireland. Even yet the living memory and the oral wisdom are not quite extinct. It was not the indigenous facts that so misled Bryant, Faber, and Davies, but their biblical fallacies. Eustathius, in his Commentary on the Second Iliad[281], says the reason why the Pelasgi were designated divine was because they alone among the Greeks had preserved the use of letters after (or from) the deluge. In like language the British Barddas are able to boast that if the deluge should break loose and overwhelm the world, so that no safety should remain, yet they could protect the seat. The chair will be safe, like that in which Taht the time-reckoner is enthroned in the sign of the crabi. They can bury the books until the tide has passed and recover them again. So sure is their present knowledge of the heavenly bodies, the celestial courses, and the complete system of time-keeping by manifold entry. Taliesin says,

'They speak not falsely, these books of Beda.
The chair of the Preserver is here, and till doom shall continue in Europe.
With me is the splendid chair, the inspiration of fluent (and) urgent song.'[282]

'Let the billow cover over the shingle,
Let the land become an ocean,
So that it leaves not the cliffs,
Nor bill, nor dale,
Nor the least of shelter.'[283]

The chair, the books, the cult are secure. He knows the 'regulator between heaven and earth.' His song is concerning 'magnificent astronomy;' 'concerning the protection of ages.' He knows the 'typology of the trees,' the 'seven-score Ogyrven that are in the Awen.'[284] He knows when the apple-tree is tinted, when the alder empurples, when hips are red, and other means of telling time in a world without watches, which had to depend on the watchers.


Several deluges and escapes are found in the British fragments. First, there is a deluge that afflicts the dragon. The seven companions of Arthur escape in an ark. The great tree, Daronwy, was a refuge from the flood. Dwyvan and Dwyvach, the primal pair, also escape from a deluge, in an ark, to become the first human parents in Britain. Gwydion, the British Mercury, the lord of letters and types, is accredited by the Barddas with preventing the flood for the future by his superior knowledge. He set in order the elementary trees, readjusted the reckonings, and formed a protecting fence. He represents Mercury in his lunar character, who is called in to assist when the Dog-star had let in the deluge, and who, as Tir in the Bundahish, comes to the help of Tishtar. Hu, the solar god, with his three oxen draws the Avanc monster out of the lake, puts a stop to the inundation, and becomes himself the ruler of the deep. Here we find the three phases of the mythos stellar, lunar, and solar. The seven companions of Arthur make their voyage in his shield, Prydwen, a form of the ark. Mien of course denotes the female, pryd answers to prit (Eg.), the abode of safety, a storehouse where corn was saved Prydwen is an ark of life during the deluge. Arthur is the son of Arth, the Bear, and his shield was the ark of the seven stars which carried the seven companions.

Nevydd Nay Nevion is what Davies terms a title of the diluvian patriarch whom he identifies with Noah[285]. But the Welsh nay is the lord and that is the neb (or nef) who is the Lord, likewise, in Egyptian (the nob in vulgar English). Nef signifies the sailor, and Nef (Khnef) or Num is the lord of the inundation. As Canopus he was the pilot of the Argo. Num or Nef, called the old, original, immortal god at Thebes, reaches back to Sut-Nub, who is found in Australia as well as in Britain. The Barddas ascribe the building of the ark to Menwyd, the dragon-chief of the world. As ark-builder Menwyd is a form of Seb, who was the earlier Kebekh, the dragon. Seb was chief of the serpents or cycles of time, and Menwyd is described as having made the ark by means of serpents joined together, that is by the connected cycles of time. The ark is said to cross the valley of the waters having its forepart stored with corn. In precisely the same manner the Egyptian bark or ark that traverses the waters is described as carrying the mystic corn, transporting the food of the west across the deep[286]. In the same poem it is said, 'without the ape (Eppa), without the stall of the cow, without the mundane rampart, the world will become desolate.'[287] The 'stall of the cow' (i.e., of Hathor) was at the place of the western equinox. The ape marked the point of the eastern equinox in that rampart of the world, the celestial signs, which constituted the defence against the waters of the deluge and their desolation. Without these, says the bard, the cuckoo of spring would not [p.254] be wanted to call for the dance in the month of May. The ape in Egypt was also the figurehead of the clepsydra or water-clock, named the sha.

In the quadrangular kaer or sanctuary of the four corners they bailed the cauldron of Kd and of Hu, the ruler of the deep. The boiling was attended by the nine damsels who kindled the fire with their breath. The cauldron boiled once a year, and was allowed to boil over by Gwyon the Little, the Irish Con, and Egyptian Khun the Little (Su), i.e., Khunsu. The year, consisting of a three months' inundation and nine dry months, is enacted in the British mysteries and the nine-stone monuments as visibly as it is to be read in the signs of the zodiac. The place of the abyss was that of the three water signs, and this quarter of the waters was at first left in the lump, so that the stones and the ceremonies constantly echo the natural factas it was in Egypt onlyof nine dry months (or ten moons) and an inundation to the year. Keridwen's cauldron was the abyss, and the nine maidens breathing, or the nine muses singing, round represented the nine dry months. At the 'nine-stane Rig' the stones once stood by the water that typified the abyss to the north, and at the same spot the 'headless cross' figured the three quarters of a circle with the fourth not filled in, just as it is in Masonry. The nine signs or divisions typified by the nine bridges, nine vases, nine stones nine maids, were represented by the 'holy sanctuary on the ninth wave,' the ark that symbolized the protecting fence, which was also composed of nine stones. 'There is a holy, or insular, sanctuary on the ninth wave,' says Taliesin[288].

The rebuilding of the temple in the Masonic mysteries is a mode of constructing the celestial ark of the deluge legends, just as the British Druidesses, the nine in Kaer Son, or in the island of Sena, unroofed and re-roofed their temple once a year; which the Barddas also associate with the typical deluge. The Holy Royal Arch of the Masons is one with the ark. Nine companions must be present to constitute an ark (so to say) or an arch; the same in number as the British Gwyllion, or the Galliceme of Pomponius Mela[289]that is at an opening of a royal arch chapter. In entering the symbolical ark the initiate goes in by passing under a living arch formed by the nine companions holding their hands joined, or by other mode of making the ninefold arch. This arch of nine is the Egyptian put-circle of the nine gods with one quarter left open for the abyss which had to be crossed annually by the sun-god; the Masonic quarter that is not filled in. On entering the chapter which connects the rite with the mourning for Osiris the nine companions give the 'sign of sorrow.' When entered, the initiates have likewise become builders of the temple or ark. In the Druidic mysteries the candidate was shut up within an ark and sent adrift upon the waters, sink or swiman effective school for sailors. Taliesin says of himself, that he had been in the ark, which was the [p.255] womb of Keridwen, the great mother, during nine months[290]; and this coincides with the period of gestation and the nine dry months of the year in Egypt.

According to a legend preserved by the Macusi Indians, a new creation was effected after a deluge by the only survivor turning stones into men and thus re-peopling the earth. In the same fashion was the world re-peopled after the deluge of Deucalion, when the 'new-named laity,' as Pindar calls the offspring of Deucalion and Pyrrha[291], sprang from stones, or the bones of their mother cast behind them. In the Avesta the adversary complains that Zaratusht smites him worst with the weapon of stone that is the size of a kata[292]. The kata is also some kind of measure, and stones of measure were timekeepers. Eden was an enclosure of precious stones.

According to the Talmud[293], the Creator instructed Noah to place precious stones in the ark, in order that it might shine as with the sun at noonday. The mythos in the Talmud is frequently to be found, but in its dotage. Precious stones were symbols of the celestial signs set in heaven. The twelve signs were represented by twelve precious stones. Precious stones being a form of the signs, these were equivalent to the animals congregated in Noah's theba, whose images are still to be found in the celestial ark of the planispherei. 'The ark of Seb-Kronus was the round of starry space, and the gathering there is not too numerous for the size. The place of the ark in the second temple is said by Josephus and the rabbis to have been supplied by a stone called the stone of libation[294]a common form of the stone; libation and inundation being one in Egyptian. The pillars erected by the children of Seth, which remained in the land of Siriad, were forms of the ark-stones in relation to the deluge and the time-reckonings. The two equinoctial altars are two stones of reckoning, erected at the point of re-emergence from the waters in the double luni-solar signs.

The men who were stones are extant in the British stone men, the men-hirs, men-an-tols, maen-arks, and maen-ketti, the stones erected to keep out the deluge of time. The ark-enclosure is the natural opposite to all that was waste, and void in space, whether the type is applied to time or dwelling-place. Taliesin proclaims that the Druidical art of the Gwyddon was the greatest of the three mental exertions that disported in the world, and the one which was among the stones of the deluge[295]. A tradition, echoed by Norden, asserted that the stone monuments were left thus at the general flood[296]. The stones of the deluge are the various memorials of the cycles of time, such as the nineteen stones of the Kyvri-vol or equalized computation of the Metonic cycle. The Druids kept the chronology by means of the stones of observation and registration, and therefore [p.256] the stones were said to keep out the deluge, as a rampart against the waters, and to have been left standing after the flood. The Barddas tell us that one of the three mighty labours of the island of Britain was that of lifting the maen-ketti; the stone enclosures or seats. These are especially identified with the great mother Kd, who was the ark in person[297].

The principle of naming the ketti, also the name itself, is Kamite. The khet (Eg.) is a secret abode, the womb or tomb, the fort, the seat, the stone, the obelisk, the dead. Most of the Egyptian meanings are British. We have the seat and fort in the Cyttiau of Holyhead. In Derbyshire the dead are the ged. The stones of the ketti were erected for the dead. The cat-stone, often called a battle-stone, is one of these; also the four-horned cairn in Caithness is the ged, or the place is so-named. According to the good Mazdayasnian law, the Persians were commanded to erect three katas (a place of three corners, in the Gujarat rendering) as memorial stones for him who is dead[298]. These are numerically identical with the triliths of the British ketti.

The stone and the seat are synonymous, and the seat in Welsh is the kadeir, which becomes the chair in English. The root of kadeir then is kad or ket, the earliest form of the word seat. The seats are various. The owl, Welsh, is the rump as seat. The cwythir is the feminine abode. A country seat implies a large house. But the Welsh cyttian were aboriginal huts. The cyttiau of Kaer-Gybi at Holyhead include some fifty huts. The 'Kit's Coity' houses show the cyttiau of the dead, where the maen-ketti were lifted. The monuments of our prehistoric past, including the ancient names, have been constantly brought within the historic boundary to be explained according to current philology. Thus the kaers or ceathars, and sters have been derived from the Roman castres, because it was known that the Romans had been here, whereas the people that preceded are in a great measure, and the earliest of all entirely, unknown. But Caterthun is not a modified form of Casterthun; the cater or kadeir being older than the castra. When Simeon of Durham speaks of Caer-Wise[299], and Geoffrey of Monmouth calls Exeter Caer-Osc[300], both mean the seat (chair), on the Usk or Ex water, calling them so, according to the British mode of naming the seat first, as in Cader-Idris. Exeter is the Ex-Cadr in a worn-down form, the seat on the Ex river.

Caer Sidi, Stonehenge, is the seat of Sidi, or the seven; Caer Caradoc, Shropshire, the seat of Caradoc; the Caermote in the lake country is the seat (chair) of the Mote Hill, or of the goddess Moate, our Mat. Caer-Wydr is the seat of glass or ware, therefore of the ware-makers.*

* 'Caer-Wydr, the enclosure, ark, or boat of glass; Preidden Annwn. May not Caer-Wydr reversed, as Wydr-Caer, or Wydr-Caethar, be the original name of Worcester, sounded with the Latin c? Various ancient names were thus transmuted by later pronunciation.

The Caerau of Sussex were stone forts or kadeirau. [p.257] The dead remain as witnesses that the minster was not derived from the castre or camp of the living. Nor was the British ceathar for the seat, fortress, or sanctuary derived from the Norse seter. The ceathar is for ever founded on the number four, the seter of the Norse is not; excepting that the seat may have four corners. And the Irish ceathar, as in Ulster, Munster, and Leinsterthree out of the four cornersis but modernized in sound, and then said to be Norse.

In the first volume of A Book of the Beginnings, the writer identified the British minster with the Egyptian ster or seter, as the couch, bier, and resting-place of the laid-out dead[300a]; but his work was not always done to the depth, as it might be now. Thus he failed to recognise the earlier form of the (min) ster in the cethair (kadair), as the primitive stone-sanctuary of the dead. Kadair modifies into catair and ster, just as khet (Eg.) does into set, whence the setr or ster in Egypt. The 'Carfax' at Oxford may supply us with an instructive instance of modernization. The carfax is the centre of four roads, and the name represents the old English carfoukes, which, says Mr. Skeat, is derived either from the old French carrefourgs, or the Latin quatuor furcas, the four forks[301]. This explanation is obvious at first sight, and apparently past question thenceforth forever. There are the four forks, and the French and the Latin close at hand to prove it. Nevertheless, the explanation is an assumption, which other facts may entirely disprove. Why should the car, for four, be derived from the French carre, or Latin quatuor? We had it already in the Irish-Celtic ceathar, and Manx kiare for number four. Nor is foukes of necessity derived from fourgs or furcas. It is probably from another root altogether. For example, to fouk (or fouch) is an old English hunting-term employed for quartering a buck, in which to fouk is not to fork. To quarter is to divide, and fouk, to quarter, is common to various groups of languages as the type-word for division. It is the Sanskrit vik (or vi); Vayu, phaka, Chinese, pik; Egyptian, pekh, etc., to divide. Thus ceather-fouch, kiar-fouch or caer-fouch (whence Carfax), is the four-quartered, or the place of the four quarters. This was the Druidic or British ceathar and kadeir, as in Cader Idris, which was a seat, a fort, or a sanctuary on the mount, called the Quadrangular Kaer by the Barddas. Kaer (i.e., Kadeir)-Drewyn, Deeside, sometimes called the Gair, was a square or rectangular enclosure, not a four-forks. The quadrangular kaer (kadeir) of the Druids continued the type of the four-horned cairns of our prehistoric race. The same type may be traced in the quadrangular altar of the temple at Jerusalem, which had its four corners projecting in the shape of horns.


Stonehenge contained four kaers or ark-circles for keeping out the deluge. These we can now identify according to the typology. One form of time-keeping was called 'preserving the fire.'

Preserving the fire was the natural antithesis to being overwhelmed by the flood. Hence the beginning of the new cycle was marked by the reproduction of fire, and the fire symbolised beginning, as water did the ending. Thus fire was a type of time, and the nine maids or the nineteen which preserved the fire, whether for Bridget or Kd, were the keepers of time. The nine stood for the nine months; the nineteen for the Metonic cycle. We may therefore safely infer that the number of stones set up in each circle of Stonehenge was related to a particular cycle of time, as nine months are to gestation. The stone of observation at the centre of all proves the astronomical nature of the stones. This is shown by the nineteen stones, the number of the Metonic cycle, which is determined by the lunar eclipses and constitutes the basis of the epact or golden number.

The seven trilithonsfor an ellipse was evidently intended, and no lesser number could have formed the figurewe take to represent the seven in the ark of pre-planetary time.

The third circle is believed to have contained forty stones[302], a number not so easily identified. But according to the reckoning by nine months or ten moons and an inundation or a water-quarter, we have a period of forty weeks, well known in the mysteries. It is the period of gestation, represented by the ark of nine stones; the Marquesan poni or year of ten moons. This period of the forty weeks was commemorated by the forty days fast and fasting during the time that the sun-god suffered his change in the passage of the waters, or the deluge, our Lent. But absolute certainty of the exact number in this circle seems unattainable.

The outer circle was composed of thirty stones. This, in round numbers, is the same as the years in the cycle of Saturn. Eudoxus, who, according to Seneca[303], drew his knowledge of the planetary cycles from Egypt, says the period of Saturn was thirty years. We know the Druids reckoned a thirty-year cycle identical with that of the Egyptian Sut-Heb[304]. Stonehenge is named Kaer-Sidi, and Sidi is Saturn (or the seventh, as well as number seven), reckoned in his planetary character. Plutarch had learned that Saturn was held a prisoner bound in one of the British or Northern Isles[305]. Kaer-Sidi is a form of that prison or ark-enclosure, and the thirty stones of the outermost circle contain the number of his cycle. When this was added the planetary periods would be all completed. In Egyptian ark signifies number thirty. Arki is a Hindu name of the planet Saturn, and Kaer-Sidi is an ark of Saturn.


Stonehenge is an ark of a fourfold nature; the compound type of a fourfold reckoning of time. Such, we may now understand, was the meaning of Taliesin when he asserted in the Kadeir Teyrn On that 'Four Kaers there are in Prydain stationary.'[306] These four are quoted as the fixed mainstay against any future deluge, with an allusion to the men of Kd who were lost in a deluge of the past, all but the seven that were saved in the ark. Thus understood, Stonehenge was a temple of the sun, moon, and seven stars, corresponding to the Mexican group of pyramids, and to the pyramids of the sun, moon, and seven stars at Giza; the seven stars being double or pre-planetary and planetary, as they are in the Great Pyramid. Stonehenge was one of the most perfect and archaically precious memorials of the deluges of time and the typology of the ark extant on the surface of our earth.*

* Stonehenge. The stones generally employed in these ancient works are known in Wiltshire by the name of sarsizn stones. An ancient name for the Druid or sage who is old in wisdom is arsan. Can this with the prefix ys have supplied the name of sarsan?

The Tatnanaks of Orinoco relate that after the deluge one pair of human beings who escaped cast behind them the fruit of a palm-tree, from the stones of which another race of men and women sprang. The palm is an equivalent to the stones. It was periodic, and therefore a time-teller. This tree alone, says Horapollo, produces one branch at each renovation of the moon[307]. The teru (palm-shoot) is our tree; and teru (Eg.) is time. The teru as a shoot or branch was the tally of the Druids, whose name the present writer has derived from teru (Eg.), time, the tree, branch or shoots employed by the Gwyddon in addition to the stones. Trees were teachersthe trees that talked, before their shoots were reduced to phonetic values in the tree-alphabets; and what they taught was time. This is the primary relationship of the Druid, time and tree; the Egyptian teru or tree. The trees furnished the tallies and sticks of omen, divination, and foretelling because they were previously the tellers of times and seasons. The Druids had attained that knowledge and use of the stones and trees which the people of the one tongue described in the Popul Vuh had not mastered when it says 'they had but one language, and did not as yet invoke either wood or stones.'[308]

In a Mangaian myth there is a five-day deluge; the only one we meet with that is limited to this period of time. It was caused by Aokeu, or red circle, who is said to have been ignobly born of the constant drippings of a narrow cave. The waters of this inundation were also red[309]. The Gadhael call the deluge of Noah the ruadh thuile and dile ruadh,* two forms of the red flood.

* Thuile, or dile, flood. Compare tul, or tur, (Eg.), flood, wash, libation.

No reason for this has been assigned, but the red deluge is menstrual; it is still [p.260] known as a flooding. This will explain the flood which is not in certain myths.

According to Hyde, it was out of the oven of the old woman Zala Cfa that the waters of the Persian deluge flowed. Mohammed appears to have adopted this version of the oven which boiled over with the flood. The oven was supposed to have been at Cfa in a spot where a mosque now stands. Others say the oven was the very same that Eve made use of to bake her bread in, but of a form different from those now in use[310].

As the waters were divided into upper and lower in creation, so their mingling together again in chaotic confusion is a form of the flood described by Enoch. These two waters are called male and female, and their being mixed and confounded is to cause a deluge that shall destroy the dwellers on the earth. The type of an ending being here derived from the non-keeping of the period in the mystical sense, and an improper mingling of the elements of life[311].

A Chickasaw legend affirms that there will be a destruction of the world by fire, and that previously there will be a rain of blood mingled with oil[312]. Blood and oil are perpetual symbols of the two sources of existence, female and male, and thus the imagery is apparently the same as that of Enoch.

The mystical flood is expressly a purification. The dwellers in the Druidic sanctuary or ark on the ninth wave are said to preserve themselves in purity as those who do not associate in the bonds of pollution. The inundation of the Nile was likewise a periodic purifier of the land. Here we find the natural genesis for the idea of cleansing and the renewal of health which was continued in the moral and religious domain. The end of a period was looked upon as a purification. The world sloughed off its old self and sins like the skin of the serpent. Hence the cleansing of the earth by the waters of the deluge from its accumulated corruption.

In the creation of the new heavens by Ra[313], the ending of the previous time is signalised by a deluge of blood. Ra, being 'God by Himself,' complains that the race are rebels. They 'utter words against me.' They are destroyed by the goddess Hathor, the Egyptian Venus. Earth swam in the blood of men to the extent of three days' navigation. Ra resolves to be lifted up in an ark or tabernacle of his own. This solar creation follows those of Shu, Seb, Taht, and the elder gods, who now become the servants or ministers of Ra, the Supreme One.

Of the British celebration of the mysteries we are told the ogdoad of gods assembled together on Monday and marched in procession on Tuesday they allotted wrath to their adversaries; on Wednesday they enjoyed their perfect pomp; on Thursday they were delivered [p.261] from the hated usurpers; and on Friday, called the day of Venus, and the day of the great influx, they 'swam in the blood of men.' This was on Hathor's day; the goddess who whelmed the world in a deluge of the blood of men.

The superior or planetary hebdomad may be said to revolve in the Ark of the week by reckoning seven days to the week as seven in the ark; our week being identified as the days of the seven planetary gods.

The ark took manifold forms. Before boats were built the ark of life was the mother's womb. This was represented by the fish, crocodile, water-cow, water-hog, or other types. The god or soul that crossed the water did so in the belly of the fish, such as Cetus or Pisces Australis. The Osirian, speaking as the emerging sun-god, says, 'I have come to ye who are in the horizon' (the place of the resurrection). The 'gods rejoice when they see him at his good coming-forth (his deliverance) from the belly, born of his mother, the firmament.'[314]

The eleventh of the fourteen mystical abodes is called the abode of the belly or the abode in Hades! It is 'the belly prevailing against spirits' or the deceased[315]. One almost expects to find a constellation of the calabash which is an inner African means of crossing the waters. In a Mangaian myth the native Jonah does cross in a calabash as well as inside of a whale. Also, whales are termed canoes. The calabash in the inner African languages is named:

koko, in Akua. kagudu, in Ankaras. gukanje, in Banyun.
kika, in Marawi. kekanda, in Bola.  

This was continued in the Egyptian kaka as a name for the boat; the caique; the cock-boat in English; cwch, Welsh; coc, Cornish. The British genetrix Kd was a form of the ketus or ark, under various types, as the stone ark, the sow, and the pregnant mare which is portrayed on one of the talismanic coins[316] with the legend 'Orceti;' orc being a name for the womb and the sarcophagus.

Teb, the goddess of the Great Bear, carried the Osiris deceased in her teba to reproduce him in the new life on the other side of the abyss. The dead were buried in their boats of tree, the earliest coffins, to cross the mythical waters. The Garrows of Bengal were accustomed even to burn their dead on a pile of wood in a dingy, or small boat placed on the top[317]. The boat of the dead in the Book of the Dead[318], was one that sailed throughout the region of fire in Hades as well as over the waters. The bridge follows the boat. In the Persian mythos the dead gather at the bridge Chinvat, waiting to cross. They are led over by the dog, the Mercury, who in Egypt is Sut-Anup, and whose zodiacal station is in the sea-goat. Chinvat [p.262] in Sanskrit means gathering and collecting; and the dead were represented as collecting at the point of crossing in the west, from whence they started once a year on the night of 'All Souls'the Irish 'Oidche Samhan.' The theory was that 'all souls' of those that died during the year were gathered together on this night to cross into the other world, and any wanderers who missed their chance would have to wait during another year. In the Mabinogion it is related that when Bendigeid Vran and his army came to a river the chieftains said to him, 'Lord, knowest thou the nature of this river, that nothing can go across it, and there is no bridge over it? What,' said they, 'is thy counsel concerning a bridge?' 'There is none,' said he, 'except that he who will be chief let him be a bridge! I will be so.' And when he had laid himself down across the waters they placed hurdles on his back and the army passed over in safety[319]. This too is a myth of the crossing of the celestial waters, and Vran is a British personification of the bridge of salvation which was also represented by the Pope of Rome in the character of Pontifex Maximus.

A deluge being the end of a particular world of time, this will explain the legend of the Kaaba at Mecca. It is said that after the expulsion of Adam from Paradise he begged of the Lord that he might be allowed to erect a building like that which he had seen there. (So Moses made the tabernacle in accordance with what he had seen in the mount.) Whereupon God let down a representation of that house, the Beit-al-Mamr, and this was the first form of the Kaaba at Mecca.

After the death of Adam, Seth built the Kaaba, or rebuilt that which was destroyed by the deluge. Hence the legend of the Kaaba being the Beit-al-Mamr that was let down to Adam and withdrawn back to heaven at the time of the flood[320]. After each deluge the house, tabernacle or ark of the heavens, was changed because it was the figure of a fresh foundation embodying the new knowledge of time.

The waters of undistinguished space were at length limited to one quarter of the four, the meh (Eg.), abyss, synonymous with the north. This region also was finally conquered by the solar god who passed through the underworld as the water-walker, or the sun in its ark, and added to the rest. The circle of light was completed, and a rampart against the enemy, the darkness, the dragon, the deluge, was erected all round in the zodiac of twelve signs. The struggle for the fourth quarter is described in the Bundahish. 'And ninety days and nights the heavenly angels were contending in the world with the confederate demons of the Evil Spirit, and hurled them confounded to hell; and the rampart of the sky was formed so that the adversary should not be able to mingle with it.'[321] Ninety days are one quarter of the year, and the north remained the quarter of Typhon the dragon, the Evil One, the abyss of the waters and darkness, the deluge and desolation. From [p.263] that quarter the typhonian world at first arose, and to it finally returned as the region of the outcasts in theology and in folklore. The north is the negative or unoccupied quarter in Masonic symbolism. We find an application of this reckoning applied to the night of Brahma, the period of negation or the waters. It is said by the Vamadeva-Modely that 'when the Night of Brahma is approaching, dusk rises at the horizon and the sun passes away behind the thirtieth degree of Makara (Capricorn) and will reach no more the sign of Mina (Pisces).' These are the three water-signs which represent the negation of time, the place of non-creation, the abyss.

Canopus was a type of Sut-Nub in one cult and of Num in another. Num rose up ram-headed in the Argo, with the sun's entrance into the Ram sign. He was lord of the inundation during three months, and the lord of breath the sailor (nef) of the Empyrean during the nine dry months. And this, apparently, is the basis of the solar reckoning in Noah's riding the waters during nine months as dominator of the flood. It is an Arabic saying 'When Suhail ascends the torrents subside,' and Suhail is the star in Canopus, on the rising of which it is affirmed that all the water which has fallen from heaven is dried up[322]. Agasti, who is said to have been born in a water-jar, and renowned for having swallowed the ocean when it gave him offence, is considered to be the Hindu regent of the star Canopus, the pilot of the Argo. Moreover, a Mexican myth shows how the bridge across the abyss in the north was built of the three water-signs which superseded the boat.

When the servant of Tezcatlipoca is standing at the edge of the water and cannot cross, the god appears to him and bids him call upon the whale, the tortoise, and the siren, to make him a bridge. By aid of these the servant crosses over to the house of the sun[323]. They represent the three water-signs. The siren is one with the mermaid in the sign of Pisces. The whale is just below Aquarius, and the tortoise may stand for the sea-goat. Thus a bridge of signs was actually built over the abyss in the final zodiac of twelve signs.

In making the change to a circle of twelve signs the point of commencement in the north was slewed round eastward. Hence the Akkadian mountain of the world became the mount of the east. Mount Meru, the primordial birthplace in the north likewise became the mountain eastward. This may be followed in the Adamah of the Genesis; and in the Book of Enoch it says: 'the fourth wind, which is named the north, is divided into three parts, and the third part contains Paradise.'[324] Thus Eden, which began at the summit of the mount, and descended into the circle of four quarters prepared by Yima, in the Avesta, against the coming deluge, was finally planted in the twelfth division of the zodiac of twelve signs, as the garden eastward. So in a Mojave myth we hear of a certain Matevil, the creator of heaven [p.264] and earth, who in past times dwelt among his people in a grand abode or casa. By some untoward event, a deluge or other form of destruction, this abode was broken down, the nations were destroyed, and Matevil departed eastward, from whence in the latter days he is to return again to consolidate, prosper them, and dwell with them for ever[325].

The final form of the Ark in heaven was the zodiac of twelve signs. When Hermes says to Tat 'Thou dost well, O son, to desire the solution of the tabernacle, for thou art purified,'[326] he describes the final form of the tabernacle of the heavens as that of the zodiacal circle of the twelve signs, by means of which the twelve torments of darkness are driven away and expelled. In the resurrection and restoration promised by the mouth of Esdras, the typical seven mountains are included, together with the tree of life, in a twelvefold form; 'Thou shalt have the tree of life for an ointment of sweet savour.' 'I have sanctified and prepared for thee twelve trees laden with divers fruits, and as many fountains flowing with milk and honey, and seven mighty mountains whereupon there grow roses and lilies, whereby I will fill thy children with joy.'[327] Then follows the destruction of the old heavens based on the earlier foundations. 'And I saw a New Heaven and a New Earth for the first heaven and the first earth are passed away, and there is no more sea,' consequently there was to be no more deluge as in the bygone times. Perfect time had been made out in heaven at last, and time perfected, always foreknown, constituted the 'immortality for to come, wherein corruption is past.'

The last deluge and the final form of the celestial ark are represented in the Book of Revelation, together with the chief characters and scenery of the mythological allegory. The dragon of darkness wars against the light, and the end of a time and the old order of things is marked by a deluge that issues from the dragon's mouth. The war in heaven now portrayed is no mere conflict of dark and day, nor of the annual eclipse and rebirth of the young sun-god, although the imagery is identical. This is the casting out of the dragon whose 'tail draweth the third part of the stars of heaven, and did cast them to the earth.'[328] The ancient genetrix is depicted sitting on the waters and upon her throne of the seven hills, which are also seven kings, like the seven in the Babylonian legend. The starry dragon with seven (and with six) heads is likewise here.

The tree of the seven branches or constellations is figured in the seven golden candlesticks. 'The seven stars are the angels of the seven churches, and the seven candlesticks are the seven churches.' The seven angels, who in the Ritual are the seven great spirits as servants of the great judge or judgment, proclaim the coming doom. The 'two witnesses' and 'two candlesticks' answer to the twin lion- [p.265] gods of the solstices. The four living creatures round about the throne are the four gods or keepers of the quarters. The four-and-twenty elders are the twenty-four judges of the Babylonians, who were fixed stars, twelve of which were judges in the southern, and twelve in the northern sky, also called the stars of Akkad and the stars of the West, the twelve visible ones representing the judges of the living, the twelve invisible the judges of the dead. The tree of life is here as it was in Eden, on the mount of the seven stars, but it has expanded from the four branches of the four quarters or the seven branches of the seven stars to the twelve divisions 'bearing twelve manner of fruits, yielding its fruit every month.'[329]

The description of a new heaven and a new earth looks like a prophecy of some brilliant prospect for humanity that is immediately near, in which there shall be no more pain nor sorrow, sin nor death and there shall be no more sea. The 'first things are passed away,' and 'he that sitteth on the throne' of the lamb shall 'make all things new.'[330] It conjures up a vision of the most illusory and deluding beauty when looked upon as prophecy in the modern sense. It was astronomical prophecy. The end of a vast cycle of time had been looked forward to (in a way the present writer finds it hard to understand, whilst fully admitting the fact) as the time of a judgment, and award for the good and the evil. A time of fulfilment, of transformation, renewal, and healing for the nations. It was the day of a resurrection. All the imagery of the renovated serpent the golden age, the leafage of a new spring, the fresh outburst from the fount of source, the innocence of a more conscious infancy, a millennium of peace and plenty, was crowded to clothe this future in all the beauty of promise and the auroral hues of a new and unparalleled morning for the old weary world to wear upon its resurrection day. In Revelation it is all reducible to the fact that such a change, a transformation and renewal, was looked forward to when the sun entered the sign of the Ram, the Mithraic lamb, the Sebek-Ra of Egypt. And all the rest is but a glamour of glorya glory that has been reflected ever since in myriads of human eyes, that read and gush with gratitude for that which never, never comes.

The new heaven did literally descend from on high when the circle of twelve signs was establishedor the cycle of precession was repeated.

The first heaven was a circle round the polar centre. Next, the four corners of the cone or mount were marked by four constellations high up overhead; lower down by the four corner stars, such as Aldebaran, Regulus, Antares, and Fomalhaut, and finally by the twelve signs of the perfected solar zodiac. When the seventh angel had sounded, 'there was opened the temple of god that is in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament.'[331] And [p.266] this ark was the zodiac of twelve signs. The new Jerusalem descended with twelve gates and twelve angels at them, with the names of the twelve tribes of the children of Israel written thereon. It had twelve foundations and on them twelve names of the twelve apostles of the lamb; twelve foundations of precious stones, and twelve gates of pearl. As shown by the imagery of the tree of life, and the mount of the four quarters, from which the river flows in four directions, with the throne of the lamb in the midst of the street, this new starting-point in the perfected permanent heaven of all time to come, was established when the equinoctial colure entered the sign of Aries. The prophecy, supposed, being an event that was then fulfilled. 'And he saith, Write; for these words are faithful and true. And he said unto me, "They are come to pass."'[332] The dragon had been the guide in heaven, with a Draconis for the polestar, down to the time of the sun's entrance into Aries[333]. So that the ending of the period assigned to the dragon (and Bull), and the re-commencement with the Ram or Lamb can be determined according to indubitable astronomical data, and these for ever fix the date of that new world in which there was to be no more sea, and could be no more deluge. The prophecy was fulfilled; the Christ came; the son assumed the father's judgment seat, the twelve were constituted, whether called twelve gods, twelve tribes, twelve knights, or twelve apostles, and the cornerstone of the new temple, the ark of the eternal, was laid in the year 2,410 BC in the sign of the Ram or Lamb.





This page last updated: 25/03/2014