[p.267]

THE NATURAL GENESIS

 

SECTION 12

 

NATURAL GENESIS OF TIME AND TYPOLOGY OF THE WORD OR LOGOS

 

Modern language enables us to use the word time in an abstract or general sense which was beyond the reach of archaic man; there was no time until it was measured by means of recurring phenomena each length of time was inseparable from its determinative type: these being various in particulars, we come at last to Time in general, or the abstract Time. The earliest languages have no such terms as would denote abstract time, any more than abstract colour, or abstract cause. A word like 'time' is an abstract from various meanings. The name of 'time,' the Latin tempus, was probably derived from the Kamite tem for a total, which has a variant sem with the same meaning. Tem also signifies to be complete, perfected, an end appointed, whilst sem (sem.t) likewise means a period of time, and also to conduct a festival. Tem, a total, agrees with the Latin temo, for the team as a total, and would explain a time as a calculated total. But time was not calculated in the primary stage of observation. Tem (Eg.) also means to announce, pronounce, cut off, or end. Mat, another name for Time as that which is just or lawful, signifies juncture, and conjunction.

In the Ritual, the mother goddess of Time appears by name as Atem, or Atmu. Mu is the mother, at is a circle of time, also the child; and it has been shown that the mother of time, as well as of men, was earlier than the father. Time personified in a male form is Seb (the earlier Sevekh = Saturn). Seb is the star, the opening of light, morning, morrow. Seb or sep denotes a time, an event, occurrence, a spontaneous act or manifestation, a turn round. The primordial sense of law and rule described by the Egyptian 'em ser en Mat,' which means the strict accuracy of law, is based on phenomenal repetition; and 'millions of times' is a formula for the eternal. One form of the sep is harvest-time; another is sefa, the inundation. An earlier phase of time as khab is the eclipse. One [p.268] recurrence of this, or one turn round of the starry heaven, no matter how it was registered, whether by the two Bears, the heliacal rising of Sothis, or by the Pleiades above and below the horizon, would constitute a sep or a time, as a period and a spontaneous manifestation in one. Now, it is in the phase of spontaneous manifestation, and not of calculation and reckoning, that we must seek for the earliest observations of a time. Primitive man did not begin by applying addition, division, and multiplication to external phenomena, with the view or as a mode of establishing Time. Time of life, as we say, would make its appeal to him before the courses of the stars, moon, and sun were observed, measured and registered.

The time to eat, the time of plenty, the time of fruits, the time to couple sexually, would be the earliest form of the spontaneous manifestation made by nature, which appealed to the sense that finally developed a perception of time. The first mode of registering the occurrence, as in the extant customs of harvest-home, was by having a feast and holding a festival. Thus sem, or tsem (Eg.), the variant of tem, a time, to conduct a festival, is related to periodic time which was marked by a celebration and rejoicing. There would be expressions of delight when the mother heaven dropped down her wealth of water in liquid life, or the mother earth yielded her fruits in season. Doubtless there was many a festive gathering round the toddy-palm, when its juice was in full ferment, fire-ripened to the overflow; getting drink or getting drunk was then, as now, a popular mode of marking time and season.

According to Suidas, the years were numbered and the calendars kept in Greece by means of the festivals[1]. So was it in all countries where there was any record of time; our own 'statute fairs' and wakes, are illustrations of this mode of keeping the chronology. Moreover the wake and wac (for drunkenness) were commonly identical. In Egypt the festival is named the uak. The great uak was celebrated annually in the first month (Taht) of the year. The word uaka also signifies a week (Akkadian aga, a sacred day), and, as now suggested, gave us the name of the week for a period of seven days, and of the wake as a mode of memorizing. The cycle of the year measures a turn round of the starry heaven, with one particular cluster of stars for general determinative; and Sothis, as the star that rose heliacally, was observed, and its return registered and celebrated, once a year, before time was subdivided into months and weeks.

Thus the uak was at first the sign of a year, and at last a week, as is shown by the yak being primarily a festival, rather than a measure of time; and because the festival was in celebration of seasons heralded by certain risings of the stars, whether the seven Bears, the six Pleiades, or Sothis, which were repeated annually. In Africa, the season of rain is the great time, hence the Hottentots, Nyamwezi, [p.269] and other races, reckon time by the annual rains. This was continued by the Egyptians, who reckoned a year as an inundation, which has various names of time, such as nun, mu, sef and temi; also kabh for the festival of libation.

The time of the rains was announced to the Hottentots by the rising Pleiades, whose reappearance was hailed at the annual festival. The first missionary to the Khoi-Khoi, George Schmidt, (1737), relates that, 'At the return of the Pleiades these natives celebrate an anniversary; as soon as these stars appear above the eastern horizon, mothers will lift their little ones on their arms, and running up to elevated spots will show to them those friendly stars, and teach them to stretch their little hands towards them. The people of a kraal will assemble to dance and sing according to the old customs of their ancestors. The chorus always sings, "O Tiqua! our father above our heads, give rain to us, that the fruits (bulbs, etc.), uientjes, may ripen, and that we may have plenty of food and a good year."'[2] But the time of first appearances was observed earlier than that of periodic recurrence, and these first appearances were general, the constant recurrences of the race that were at length individualized, once in a lifetime, at the fitting time, the coming of age.

Hence the earliest festival ever celebrated in this world was not even annual; nor was it determined by the rain, stars, moon, or sun. When once we thoroughly grasp the doctrine of development, we find the facts are yet extant in every direction that tend to prove the truth of evolution. So is it here. The importance of puberty as a starting-point in reckoning time has been illustrated by the primitive customs. Homo began with himself in time as well as in gesture-language and digital reckoning. The first period observed and memorialized was that of puberty, the period when the human being was divided into the two sexes, that for ever after sought to become united again.

According to Theal, the African historian and collector of folktales, the Kaffirs have no Sabbath, and keep none of the sacred seasons of periodic recurrence, commonly celebrated by a festival[3]. But, from time immemorial, they have preserved the primitive custom of rejoicing at the first appearance of the menstrual period of the female. This they celebrate in what is their sole festival. At that time of a girl's life, all the young women in her neighbourhood meet for a rejoicing, at which they celebrate the festival of pubescence. These young women are then distributed among the men who are selected to lie with them, but who are prohibited from sexual intercourse; and if the trespass be committed the men are fineda primitive mode of paying a price which was afterwards continued in the compensation enforced at the time of marriage. We still keep the birthday and celebrate the coming of age at a fixed period of life; but the festival [p.270] of puberty is extant to show that the earliest birthday ever memorialized was not the day on which the child was born into the world, but the time of rebirth into womanhood and manhood. When applied to the male, this period of pubescence suggested the birthday of the boy who was at this time admitted as a young man into the totemic tribe; hence the typical 'second birth' celebrated in the mysteries when the first had also been acknowledged.

It is here we have to seek not only the genesis of time itself, but the origin of the so-called phallic cult or worship of the generative powers, which did not commence as a religion but with the sexual typology as a mode of expression, and of keeping time as well as other forms of law. At the age of puberty the boy was first counted as one, an individual, or rather one of the totem; he counted because he was reckoned. Until then the children were not reckoned, and did not count either as individuals or members of the totem, consequently they were of no account. Rekh (Eg.) is to count and reckon. The rekh (Eg.), or ilk, as a people of a district or totem, were those who were reckoned. To be reckoned and numbered was to be of rank, and this constituted the first honour for the male and the female, even from the time they were reckoned separately in the earliest two castes. Up to this period they were mere slaves, and at puberty they became men and women on whom the freedom of the totem was conferred. This rank and honour of being reckoned as one of the body corporate is shown by the Hottentot language, in which the word ga, to count, also signifies honour and respect; goei is one; goab, the number, also means regard, respect, and honour, which originated in becoming one of the number at puberty, those who were of account. If the Hottentot is slighted, he will say indignantly, 'I am not counted,'[4] i.e., he is treated as a nobody.

As one of the reckoned the boy became one of the rekh (Eg.), later race and lineage; the old Norse lag for the community.

Rekh, race, lek, and lis are variants of one type-name; and in Xhosa Kaffir the young men and pubescent youths are called um-lisela; lisa, to give pleasure and delight, is applied exclusively to the pubescent lads in their prime[5]. With the Bechuanas lesia signifies the naming applied to the initiates in the mysteries of pubescence. With this title we may compare the Breton lestad for the stepfather, and the Welsh llysblant for the stepchildren. Leshano in Breton is a surname or nickname, i.e., primarily the ankh, ing, or totemic name. The lesi in Nki is a head; the lezu in Mbarike; the ereso in Egbira-hinia. Hence the name of the man, which was derived from the virile male, as

ras, man, or head, Arabic. lukku, man, Arawak.
rosh, man, Hebrew. lajui,     "    Umiray.
lugsho, "   Gonga. lacay,    "    St. Migue1.

[p.271]

lacay, man, St. Matheo. ariki, the chief, ruler, patriarch, Maori.
t'lacatl,  "    Huasteca. origu, head, chief, Dsekiri.
lokka,     "    Verukali. erhik, man, Turkish.
lokro,      "   Taremuki. orak, man, Ulu.
lake-laki, vir, Malay. ereck, the strong, applied to metals, Californian Indian.
laki, man, Madura. rag, man, Arniya.
lake-laki, man, Sumbawe. recke, the hero, Old High German.
arka, the virile one, Sanskrit. reckr, vir, Old Norse.
rich, to become hard, stiff, firm, to go, Sanskrit. rekh, malekind, or mankind, Egyptian.
lech (לח), pubescent vigour, Hebrew. rik, male, Danish.
arachdach, virile, Gaelic. rae, the lord, the nob, English Gipsy.
arke, the virile one, or male consort, Etruscan. rag, a king, Vedic.
arrach, the elder, Irish. r, king, Egyptian.
arg, a champion, Irish.  

Here the monarch, as well as the man, is named from the virile male, as shown by

rak, to beget, Akkadian. ληχαυ, to whore, sprinkle with seed, Greek.
rać, to make, or create, Sanskrit. lecka, to beget and bring forth young, Gippsland.
erezi, testicle, Zend. reku, futuere, Fiji.
roke, futuere, English. alaich, to beget, produce, bring forth, Gaelic.
reku, when delighted, Gippsland. lig, to beget and bring forth, Scotch.
rekh, to give pleasure, Egyptian. lakeo, to imprint, make the likeness, Ethiopic.
rak, lak and lag, to beget, Sanskrit. luch, offspring, Irish.
likh, to unite sexually with the female, Sanskrit. luched, generator, Irish.
laka, copulation, Kaffir. laki, the husband, Malay.
lekeo, to be wenched, Greek. lecho, the woman in childbirth, Greek.
lecheos, spouse, marriage, bridal-couch,  Greek.  

Rek (Eg.) signifies time and rule; and it was at the time of pubescence that the male became the ruler or regulus in relation to the female. The male or man depended on virility, and was named as the one who had completed his period. Just as the woman's menses supplied a name for the months as measured spaces of time, so the virile male was the arke, ariki, recke, rex, or regulus, the ruler and lawgiver. Hence the name for rule and law.

rek, rule, Egyptian. leg, law, Chinese. ligh, law, Irish.
regula, law, Latin. lex,    "    Latin. lagh,    "   Gaelic.
regla,      "    Icelandic. laga,  "   Cornish. laqcha, "  Maltese.
rigle,       "    Fr. Romance. log,    "   Old Norse. leki, rule, Galla.
riaghal,   "    Irish.    

Further proof that the name was derived from the types is afforded by the fact that it applies to both sexes.

reka, virgin, or pubescent female, Sanskrit. laki, a wife, Bayu.
lagi, concubine, Old Norse. rig, a wanton, English.
luku, mother, Akkadian.  

Ruć, Sanskrit, is to cause to appear beautiful, pleasurable, likable, or lovable, as did the sex at puberty. Rući, is desire, appetite, passion, having the taste and liking which comes with pubescence.

The rākā, Sanskrit, is the girl in whom menstruation has just commenced. The same word is applied both to the moon on the actual day of full moon, and to the male consort of the moon at full. Thus the male and female meet under one name; this is determined [p.272] by the nature of the type, which is that of pubescence and full moon. The natural genesis of the ruch or ruach, the spirit, is shown by the Hebrew tradition, which affirms that it enters the male at the age of thirteen years, i.e., at puberty, at which time the boy becomes possessed of the ruach[6].

rukh, is spirit, Egyptian. ruh, spirit, essence (breath of God, in corporeal spirit), a 
ruach, the begetting or corporeal spirit, Hebrew.   angelic spirit, Gabriel, also the Christ, Arabic.
ruk, the spirit, or essence, Hindustani. lec, to put spirit into a drink, English.
ruh, spirit, or essence, Turkish. logh, ethereal spirits, Irish.
leik, spirit, Chinese. wrach, spirit or ghost, Scotch.

Here the origin of Kronus as a masculine type of time is connected with pubescence; and the name with karnu, Assyrian, cornu, Latin, for the horn; and with kamunat, Egyptian, for the phallic horn. The horned phase was kronian as the time when the boy became a bull, like the horned male moon. The word 'kronus,' however, may be derived from kr (Eg.) a course, a circle, and nu (Eg.) the appointed time.

It was in relation to the time and the results of pubescence that woman became the teacher of man and the author of time and law, who as the genetrix Keres Legifera is styled the lawgiver. It was on account of her own dual manifestation in periodic time that the female was personified as goddess of the Two Truths, and made the earliest representative of the logos, the law, justice, and wisdom. Primitive homo would not, any more than the modern man, have elevated the woman to seats of supremacy, as the divinity of wisdom, truth or justice, on account of her mental superiority, but the manifestation which indicated the period of coupling, and the flowering that foretold the time of being fruitful, were of a nature to arrest his attention and develop a primary perception of time, of reckoning, number, recurrence, uniformity, or law in relation to womankind.

According to the extant typology, female influence on the sexual sense was the earliest human power acknowledged by the male. He did not worship the woman, but he recognised in her the embodiment of a superior potency, yet one which he could wield for his own supreme gratification. He still talks with us by means of the types, which tell of the natural genesis of ideas and doctrines, and thus shows us how he derived various other things from the genetrix besides birth, identity, and descent. She was the teacher of time in relation to the sexual instinct, and that first guide to legality. She was his inspirer, his inflamer, his fire. A goddess of fire was not solely born of solar but of animal heat. Sekhet (Eg.) is a sun-goddess as the lioness, but she is also the divinity of sexual pleasure and strong drink; the fierce inspirer of the masculine potency. She represents no mere fire of the sun, but is the fuel, the producer of the fire, whether solar [p.273] or human; she was the causer and kindler of a fire so fierce that the lioness must needs be its type of expression. Moreover the image of her force is the hinder-part, the ur-hekau, or great magic power which localises the source of this primitive and perennial inspiration first derived from the female nature. Sekhet is the goddess of fire, the fire-water, the fire-feeling; and the goddess is the sakti (i.e., shakti), the energiser of the god, the power of his power, because the sex was recognised as the inspirer of the male, and primary type of human potency.

It was because the female was the inspirer of the breath of life, the quickener, that the spirit was considered to be of a feminine nature. Even the Hebrew ruach or spirit of pubescence that descended on the male at puberty is feminine in gender, as if it were the shakti or feminine inspirer of the male! The sexual influence fired his passion, developed his perception of oleaginous form, and created an ideal for the primitive man, if only that of the Bushman's type of beauty, or of the flesh which fed his fire. He would fight, hunt for food, and do other things to please her who was his pleasure. Primitive man was therefore a sort of Shakteya from the beginning; and the Shakteyas of later times did but continue the feminine type of the manifestor as the object of regard and the mouth of utterance in the uterine religion.

Mr. Theal, who says that, 'No sacred days or seasons are observed'[7] by the Kaffirs, entirely overlooks the fact that puberty was the first season held sacred, and that the period of taboo with them, as with all the most ancient races, is the ever-sacred season; so remote is our present mental standpoint from the natural origins.

Puberty was recognised as the opening time of the sexes. In the hieroglyphics un, to open, reveal, and make known, is likewise the name of the period, the time, the hour. The word also signifies to be, being, existing. Now the man and woman did not exist previously to the period of opening. Homo did not first recognise his selfhood as the ego of metaphysics, but as the person who was constituted a man at the opening time of puberty. This time of life, and coming of age, applies to both sexes, but, as may be seen by the Kaffir festival of female puberty, it was the woman-nature that made the primeval revelation, and was the first teller of the time; the demonstrator of periodicity in its most attractive and most mystical aspect.

We must look to the old dark races who lived and still share in the childhood of the human race, if we would learn how primitive was the revelation of Nature, who instituted the phallic festival of the opening time, and struck the hour for its fulfilment; the time of dedication, as in Israel, to Baal (רוצפ־לעב)  the opener[8].

[p.274]

When Til, the African creator, made man and woman, he bade them to labour during five days and to keep the sixth day as a festival. Here, then, is a week of five days with its celebration on the sixth, which is certainly older than the Sabbath of the seventh day. The five-day period of time was not only reckoned in inner Africa, but was also kept by the Aztecs, Chinese, the Mongols, and various other ancient races[9]. Time, as Seb (Eg.), is founded on the number five, and has the same name, consequently we may infer that there must be some phenomenal fact for the meeting-point of time and number found under the one name.

Time is the register of observed periodicity, and there is but one five-day period in nature dependent on spontaneous manifestation that begins and ends in five days. Neither stars, moon, nor sun, trees, flowers, nor fruits, waters nor winds, birds nor fishes, heaven nor earth, were the direct demonstrators, revealers, or messengers of a recurring five-day period. Nothing in nature but the female animal could furnish this primordial measure of time, and this was the five-day week of the oldest races that was followed by a festival on the sixth day. When the African girl is initiated in the mysteries of puberty, she puts on an apron (Kaffir, cacawe) made of certain leaves that are considered sacred to this use alone. Sometimes these are leaves of the palm, i.e., the phoenix-tree. This apron is worn during five days after initiation[10]. Five is the perfect female number in accordance with the left and negative hand. In his book on the South Sea Islands, Gill describes a form of the mythical deluge which the natives said had lasted only five days. It was the red deluge of the red circle or cycle[11].

Further, the Fijians have a peculiar custom called 'dr-dr.' The word means to laugh at, cause to laugh, a practice of laughing. This is variously, but always significantly, applied. One form of dr-dr is the habit of girls calling sweethearts by laughing. 'Vaka-dr-dr' is the custom of laughing on the fifth night after the day of death, for the purpose of consoling relatives. In the same language dra or dra signifies blood; dra-dra denotes the time of the menses and menstruation. In the earliest reckoning these lasted during five days, and the custom of 'laughing to call sweethearts' is sacred to the evening of the fifth day! This therefore stands self-identified as a token of the five-day periodthe laugh of dawnwhich was answered at first with rejoicing and laughter that was afterwards continued as a sign of the period over and passed.

The Zulus, amongst other races, have or had the practice of grouping the girls who had graduated in the mysteries in an ibuti or company together for the purpose of lawful intercourse with males. This communal custom preceded the individual marriage, so that the [p.275] Zulu men were by no means doomed to celibacy previously to individual marriage. And as it was also the practice to place the unclean apart, we can see the very natural genesis for the custom of the girls laughing on the fifth night as a call to the males, who were lawfully permitted to respond to them.

Several other curious laughing customs might be cited in relation to an opening period sometimes symbolised by the breaking of an egg. At the festival of Easter, when the year was opened in April (aperio), there was a laughing chorus performed by those who celebrated the opening of the spring, when the winter was over and gone, as did the Fijian girls at the close of the fifth day and the dawn of the sixth. We have a relic of the laughing custom in the old saying, repeated by Racine in Les Plaideurs, 'He who laughs on Friday will weep on Sunday;'[12] Friday being considered as one of the taboo days, when the festival was celebrated on the seventh day.

Water and negation are one by name, as the nnu or nun (Eg.), and water is the negation of breath. Mere water, however, cannot be related to any five-day period of negation. But when the water or liquid vivification assumes its mystical phase in the five days' flow, then water and negation become related to the number 5 in the first feminine period of time. Seb for time and the number 5 being correlated with phenomena as the period of negation, this period can be still further identified with the number 5. The Hebrew nun, Coptic ne (n), has the numeral value of five in tens. In Egyptian, nun or nu is negation, no, not the flow; and the word is found written with five signs of n in the hieroglyphics.

The first time, like the left hand, the dark side, was negative to the second. Hence time, the flow, and negation, are synonymous as the nnu, nun, or no. Nnu also has the meaning of preparatory, to be defiled, abject miserable, and ill. One illustration shows the woman squatting down and bringing forth figuratively, with the image of a child being born (]), but accompanied by the sign of destruction. The birth therefore is negative, and the meaning of nnu to be abject, miserable, and sitting in the dust shows the time appointed is that of the negative period. Here it is that the word nun, applied to this subject, is written with five n's II, NNNNNu, and says nonononono! five times over, because it is the time of taboo, or prohibited intercourse for five days. This may explain why the Fijian interjectional neu is to be used by women alone[13].

The period, however, had two aspects; one belonging to the dawn of womanhood, which was the time of welcome and festive rejoicing. In this aspect the hare sign of nu (Eg.), to be open, signified it is lawful and unprohibited. The female was open, and the male was [p.276] free. In the other, it was the period of monthly manifestation with its days of taboo. Here the opening was of a prohibitive and negational nature, and nu (Eg.), the period, also means defect, want, illness, and wretchedness. It was this that gave the hare 'nu' its unclean character as a type of the open period in the purifying phase. The distinction between the first menstruation and the later, is most definitely marked in the Parsee ritual. Nothing is held to be polluted or defiled in the place, or on the spot where this dawn of womanhood first breaks, and the dakhstavaiti are earliest visible, not even the sacred barema twigs that are employed in the most holy ceremonies[14]. Whereas at all later times everything is rendered unclean, except the things set apart in the dakhstanistan, or place of uncleanness; she must not approach the sacred twigs within fifteen steps; and if she looks in their direction, even without seeing them, they are made unclean[15].

When the Parsee female menstruates, she has to remain so negative that she must not speak (even in prayer) and act at the same time. Her word of prayer 'is to be taken' and 'retained inwardly;'[16] in consonance with the negative nature of the period. It was a law that no less set time than five days was to be allowed for the period, according to the Parsee ordinance. The menstruous woman who became clean in three days, was not to be washed before the fifth day, but after the fifth day she was to sit down in her cleanliness until the ninth day[17]. The whole of the evidence tends to the conclusion that the earliest teller of time was the period of feminine puberty. This oracle uttered the first of the Two Truths of Time, both of which were assigned to the woman, and represented in Egypt by the two serpents that formed the double crown of maternity; one serpent typified menstruation, the other gestation. One was the serpent of five days (hence the serpent with five heads), and one of ten moons or nine solar months. In Egypt, these Two Truths are also signified by the two crowns, red and white; the red being negative. But colours were before crowns; and during the negative period the Kaffir women are not permitted to drink milk. Should the custom be infringed, the husband may be mulcted in the relatively heavy fine of two or three head of cattle. Formerly the period of abstaining from milk, as it is termed, was fixed at seven (or eight) days, but the teacher Eno recommended that the length of time should be measured by and last only during the flux. This is very generally followed[18].

From this origin of Time or Seb, it follows that Seb is the wise one, the councillor, and seba (Eg.) means to instruct; the Sufi is the wise man, and Sophia the feminine wisdom. This being the earliest [p.277] teacher of purity, it also supplies a type-word that runs through language as

sofe, to purify, Galla; saf, pure, clear, Persian;
sava, to wash and cleanse, Fijian; safa, pure, clean, Hindustani;
safi, pure and clean, Swahili; soap, English;

with countless cognates, especially inner African. Purity, righteousness, law, and justice date and are named from this initial point in nature. Hence,

safi, the pure, righteous man, to be just, Hindustani. saphes, 'To saphes,' the truth, sure, certain, Greek.
sep, the judge, to judge, Egyptian. sef, truly, certain, Welsh.
zap, just, right, and true, Persian. safe, sure, certain, truly, English.
shafi, true, Arabic.  

The woman who fasted or menstruated continued to sit on the bare ground in Egypt and other countries, because she had done so before the invention of weaving had dispensed with the natural necessity. The custom was sacredly continued in the symbolical rites of the Greek Thesmaphoria. The African races, including the Egyptian, put on clothing with pubescence; and it was the feminine manifestation that first taught the need of cover. Nu (Eg.), to open, also signifies the dress, sash, or tie of the time, which was primarily composed of leaves, as is the Kaffir cacawe, still worn by the maiden at this period of life. The tie is one of the earliest types of time and period. To tie up was a primitive method of expressing time, a time, or a number of times. The ark-tie (Eg.) denotes a month, or other length of time. The arkhu is an Assyrian moon or month, and the riksu (Ass.) is a tie; rakasu is to tie or bind up. The araka is a Jain division of time. But the tying-up time preceded the tying up of time, as is indicated by ark (Eg.), to encircle and bind; arack, Gaelic, a tie; and various languages show, under this type-name, that the first tie and tying up was in relation to the feminine period.

The ark-tie is identical with the inner African erige (Eafen), oleg (N'ki), the liku or loincloth of the Polynesians; the leek-leek of the Australians, the tie put on by the female at puberty. This being assumed of necessity, had to be repeated periodically, which led to reckoning the number of days the tie should be worn, and thus made the tie a type of time. In Hebrew arch (חרא) denotes the fluxus menstruus, also direction, guidance, the way, the course, the time, e.g. of putting on the tie, the liku, or apron. Hence the primitive cover and clothing have the same type-names as time or seb.

seba, is to cover; shap, to conceal, in Egyptian. safa, a garment, Arabic.
sepio, to cover, Latin. zaip, a veil, Hebrew.
sphud,       "       Hindustani. shoob, a gown, Romany.
zaph,         "       Hebrew. shift, undergarment, English.
seave, a gown, English. tshubatu, clothes, Assyrian.
suba, a shirt, Pika.  

The earliest covering, however, was the liku or loin-girdle, the primitive cincture of Venus made of wampum, hair, fur, or other [p.278] type of pubescence. An early form of this, which remained sacred, was made of leaves. And

saba is the leaf, in Bede; dsatu is the leaf, in Bayon;
dsafo is the leaf, in Momenya;

with many variants and abraded forms. In Arabic, saff signifies the plaiting or weaving of palm-leaves, which preceded sewing both as act and word. The tie of puberty was in all likelihood the primary form of the gris-gris (or gri-gri in Ashanti), which is a sibsebi in the African Nso language; and in Egyptian seb-seb means to engirdle and encase, with the ankh-tie of pubescence for determinative; the shebu being a tippet or collar with nine bubu beads, the symbol of gestation.

Plato in the Philebus writes, 'We say that God exhibited the Bound.'[19] Earlier men said the goddess; that is, the feminine nature which presented the limit that led to the recognition of law. Tesh, the Egyptian name for the division and boundary-line, the nome, is also the name for blood; and the earliest boundary-line or division of the sexes was drawn, the red rubric of nature herself was written, in blood.

Thus the reason why Time, as Seb, is synonymous with number 5 may be found in the feminine period averaged at the length of five days. This was the first of two times, which were a form of the Two Truths, the negational one of the two, corresponding to the left hand, as the inferior first in digital reckoning. This origin will account for the number 5 being considered the evil number by the modern Egyptians, which they still mark on their watches with the sign of a nought[20].

The five days were negative, or the no-time. As such they were finally deposited in the five negative days at the end of the Egyptian year of 360 days. These were called the nahsi, the black days; more literally the days of negation, as n also signifies no. Thus the nought on the watch and the five black days that were considered of no account continued to identify the nature and the number of the negative period.

The Mexicans, who also had these five intercalary days at the end of the year, designated them the five unlucky days. They were kept as days of utter wretchedness. Their relation to the first of the Two Truths, that of water, is shown by the fires being extinguished to commemorate the negative nature of the period. These were rekindled just when the Pleiadesa figure of sixapproached the zenith at midnight on the last day of the year[21].

In the Srya-Siddhnta the nature of Time is explained according to the Two Truths of Egypt. There are two times, the real and unreal. That which began with breaths or respirations (prana) is [p.279] called real. The unreal is that which began with atoms or truti. Truti denotes a visible atom, and likewise that breaking into divisibility which constituted the beginning. Trut is the same word at root as dirt, which is also written trut, for stercus; Old Norse drit, excrement. Tert (Eg.) is a cake. In Cornish torth is bread. Sh-tiruta (Eg.) signifies foulness; sh being the substance born of, the mother-source, the first matter, the earliest truti or trut. In the Hindu stage of the word, matter had become atomic. In the same work Time is also described in accordance with the Two Truths, as Time which has for its nature to bring to pass. This has two characters, and according as it is gross or minute is called by two names, the real (murta) and unreal (amurta). Murta means embodied, and amurta unembodied. The time that begins with atoms (truti) is called the unreal. The unreal is the time of negation and the water-source[22].

The real time is related to breath and to the number 6, as number 5 is to water. Sh (Eg.), the name of the substance born of, denotes all forms of beginning and becoming, first cause and origin. It is identical with shu in Chinese, to begin, be first, discrete, mark off the difference; and with sh in Japanese for origin and commencement. Sh is a reduced form of shef or sheb, a variant of sef and seb (time, number 5, primary periodicity), hence it is a name of the incipiente die prima, or first five days of the month Taht, with which the year ended and re-began, the annual form of the five-day period assigned to the beginning. One type of the sh or sheb is the hydrologe, a water-clock, with the menstruating ape for its figurehead. The kaf-ape, as we have seen, was made use of in the Egyptian temples because it told the time by its monthly manifestation, or, as Horapollo phrases it, at the exact instant of the conjunction of the moon with the sun, when the moon becomes unillumined, then the female cynocephalus goes blind, and being otherwise afflicted, ex genitalibus sanguinem emittit[23].

Here the passage from the natural timekeeper to the artificial water-clock is marked by the menstruating ape being continued as a symbolical figure. Horapollo describes the ape of the water-clock as the male micturating once every hour[24]. This, however, was an application, but not the origin of the type. The ape serves to connect the mystical water-period with keeping time by water. The same word sh denotes the number 30, or 5 6; and according to Dr. Bridgman the people in the south of China still make use of a clepsydra for measuring time, formed of six waterpots arranged in successive order one below the other, each being perforated for the water to drop, the last one having an index on which the time is marked in 'periods.'[25]

The ape was likewise a Hindu type, as one of the instruments employed in measuring time. The Siddhnta says, 'By water [p.280] instruments, the vessel kapIa, etc., by the peacock, man, monkey, and by stringed sand-receptacles, one may determine time accurately.'[26] The peacock was one of the sand-vessels, an emblem of dry time; the Kamite ape told time by water.

The kapla appears to have been a copper vessel with a hole in the bottom which was placed in a basin of water. This time-measurer filled and sank sixty times during the twenty-four hours. It was hemispherical, like the Egyptian bowl of the hydrologe and ape[27]. The peacock was a form of the phoenix, a bird of breath, or soul, related to number 6a peacock, for example, on a sculpture at Athens (eleventh century), a Greek cross, is figured with the symbolic 6, on its tail-feathers[28]as water and the ape are to the number 5.

Five and six are the two factors in reckoning the month of thirty days. They are the representatives of the two times of water and breath, the unreal and real. The Hindu reckoning of real time is by the breath. One prana (respiration) is a period of four seconds; six respirations make one vinadi, a period of twenty-four seconds; sixty vinadis are one nadi, a period of twenty-four minutes; and sixty nadis make one sidereal day and night, a period of twenty-four hours[29].

The period of four seconds implied a period of four minutes, with thirteen to the hour and 360 to the day. The smallest subdivision, the prana or breath, is the same part of the day as the minute is of the circle, and one breathing of time is equivalent to a minute expressed by one revolution of the celestial bodies about the earth; there were 360 breaths to the period of twenty-four minutes; 360 four-minute periods to the day; 360 days to the year; 360 degrees in the ecliptic; and thus they kept time together and breathed in unison.

Lepsius[30] has shown that the Egyptians divided the twenty-four hours into sixty parts and these were again divided into sixty other parts of twenty-four minutes, and minutes of twenty-four seconds. Thus the Hindu and Egyptian systems are identical. Further, the four-minute period of sixty breaths enables us to collate the Assyrian measures of time.

    {Watch,   Innun,}
30 4-min. periods = 1 {Kaspu,   Mazarta, or} = 2 Hours.
    {Aslu,      Tsibittu,}
12 Kaspu, or Watches = 1 Day.
60 Kaspu      . . = 1 Hand, or 5-day period.
2 Hands        . . = 1 Decan, or 10-day period.
3 Hands        . . = 1 Lunation, or 15-day period.
6 Hands        . . = 1 Arkhu, or month.
12 Months    . . = 1 Sanah, or year.
60 Years      . . = 1 Soss.
10 Sossi       . . = 1 Ner, or 600-year cycle.
6 Neri          . . = 1 Sar, or 3,600-year cycle.[31]

[p.281] Also in Assyrian field measures the unit was sixty yards, and the soss contained 360 yards.

The Akkadians divided the moon at first into three parts of ten days each. These were subdivided into six parts of five days each, three of which were assigned to the masculine solar triad and three to the goddess in her triple form. This division was in accordance with the hexagram or sixfold heaven. The hexad in space was composed of the four corners and the upper and lower halves of heaven. Six is the number that divides the universe in equal parts. The distribution of all time, of all things above the earth and under the earth, is done by the hexad of the zodiac[32], or of space in six directions.

The number 6, says Proclus, is allied to the soul. 'Rectilinear motion demonstrates through the hexad its alliance to the psychical peculiarity.'[33] It was so primarily because the soul of breath as ses (Eg.) is synonymous with the number 6. For instance, the cube is a figure of six. This, as Plutarch says, was called Neptune[34]; that is nef in Egyptian. Nef is the sailor, and the word denotes breath. Net as god, was the breather under water, the chief solar divinity in the sixfold or cubical heaven, like Anu the sesr whose number was that of the 1= 6.

Again, the vau is the sixth letter in the Hebrew alphabet, and has the value of number 6. The sign represents a nail, and is like it in the Phoenician shape. The earliest form of the nail, however, was human, a type of virile force which is number 6 as the power of Bala. The Phoenician vau passed into Greek as the letter baf, the Latin f. Baf, paf or pabo, in Egyptian is the name of breath, the soul of breath. Beb denotes exhalation or breath. The syllabic f (ff) is found written with six snakes, the numeral value of vau. The breather of life, breath, or soul, who was female at first, is identified under this type-name both as the mother and father, because both originated in pubescence.

Breath is synonymous with conception. The Arabic legends relate that Mary conceived by the breath of Gabriel, the angel of annunciation[35]. So the Mexican traditions declare that the god Tonacatecotle begot Quetzalcoatl by means of his breath alone (breath is the earliest form of spirit) when he sent his ambassador to the virgin of Tulla[36].

The relation of the genetrix to the Two Truths of the water and breath expressed by the numbers 5 and 6 may be seen by the two numerical ornaments of the goddess Maya, who wears the flower of five petals in each ear, and a sixfold phallic symbol round her facei. She is [p.282] designated the queen of 6, of the six circles called shat-chakras, or the window of life and passage of the soul; and in that place is the flower of the back of one thousand leaves in which she dwells[37].

The six, or hexad, was held by Pythagoras to be the perfect sacred number; it was called Venus, the mother[38]. One type of this number was the sistrum, or seshsh, which was a figure of six, with its three wires and their six ends. The sesksh represented motion and generation in relation to the sixth day of the period. Sesh means motion, to open, unclose, free passage, and the seshsh was sometimes ornamented with the mirror of reproduction in place of the wires. In Egyptian ses, or sas, is the name of breath and breathing. Ses-mut is the breathing, i.e., breeding-mother or brood-mare. Ses is likewise the name of number 6, a period of six days, a date, a time, an epoch of the sixth day, a six-sided block or cube. The word also signifies to reach land or solid earth, to curdle and accumulate, to breathe again, respire, embellish, and be beautiful, i.e., fit for sexual intercourse after the passage of the waters or the period of five days. This is shown by ses for clothing, with the sign of linen hung up to dry (), and by seskh for perfect liberty, in being free to go. The number 5, then, is synonymous with the flow, the mystical inundation, and number 6 is identical with cessation in nature, as it is by name.

The Chinese have the six breaths, which are said to produce all things in silence. The one of heaven, as water, is also juxtaposed with the 'Six of Earth.' They say 'Heaven's One,' the unity of essence, produced water. This was perfected by the 'six of earth.'[39] The primordial water was the celestial Nun, the element out of which creation came, synonymous with number 5, or one hand. The number six of earth is identical with the Egyptian ses for six, and ses to make land or earth, curdle, solidify, reach land, and respire.

According to the Hebrew legend, as related by Rabbi Manasseh Ben Israel, the souls of men were created during the six days of the beginning but independently of bodies[40]. The sixth being the day of breath and embodying. The legend is thus related to the Chinese six breaths called the six of earth.

Ziz in Assyrian signifies as you were before, restored and flourishing. It also has the sense of to cease, stop, stand still, and become fixed. Zis-ta is ceasing; zuzu, a fixture, in agreement with the Egyptian ses to curdle, accumulate, reach land. This applies to the waters and the cessation of the five days' flow, the sixth day being the last of the one period and the first of the other; and no other phenomenal fact can be found in nature that will furnish such an identity for number 6 and cessation.

In the Persian scriptures the end or cessation of the feminine flow is so closely connected with the sixth day and the number 6, that in one [p.283] text we find the phrase of 'the six months' period' for the six-day period of monthly occurrence. 'The clothing which is to be wasted for the six months' period is such as is declared in the Avesta.'[41] If it be woven, 'they should wash it out six times with bulls urine; they should scour it six times with earth; they should wash it six times with water; they should air it six months at the window of the house;'[42] the numbers being in accordance with the monthly period reckoned as six days.

Ceasing, measuring, founding, resting, restoring, enjoying, knowing, judging, exchanging, or having intercourse, are all related to the sixth day, and are all found under the one type-name.

On the sixth day the waters cease, and

sese, is to cease, in English. sac, a nest, Romany.
seas, to cease, stop, stand fast, endure, Gaelic. seth, nests of young water-birds, Egyptian.
sisto, to stop, stand still, settle, Latin. soapes, safe and sound, whole, healthy, Latin.
ziz, to stop, be restored as you were before, Assyrian. sos, safe & sound, to be alive & well, (as it was on the sixth day) Greek.
zista, cessation, Assyrian. seth, or number 6, is a measure and a register of compatibility, Egyptian.
ses, to reach land (after the waters), Egyptian. cess, a boundary, English.
susa, to dry, dry up, be dry, Sanskrit. soss, a measure of 6 in tens, Assyrian.
sasse, a lock in a river, a floodgate, English. sosu, a measure, Ashanti.
ses, to respire, to breathe again, Egyptian. zuzu, a certain season, a period of time, Zulu.
suspiro, to breathe, Latin. sezela, to sniff and breathe, Zulu.
sizing, yeast, English. susela, applied to fledged birds, Zulu.
ziz, the mythical bird of breath, a feather, Hebrew.

This was primarily the sixth day of creation, the day of rest which preceded the Sabbath, or the seventh day. Thus

sosa, denotes rest, peace, Irish. saz, denotes peace, concord, Hindustani.
soso,       "      rest, Zincali. saz,      "      concord, happiness, Persian.

When the waters subsided, the ground was attained for breathing again, that is, for creating or procreating. Hence

sus, the ground, rootage, origin, in Arabic. sisna (from root sas), the generator, Sanskrit.
ziaza, ground, origin, family, Arabic. ziskela, to take a wife, Xhosa.
susa, ground and origin, Zulu. zuza, to travail with child, bring forth, Xhosa.

In the hieroglyphics, feminine pubescence is denoted by the ankh-tie, which signifies to put on linen or clothes, first worn at puberty. The earliest idea of clothing in Africa originated with the feminine period, and

ses, is clothes, in Egyptian. synas, cotton, Ham,
shes, flax and linen, Egyptian. gese       "       Toma.
sas, fine linen, Hebrew. gese       "       Kra.
zuzo, cotton, also thread made of cotton, Papiah. gese       "        Gbe.
susei, cotton, N'goala. osuosuo, the loincloth, Oloma.

Clothing is connected with the number 6 under this and other names because it was identical with the period. Knowledge, wisdom, [p.284] law, liberty, morality, all originated in relation to the six days of creation. Thus

sos, or seis, is knowledge, in Gaelic. sas, to be capable, Irish.
sos, knowledge and wisdom, Irish. size, the assize, English.

In Egypt the assize or judgment was presided over by the goddess of the Two Truths.

Sas in Sanskrit means to train, instruct, and teach; and sishta, from the same root, signifies to be tamed and trained, disciplined, orderly, well-regulated, law-abiding, correct in manners, virtuous, educated, learned, wise. Every element of civilization, culture, rule, and refinement are to be found under this one word, and the initial point of all, as language shows, was the observance of the feminine period. This first taught mankind distinction of season, by which he separated himself from the monkeys and other menstruating beasts.

Zazelo, in Zulu Kaffir, is the name for conscience. Sesh (Eg.), applied to the mystical period, means free to go, to open, be open, free passage. Sisk, Sanskrit, is to distinguish and individualize; the sitesh, Hebrew, is the distinguished individual who became the noble, the free man; sos means to guide, lead, and rule; hence sos in Coptic for a shepherd.

The natural genesis of the name of the sister is probably connected at root with this origin of sis for the breath, pudency, the second phase, in which the female became a sister in the tribe. Sest (Eg.) is the she, the she that goes, determined by the going and pregnant mare. The suster in English is a concubine, called a Bed-suster by Robert of Gloucester[43], and suse is the she.

The primitive idea of good, delight, and pleasure can be traced by name to the period of puberty.

Hence:

dzudu, is good in Opanda. seis, delight, pleasure, satisfaction, Gaelic.
zuzu,         "         Igu. seis, pleature, enjoyment, Irish.
susa,         "         Egbira-Hima. sasa, to be excited with pleasurable feelings, be wild with joy, Zulu.
ezoz,         "         Adirar. sasa, delight, Hebrew.
suasi,        "         Yala. sis, sos, or zoz, to flourish, rejoice, exult, make merry, Hebrew.
uzi,           "          Yasgua. sas, to dance for joy, Sanskrit.

This led to the phallic celebration and periodic ceremony of the sixth day, which culminated finally in a festival of the seventh day called the Sabbath. As we have seen, the sabbatic festival ordained by the Kamite god Til was to be celebrated on the sixth day. This was the date of a universal festival related to the new moon. Indeed, a primitive idea of sin or crime can still be traced to an offence against the new moon. It is extant in Swabia, where to this day the country folk consider it sinful to spin or sew in the moonlight. In various lands and legends the moon is looked up to as an avenger of crimes, and the guilty were said to go to the moon for punishment. This can only be interpreted by the typology when we know what the moon represented in relation to the reckoning [p.285] of time. The festival of the sixth day of the new moon was in commemoration of the feminine period, a lunar Sabbath of the sixth day. It was on this day that Osiris re-entered the moon as Lord of the sixth day's festival. It is said of him, 'Thy beauties are in the midst of the Sacred Eye, in that name which is thine, Lord of the Sixth day's festival!'[44] The sacred eye was lunar, a type of reproduction, the mirror of the sun, which opened on the sixth day after being closed or eclipsed during five days. As lord of the sixth day's festival, and bull of the mother, Osiris is invoked to revisit the genetrix who reproduces him as her child, to 'spread the water of his soul and the bread of his life, that the gods may live and men also.' He is called upon to come to 'kha,' and re-beget himself in the feminine Adytum[45]. This festival, then, was a Sabbath of the sixth day, celebrated once every moon, the new moon of the monthly Sabbath, and the institute was sacred to the period that was to be kept in purity, so that a sin against nature in this respect was a crime committed against the new moon, the celestial image of renewal, by which the taboo-time was reckoned[46]. Besides which, there is the man in the moon, held up for ever as the warning example of the sinner who profaned the Sabbath, violated taboo, worked by moonlight (as Typhon hunted by moonlight), looked on his mother-in-law, violated his elder sister, or in some way or other sinned against the moon, like the ape (aan, Eg.), he who accompanied with the mother during the period of eclipse, or like Heitsi-Eibib, who committed incest on his mother when her friends were out of sight. Among the Sandwich islanders, the taboo at one time was so strictly kept, that any one who made a noise on a day of taboo (sacred to the gods) was condemned to death.

The rabbis assert that Adam was born on the sixth day of creation, exactly at six o'clock in the evening of Friday, which is identical with the rebirth of Osiris on the sixth day of new moon. So essentially Kamite was this lunar date of creation that one of the names of Egypt itself is 'the land of the sixth day of the moon.'[47] And as the land of Egypt was born and continued to be reborn of the flood, this also shows the connection with ses for number 6, and ses, to curdle, accumulate, make land, and breathe again after the inundation. Here it is Egypt itself that is named as the child of the six days' creation. The sixth day of the month was also called the day of being conducted in the Boat of the Sun[48]; one form of which was the lunar Ark, the ma-at of the god moon[49]. In the Samaritan Pentateuch[50], the work of creation is completed on the sixth day instead of the seventh. This is in keeping with the original festival of the sixth day of the moon.

[p.286]

On the sixth day of the new moon, the Druidic priests went six together in number to gather the sacred branch of mistletoe, a figure of the repa (Eg.), or the renewal typified by the shoot. The Hindus perform a religious rite on the sixth day of the moon. Also, on the sixth of Jyaistha, the first half moon, women who are desirous of bearing lovely children walk in the woods and eat certain vegetables they carry a fan in their hands[51], the Kamite neft, a symbol of breath or breeding. The annunciation in the Coptic calendar is celebrated on the sixth day of Moharrem (December 29, 1878), and on that day 'dry food should be used.'[52]

The sixth day remains in the Roman calendar identified as the day of transfiguration, August the 6th being memorized. The Russians have a saying applied to transfiguration day: 'The Saviour is coming; get your gloves ready!' The glove (skin), as already shown, is a type of virile power and pubescence; and the sixth day was that of Soter in the lunar reckoning. In the Coptic calendar another festival of the ascension is marked by the morning rising of the Pleiades, the typical six stars[53].

The number 6 is associated with the Jewish purification. This is illustrated at the marriage in Cana of Galilee, where there were 'set six water-pots of stone after the manner of the purifying of the Jews.' There was but one purification to which the number is primarily related, and here the mythos is turned into miracle by the Christ transforming the water into wineat the marriage feast. Such is one result of mystery being published as agnostic history! The Japanese have six days of the month consecrated to religious services, called the roku-sai. Roku is number 6, and it signifies to be well, good, a record and reckoning. It is identical with the Egyptian rekhlu to reckon, keep account, know, rule, wash, purify, make white, be white, a pure spirit. Number 6 is

roku, in Japanese. harug, in Madia. luk, in Tonkin. ruk, in Sunwar. irok, in Namsang.
lak, in Cochin-Chinese. ruk, in Ahom. uruk, in Tanghuti. luku, in Gyami. rukka, in Bahingya.
arok, in Mithan. loacha, in Uea. log, Heb. a measure holding 6 eggshells.  

The same root supplies a type-name for that which is dried, bright, and shining, as:

lek, dry land, Amoy; raock, light, Avesta;
reki, dry, to be dried up, Mann; laiche, light, Irish.
richak, it shines, Abipon; leukes, white, Greek
rak, or ark, to be bright and shining, Sanskrit;  

in accordance with the sixth day. The leche is the healer, whence leche-craft for the art of healing.

Moreover, the logos or Word of either sexor, as it was at last personified, of both in oneis represented by number 6, and the six [p.287] days' creation. Loghea is the name of the Burmese logos, or the doctrine of its incarnation, as well as of number 6. Loguo was the Carib logos or first man, he who created the earth, and then returned again to heaven after the six days' creation. The gnostic Horus was represented by the number 6. Six characters were assigned to him, as:

Horus, the Christ.
Stauros, the Cross.
Lytrotes, the Redeemer.
Carpistes, the Emancipator.
Horothetes, the Boundary fixer.
Metagoges, the One who brings back.

The Gnostics also identified the Christ of the gospels with the number 6 by the six letters in the name Ιησυς[54]. This number of the logos, as the feminine holy spirit, was typified by the six Pleiades or doves. These are portrayed in the Christian iconography, in the act of inspiring the soul into the infant Christ[55]. They are also the six mothers of the six-headed child Krtikya. The rising of the six Pleiades was the signal for rekindling the sacred fire, because of the relation of number 6 to the period of procreation. Also breath and number 6 are identical, both in the sign of the Pleiades and the Scorpion. The dove is a bird of breath or spirit, and the Pleiades are six doves named from peleia, the dove. The scorpion is a figure of 6, as well as the sign of Serk, to breathe, the genus Scorpio being determined by the six eyes. These two signs of breath and number 6 are vis--vis in the zodiac, where each succeeds the passage of the waters. Thus when the sun entered the sign of Scorpio in the month of Hathor, and the body of Osiris was shut up in the ark of the six lower signs by the evil Typhon, it was the time at which the Pleiades arose with their sixfold symbol of breath above, and of the regeneration of Osiris in the ark, or cow, of the moon, which they rose to accompany in the sign of the Bull.

This will explain the significance of the inscription 'Deo Bemilucio VI,' which occurs on the statue of an unknown god found in Burgundy. In Italian pictures of the Annunciation, Gabriel the angel presents a six-leaved lily to the virgin as the number of the logos. Six denoted the 'Sacred Flower,' as Orpheus calls Bacchus. Horus the child is called 'the soul rising out of the lotus-flower.'[56] So the six-leaved lotus springs from the navel of Vishnu, as the flower of breath and of reproduction out of the water. The water-iris was a very sacred flower of 6 with our British Druids. In Sanskrit bal means to breathe, to hoard up seed. Bala denotes virile force and power of articulation; force considered as a sixth organ of action; power personified in relation to sex, whence Bala-Rama. And it is on this ground that sex and the number 6 are synonymous.

[p.288]

The Maori tamatea, or four sacred days, began on the sixth day of the moon's age, and lasted until the ninth inclusive. These are connected with taboo. Tama means the first, tea is white; and the white days were those which followed the six days of the purifying period, which was the origin of a festival being named the white day, as in our own White Sunday.

So the Babylonian holy-day or Sabbath was called the white day; the one that fell on the fifth day of the week or nineteenth of the month being designated the 'White Day of Cula,' she who represented the chaos of commencement that preceded creation, and therefore, in the mystical phase, the five days of the feminine flow, the five negative days marked once a month, just as they were memorized annually in the five nahsi of Egypt[57]. The Maori tamatea were the four white or clean days following the six. The Maori word for being set free from taboo after the period is 'pure,' and the rite of removing taboo is the pure ceremony. The word denotes the stoppage, arrest, detaining, and plugging up. Here the four festival days that were spread over four weeks in other countries were celebrated all together monthly as a lunar Sabbath; the seventh-day Sabbath being solar, as the day of the sun, our Sunday.

In his Creation of the World, Philo[58] speaks of its having been completed according to the perfect nature of the number 6. Applying this number mystically he also says, 'When that reason which is holy, in accordance with the number seven, has entered the soul, the number six is then arrested, and all the mortal things which that number makes.'[59] 'Wine is given with seventy, and the secret with seventy,' is a Kabbalist saying[60]. When the seventh day had been adopted for the Sabbath as the sixth extended, we have the legend of the Hebrew river Sambation. This river was fabled to flow during six days of the week so rapidly that it carried stones in its current It was a river of unrest, of turbulence, and opposing or typhonian force. But on the seventh day it ceased to flow, and became a picture of peace. When Rabbi Akiba was asked by the emperor how he recognised the Sabbath day, he replied, 'The river Sambation proves it, and the necromancer proves it.' The sabbatic river stopped running, and the diviner by the monthly course could not divine on that day[61].

This, the earliest teller of time, was made use of in foretelling and divination in the Jewish mysteries. It had been their time-teller when they dwelt typically in the desert, where the manna also ceased on the seventh day. It is coupled with the river Sambation, in a Jewish prayer which says, 'On the Sabbath the manna did not fall; the necromancers were not answered on this day. Bear in mind that on this day the mystical river resteth.'[62] The manna in the desert is [p.289] otherwise 'a portion,'[63] because related to time and period. The manna represented the reckoning of time by the moon, and also by the catamenial or menstrual flow. This was the earliest men, moon, and almanac. During six days the manna was gathered, or the period was reckoned, and on the seventh day there was none to gather. Moreover, the manna ceased when the masculine cult became dominant at the time of the circumcision in Gilgal[64].

Henceforth they ate of corn, or lived by seed, instead of the feminine manna, the angels' food; the bread of the Aberim or Cabiri[65]. The Two Truths were typified by the manna and the corn, or by the pot of manna and the phallic rod of Aaron, which were carried in the Ark of Testimony as a witness to the simple nature of the beginnings. The Hebrew word ןמ (mn), should be compared with the Egyptian men, which goes beyond all abstract meanings. Men is the memorial; the period of illness; a liquid measure; the number 10; Men personified is the mystical wet-nurse that nourishes the embryo and child during ten moons, or 10 28 days; and who became the Syrian lunar goddess Meni. The human moon, that came down to women monthly, was the first in fact, but it was expressed in those terms of external phenomena by which symbolism originated. The mother as measurer of time was the author of those periods that were of profoundest interest to man.

There is a rabbinical tradition that Adam and Eve fell from Eden on a Friday, that is on the sixth day of the week, or rather that Friday was the day on which they ate of the forbidden fruit[66]. And so upon the eve of the Sabbath, a little before sunset, i.e., six o'clock, the Jewish women prepare a lamp or candle with seven cotton wicks, in keeping with the seven days of the week. This is considered to be the task of atonement assigned to the sex, because of the sin committed by their mother Eve, who extinguished the light of the world by not keeping sacred the time of taboo[67]. Professor Sayce has expressed the opinion that the Sabbath had an Assyrian or Akkadian origin. The fifth of the Creation Tablets asserts that the creator appointed the seventh day to be kept sacred as the Sabbath. The learned professor thinks this tablet clearly affirms that the Sabbath was coeval with creation[68]. But which Sabbath, and who was the creator? And what was the creation? As we have seen, the Kamite creator Til appointed the sixth day for the festival, and the Sabbath of Gula was the memorial of a fifth day, following the second Sabbath of the month.

According to Dion Cassius[69], the week was reputed to have been [p.290] invented by the Egyptians, and copied from them by other nations. And if there had been any invention in the matter it might be ascribed to these most ancient chronologers. Not that the week was invented in the modern sense of reckoning days by sevens until they made a year. It was attained by a much longer route. The name of Egypt or Kepti is identical with that of the number 7 as kepti, hepti, or sebti. The first known formation of the country was the heptanomis of the seven nomes. Egypt or Kepti is also dual as well as sevenfold, and thus reflects the first division by north and south of the celestial heptanomis, the heaven of the seven stars and the star of the seven; of Kep in the north, and Sothis in the south, the genetrix who in the dual character is Kepti, later Sebti, i.e., Sothis. We know the goddess of the seven stars, Kep or Typhon, was set in heaven as mother of the revolutions. We know that Sothis was her manifestor in the south, the star of the beginning of the year, and Ursa Major in the north. These were like the two hands of the clock, the Bear being the pointer-hand, and Sothis the hour-hand; unless we consider the two Bears were the two handsPythagoras called them the two hands of the genetrix[70]and that Sothis, as the dog, proclaimed the hour.

It was a result of digital reckoning that the number 7 should be synonymous with pointing by means of the forefinger on the right hand, which made the sign and figure of seven in gesture language. Kep-ti (Eg.) for seven is equivalent to two on the second hand. Thus the seven stars pointed with the forefinger of the right hand to any other figures marked on the face of the horologe of time in the circle of the year, and these seven stars were identified by the Chinese, amongst others, as the pointer hand. The star Sothis was the pointer-dog of the seven stars; seven being synonymous with to point, the pointer is a figure of seven. It is so in the hieroglyphic Hept (Kepti), a conical pile or heap. Also in the pyramid which contains the triangle and the square of the four quarters in one figure of seven, and has the name of seven as sebti or Sothis. Kepti and Sebti then are two forms of the seven as two pointers in the primordial heptanomis of the seven constellations. Thus the two hands or constellations of Kep, the goddess of the seven stars, are Kepti, the later Sebti and Suti, the dual Sut-Typhon which the number, the names, and types identify with the Great Bear in the north, and Sothis in the south, or the genetrix who gave birth to the seven as her stellar progeny, her elementaries who had acquired souls and become intelligencers as kronotypes. The revolution of the sphere was measured and marked by seven great constellations turning round in Kepti or the Egypt of the heavens. The heptanomis was represented under various figures of seven, the seven mountains, seven caves (a primitive form of the celestial houses), seven patalas, seven trees, seven zootypes, a seven-headed serpent, or seven companions in an arkwhich ark in one shape was the enceinte genetrix. The end of this year would be the [p.291] festival of the sevenseven as constellations, divisions, starsof Typhon, whose stars are seven, and of Sothis, whose name is number seven was the number of the heaven above and the land belowfor the seven-portioned earth in all countries did but copy the one original figure aboveseven was the number of the pointers, and of the year, and as seven and Sabbath are identical (seb-ti, Eg.) it follows that the first Sabbath belonged by name to the cycle of the year established by the seven of the Bear, of Sothis, and the seven constellations, and did not originate in our week of seven days. The earliest Sabbath and celebration of stellar time would be the festival of a year, the festival of the goddess Seven, the seven constellations, the star of the seven. In Egyptian the festival is the uak, English wake. Uak means to be idle or resting. The word also denotes a week. Thus the festival and week are identical, only the week is not at first our week of seven days, nor need the festival be held weekly any more than the wake. It is the name and sign of a limit in various languages. The Irish wake is held at the end of a lifetime, and in the Yarra (Aust.) dialect the wykit are the dead or ended. Wake in Japanese is to divide and portion off. The wack in English is the full portion. In other languages it is a limit of numbers; wake in Xhosa Kaffir being a thousand; wak in Chippewa, a word of denomination for hundreds. Our English wakes were festivals of timekeeping, whether considered as vigils (or evyns*) or feast-days.

* 'Evens of paisse, or wayght, equilibrium.'Huloet[71]. The even, or evyn, was a memorial celebration of a twofold timejust as the eventide is the twilight, the equal timeespecially the two times of the equinoxes, with which our two great annual fairs of Easter and Michaelmas were connected. Even denotes that which is equal, just, and fair; hence the name of the 'fair' coincides with that of the evyn festival fair denoting that which is equal, just, and true.

The wake still kept by the 'waits' at Christmas is annual. The great Egyptian uak or wake, termed the feast of uaka, was held on the seventeenth and eighteenth of the first month of the year. This, therefore, was an annual celebration, the time of leisure and rest in Egypt, on account of the inundation, the Sabbath of the year. In the old calendar the period was marked by the seven days of great heat, called the bawahir by the Arabs, during which no clothes were to be washed; and little or no work was done[72]. Thus the seven days are an annual Sabbath. At the end of the seven days the Great Tanta fair begins. The time is coincident with the heliacal rising of Sothis in the fixed year.

Evidence of a seven days' rest or Sabbath once a year is preserved in other ways. For instance, the Danes have a superstition that from Yule Day to New Year's Day, that is, during seven days of the sacred season, nothing that runs round is to be put in motion[73].

The Book of Esdras shows that the festival of seven days was [p.292] continued to mark time on the great scale. At the next coming of the aeonian messiah, called Jesus, within four hundred years, there is to be, as in the former judgments, a seven days' Sabbath, or a silence of seven days[74].

Possibly we can now understand and explain the seven days' festival of the Hawaiians who had no week of seven days, and who did not observe a weekly Sabbath. This was their week of creation[75]. They held that the creation commenced on the twenty-sixth of the month, on the day of Kane. The seventh day, that of ku, being the first kapu or Sabbath-day. These seven days were kept monthly by all generations of Hawaiians from the beginning, the first and the last of the seven being the two sacred days. Here the division of the seven into five and two is in accordance with the Egyptian seb = 5 and ti = 2 for the number 7. Moreover, the seven days and the mode of memorizing can be paralleled in the Kamite reckonings in relation to the year of 360 days. The Egyptian movable year ends on the 30th of Mesore (Misreh), September 5th, 1878, and recommences on the first of Thoth (Taht), September 10th.

At the end and re-beginning of their year the Egyptians celebrated the renewal on two particular days, called the mesiu (from mes, rebirth), on the night of the last day of the old year, and at the evening meal of the first day of the new year. Between these two dates the five black and negative days, called the birthdays of the gods, were intercalated, and the five correspond to the Hawaiian five of creation, from the twenty-sixth to the thirtieth of the month inclusive. The two sacred days that were kept as kapu days answer to the two mesiu as the beginning and end of the total seven. These represented the two times or 'seb-ti,' which is 5 + 2, and the name of the number seven. This origin of the seven days as the 5 + 2 of sebti, we take it, will account for one of the Babylonian Sabbaths, which is a fifth day instead of a seventh. The seventh, fourteenth, nineteenth, twenty-first, and twenty-eighth of the moon were solemnized as Sabbaths, or days of rest, upon which certain works were forbidden. The nineteenth was the fifth-day Sabbath, called the white day of Gula, a holy-day or dies candidus[76]. Such a reckoning would suffice for registering the five-day period that only occurs in nature once a month, and also serve as a memorial of the Metonic cycle of nineteen years, the period of the eclipses. Moreover five Sabbaths, in a month of thirty days, would register the Sabbath or festival of the sixth day of the moon, which was earlier than the solar Sabbath. No primitive reckoning was entirely superseded by the more perfect; one way or another all was continued in the total combination, and amongst the secrets of the gnosis.

The festival week or uak, then, was annual before there was a [p.293] Sabbath celebrated on each seventh day; and the seven days' feast of the year preceded the consecration of each seventh day. Our Whit-Sunday, which is the seventh from the full moon of Easter, still memorizes the annual seven-day festival, reckoned by seven Sabbath-days, as the white day of the seven. The bi-annual celebration followed, with the division of the year in two halves, and the Jews preserve a connecting link between the annual uak of seven days and the monthly reckoning. Their two great yearly festivals, instituted to enact the entrance into the ark or tabernacle made of green boughs and the coming forth at the time of the Passover or transit, are six-monthly Sabbaths which last for seven days each. The Hawaiian 'creation' is identified by the seven days with the primordial cycle of stellar time, although on entering the lunar phase of reckoning the Sabbath was celebrated monthly instead of half-yearly or yearly. In the lunar stage the Sabbath became a fortnightly celebration, at new and full moon, with the Egyptians as with the Jews. And finally, under the solar regime, each seventh day was kept sacred as a Sabbath. But the stellar, lunar, and solar celebrations, the annual, six-monthly, monthly, fortnightly, and weekly Sabbaths are all alike founded on the original seven kronotypes, and their progenitor Kep, of the seven stars, who, in her second or dual character, is Kepti whence Sebti, Suti, and Hepti for the number 7 and for the star (Sothis) of the seven. Hept is the ark, and the seven stars were the ark in heaven. Hept is peace, plenty, and rest; and the seven with Sothis brought the peace and plenty once a year.

And this is the origin of the name Saturday, which is not merely the day of Setr or Saturn, but the day of the seven, the seven kronotypes of the constellations, and the seven stars of the inferior first hebdomad that preceded the planetary seven; the day of sevening and keeping the covenant of the seventh day. It is the pre-planetary hebdomad that explains the septenary arrangements found in countries and among races who have not the planetary week of seven days, which is comparatively late.

 

It has been shown that the sun and fire represent the principle of life, the fire that vivifies. Thus when the woman menstruated she was shut up where she could look on neither during her period. When the Aht girls attain puberty, they are placed in a kind of prison completely surrounded by mats to shut out every ray of sunlight and glimpse of fire. There they remain for several days; water is given to them during this period, but no food. The longer the girls remain in this cheerless retirement the greater the honour supposed to be reflected on their parents, who give feasts to near friends as a part of the ceremonial. But if the girl is known to have seen either fire or sun during this initiatory ordeal she is considered to be disgraced for life[77].

[p.294]

The lesson to be conveyed at first by this custom was the keeping holy of the primeval Sabbath; and thus sedulously and painfully was the lesson rehearsed to make the impression permanent for life. So sacred was the keeping of the law implied by the numbers 6 and 7, that our common English expression of being 'all at sixes and sevens, as the old woman left her house,' or the mixing of these numbers indistinguishably, still denotes a condition of complete confusion and general demoralization in which there is neither law, order, nor organization. Religious rites and ceremonies were instituted as memorial teachings, and these were impressed so indelibly that the stamp remains and the customs survive when they are no longer understood. In Chittagong (India) the morality of the Kyoungtha is said to be very low indeed, and yet the newly married husband and wife are on no account allowed to sleep together until seven days after their marriage[78]. This is a good example of the teaching concerning the period, and cohabiting on the seventh day.

Instead of 'God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it,' Philo reads 'God blessed the manners which are formed in accordance with the seventh and divine light.'[79] 'The previous six days were not taken into account, because the manners which are not holy are not counted.'[80]*

* It was a Jewish maxim that there was no Sabbath in Holy Things. This institution belonged to things held to be unholy, and was intended for their correction.

'The case is thus,' says Philo, 'when the light of virtue, which is brilliant and verily divine, rises up, then the generation of the contrary nature is checked.'[81] 'Light' which had been sixth, is characterized by the same writer in his essay on the creation as the seventh thing made. This does not belong to the literal interpretation of the genesis, but it does to the symbolical signification of the seventh day in relation to the female period; as the day of reproducing the light. Jewish women were threatened with death in childbed for three particular transgressions: one, for not separating the first cake of dough; two, for not being careful of separation at the time of menstruation, and three for not lighting the lamp consisting of the seven cotton-wicks on the Sabbath day[82]. This reading puts a new meaning into the jibe of Apion, who, according to Josephus, asserted that the Jewish Sabbath was connected with the buboes in the groin and that they called the seventh day, on which they rested, the Sabbath because the buboes were named sabbatosis by the Egyptians. The statement goes deeper than a mere question of words, as between sabbo and Sabbath, and had another application than that of the supposed six days' journey out of Egypt with the resting on the seventh day. Either Josephus did not penetrate or choose to understand the allusion made by Apion, or he has not replied to his covert allusion[83].

[p.295]

The boils and diseases that were recognized as the result of 'dark rites' and the non-observance of feminine periodicity, are analogous to the fall of man as the consequence of eating the forbidden fruit that grew on the tree of knowledge. The tree of knowledge was a supreme type of time. In Chinese mythology it is the immortal peach-tree of the genetrix. In one Chinese legend we learn that Woo-te, who appears to have eaten of the forbidden fruit, became the builder of a lofty terrace of mud that was intended to reach up to heaven. By aid of this structure the great mother who produced the fruit of the immortal peach-tree descended to earth during seven days and seven nights to 'discuss the principles of reason' with Woo-te[84]. The tower intended to reach to heaven being of mud was a primitive form of the pyramid with the seven steps or mound of seven stages, and the number 7 identifies it with the time of the seven days and nights, or the establishment of the Sabbath of the sexes. The tree in the Egyptian planispherei and on a Babylonian cylinder (where it is accompanied by the serpent and primeval pair)[85] has seven branches. The number 7 is a fundamental factor in the Assyrian asherah-tree, or grove as it is rendered in the Old Testament; and not inappropriately, for it is a manifold tree of time and number. The asherah represented the feminine tree of life, the Egyptian ash or ashr. This is shown by the male emblems being offered to it in the monuments, and by the clothing of it in female attire when the women of Israel wove hangings and covered it with their broidered garments of divers colours[86]. Clothing having been put on primarily at puberty, the feminine raiment draped upon the asherah was an intimation of pubescence made at first by those who had attained the time of opening and were of age for the performance of a primitive religious rite that consecrated them for sexual intercourse. Doubtless the custom lapsed into common harlotry in the modern sense, but that does not explain the original significance.

The numbers chiefly associated with the asherah are seven, ten, and thirteen; and as asher signifies number 10, so the asherah-tree is a feminine figure of ten. Thirteen is the number of female periods in the year of thirteen months of twenty-eight days. Ten of these periods, lunar months, or mystical moons, constituted the time of gestation. The seven appear in the ornaments or tied-up groups which look like a conventionalized form of the seven heads or hoods of the nga serpent. This suggestion is enforced by the presence of the serpent with the tree of seven branches. Thus the asherah is a compound tree of time and number. The tree of the earliest heaven and first hebdomad, the tree of seven branches and of the serpent [p.296] with seven heads, the tree of the Two Truths of menstruation and gestation. Lastly, it is the tree of Venus or Belit. In some representations the seven branches appear as six, together with the yoni for the seventhan oval figure with three branches on each side[87]. One of these, found on a cylinder of green jasper, shows two sacred figures plucking the fruit of the tree on the feast-day of the new moon; that is, on the evening of the sixth day, the beginning of the Jewish Sabbath, the time at which the fruit of the tree of life and knowledge might legally be plucked and eaten.

In another representation we see the bird-headed figures, the types of the masculine soul, making their offering to the asherah-tree with the seed-cone in one hand and the basket or scrotum in the other. On one side of the sculpture there are six stars for the six planets of which Venus was the seventh. In the Chaldean dedication of the days of the week to the seven deities these were reckoned, like those of the Chinese, as (1) Saturn; (2) the sun; (3) the moon; (4) Mars; (5) Mercury; (6) Jupiter; and (7) Venus. Thus the asherah with its sevenfold ornaments stands for Venus, whose planet was the seventh in the Chaldean series; the seventh day was the day of Venus and the phallic festival, here symbolized by the male emblems being presented to the female. The six stars show the conjunction of the sixth with the seventh on the evening of the sixth day, when the festival began. This combination of the sixth with the seventh is likewise figured by the priest who points to the asherah with the extended thumb and forefinger of his right hand, and thus makes the sign of number 6 and number 7 in gesture language[88]. At six o'clock in the evening, the seventh day, that of Venus, began.

The day of the Great Mother was held sacred, and the typical offerings were made to her emblem because the female nature had been the primary teacher of periodicity; and the Sabbath was founded in a religious sanction being conferred upon the proper intercourse of the sexes; the seventh day being sacred in relation to the feminine period and the six days of taboo. The day at last assigned to Saturn, as seventh in the planetary hebdomad, is our seventh day, the day of Sut or Sebti (seb = 5, ti = 2), of Saturn and Seter, or Saturday. This was named as the seventh day, the day of the seven and of seven-ing, before it was reckoned the first day of the seven. Seti or sati (Eg.) signifies conjunction, congress of the sexes, coitus, generation and impregnation; and so the original seventh day became satanic and Sut-Typhonian in later Egypt, when it was superseded by the day of the sun.

In the Russian Tale of Ivan of the Ashes, when the hero goes to kill the serpent of evil, he tries several maces by tossing them up in the air to test their force in falling; and only the one which remains aloft [p.297] for six days and falls with all its force upon the seventh is mighty enough to kill the snake[89]. This was the solar hero of the seventh day who, as the Greek Apollo, was the destroyer of Python, also styled the lizard-killer, Σαυροχτων[90].

In the gospels the 'son of man,' the god in the image of Anthropos, is proclaimed to be the natural lord of the Sabbath[91]. He also claims the right to eat of the corn on that day which was the proper day for so doing, according to the gnosis that has been reported in the gospels by non-initiated men. The sacredness of the Sunday, the day of the sun-god, who represented the civilizer of men, can only be comprehended by aid of the most primitive factors in that civilization.

An ancient Indian tradition says the sacred aswatha-tree is only to be touched on a Sunday or the Sabbath, the seventh day. Then it is lucky as the dwelling-place of Lakshmi, the goddess of good luck. During the other six days poverty and misfortune abide in it. On the seventh day it was the tree of plenty, and therefore of fertility[92]. Hept, the Egyptian name for no. 7, also means good luck, or good hap. Thus the seven-branched tree of life was a type of the Sabbath, and the eating of it or touching it was right on the seventh day and wrong during six days; and that which is considered by the moderns to have been a system of impurity originated with the desire for cleanliness, physical pureness or health.

The true Sabbath of the Jews was a feastluxus sabbatartius[93]. In the Hebrew scriptures it is a celebration paralleled in the margin with rest[94]; the same word shabbath having both significations. It is fundamentally the Sabbath of a cessation and disappearing, but the ceasing and disappearance first memorialized were not those of human labour. The Egyptian seba denotes solace, drink, and refreshment, as well as honour and worship. In Jewish invocations, the Sabbath is addressed as a bride for whom the worshipper is waiting with the longing of a lover. 'Number 7' says Philo[95], 'is the festival day of all the earth, time birthday of the world. I know not whether any one would be able to celebrate the number 7 in adequate terms. It is superior to every other form of expression. It is primarily divisible into the numbers one and six;' like the Chinese one as the Water of Heaven and the six of breath; or the six of cessation and the one of the re-beginning.

A picture of Cupid and Psyche, reproduced by Lundy[96], is called by him a Christian representation 'found on the bottom of a Tazza or drinking cup made use of in the Agape and the Eucharistic celebration of the divine love to the soul of man.'[97] The inscription on this [p.298] broken glass cup runs, 'Anima dulcis, fruamur nos sine bile. Zeses,' rendered 'Sweet soul, let us have delight without vexation. Live thou!' Cupid has laid aside his quiver, and Psyche her mirror, to celebrate the Sabbath or seventh day festival. The number 7 is signified by seven large spots or disks depicted on the wings of Psyche. In certain of the mysteries and feasts of the agape the coupling followed the draining of the cup, as it did in the witches' Sabbath; and in the present instance the motto at the bottom of the cup was an appropriate reminder. 'From this union of divine love and the human soul,' says Bryant[98], 'the ancients dated the institution of marriage.' The origin of the celebration, however, has to be sought in the totemic mysteries. It has to be shown how the masculine spirit or procreative force that descended on the boy with its natural transformation was celebrated at the time of puberty. In Egyptian he becomes the sheru or adult youth; in Hebrew, the shilohfor the origin of the typical shiloh can be traced to this genesis.

The adult youth then became a lord of the six days' lunar festival (or the seventh solar), like Osiris when he entered the moon. This descent of the pubescent spirit by which the boy was transformed into the begetter was continued by the Jews as a mystery of their Sabbath.

The Talmud teaches that a second soul enters the bodies of men every Friday evening, and inhabits them until the end of the Sabbath, when it departs. The evidence of the presence of this supernumerary soul consists in an increase of appetite. Fish (particularly the skate) was commanded to be eaten. 'We are instructed to eat of the choicest fish on the Sabbath, especially at the third meal.'[99] This was as a stimulant to the sexual appetite. 'The mystery of voluptuousness on the Sabbath' was said to be intended for the exhilaration of the added soul[100]. Fish on Friday, the modern day of Venus, or Mary, was not limited to the Jews, and it is still sacred to Frigga's day.

Lajard relates that the Druses of Lebanon hold secret vespers in which they offer worship to the sexual parts of the female, and pay their devotions every Friday night; the day sacred to Venus; the day on which the Muslim is instructed by the code of Mohammed to go to the mosque and also to perform the conjugal duty[101].

It was an ancient practice for the Sultans of Turkey to regularly buy a fresh slave or concubine for every Friday night; and it is reported that the present Sultan Abd-el-Hamid conforms to that custom[102]. The descent or influx of the supernumerary soul on the evening of the sixth day, and the mystery of voluptuousness, prove that the Hebrew Sabbath was a continuation of the festival of puberty [p.299] and its celebration of the descent of the soul, called the ruach. The Jewish Sabbath is the true link between the sixth and seventh day. It begins at sunset, equinoctial time, on the evening of the sixth day, at six o'clock; the evening and the morning being the first day. This leaves room for the superstitions connected with our sixth day, Friday, such as that of the sailor against going to sea on Friday, and also against going a-courting on that day. In Lancashire if an unlucky fellow is caught with his lady-love on Friday he is sometimes followed home with rough music[103]; the time of taboo not being ended. The whole seven days were at length assigned to the woman, as her time of separation, by the Jews, the North American Indians, and other races; but this was not the primary reckoning, according to which the intercourse began again on the evening of the sixth day.

In China the seventh day of the first month of the year is still known as the man's day; and no Chinese will sweep the house on that day[104]. To sweep is to clean and to purify; that belonged to the period passed, and was inappropriate to the seventh day. On this ground the Jews were amongst the most rigid sabbatarians, and they preserve extreme examples of the menstrual rubric in the ritual of the Sabbath. Some of the minutiae of memorizing are curious indeed. Thus in planting a bit of earth herbs must be sown fully six hands distance from corn[105].

Amongst other trivia it is also recorded in the Mishna[106] that he who plucks a leaf, flower, or a blossom out of a flower-pot with a hole in its bottom, was held guilty of breaking the Sabbath. But if the flowerpot were unperforated he was absolved. Such modes of memorizing the facts of nature were once natural, but when the origins are forgotten and the same or kindred restrictions are continued, as in the keeping of a Scottish Sabbath, the customs become imbecile. The six taboo days, with the seventh considered to be the man's, are illustrated by other forms of sacrifice on the Sabbath day. 'The burnt offerings that the prince shall offer unto the lord in the Sabbath day (shall be) six lambs without blemish, and a ram without blemish;' also on the day of the new moon, a monthly Sabbath, six lambs and a ram were offered up[107]. The ram in Egypt was a type of the masculine soul.

The Jews have ever been the most faithful preservers of ancient symbols, and typical figures relating to the primitive gnosis. They clothed themselves, according to times and numbers. The garment called a thalith (תילת) was double, in keeping with the Kamite terut, or two times. It consisted of two quadrangular parts, from which it was called arba-kanphoth, or the four quarters. This garment was made especially sacred by the precept of the fringe that is found in [p.300] the Book of Numbers[108], concerning the blue ribbon or thread that was to be worn on the border. It is noticeable that the wearing of this fringe on the arba-kanphoth or thalith is obligatory on the man rather than the woman; also it is prescribed in the Mishna[109] that children at thirteen years of age are to observe the precepts, that is at the time of puberty. In making the symbolical fringe eight threads were to be used. Seven must be of equal length, and the eighth long enough to twist five times round all the rest, for the purpose of tying five knots and then leaving an end equal in length to the other seven[110]. The fringe contained cords that were knotted in fives and sixes, with other numbers so contrived that in their various combinations they amounted to 600. The chief type-name of the fringe is 'zizith' (תיציצ), which means not only a fringe, but also the forelock, the wing or feather. Ziz has the signification of being feathered, and to flutter as a bird; the feather being a co-type with hair as an emblem of pubescence or being fledged. Hence the fabulous bird ziz of the Jewish legends, in which the typology loses all natural proportions and becomes monstrous, or is dislimned in rabbinical lore. The bird was a type of breath, or the soul which descended at the time of puberty. Ziz is synonymous with ses (Eg.) for breath; siso, the bosom, Mandenga; and sisa, Ashanti, for a breathing or living soul. This, again, is synonymous with ses (Eg.) for number 6.

A Jewish legend relates that the quarrel between Cain and Abel was on account of their differing as to whether this mystical word should be spelled zizith or zizis. The numeral value of the letters will now show us why:

צ z 90   צ z 90
י i 10   י i 10
צ z 90   צ z 90
י i 10   י i 10
ת th 400   ש s 300
    600       500

Here the quarrel is reduced to a question of taboo, and the keeping sacred of five days or six days as the proper period. The difference is just that of the Two Truths expressed by the numbers 5 and 6, which related to the two times, the two periods of the water and the breath the negational and affirmative, the left hand and the right, darkness and light, evil and good, or other types of the two principles that were represented as being opposed in a conflict corresponding to the quarrel and contention of the mythical twins of the dual lunation.

 

The two great and hidden secrets of the ancient wisdom were those of times and numbers, especially in relation to feminine periodicity, [p.301] which explains the motive for keeping the nature of the gnosis concealed.

The supreme secret taught by the Akkadian god Hea was always called 'the number.' Certain numbers had a magic force corresponding not merely to their value according to numeral reckoning, but in relation to a knowledge that was otherwise kept out of sight. In the Chaldean system of magic the numbers are said to be known that will produce certain effects, such as making the corn stand upright when ripening, to bring forth an abundant harvest. These numbers generally remained unwritten. Hence indigitation or finger pointing was a supreme mode of charming and manifesting the force of numbers. Because gesture-language was first, it followed that numbers should have a primacy of place.

The oath of the tetractys, expressed by the number 4, had the force of number 36, because, says Plutarch, it is made up of the even number 4 and of four odd numbers summed up together[111]. Four times nine is thirty-six, and the fourth finger on the right hand is the ninth digit. So that when the divinity makes his gesture-sign with the thumb and fourth finger of the right hand he makes the covenant of the tetractys as the tetrad in person, also the full plural of the Egyptians which was the number 9; likewise the world or complete circle of the heavens that was divided into thirty-six parts.

Such was the comprehensive nature of numbers when expressed by gesture-signs, because in the earliest mode of language so much had to be expressed by such limited means.

The magical power of numbers and indigitation is recognized when the magicians said unto Pharaoh, 'This is the finger of God,'[112] also when the Christ says, 'If I with the finger of God cast out devils, no doubt the kingdom of God is come upon you.'[113]

M. Lenormant says that, 'Speculations upon the value of numbers held a very important place in the Chaldean religious philosophy; in consequence of which speculations each god was designated by a whole number of the series between one and sixty corresponding to his rank in the celestial hierarchy.' In connection with this scale of total numbers applied to the gods, there was one of fractional numbers applied to the demons, and corresponding in the same way to their reciprocal ranks. He states 'the fact without attempting to explain the odd speculations which gave it birth.' For example, three classes of evil spirits, the utuq, gigim, and maskim, were designated in figures, the lowest by 1/2 or 30/60 the next by 2/3 or 40/60 and the highest by 5/6 or 50/60[114]; these were the maskim, who were the typhonian seven evil powers that surpassed all others in their terrible force, whose power in relation to the good gods is that of five to six, or the highest number [p.302] on the left hand opposed to the first one on the right. The name of Typhon as Kep is that of the left hand, the figure of number 5. One on the left hand was only the inferior first, and being feminine it would represent comparatively little power. But one on the right hand was a very different one. That was a figure having the force of number 6 the one = six of Anu.

The figures 5 and 6 or 56 would be considered typhonian numbers in later Egypt on account of their relation to the feminine period. Now Plutarch reports that the Pythagoreans look upon Sut-Typhon as a demoniacal power, for they say that he was produced in an even proportion of numbers, to wit, in that of fifty-six. And again, they say that the property of fifty-six appertains to Sut-Typhon, as Eudoxus relates[115]. The 'even proportion of numbers, to wit, fifty-six,' would also include the 5 6 or thirty days of the moon which was likewise the time of Typhon, as will be seen hereafter. But, to understand Plutarch's 56, we must resolve the number into 5 and 6.

These two numbers are applied to the veriest trifles according to the law of the Two Truths. In the Parsee ritual firewood when green is to be cut in lengths of one span each piece. But if dry it must be cut in pieces one-sixth longer![116] the lengths being represented by ten finger-breadths and twelve, the duplicated five and six. Everything in this way was figured according to numbers and gesture-signs, and thus became figurative in language.

The two hands of the clock still represent the two hands of digital reckoning according to the gnosis of the 'Two Truths.' The hour-hand denotes five parts of the circle as the measure of one hourthe hour which is represented hieroglyphically by the five-rayed star of 'un;' 'un' being also the name of the negative feminine period. The 'long-hand' measures time by the numbers 6 and 10 in the sixty minutes to the hour. The dual lunation was likewise expressed by the long and the short hand assigned to Hermes or Sut-Anup; the earliest long and short hand of time, which survive in the clock and watch, being the twin figure of extension and diminution in the phases of the moon. The two hands of the clock still represent the two hands of digital reckoning in which the left was female and the right male, according to the gnosis of the 'Two Truths.' The thumb on the left hand is a figure of 5; the thumb on the right is a sign of 6. These agree with the two times, and are types of the Two Truths. Moreover, tem or tum (Eg.) is a total of two times formed of two halves on the left and the right hands. This may elucidate the custom of tying the two thumbs together behind the back in certain British sports and games which are played at the equinoxes, or two times of the year.

It can be shown that we owe the figure of 5 to the genetrix of the [p.303] earliest time, the mother-goddess of Time itself and that this figure is a form of the crooked sickle of Kronus that was derived from the khepsh thigh of the hippopotamus which represented the constellation of the Great Bear. The old mother was sometimes portrayed at the polar centre with the kat knife in her hands; this signifies so much time cut off, made separate, and distinguished. Another form of the cutter is the crooked sickle. Now it has already been suggested that the khepsh of the hieroglyphics, 8, was modelled from the khepsh thigh of the Great Bear constellation,  8, the name of which it retained. The khepsh in either form is a symbol of Khep, the goddess of the seven stars. With the khepsh or the kat knife, F, she cut off her quota of time yearly, as the mother of time, or the revolutions by which time was reckoned. From this crooked khepsh we can derive the sickle of time, still extant as the astrological sign of Saturn.

In the earliest reckoning of the planets the sun and moon were not included, consequently there were but five. Horapollo says the star seb denotes the number 5, because only the five stars (planets) by their motion perfect the natural order of the world[117]. When there were but five planets, Saturn was the fifth, and thus his sign 3, as a figure of 5 would be his numerical symbol. But when the sun and moon were reckoned as the chief of seven planets, then Saturn became the seventh, and Jupiter the fifth. This was Seb-Kronus in Egypt, who took the place of the earlier Sevekh-Kronus. Here then was another fifth planet, and in our astronomical signs the symbol of Jupiter is that of Saturn reversed and each is a figure of 5. This remote origin will explain why our figure of five is to be found among the Kamite hieroglyphics carved on the rock in Pitcairn's Island[118]; amongst the Vei (African) characters, and in the Lolo syllabary brought from Western China[119]. It is the figure of Seb-Kronus, of Sevekh-Saturn, and the crooked sickle of old time because it had been the still earlier sign of the Thigh constellation (Ursa Major), and the genetrix who was the mother of time in heaven and of the reckoning by the number 5 on earth.

Our figure 5 then is the sign of a cutting off, whilst the 6 represents a nought with a terminal stroke and is a sign of negation, put an end to!

 

One of the most ancient computations of time is the year composed of thirteen periods of twenty-eight days. This was a worldwide institution. It is called a lunar year, and the number of twenty-eight is registered in the twenty-eight lunar mansions, sieus, manzils, or asterisms, of the Egyptians, Chinese, and Arabs. A relic of this reckoning is preserved by Horapollo[120] in his description of the lunar [p.304] beetle that deposits its ball of seed in the earth for the space of twenty-eight days, because the moon passes through the signs of the zodiac in that number of days; who also says the generation of the world takes place on the twenty-ninth day of the moon; the rest-day or Sabbath of the moon in the Babylonian saints' calendar[121].

To represent a month, says this writer, the Egyptians depict the figure of the moon when it has attained the age of twenty-eight days of equal lengths, of twenty-four hours, for during these it is apparent and in the remaining two it is in a state of evanescence. Every scarabaeus, he says, has thirty toes, corresponding to the thirty days' duration of the month[122]. But one writer declares he has seen an Egyptian scarabaeus engraved on a seal the joints of whose tarsi numbered only twenty-eight[123]. If so, this was the beetle consecrated to the moon of twenty-eight days, and nature had been adapted to the number.

The Egyptian fortnight is named tena, or a half moon. Osiris, in his lunar character, was said to reign for twenty-eight periods, and he is also identified with this number when it is fabled that the evil Typhon, whilst hunting by moonlight, tore Osiris into fourteen parts. Moreover, the fourteen judgment seats in the netherworld, and the fourteen groups of gods before whom the deceased must appear to be justified by Tahta moon-godrepresent one half of the lunar houses or signs[124].

At Philae,* where the life and death of Osiris was especially portrayed, twenty-eight lotus-plants represent the twenty-eight periods of his life, of which mention is made by Plutarch[125]. A colossal statue of Osiris, found near the great sphinx, was composed of twenty-eight pieces.

* Philae, the name of this typical burial-place, in which Osiris sleeps, is written plk, i.e., prk, in hieroglyphics Y, with the sarcophagus determinative; that is, the original burig, br, bolg, barrow, burg, or brack, as the place of the dead.

The Esthonians had the year of thirteen months of twenty-eight days each, made up at the end with an intercalary day. A year of thirteen months was also known to the Lavinians[126].

In the Maori calendar the lunar circle was perfected in twenty-eight days; yet the moon was said to revolve in Reinga, the place of departed spirits, for three nights, or until new moon. The Maori have names only for twenty-eight lunar nights! The Dakotas count twenty-eight nights and days as one moon, although they know how to calculate the time of each new moon[127].

The Ahts divide the year into thirteen months, and these are called moons[128]. The Mangaians likewise reckon their year by thirteen moons; [p.305] a knowledge of the calendar being so strictly limited to the kings, who alone fixed the festivals in honour of the gods and determined the dates for all rites, ceremonies, and spectacles, that it was a sin against the gods for other men to keep the calendar; one that was punishable with rupture of the phallus[129].

The Spaniards discovered that the Aztec priests had a calendar, the nature of which they did not define, but it was such that the missionary father Sahagun anathematized it with an indignation akin to that of the Hebrew prophets proclaiming the secret practices in Israel. 'It was most unhallowed. Founded neither on natural reason nor on the influence of the planets, nor on the true course of the year, but was the work of necromancy, and the fruit of a compact with the devil.'[130]

The devout father was too horrified to say what were the tallies of such an iniquitous mode of computing time, but it was by means of this accursed calendar that the Aztec priests kept their own records, regulated their seasons of festival and times of sacrifice, and made all their prognostications and astrological calculations. He informs us that it was called a lunar reckoning, though in nowise accommodated to the lunar revolutions. It was formed of two periodical series, one of which consisted of thirteen numeral signs, thirteen being with them a most mystical number. He does not give the other factor of twenty-eight. But that is self-evident. They had a week of thirteen days, and twenty-eight of these weeks made a year of 364 days. The same year as that of thirteen months of twenty-eight days, or that of fifty-two weeks of seven days.

The Aztec cycle of fifty-two years has a fine rendering of the serpent-symbol in relation to the number 13. The serpent surrounds the circle of signs with its tail in its mouth. It is the total image of the cycle; and at every thirteen years there is a loop or kink made in its body, showing thirteen years tied up, according to the system of Quipu[131].

Every thirteenth year in the Mexican calendar was solemnized by fasts more severe, sacrifices more numerous, and feasts on a larger scale than in the other twelve years.

Thirteen is the number of Mangaian gods, in accordance with the months of twenty-eight days. This is the number of divinities of the highest rank in the Maya pantheon. Brasseur de Bourbourg suggests that the gods may have been the origin of the reckoning by that number[132], but it is the number that explains the origin of the gods or kronotypes.

The thirteen snake-gods of Yucatan are identified with time by means of the serpent. No name was assigned to their thirteen-day [p.306] period; it was only used to reckon by, in connection with the twenty-eight day period. The secret rests with the number 28.

The Mexican calendar was a sacred book arranged in thirteen tables; in this all rites and ceremonies were set forth in the proper order appropriate to the signs.

In the first Chinese dynasty, called heavens (or Tien Hoang, the august family of heaven), said to have embraced a period of 18,000 years, thirteen brothers reigned. They are described as being wholly abstracted, inactive, and solely engaged in continual self-renovation. Therefore they were cyclic. Coupled with these thirteen brothers there is a statement that certain astronomical characters called 'celestial stems,' used for chronological computation, were invented in their time for the purpose of determining the length of the year[133].

Colebrooke says the Hindu astrologers reckon twenty-eight yugas, which correspond to the twenty-eight divisions of the moon's path. These are sum-totals in time still dominated by the number 28[134]. The system is admitted to have had some other than an astronomical origin, although afterwards applied to astronomical calculations. A year of 364 days is described in the Book of Enoch. The moon is also said to have a period of twenty-eight days. In the revelations made to Enoch the scribe by Uriel, the angel who rules over the heavenly bodies, he is told that according to the complete computation of the year the 'harmony of the world becomes complete every three hundredth and sixty-fourth state of it.' This year is combined with one of twelve months or 360 days, by adding one day quarterly; and it is said: 'Respecting these (four days) men greatly err, and do not reckon them in the computation of every cycle, for they greatly err respecting them; nor do men know accurately that (or why?) they are in the computation of the year. But indeed they are marked down (or sealed) for ever; one in the first gate, one in the third, one in the fourth, and one in the sixth, so that the year is completed in 364 days,' and must be so reckoned[135].

M. Biot was profoundly impressed with the conviction that the so-called twenty-eight lunar mansions did not originate in the moon's daily progress along the ecliptic, and that, in the first instance, the number had nothing to do with the moon, but, being extant in some way, the lunar asterisms were adapted to the number 28[136]. They were undoubtedly the result of a fourfold division of the seven constellations that formed the celestial heptanomis. But no actual period of twenty-eight days could have been observed in heaven. It is neither directly sidereal, lunar, nor solar. The moon is not visible during twenty-eight days, neither is it renewed in that time. There is a conjunction of sun and moon monthly, but this will not furnish a period of twenty-eight days, nor does it occur thirteen times to the year. Every revolution of the moon demonstrated that [p.307] twenty-eight days was not a true lunar period; nor could a fortnight be a half-month by the real moon; besides which three days were also allowed for the moon's disappearance. The twenty-eight days formed one of those abnormal periods spoken of by Censorinus, the origin of which, he says, was lost in the darkness of remote antiquity[137].

There is, however, a mystical moon in nature to which this period applies; the moon that was the primordial governess of the waters and springtides, which was personified by Men, the wet-nurse and goddess of liquid measurethe men moon of the menses as well as of the mensis. This mystical moon was related to the menstruating ape; hence, as Horapollo says, the cynocephali were brought up in the Egyptian temples in order that the priests might ascertain the exact instant of the conjunction of sun and moon[138]. Women were devoted to the same purpose, and made use of as demonstrators by the monthly prognosticators and others who are denounced as servants of the excrementitious gods in the Hebrew scriptures.

Now, Dr. Gall, when practising in Vienna, kept a record and collected the data during many years, which illustrates the natural genesis of the twenty-eight-day period of time. He found that each woman menstruated thirteen times in the year. He likewise discovered that they were divided into two distinct classes, each class having a different period. The women of one class all manifested within eight days; then an interval of ten or twelve days followed, during which very few menstruated. Then began the period of the second class. The following are the two periods of women, with the dates at which they began, at the rate of thirteen times to the year. For the year 1818 he gives:

    FIRST
CLASS
  SECOND
CLASS
Jan. ...... 19 ...... 3
Feb. ...... 16 ...... 1 and 29
March ...... 14 ...... 28
April ...... 10 ...... 25
May ...... 8 ...... 23
June ...... 5 and 30 ...... 19
July ...... 26 ...... 17
August ...... 21 ...... 13
Sept. ...... 18 ...... 9
Oct. ...... 16 ...... 8
Nov. ...... 14 ...... 5
Dec. ...... 12 ...... 2

Each woman menstruated thirteen times; and she who began on the 3rd of January manifested for the thirteenth time on the last of December, being in that instance two days in advance, according to the year of 364 days.

During his travels, Dr. Gall continued his journal; and what struck him most was that the two periods coincided in all European countries. At the same time the women of either class menstruated in Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg, and Amsterdam, they of the same class [p.308] manifested also at Berne, Copenhagen, and Paris. This broadens the basis for observation and for the calculation of time[139]. Statistics have also been furnished to the present writer which corroborate this computation. In despite of civilization there are healthy subjects still among womenthis, too, is a matter of personal knowledgewho are timekeepers as generally correct in manifestation as other recurring phenomena, nearly as true as clockwork in their periodic demonstration thirteen times to the year, and worthy of wearing the symbol on the stocking still called a 'clock,' which is a flower and a type of pubescence, a token of pushpa-kala, the flower-time. This is the phenomenal fact most deeply underlying the mystical number 28. Such was the mother of mystery that sat upon the waters robed in red, who is also called the mother of the world. This was the only moon with thirteen renewals annually; the orb in heaven being made to conform to the timekeeping of the terrene moon in the reckoning of thirteen moons of twenty-eight days to the year.

The nature of this year is evidently aimed at in the Talmud.

'There is one day of the year,' says this work, 'on which Satan is powerless, this is the day of Yom Kippur; on the 364 other days he is all-potent.' It is asked, why? The answer is: 'Rami, the son of Hami, has said the numeral letters of Satan make three hundred and sixty-four days; during these Satan has power to do evil, but on the day of Kippur he is impotent.'[140] The name would have to be rendered:

50 9  5 300 = 300
נ ט ה ש
          5
          9
50
364

An allegory is veiled in this related to the number 364, which is here considered to be the number of Satan, like the number 56.

In a Russian tale the serpent (snake) attains the unusual number of twenty-eight heads[141]. This agrees, however, with a form of Apophis in the celestial waters, between two figures of Isis and Nephthys, which is figured in twenty-eight double coils arranged in four sevens[142]. The type was typhonian, and in keeping with the reckoning by twenty-eight, now degraded on account of the natural genesis. This origin will also explain why the number 13 is considered the unluckiest of all numbers. If thirteen persons sit down to dinner, one of them is sure to die during the next twelve months. The solar number of twelve superseded the lunar thirteen. The thirteen is more especially [p.309] limited to Friday, the day sacred to the genetrix, which is so intimately related to feminine periodicity. It was the lucky number in an earlier age.

A charm of eggs set at one time for hatching is thirteen in number. Also, in east Norfolk the flower of opening spring, the primrose, is connected with number 13, and thirteen primroses constitute a charm. There are old women who fancy that if less than thirteen should be brought into the house for the first time after the flower is in season, only the same number of eggs will be laid by the hens or geese. Less than thirteen would not be the full number represented by the primrose, and a smaller quota is believed to break the charm[143]. The five-lobed flower made it a figure of the opening period, hence its connection with the other mystical number.

Thirteen primroses are equivalent to the thirteen beads in the rosary, a form of which appears attached to a foursquare cross found in Cyprus. This is said, from the style of workmanship, to be earlier than the Macedonian conquest; and similar medals in the Hunter collection are evidently Phoenician[144].

There were thirteen kinds of spices set out in the Jewish religious service along with the zodiacal number of twelve loaves of showbread. There are thirteen articles to the Hebrew faith; and the Kabbalists have thirteen rules by which they are enabled to penetrate the mysteries of the Hebrew scriptures thirteen are the dialectical canons of the Talmudical doctors for determining the sense of the law in all civil and ecclesiastical cases. There is a subterranean chapel, near Peel Castle, in the Isle of Man, which is built upon or supported by thirteen pillars[145]. In England, the day, civil and political, was divided into thirteen parts: 1, after midnight; 2, cockcrow; 3, between the first cockcrow and daybreak; 4, the dawn; 5, morning; 6, noon; 7, afternoon; 8, sunset; 9, twilight; 10, evening; 11, candle-time; 12, bedtime; 13, dead of night. The two numbers were combined in the baker's thirteen to the dozen, just as the five and six are in the six score to the hundred[146].

In one of the Hindu legends we meet with a massive golden bracelet which had been worn on the arm of one of the giants of old who fell in the 'great war.' This was set with thirteen brilliant symbols of the ithyphallic Shiva[147]. A figure of the priapic Diana, goddess of Hierapolis[148], copied from a medal of Demetrius II, king of Syria, is likewise surrounded with thirteen emblemssix on the one side and seven on the other. Here the thirteen symbols are lingams. These are identical in significance with the thirteen ornaments of the Assyrian asherah, the obvious counterpart of the [p.310] thirteen female periods; the one completes and helps to explain the other. These denote a year of thirteen months of twenty-eight days, in the time of the giants, one of whom had worn the ponderous bracelet with the thirteen Shivaic symbols. These giants 'fell in the great war,' or were cut up into smaller quantities of time, as in the American myth, when the year of thirteen such months was superseded, and thirteen became the unlucky number.

The royal or sacred cubit of Egyptian measure, called the satem-meh, consisted of seven palms and twenty-eight fingers[149].*

* This measure, by palm and digit, was applied symbolically by the Shakteyas.

The month of twenty-eight days preceded the luni-solar month of thirty days, and the change from twenty-eight to thirty, or the combination of the two in computation, was marked by the Persian yazads, the time-cycles personified. In addition to the first seven of these there was at one time the number twenty-eight as well as thirty. A remarkable combination of these two numbers occurs in the Irish sed, a standard of value. The primary sed was represented by a milch cow; but in reckoning, thirty seds were counted as twenty-eight cowsthe cow being a type of the moon, and of the mother. The earliest form of the twenty-eight, however, was reckoned by the mother on earth, the terrene moon which had thirteen lunations to the year, and gave the law to the moon of twenty-nine and a half days. This was typhonian time, which afterwards became accursed.

The change from the moon of twenty-eight days to the time of a closer computation of the annual period is probably allegorized in the legend related by Plutarch, who tells us that Kronus had been in the habit of keeping time in some surreptitious way; or, as it is phrased, he had been accustomed to accompany with Rhea by stealth[150]. Rhea represents Ta-urt or Kep, the old typhonian genetrix, and Kronus was her son Sevekh in the first time. The two are a form of the typical Sut-Typhon. In the next stage the pair are represented by Nu and Seb-Kronus. The sun found them out. He then pronounced a solemn curse against the genetrix, swearing that in future she should not be delivered of her progeny in any month or year. Her bringing-forth of time, or in timeshe who had been the mother-goddess of time, and the seven keepers of time, four of whom were Sevekh, Anup, Shu, and Horuswas to be superseded altogether.

Hermes then accompanied with the ancient genetrix, and 'in requital of her favours he played a game at dice with Selene and won from her the seventieth part of each of her lunations; out of these he made five new days which he added to the other 360 days of the year; these being the superadded days which the Egyptians call the epagomenae, and which are observed as the birthdays of the gods. Upon the first of these they say Osiris was born, and a voice came into the world saying, "The Lord of all things is now born."'[151] The Lord of all things was [p.311] the sun-god, and the legend illustrates the completion of time in the perfect solar year, whether the divinity is called Osiris, Atum-Ra, or Horus Ma-Kheru. According to Plutarch's story, the time kept by the ancient genetrix was found to be inexact. So in the Chorus of Clouds, Aristophanes makes the moon complain that she has been badly used by the shuffling and turning topsy-turvy of her days, so that the gods, who know their feast-days well, are sent home supperless on account of the false reckoning[152]. The imperfect notation of time was then corrected by Taht-Hermes, whose consort, Sefekh, has the name of number 7, and is thus seen to continue the goddess seven from the stellar into the lunar phase of the mythos and chronology. The title of Sefekh as 'Mistress of the Writings,' or the registers and records made by Taht, is obviously connected with the number 28, and the mystic moon of the secret reckoning. With her Taht played the game of dice, and won from her the seventieth part of each lunation. Lepsius, in his attempt to interpret the mythos, has assumed the number 70 to be an error, and he changes it to 72. He causes Taht to take away five days from a year of 360 days, and add these to the same length of year. But that solves nothing; it is mere gambling with the left hand against the right. Nor is there any warrant for altering the numbers[153].

The reckoning of 360 days was soli-lunar already, and never to be disturbed, any more than the degrees in the ecliptic. Also the year of 360 days, averaged at 12 moons annually, the difference being allowed for in the total time-taking, was preceded by the lunar year of thirteen moons. Now the mystical moon, to which the celestial one had been forced to conform, has thirteen lunations of twenty-eight days each; and the seventieth part of her total yields five days, four hours, and forty-eight minutes. These, when taken away from Selene of the thirteen periods, and added to a fixed luni-solar year of 360 days, made the still more nearly exact year of 365 days, four hours, and forty-eight minutes, which is within one hour and 47-81 seconds of the length of the tropical revolution between the vernal equinoxes.

Further, the moon's revolution is only twenty-seven days, seven hours, forty-three minutes. Thirteen of these periods make 355 days and ten minutes. And if Taht corrected the lunation of twenty-eight days to that of the actual revolution, it would be found that there were five days less in thirteen revolutions than in the year of 360 days. But whilst the moon is performing her revolution, the earth is getting farther ahead, and the moon has to make some additional travelling before she arrives in the same position with respect to the sun. Thus her synodical period is extended to

DAYS HOURS MINUTES
29 12 44

[p.312] and if five days are to be taken from the year of 360 days, it shows Taht was credited with the discovery that a synodical lunation did not take quite thirty days, in which there was an excess of eleven hours and sixteen minutes. Twelve of these surpluses would make five days, fifteen hours, and twelve minutes; which could not be confounded with or called five days. Consequently the proposed alteration of the text must be rejected. The truer reckoning determines both the true text and interpretation. In making this change, we see Taht-Hermes in the act of superseding Sut-Anup as the reckoner and timekeeper of the moonhe who was now styled the 'calculator of heaven;' the 'reckoner of the stars,' and the 'distributor of time.'

The real discovery made by the sun was that of the correct lunar and solar periods, which were combined by the moon-god in a calendar of the perfect year. This was the final discovery. Then it was said the Lord of all things was born into the world as the solar god, and Taht became his lunar servant, his word or logos, as the reckoner and registrar of all time. A kindred legend is reported of Horus in his war with Sut-Typhon. He is said to have prevailed over his enemy, whom he delivered up, fast-bound, to the genetrix, here called Isis. She, however, would not put an end to him, but let him go. When Horus saw this, he laid violent hands on his mother, and tore the royal crown from her head. Then Hermes placed the cow's head on her instead of her lost diadem. This fable shows the conversion of the female Typhon, the stellar Ta-urt, into Hes-ta-urt, the lunar genetrix.

One way or another everything was registered and handed on in Egypt, even in the act of replacing the earlier by later knowledge. This change is visible in the planisphere and zodiac. The 'sacred year' was that of Sothis and the inundation, the year which opened zodiacally with the sun in the sign of Leo, and the heliacal rising of Hydra and the Phoenix, a fixed point of commencement in stellar time. But the fixed point of commencement in the luni-solar arrangement may be seen in the sign of the Crab, which is at times the seat of the ibis-headed moon-god, and at others the beetle-sign of the solar Khepra. The first is in accordance with the sacred year of the Lion calendar; the later with that of the Ram as the sign of the vernal equinoxi; the Akkadian and Aramaic beginning of the year with the month Nisan.

To recapitulate: the septenary of stars seen in the Great Bear and seven-headed dragon furnished a visible origin for the symbolic seven of time above. The goddess of the seven stars was the mother of time as Kep whence Kepti and Sebti for the two times and number 7. Sothis is the star of the seven by name. Sevekh (Kronus), the son of the goddess, has the name of the seven or seventh. So has Sefekh- [p.313] Abu who builds the house on high, as Wisdom (Sophia) built hers with seven pillars. The elementaries or zootypes and the heads of the great serpent were seven. The primary kronotypes were seven, and thus the beginning of time in heaven is based on the number and the name of seven on account of the starry demonstrators. The seven stars as they turned round annually kept pointing as it were with the forefinger of the right hand, and describing a circle in the upper and lower heaven. The number 7 naturally suggested a measure by seven, that led to what may be termed sevening, and to the marking and mapping out of the circle in seven corresponding divisions which were assigned to the seven great constellations; and thus was formed the celestial heptanomis of Egypt in the heavens.

When the stellar heptanomis was broken up and divided into four quarters, it was multiplied by four, and twenty-eight signs took the place of the primary seven constellations; the lunar zodiac of twenty-eight signs being the registered result of reckoning twenty-eight days to the moon, or a lunar month. In the Chinese arrangement, the four sevens are given to four genii that preside over the four cardinal points; or rather the seven northern constellations make up the Black Warrior; the seven eastern (Chinese autumn) constitute the White Tiger; the seven southern are the Vermilion Bird; and the seven western (called vernal) are the Azure Dragon. Each of these four spirits presides over its heptanomis during one lunar week. The genetrix of the first heptanomis (Typhon of the seven stars), now took a lunar character, or was succeeded by a lunar representative of time. In this phase we find the goddess Sefekh, whose name signifies number 7, is the feminine word or logos in place of the mother of time, who was the earlier word as goddess of the seven stars. Sefekh is the consort of Taht, the male moon-god, and as writing was then invented, she who was the word at an earlier stage is now called the bookkeeper for Taht, and the mistress of the writings. She had probably kept the menstrual month of twenty-eight days in four divisions of seven days each, hence she is designated the goddess Seven or Sefekh.

But when the luni-solar year of 360 days was first established the moon or month was reckoned by three weeks of ten days each, and the time of the ten succeeded that of the seven. This will be identified as the time of Menat, the wet-nurse, who was a form of the goddess of the seven stars, Typhon, continued in the lunar phase; her son being Sut-Anup (or Sut-Anush), as her manifestor of a dual nature. It is in the lunar form that the mother and her twins, the Sut-Horus of light and shade, can be most definitely apprehended, and the mythos best unriddled. In this the conflict or contention of the brothers was more prolonged than in that of night and day. The mother was the moon at full; the waning moon was her dark child; the waxing moon, her child of light; her horned and re-begetting bull. The twins are [p.314] described by the mother moon as being the twin lion-gods, the Sut-Horus in her womb. She says: 'I am the woman, the orb of darkness. I have brought my orb to the darkness; it is changed to light. I have made the Eye of Horus (the mother-mirror) when it was not coming on the festival of the fifteenth day. I have united Sut (Anup) in the upper houses through the old man (or adult nature) with him.'[154] This describes the male Sut in his two characters, which were represented by the twin brothers that contended eternally; and also mentions the eye that Sut was said to have wounded or swallowed. In one text Horus complains of his bleeding wound in the eye which the genetrix had to stanch and heal. 'Behold my eye! it is as if Anubis had wounded it.'[155] In another text Sut is said to have swallowed the eye of Horus or of the light, and been made to vomit it up again.

Sut-Anup, as the jackal or wolf of the darkness and representative of the obscure half of the lunation, might be charged with lessening the light, and thence with wounding or swallowing the eye that was made on the fifteenth day of the moon. It is even said that he swallowed his father Osiris, as it might be when Osiris entered the moon to be renewed, and it was known that the moon was but a mirror or eye to the sun. In one version of the mythos it is related that when Sut was hunting by moonlight he met Osiris and tore his body into fourteen parts; that was during the dark half of the moon, Osiris being the god of light. It may be further remarked, in passing, that the lion and unicorn are not only traceable to the ancient genetrix Sut-Typhon, who is the unicorn in front and the lion in her lower part, but that they are an extant form of the twin lion-gods of Egypt. The twins contended for ever, but their contest did not represent any warfare between the sun and moon as one writer has suggested[156]. In the lunar phase they were the twin children of the mother moonwho was horned in the forepart and lion-tailed behindand they impersonated the waxing and waning of the dual lunation. Their conflict is for possession of the same orb or disk of the moon, which has two phases in its light and dark halves whilst being single in itself; and that orb or disk is now represented by the shield which both support. In heraldry the unicorn still retains the lion-tail. The name of Anup shows him to be a lunar logos. An signifies speech of, speech from, speech to, and apu is to guide. His was a guiding voice. An also means the dark land, and Anup was the guide through the valley of the underworld and the darkness of death. As the jackal or dog that saw by night he conducted the lunar goddess in her search after the lost light, and was the earliest form of Mercury the psychopompus.

Anup was to some extent superseded in monumental times by Taht, as is acknowledged in the Ritual[157]. But he was the earlier [p.315] messenger who became the later scribe of the gods, and registrar of the divine words. As Horapollo states, the dog (i.e. Anup or the Anush) in Egypt was the type of the sacred scribe, because it was necessary for one who was desirous of becoming a perfect sacred scribe to be extremely vigilant, and to be fierce, and bark. The Egyptians also symbolized the prophet by it because the dog gazes intently upon the images of the gods as does a prophet[158]. So in the ceiling of the Rameseum the figure of Anup as a type of demarcation, is portrayed at each end of the zodiac gazing at the gods who represent the intermediate months. Anup, Anubis or Nubi, was the primordial prophet, the Hebrew nabi, the Babylonian god of letters and learning, Nebo.

In Genesis the ten patriarchs follow the seven. In the Persian scriptures the ten races succeed the seven. In Egypt the ten nomes follow the seven. So the time reckoned by ten succeeds the time of the seven. Ten is the time of the moon considered to be masculine as aku in Akkadia, Sin in Assyria, and Sut-Anup in Egypt, the Seth-Enos, or Enos son of Seth, who comes between the seven and the ten in the Hebrew Genesis.

In the Egyptian calendar there is an ancient festival still kept with especial solemnity by the Shiite Muslims. This is the festival of the tenth day, the 'Yom Ashura,' celebrated on the 10th of Moharrem (January 13th, 1878). Various events belonging to the mythical chronology are held to have taken place on this typical tenth day.

Several creations are connected therewith, or different portions of the universe were considered to have been created on this, the tenth day. The first deluge is dated by it. That is, the earliest fall of rain is said to have occurred and Noah to have entered the ark on this sacred day. The deluge or rain represented an ending in time. There had been giants on the earth in the days of the seven, and in other myths the giants are seven in number. Seth is the seventh, and Set or Sebt (Eg.) denotes the seventh or the number 7, as seb = 5, ti = 2. The Egyptian calendar identifies the seventh day of Mesore (June 22nd in the sacred year) as the birthday of Shith, Seth, or Sut, that is Sut the Anush (dog or jackal) or Sut-Anup whom we have previously compared with Seth and Enos. At the birth of Enos the Anush or Anup (Eg.) some great change occurs, however briefly recorded 'Men began to call upon the name of the Lord,'[159] or to acknowledge the divinity of a male nature, Jehovah-Elohim being the genetrix, the mother of the seven. This was the termination of the time of the seven and of the genetrix as primus, and mother of the mystic moon of twenty-eight days. The change was now made to the masculine moon of thirty days, with Sut-Anup as the male manifestor of Menat, the typhonian mother. Her name signifies the number 10, and her moon had three aspects and three times of ten days each, with [p.316] a month of 3 10 days. Just here then the time of the seven is superseded by that of the ten.

In both the Hebrew and Muslim legends Adam and Eve are said to have fallen to what is termed a 'lower heaven.' The change was from the star-station to that of the moon, already illustrated by the typical Mount Meru. In the book attributed to the angel Rasiel, the first firmament or highest heaven, is sevenfold, and its rulers are the seven archangels. The second firmament is tenfold, and its ten divisions are governed by ten great angels. These correspond locally to the times of the seven and the ten which led to the heaven of the seventy princes and divisions. These foolish-looking fables are the simplest matters of fact[160]. The Jews tell us that the Passover of Egypt was taken on the tenth day; that of succeeding generations exists the whole seven days. These relate to the time and the heaven of the seven and the ten. It is equally important to know that the Fall occurred on the Yom Ashura or tenth day, upon which all the old fruits, etc., that have been kept during the winter in Egypt are used for preparing the dish 'Hoboub,' with which the season of fresh fruits is inaugurated[161]. The time of the seven being succeeded by that of the ten, or the reckoning by the number ten which was applied to the month, we see how the tenth day was applied to the fall from Eden. The ending of the time of the seven being signalized or symbolized as a deluge, we likewise see how the first rain fell and Noah consequently entered his ark on the tenth day, that of the Yom Ashura, and of the ten symbols upon the asherah-tree of time, which are there combined with the seven and the thirteen of the earlier reckoning. The writer has never met with a zodiac of ten signs, unless the Chinese ten ki, are to be considered as such. Ten celestial signs belonging to the cycle of ten, called Kea, Yich, Ping, Ting, Woo, Ke, Kang, Sin, Yin, and Kwey, are a series of characters kept quite distinct from the twelve signs called terrestrial. The ten, however, involve the same mythological history of prediluvian times as the ten kings of the Chaldeans, the ten Hebrew patriarchs, the ten in lost Atlantis, and the ten lost tribes. Also there was a tenfold division of time which corresponded to nine solar months.

The Romans preserved an Alban year consisting of ten months divided into four weeks each[162]. This is the same period as the Marquesan year of ten moons. These are left meaningless for us, but the missing factor may be supplied in the land of the three months' inundation which completes the annual cycle. According to Philo, the ten is 'that perfect number by which Noah the just existed.'[163] He represented the reckoning of time by the number 10. He is described [p.317] as being in the ark during a deluge of nine months or ten moons of lunar reckoning. The time of the ten by which Noah existed was that of the patriarchs who are reckoned as ten in number following the earlier seven, and preceding the deluge in various lands. The patriarchs in the Puranas, Srya-Siddhnta, and other Hindu writings represent the cycles of time. Noah the just man simply means the truer timekeeper, a form of the Kamite 'Ma-Kheru.' He survives during the deluge of the ten or the end of their time-reckoning, as did the Chinese Yu. Noah is not described as draining the land and then forming it into nine divisions of dry land, as did Yu, and yet the same fact is expressed in another way. Noah had existed by the perfect number 10, whilst the reckoning of time had been that of ten moons to the period of pregnancy (thirteen to the year), and the moon of 3 10 days in the year of 360 days. This year was also reckoned by means of the thirty-six decans (tehani, Eg.) or crossing-stars (preceding the thirty-six decans of the zodiac), which made their transit three to the month, and one every ten days through the year of 10 36 = 360 days. That time ended with a deluge during which Noah was lord of the inundation, the saviour of the world, the just man and truer timekeeper for nine months. The statement is very exact. The dry earth began to reappearnot from the three months waters of Egypt or the zodiac, but from a deluge lasting nine monthson the first day of the tenth month.

Noah's ark was thus a receptacle of life for nine solar months, the equivalent therefore to the nine dry signs of the put-circle established on the waters by Ptah, or to the nine channels and nine divisions of dry land which were founded by Yu, or Fot. Moreover the founding of the circle of the nine and the three water signs by Ptah, was coincident with the establishing of the three regions in space (already described) in place of the previous two, when the sun of the two horizons, Har-Makhu or the double Horus, was followed by the solar triad of the sun in the upper and netherworld, as well as on the horizon. This triplication in the Hebrew story follows the deluge of Noah, and the solar triad now established are represented by Shem, Ham, and Japheth, the three that 'went forth of the ark' of Noah in the new world of time. These three correspond to Atum, K, and Hu; Osiris and the two Horuses; Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma, and other forms of the solar trimurti[164]. In this re-beginning the whole earth is again declared to be of 'one language and of one speech,' as it was said to have been in the previous creation; a figurative mode of expression that relates solely to the time-cycles.

Various superstitions are connected with the number 10 as a type of fulfilment. There is a belief not only that each tenth wave that breaks on the shore is largest, but also that each tenth egg that is laid is the biggest. The reason for this alleged by Festus is, 'decumana [p.318] ova dicuntur, quia ovum decimun majus nascitur.' 'For the honour we bear unto the clergy,' says Sir Thomas Browne, 'we cannot but wish this true.' The tenth being the tithe! But, he adds truly, 'the conceit is numeral.'[165]

When the solar reckoning was introduced the ninth wave took the place of the tenth. It is said in the Mishna[166], 'The wise men affirm that nine squares (out of twenty-four) may be sown with mustard, but ten must not.' In burning the Yule log it was accompanied by an ashen fagot that was bound up in nine withes. This was so placed on the fire that only one band should burst at a time; a separate jug of beer being drunk as a libation for each[167]. These were among the modes of memorizing by means of symbolical customs that afterwards remain to befool the world when their original significance has been forgotten.

 

We are only just beginning to apprehend how long time has been reckoned in this world. The anti-evolutionist has not yet begun to dream of it in the grub condition of consciousness. He continues to make war upon length of time in the prehistoric past, as sufficient time to account for facts on natural grounds will abolish his foothold in the supernatural, by substituting gradual development in place of cataclysmal miracle. The stories told by Egyptian priests and others of timekeeping in Egypt are now beginning to look less like lies in the sight of all who have escaped from their biblical bondage. Inscriptions have lately been found at Saqqara making mention of two Sothiac cycles which had been observed and registered at that time, now some six thousand years ago. Thus when Herodotus was in Egypt the Egyptians hadas now knownobserved at least five different Sothiac cycles of 1,461 years, and consequently could not have referred to two, as was suggested by Lepsius[168].

The priests informed the Greek inquirer that time had been reckoned by them for so long that the sun had twice risen where it then set, and twice set where it then arose[169]. This, which was asserted in a previous volume, can only be realized as a fact in nature by means of two cycles of precession, or a period of 51,736 years.

Simplicius, an Aristotelian commentator of the sixth century, had heard that the Egyptians were in possession of recorded observations extending over a period of 630,000 years[170]. If we read this number of years by the month which Eudoxus said the Egyptians termed a year, i.e., a course of time, that would still yield the length of two cycles of precession[171]. Diogenes Laertius states that the Egyptian astronomers possessed observations of 373 eclipses of the sun and 832 of the moon, which numbers are nearly correct in their relative proportions; these he carried back by calculation to 48,863 years [p.319] before Alexander[172]. Diodorus Siculus, who tells us correctly enough the Egyptians asserted that their regal dynasties had lasted some 4,700 years, also says they had practised the science of astronomy and preserved observations of the stars during 'an incredible length of time.'[173] Martianus Capella reproduces a declaration that the Egyptians had secretly cultivated the science of astronomy for 40,000 years before it was made known to the rest of the world[174]. Such statements have been looked upon as if made by inveterate liars, who were leagued in a conspiracy to cast discredit on the 'inspired' writings and the chronology of the Hebrews.

Pomponius Mela mentions the tradition of the sun having set twice where it now rises, and couples it with four revolutions of the stars, whatsoever that may mean[175]. Also, in the rabbinical legends, a kind of messiah or antichrist is described as coming in a queer, one-sided, crab-like fashion. He was to be blind of one eye and deaf in one ear, and at his advent the sun was to rise in the west[176], or half way round the cycle. This appears to be the figure of the obliquely moving sun applied to the circle of the great year. The present writer has no doubt the Egyptian priests told Herodotus they had registered time during two periods of precession, that their statement was entirely true, and that 'they knew these things with accuracy because they always computed and registered the years,' as Herodotus reports[177]. Now if it can be shown that the cycle of precession had been once observed and registered, there can be nothing incredible in the claim of the Egyptians.

Plato, who studied in Egypt for thirteen yearswith the main result, however, of converting these hidden mysteries into metaphysical mist,tells us in the Critias that the Egyptians had recurrent deluges, and that they fixed the return of the cataclysm according to the period of their great year[178]. Therefore they had a great year in which the lesser periods that ended with deluges were factors in the total reckoning. Plutarch also, in speaking of the prodigies which occurred during the civil wars between Sulla and Marius, says, 'One day when the sky was serene and clear, there was heard in it the sound of a trumpet, so loud shrill, and mournful, that it affrighted and astonished the world. The Tuscan sages said it portended a new race of men and a renovation of the world, for they affirmed that there were eight several kinds of men, all being different in life and manners; and that heaven had allotted each its time, which was limited by the circuit of the great year.'[179] This shows that the Etruscans were acquainted with a great year of the world which is here divided into eight lesser cycles, or a series of creations that culminated in the eighth. [p.320] Elsewhere we shall find the great year described as that of the seven rulers of the world, or the seven Rishis.

Amongst those who consider the veriest fallacies sacred if written in Hebrew, and classical if they occur in Greek, it is commonly stated that the recession, or as it is termed precession, of the equinox was discovered by the Greek astronomer Hipparchus[180]. But so ancient was this knowledge that the legends of many lands try to talk with us on that scale of knowledge and we do not understand their languageit is too large for our limits. This reckoning by the backward cycle of precession is found amongst the traditions of the Fall in heaven, which is described in the legendary lore according to the direction and range of the great year. In one of the Arabic or Hebrew versions, the teaching of keeping holy the seventh day is applied in this way to Adam and Eve. It is related that the primal pair lived together for 500 years before they ate of the forbidden fruit; that is, during a phoenix period, the time completed in seven patriarchates of 71 to 72 years each; 500 years being one week of seven days in the great year of 26,000 years. Therefore, according to this legend, it was on the seventh day of the Great Year that they failed to keep the Sabbath; the seven-day type being applied to the larger period of time[181]. Here the Fall and the eating of the fruit of the tree of knowledge is identified by the reckoning with the first seven days of precession, and the reeling motion of the pole by which the circle is described in heaven. This illustration was too large to be included by the present writer in his account of the 'fall;' nevertheless it belongs to the domain of verifiable fact, in the astronomical allegory. With the same imagery we may classify other figurative statements which are numerical in fact. As when the Talmud describes an angel or messenger of 500 years, that is a timekeeper like Enoch. It says one angel is taller (it might be longer) than another, by as many miles as a man would travel in a journey of 500 years[182].

When Cain slew Abel in the Syrian myth, it was because Habil had moved his boundary stones too far! The world had been divided fairly between the primordial twins, who were the two powers of light and darkness. Habil personifies the dark power which is represented as encroaching on the other, just as the crow and other forms of the blackbird encroached on the territory of the eagle-hawk or other power of light. Then Kabil threw the boundary stones at his brother and is said to have killed him. Next he carried his brother's dead body during 500 years, not knowing where to deposit it; 500 years, or a phoenix cycle, is exactly one week of the Great Year of 26,000 years. Habil then planted his staff which grew up into seven trees, the equivalent of the seven Manus (yet to be described), or divisions of the cycle of 500 years. The shifting of the boundary was actual in the heavens amounting to seven degrees [p.321] of the 360 in the ecliptic and in the cycle of precession; the lapse in time being figured as the encroachment of the dark power, and by the one brother carrying the body of the other for 500 years7 71 or 72to the next point in the ecliptic, where the staff was planted which grew up into the typical seven trees, and where the seven following Manus were reborn.

Some of the Hindu astronomical writings, and also other books like that of Enoch, look as if precession or, as Plato terms this movement, the turning of the world awry[183], was the all-absorbing subject of contemplation. Thus Enoch says, 'In the five hundredth year and in the seventh month, on the fourteenth day of the month, of the life-time of Enoch, in that parable, I saw that the Heaven of Heavens shook; that it shook violently; and that the powers of the most high, and the angels, thousands of thousands, and myriads of myriads, were agitated with great agitation: and when I looked the Ancient of Days was sitting on the throne of his glory, while the angels and saints were standing around him ... I was incapable of enduring this vision of violence, its agitation, and the concussion of heaven.'[184] Such was one mode of describing an ending and a rebirth in time. This event occurred at the end of 500 years, which will be identified as a period in precession. Again, in the vision of Noah, just before the ending typified as a deluge, it is recorded that 'In those days Noah saw the earth became inclined, and that destruction approached.' And Noah called with a bitter voice upon Enoch, saying, 'Tell me what is transacting upon earth, for the earth labours and is violently shaken. Surely I shall perish with it. After this there was a great perturbation on earth, and a voice was heard from heaven.' Noah was also 500 years of age when he begat Shem, Ham, and Japhet; that is, when the three solar regions were first established so that the solar bark or the ark of Seb could voyage all round[185].

'The Assyrians,' affirms Iamblichus, 'have not only preserved the memorials of seven-and-twenty myriads of years, as Hipparchus says they have, but likewise of the whole apocatastases and periods of the seven rulers of the World.'[186] These seven rulers we recognize as the seven Hindu Rishis, and seven Manus of the Manvantaras in the cycle of precession. A legend of the Jayas, in the Vayu Purana, states that Brahma created these gods as his deputies or assistants, but that they got lost in meditation and forgot his commands. On this account Brahma doomed them to be born repeatedly in each Manvantara or patriarchate up to the seventh; and so they continued to be reborn in successive series of sevens all through the Great Year. The legend here applied to the Jayas, who are twelve in number, belongs primarily to the seven rulers as the Rishis, who are elsewhere [p.322] the Seven Sleepers. The age assigned to the seven Manvantaras, Patriarchs, or Rishis, is seventy-one years with a surplus. None of the Puranas state the value of this surplus, but it shows the reckoning to be by seventy-one or seventy-two years: 7 71 or 72 = 500[187].

The term 'Manvantara' or 'patriarchate' means another manu; the interval of another manu or, to bring the mythical within human bounds, it is the lifetime of another man, although the years are styled ages in the Hindu computation. Seven of these periods or lifetimes of man make the 500 years of Enoch and Noah. Fourteen of such patriarchates are an aeon composed of a thousand years called ages. This is a day of Brahma; so that with him also one day is as a thousand years. Now Enoch was likewise a Manu of 500 years as the last of seven. Here is the proof. 'Enoch then began to speak from a book, and said, I have been born the seventh in the first week.'[188] Enoch, who calls himself the seventh from Adam, is the Seth-Enos of the seven Hebrew patriarchs in the first list, and identifiable with the Egyptian Sut-Anush or Anup of the Dog-star and lunar mythos, the first form of Hermes. The Hebrew anoshi (שׁנא) is the associate, one who enters into connection with others, as did Sut-Anush the lunar manifestor for the stellar seven who were Rishis, Manus, or Patriarchs.

The 500 years assigned to Enoch before the great change was visible in heaven is exactly one week in the Great Year of 26,000 years of 360 to 365 days. Thus Enoch was the Anosh, the manifestor of the seven who, as Enos, is called the son of Seth, and the seventh from Adam; the manifestor of the seven patriarchs in the first list of the generations of man, who would be reincarnated fifty-two times during the Great Year. The seven patriarchs or manus in the Puranas are the seven Rishis, who were the seven primordial timekeepers that lost count of time and became the seven forgetful ones, or the seven sleepers of another version, when it was discovered that they were losing time by the sun and the seasons. Further watching and longer observations, however, showed that they continued to keep some larger law, and were making an enormous cycle of time that, in fact, there were two aspects to the observed disparity, and the stars were advancing on tropical time, whilst the sun itself was really lapsing and losing ground. Thus the seven symbolical rulers that began at first as zootypes and passed into the phase of kronotypes, who had acquired a bad character as the standers-still of the fixed stars, the seven inert and lazy ones, the kesilim, or 'fools,' the seven sleepers, the seven evil demons of eschatology that ruled in the lower world, were redeemed in other characters. They became intelligent movers, and obtained souls in the planetary phase.

In Egypt the sun was assigned to Horus, the moon to Sut-Typhon; Mars to Shu, Mercury to Anup, Jupiter to Seb, Venus to the [p.323] genetrix, and Saturn to Sevekh-Kronus; the seven were continued by conversion in several forms of ruling powers. They are to be recognized in the seven souls of Ra, the seven horses of Srya, the seven alms of Agni, the seven rays of Iao-heptaktis, the seven tongues of fire and forms of the word, the seven taas (Eg.) or sages of Egypt, India, and China. These are the seven Rishis who lived on as the seven rulers in the circle of the Great Year and made the cycle of precession. The seven timekeepers of the seven constellations that performed their first revolution in the ark of the sphere became seven celestial personages in an ark that voyaged round the cycle of precession once in 25,868 years, which period they were fabled to fulfil by being continually reborn as men whose lifetime was reckoned at seventy-one or seventy-two years each. Frequent references to this form of the seven appear in the most ancient Hindu writings, to the great perplexity of our modern astronomers. The more recent native writers, who associate the seven Rishis with the Great Bear and can follow them no farther, do not know what to make of the legendary doctrines of the seven Rishis. Colebrooke, on the divisions of the zodiac, points out that Muniswara, in his commentaries on the Siromani, remarks that Bhaskara omitted the topic altogether on account of the contradictory opinions concerning it and because of its small value[189]. Camalacara, in the Tattwaviveca, observes that the authority of the Puranas and Sanhitas, which affirm the revolution of the seven Rishis, is incontrovertible, nevertheless no such motion of the stars is perceptible. His conclusion is that the seven are invisible mythical deities who perform their revolution in the time specified[190]. This pretended revolution of the seven, says Colebrooke, is connected with two remarkable epochs in the Hindu chronology; the commencement of the Kali Yuga, in the reign of Yudhishthira, and the establishment of a different dynasty on the failure of the succession of the Kshatrya princes[191]. 'When the seven Rishis were in Magha, the Kali age, comprising 1,200 divine years, began; and when from Magha they shall reach Purvashadha, then will this Kali age attain its growth under Nanda and his successors.'[192]

Magha comprises the stars α, η, γ, ζ, μ, ε, Leonis, and Purva-Ashadha of δ and ε, Sagittarii. The Rishis are described as going round the zodiac from a lunar sign in Leo, the great house of the seven Rishis, which is the tenth lunar asterism of the Hindus, to the twentieth asterism or mansion, in the sign of Sagittarius. Here, then, we strike the track of the seven Rishis, who are represented as voyaging round in the ark that makes the circle and the cycle of the Great Year. The virtuous sages, says Casyapa, abide during a hundred years in each asterism attended by the virtuous Arundhati[193]. This is a mere 'aiblins a hunner' sort of guess; still they do abide a certain time in each [p.324] asterism. These asterisms are the twenty-eight lunar mansions of a pre-solar zodiac, and the exact time of their stay in each asterism would be 28 923 = 25,844, years, or, more exactly, 923 years, 1 week, 2 days, 11 hours, 9 minutes, 17 seconds each. The sum total being only twenty-four years less than the 25,868 years of precession. Thus, if this cycle were first reckoned by the twenty-eight asterisms which preceded the twelve signs of the solar zodiac, the age or lives of the seven Rishis, in another patriarchal character, would then be averaged at some 923 years; and this computation, for the first time, appears also to strike the track of the seven patriarchs in the Hebrew mythos. Amongst these Adam is described as being 930 years of age when he died, Seth 912, and Enos 905. The age of Enoch, 365 years, and of Noah, 500 years at the time of the deluge, shows the patriarchs were kronotypes, and the ages of the earliest correlate with the actual time of the seven Rishis in the twenty-eight asterisms in making the cycle of precession. The seven Rishis are spoken of as being created and passing away with each period of time, which proves their nature to be cyclical. In all the Manvantara classes of Rishis they appear seven by seven, and pass and are repeated in the same order[194]. If we were to reckon by the twenty-six Mexican signs the time would be 1000 years in each, and it is noticeable that the Egyptians had the 'Celestial House of the Thousand Years,''Pa-pe kha renpat'which King Har-si-atef tells the god Amen he has piously rebuilt[195].

The 'Piromises' shown to Hecataeus and Herodotus by the Egyptian chronologers were very probably a form of the manus by whose lifetimes the Great Year was computed[196]. Herodotus says piromis in Greek means a noble and good man. If derived from Egyptian, peru-mes would read the reappearing one, like the mesiu or repa. 'Each was a Piromis sprung from a Piromis, each was the son of his own father.' There were 345 of these colossal statues. The Piromises were so emphatically men (or manus), that 'they did not connect them with any hero or god.'[197] If these were the manus, or patriarchs, only fifteen (15 71 or 72 years) were wanting to complete a cycle of precession.

These reckonings are extant in the ancient scientific and in the legendary lore. Indeed the science is so ancient that its most hidden secrets live on in legends alone. Even those who were unable to follow the cycle to the end preserved traditions of the beginning.

When the seven rulers, or powers, have become the servants of Srya as the seven horses of the sun, we see them depicted in the Hindu drawings driving round the circle of twelve zodiacal signsi. But the direction of the horses' heads and the curve of the whole seven show that the sun is going backwards through the signs in accordance with the course of precession[198]. This representation proves great familiarity [p.325] with the fact. In the stellar mythos the seven Rishis made the circle of the stars that gained upon the sun, and in the solar mythos the circle is described by the horses going backward. In the hieroglyphics, ra, a sun, is identical with a time, a period. So the Mexicans made the sun a synonym for a cycle of time, or an age and in reckoning the ages past and gone they spoke of them as so many suns having been destroyed. They tell of four vast periods of time that ended, each with its appropriate catastrophe, designated the age of earth, the age of fire, the age of air, and the age of water.

According to Humboldt's account the Mexicans spoke of four suns that existed previously to the present one, which were destroyed together with the race of beings that belonged to each. The first was the sun, or age, of earth, called Tlaltonatiuh, and the end was caused by earthquake, and marked by famine. The second was named Tletonatiuh, the sun, or age, of fire; this terminated in a vast conflagration. The third was Ehecatonatiuh, the sun, or age, of air, which ended with destroying hurricanes. The fourth, Atonatiuh, the sun, or age, of water, terminated in a universal deluge. The four ages, or aeons, are also symbolized by appropriate types. In the Age of Earth men are represented as or by beasts. In the Age of Fire they are changed into birds. In the Age of Air they transform into apes; and in the Age of Water they become fishes. These are the four zootypes of the four elements placed at the four quarters[199], which appear in Egypt as the crocodile of earth; the phoenix of the solar fire; the ape of air; and the fish or hippopotamus of the waters. The beast (Sevekh) is stationed in the west; the bird of fire in the south; the monkey at the vernal equinox, and the hippopotamus in the north. These four elements and types are fixtures in Egypt and in the heavens. The earth emerged from the inundation in the west, the quarter of Sevekh, the crocodile of earth, and of the later Seb, the god of earth. The phoenix of fire, with the star Sirius at the heart of it, that outshone the sunrise, proves the south to be the quarter of fire. The great ape identifies the east with air or breath, whilst the north is always the region of water. But it will be observed that the Mexican agesinstead of being reckoned forwards, as air (spring and east); fire (bird and south); earth (beast and west); and fish (water and north)are reversed, like the horses of Srya. The same four quarters of the zodiac are reckoned backwards in relation to four great ages; and the only backward way of traversing the signs is that which belongs to the cycle of precession. The Mexican signs were twenty-six instead of the Hindu, Chinese, and Arabic twenty-eight. These were formed of the duplicated thirteen; consequently we find their Great Year consisted of thirteen [p.326] ages, and unfortunately the great ages of the four quarters are rendered as

                5,206     Earth
                4,804     Fire
                4,010     Air
                4,008     Water
Total ...  18,028

whereas the actual length of the Great Year is 25,868 years. As the Mexicans had eighteen months and a fraction to the year, it is evident that the Great Year has been conformed to the image of the lesser. The four Great Ages and types remain, together with the reckoning in the order of precession. The Supassyan, a sect of modern Parsees, have a very sacred history of four great dynasties, each apparently consisting of fourteen rulers, and a chronology which recognizes the precession of the equinoxes[200].

George Smith translated an inscription[201] which shows that the Assyrian vernal quarter included the twelfth month together with the first and second months of the year. Thus the new year commenced with Aries, and the spring with Pisces. He observes: 'The fact that in this record the four quarters of the heavens [corresponding to the seasons] do not commence with the new year suggests the inquiry whether from the precession of the equinoxes the seasons had shifted since the first settlement of Babylonian astronomy?' He appears to mean that, when the first arrangement was made, the spring equinox coincided with the commencement of the spring quarter, i.e., with the sign of the Fishes, whereas by the time when the inscription was made it had shifted to the Ram. As the progress of the equinox is from the Bull to the Ram, the Ram to the Fishes, it could only have got from the Fishes to the Ram by going all round the zodiac from the Fish, which the Hindus represent as being the first avatar of Vishnu, to the Ram, called by the Hebrews the 'Ram of fulfilment.' The time-reckonings then culminated in the Great Year of 25,868 years, or in round numbers of 26,000 years, containing 52 weeks of 500 years, with 7 days of 71 to 72 years in each; the basis being a sacred year of 360 days in Egypt, which was never to be altered; for, as related by the scholiast on the Aratea of Caesar Germanicus (evidently quoting, says Bunsen, from the Hermean Books[202]), the priests of Isis were accustomed to conduct the pharaoh into the holy of holies of her temple, and bid him swear that he would not alter the year of 360 days and the five epagomenae[203]. The Great Year measured by the 360 degrees set in heaven actually dominated the reckoning by the year of 360 days, and necessitated its being kept after the precise [p.327] length of the solar year was known. The year of 360 days was the nearest factor in the reckoning of 26,000 years to the cycle of precession.

 

The Great Year was not only the fulfilment of all time, but the end of it was the culmination of mythology, and the cause of its conversion into equinoctial Christolatry. The end of the Great Year of fulfilment, the year of the Lord, the year of universal redemption, was the one subject of prophecy; true prophecy when set forth according to knowledge; false prophecy when misinterpreted by fanaticism and accepted by ignorance. Primarily the prophet was the chronologer who knew the signs and cycles of the times from the beginning to the end. The Egyptian prophet, mage, or wise man, was the rekhi; and rekh signifies reckoning and knowledge. The prophet in his primitive character, that is astronomical and astrological, was the foreteller of time. As Lucian says, the prophet was consulted about the year and all its times, and when they would not be, or rather when they came to an end. 'He also speaks concerning the equinoctial point (colure), and when it ought to be absent on its travels.'[204] The rebirth of the repa (Eg.), the Messiah, the Christ-child as solar-god, depended upon the equinoctial point, and when that entered the new sign in the course of precession, there was the birthplace of the sun-god for 2,155 years.

In the Book of Ecclesiasticus, we learn that he who would give his mind to the law of the Most High, and is occupied in the meditation thereof, will seek out the wisdom of all the ancients, and be occupied in prophecies[205]. These were the prophecies so devoutly studied by the Essenes, who, as we are told, were profoundly versed in the doctrine of angels, i.e., the manifestors of the time-cycles, whose names were never to be mentioned; but who rejected the spurious messianic prophecies of the later agnostics amongst the Hebrew writers[206]. Ages before the present era, the Alexandrian astronomers, called astrologers, had foretold this end of the world, by which they meant the age or aeon, i.e., the Great Year of precession. They knew what they prophesied. For them the general resurrection and restitution of all things was the renewal of all the factors in the vast cycle of time, as it is in the Book of Enoch. A renovation of the universe was promised, described and expected in India[207]. The old earth groans beneath her burden, and complains of the load of iniquities she has to bear. She grows faint and fears lest she may fall back into Patala, the serpent world over which the deluge passed of yore. As it is said, 'At that time earth, over-burthened by her load, repaired to an assembly of the gods at the Mount Meru.'[208] The gods themselves bewail the oppressive might of the giants, or typhonian powers of dissolution, [p.328] who grow stronger and more daring as the end draws nigh. Vishnu comforts them with the assurance that a saviour will come who shall rule as a prince of peace and justice. In order that he may redress the wrongs of the old creation and break the power of the demons, he will be incarnated in the house of a shepherd, and be brought up amongst shepherdsthese being the shepherds of the heavenly flock, (like the Babylonian Sib-zi-Ana), that keep their watch by night in the fields of heaven. This incarnation at least can be identified in the planisphere, as occurring when the equinox entered the sign of the Bull.

A Greco-Egyptian zodiaci shows the deity Pan, the divine shepherd, the god of flocks and shepherds, figured in the decans of that sign, with his pipe and crook[209]; the perfect parallel to Krishna with his lute in the character of Vishnu, incarnated as the good shepherd[210]. This incarnation of the re-creator was represented in the birth, life, adventures and death of Krishna, the Hindu messiah born of the virgin mother, who saw the boundless universe in his mouth, and thus recognized in him the revealing and eternal word[211]. A prophecy like those attributed to the Chaldean Sibyl, was well-known among the Mayas, and was current throughout Yucatan, which promised that:

'At the close of the thirteenth age of the world,
While the cities of Itza and Tancah still flourish,
The sign of the Lord of the sky will appear,
The light of his dawn will illumine the land,
And the cross will be seen by the nations of men.

A father to you will he be, Itzalanos,
A brother to you, ye natives of Tancah;
Receive well the bearded guests who are coming,
Bringing the sign of the Lord from the daybreak;
The Lord of the sky, so clement yet powerful.'[212]

The sign of the Lord was the cross, but not the cross of Christianity. It was the cross of the equinox, by which the cycle was fulfilled in a certain sign at the conclusion of the thirteenth age, or the end of the cycle of precession. This prophecy, founded on the ancient timekeeping, had become like a fable in folklore, and when the Spaniards landed with the cross, it looked at first sight to the natives as if they had come to fulfil the prophecy. Messengers were despatched throughout the land to proclaim the return of Quetzalcoatl with the white face.

Mexican traditions also maintained that the mythical Montezuma had planted a tree upside down at Pecos (compare the Egyptian bekhu, the land of the solar birthplace), and told his people to watch it, and keep the sacred fire alight until the tree should fall; at which time he would again return with a white race, and destroy all their enemies[213]. In this legend the tree of time takes the place of other types. Its [p.329] inversion is a symbol of the backward movement and reckoning, and its fall denoted an ending, which was to set all right once more. The most supremely important of all the Mexican festivals, at which a man was put to death on a cross, thus identifying the timekeeping with the equinox, was celebrated every fifty-two years, and named the Toxilmolpilia or binding up of years, each fifty-two being one sheaf of years. It was held that at the end of the total thus gathered up, the harvesting would be completed in the fields of time, and the world would come to an end. This end of the world, however, is only a limit imposed by modern ignorance, as in the rendering of Paul's end of an aeon into the end of a world, 500 of these sheaves (or fifty-two phoenixes in another reckoning) were required for the festival of harvest-home.

The Winnebagos likewise had a remaining reminiscence of the Great Year. An ancient prophecy, they said, had been handed down from generation to generation by their ancestors, warning them that at the end of the thirteenth age their nation would be annihilated. But they had lost count of the reckoning, for they considered themselves to be in the eleventh age[214]. The prophecy and expectation were current in many lands, and in all the mythologies. In the dialogue with Trypho, Justin Martyr quotes a passage from the Book of Daniel to illustrate the coming of the Messiah, and the Jew replies, 'These and similar scriptures compel us to expect in glory and greatness him who as a son of man receives the eternal kingdom from the Ancient of Days.'[215] That is the true expression, and the understanding of the doctrine depended on the gnosis which the later equinoctial Christolaters did not possess.

Epiphanius represents Elkesai, the Ebionite prophet, as teaching that the Christ was the first created Adam, who returned as the second Adam[216]. Photius[217] also says Origen maintained that the soul of Jesus Christ was the soul of Adam. It was a Jewish tradition that Golgotha, the place of the skull, where they erected the cross, was the very spot in which Adam was buried, this being the place of his skull. Now in the human figure of the zodiac, the head is in the sign of the Ram, and the feet are in the Fishes; and if we apply this to Adam, as it was applied to Osiris, then the place of the end and rebeginning in the sign of Aries, would be the place of the head or skull, Golgotha, where the blood of the crucified was fabled to have run down upon the head, cranium, or skull of Adam, and revivified him. The Hebrew root לג (gl), whence Golgotha, denotes the circle and repetition; the going round, as well as the thing that may be round, and this was the place of repetition in the circle of precession.

It says in the Zohar, 'The white of the skull of his headthat of the most sacred Ancient one who is concealed (absconditus), the concealed [p.330] of the concealedextends to 40,000 superior worlds.'[218] The representative of the father (this Ancient of the ancient), his first reflection and image, is seir, who through the mystery of the seventy names of Metatron will descend into Yetzirah, the third world and open a new gate or door of life. The Spiritus Decisorius will divide the Shekinah in two parts, or rend the covering in twain. A white light was to shine with great splendour from the sacred cubical stone during forty days, and embrace the whole earth. Then King Messiah would be revealed, and be seen coining out of the gate of Eden to be manifested in the land of Gaul, and when he had made satisfaction for Israel's sins, he was to lead them through a new gate to the judgment seat[219]. This is simply and absolutely astronomical prophecy, relating solely to the end of the Great Year, which was the subject-matter of all true prophecy.

Yet these descriptions contain the skull of the Ancient that was buried at Golgotha, where it was assigned to Adam as primus, and who, according to the doctrine of cyclic repetition (revolutionis), or Gilgul[220], was reproduced in the Christ of Paul's gospel. The seventy names of Metatron identify the ancient heaven or zodiac of seventy divisions, which preceded the seventy-two duo-decans. So in the Christian legends, the wood of the cross of Christ, which was born with the world, was to reappear in heaven at the end of time. It is describing the circle that had to be traversed by the Manifestor or Word of the Eternal, called his son in the same way that the seven manus or the phoenix had to be reborn fifty-two times during the Great Year. The Spiritus Decisorius will determine the end, and mark the equinoctial division in the new sign at the place of coming forth, when the new Adam will issue from the gate of the new Eden, which is identified by all the ancient and surviving imagery as being in the sign of the Ram. The cube is the symbol of the sixfold heaven, and a type that interchanges with the hexagonal shield and six-cornered star of Solomon (Y). Thus the luminous cube established in the Ram is equivalent to the star that shone in the east at the time of the Messiah's manifestation, and the forty days' duration of its exceeding lustre form a precise parallel to the forty days' manifestation of the Christ when he 'showed himself alive after his passion by many infallible proofs, being seen of them (the apostles) forty days, and speaking of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God;' and was last seen ascending into heaven, as the ever-coming one who was to come again, by the 'men of Galilee.'[221]

The seventy in the Book of Enoch that represent the heaven of [p.331] seventy divisions are to be cast out as false shepherds of the starry flock, and unfaithful keepers of time. This precedes the new heaven. Then Enoch saw that 'the lord of the sheep produced a new house, great, and loftier than the former, which he bounded by the former circular spot.'[222]

Adam resting under Golgotha until the cross was erected over his burial mound is paralleled in other legends by the god that sleeps until the end or renewal of the world. In like manner Temanava-roa, the long-lived, lies buried face downwards at Rangimotia, the centre of the heavens; his head at Butoa toward the sunrise constituting a place of the skull or a Golgotha[223].

Hamilton in his account of the East Indies[224] describes two great temples in Pegu; one is the dwelling of the god of gods, or Kiakiack. In this there lies a statue sixty feet long, the image of the sleeping god believed to have remained in his repose for six thousand years. In this state he is shown to all, the doors and windows being left wide open that he may be seen. When he awakes the world will be at an end. But the catastrophe is provided for. Near this temple, which stands aloft and may be seen eight leagues away, there is another low down on the plain called the Dwelling of Dagun. The doors and windows of this are kept closed. No one may enter but the priests. No one sees the concealed god or fetish-image; no one but the priests may know its shape. This is the future manifestor, the other being the already revealed, and when Kiakiack awakes, and the frame of this world goes all to wreck, Dagun will gather up the fragments and create a new one. Dagun in the final zodiac was represented by the child born of the fish-tailed goddess with the equinox in the sign of Pisces, 255 BC.

So at lake Copais, where Aaden or Eden, called the Minyae Orchomeus, was fabled to have been sunken beneath the waters, the temple or Eleusinis was built, that was dedicated to the coming Son[225]. In some of the legendary prophecies, the time of renovation is to be one of restoration. The lost paradise is to reappear upon the mount with its tree of life on the summit, and the four rivers that marked the four quarters. The resurrection described in the Bundahish proves the Kronian and cyclical nature of the subject-matter, and the fulfilment of prophecy at the end of the Great Year. This is to take place at the advent of Soshyans who is called the last of the prophets. The first of all who are to rise again is the primeval ox or cow Gayomard, the primordial being or manifestor in heaven. The beginning of Gayomard was in the first cycle of time determined by the cow of the Great Bear and the bull Sothis. First the bones of Gayomard are roused up, then those of Mashya and Mashyoi (the pair that divided under [p.332] the tree-type), then those of the rest of mankind[226]. This explains an obscure passage in the Book of Enoch concerning the new heaven or the renovation. The Bull had been a word or manifestor in the year of the seven stars; and in Enoch's vision he is reborn as the first among the elect, the first form of the word. Gayomard arises with the cows, and is 'the first in the midst of them that spoke, or became a Word; when that Word became a large beast, ypon the head of which were great black horns.'[227] Mohammedan legends declare that the time of the universal resurrection will be determined by the appearance of a monstrous beast which is to arise out of the earth on the mount Safa, in the temple of Mecca or elsewhere, sixty cubits in height. Others say her head alone will reach up to heaven. This monster is to be a compound of various types. She will have the eyes of a hog, the ears of an elephant, the breast of a lion, the colour of a tiger, the back of a cat, the voice of an ass. This is obviously intended for the old Typhon, who was Behemoth the great beast as the hippopotamus; the hog as Rerit; one of her types being the lion, another the ass[228]. Some say the beast will appear three different times. This is in keeping with the three characters of the genetrix as the stellar Great Bear or hog, the lunar horse, or the cow that bare the solar god. She is to bring with her the rod of Moses (the sceptre of Ma-Shu, the divider of heaven solsticially) and the Seal of Solomon, or the six-cornered symbol of the four quarters and the nadir and zenith of the triple heaven. These correspond to three successive formations of the heavens, and the stellar, lunar, and luni-solar divisions of time, i.e., to the Persian Hmat for good thoughts in the station of the stars; Hukht, for good words in the station of the moon Huvaresht, for good deeds in the station of the sunwith Gardoman the abode of Ahura-Mazda over all.

This thrice-appearing beast of the Mohammedan traditions was the goddess of the beginnings in creation, and she is likewise the thrice-appearing 'old woman' who is seen in the three visions of Hermas, who brings him the book, and who is called the old one 'because she was the first of all creation, and the world was made for her.'[229] She has three aspects and grows younger and brighter each time of her appearance. Instead of the six-cornered seal of Solomon, Hermas sees six young men who build a tower or temple of the heavens. The rest is mystified[230].

In Revelation the 'old woman' of the first heaven is cast out as the great harlot that rode on the red dragon clothed in scarlet[231]. She is to pass into the pit of perdition, and give place to the woman who is 'arrayed with the sun and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars.'[232] But in the Book of Esdras the old [p.333] mother herself, called the widow, is also to be restored. 'Fear not, thou mother of the children, for I have chosen thee. I have sanctified and prepared for thee twelve trees laden with fruits, and as many fountains flowing with milk and honey. I will give thee the first place in my resurrection.'[233] The twelve trees are identical with the tree of twelve branches and twelve fruits in the gnostic writings, and the tree of life in Revelation, which bare twelve fruits and yielded her fruit every month, the leaves of which were for the healing of the nations[234]. Esdras is true to the ancient Sophia.

In the Book of Enoch, when the earth is renewed, those who were 'born in darkness' and who did not receive the reward of honour in the flesh, are to become like unto the children of light and be united to the father-god and his son for ever. These were they who lived before the father was made known by the begotten son. It was this that led to the religious doctrine of election and re-begettal. (Ye have) 'been begotten again, not of corruptible seed, but of incorruptible, through the Word of God, which liveth and abideth.'[235] Also, the doctrine of foreordination was necessitated through having to account for things as it were backwards. That which was discovered, made out, or postulated last had to be placed first, and this caused a reversal of relationships. The son of the father was a late institution, whether on earth or in heaven. The word as son of the father was the final form of the manifestor in mythology and in eschatology. Then it was held that he was foreordained to be first from before the foundation of the world, and those who were fashioned, refashioned, or renewed in the later likeness of the sun-god as son of the father-god were also said to have been 'foreordained unto adoption as sons through Jesus Christ'[236] of the divine father at last enthroned in heaven. This it was that led to the doctrine of election among the Aryas and Dasyus in the final psychotheistic phase.

The sum and substance of the Book of Revelation are related to the end of an old order of things and the establishment of a new temple of the heavens, with a re-beginning in the sign of the Ram, called by the Persians the Lamb. This was 'the Lamb that was slain from the foundation of the world.'[237] The world means an established order of things, or the cycle now recommenced by the equinox or cross occurring once more in Aries; the sign identified with the imagery of the beginning, including the seven Rishis or Manus. The astronomical prophecy in the Book of Revelation, with its corner-stone of the new foundation laid in the Lamb or the Ram, must have preceded the entrance of the colure into the sign of Aries to convey its meaning, because 'The Throne of God and the Lamb' was to be established in it, and 'the Lamb was the temple or house of it;' in accordance with the sign or house of the Ram[238].

[p.334]

The throne of God was established in the sign of the Lamb about 2,400 BC, together with the twelve apostles whose names were in the twelve foundations of this new Jewry. The final war in heaven, described in the Bahman Yasht and Revelation, between the newborn sun-god and the ancient dragon, has been identified with the apostate dragon that fell away from the pole, so far as to cease from being the true guiding-star, about the time that the equinoctial colure entered the sign of Aries. At that time the seven-headed dragon lost one of his heads, as representative of the celestial hexagram; and in the Typhonian Cult of Egypt the crocodile or dragon god was converted into the ram-headed Sebek-Raeven in Revelation the Beast himself survived as 'also an eighth' to the seven![239] Thus in one cult the dragon, mother and son, was cast out altogether, whilst in the other he was blended with the ram-type and continued. Both versions illustrate the passage of the equinox into Aries; both tend to identify that sign as the point of recommencement for a new order of things, and a new temple or type of the heavens. Now, if the four quarters were subdivided into the twelve solar signs during the backward course of precession, the process would be considered as a continual conflict between the powers of light and the dragon of darkness; also the final fight and the death or casting out of the dragon would take place in the twelfth sign of the zodiac. The war would end with the passage of the equinox out of the sign of the Bull into that of the Ram; and so is it represented.

The ancient dragon was Typhon in Egypt, and Thavthe or Tiamat in Babylon. In the Chaldean account of the fight between Bel and the Dragon, the solar god arms himself with the sword of the four quarters which turned four waysan equivalent to the fylfot of Thor or the swastika of Agni. He slays the dragon; and when the struggle is over it is said the eleven tribes poured in after the battle in great multitudes coming to gaze at the monstrous serpent. The word eleven is distinctly written istin-isrit or one and ten, so that there can be no doubt about the number, although nothing is known of the eleven tribes[240]. My explanation is that these represent the eleven signs previously founded, and that the death of the dragon occurred in the twelfth, as the last sign of the final solar zodiac. Hence the Ram of fulfilment; and the establishment of the throne in the sign of the Lamb or Ram, in the new heaven of John's Revelation. All the evidence converges on the sign of the Ram as the point of place and time at which the types and the scenery of the stars were perfected as the last result of all previous deposits made in going round the cycle of precession. A non-evolutionist looking at the planisphere as it appeared about the year 2,410 BC, might say the heavens then indicated the time when the ancient system of astronomy was invented, and this was the place of beginning. The evolutionist, on the other hand, [p.335] would say this was the sign with which the total observations and combinations ended; the prophecies were fulfilled and a new point of departure was made in another cycle of precession. Pliny reports Manilius as saying that the revolution of the Great Year was the length of the life assigned to the phoenix, at the end of which the stars and seasons return to their first places. This initial point was attained at noon on the day when the spring equinox entered the sun of Aries[241].

Bailly, in his History of Astronomy, has argued that the date of the fixed Hindu zodiac was about 2,250 BC[242]. M. Biot thought the Chinese sieu, or at least twenty-four out of the twenty-eight, had been fixed upon about 2,357 BC on account of their proximity to the equator of that period, their distinct visibility and near agreement in the time of transit with the upper and lower meridian-passages of the bright stars near the pole, within the circle of perpetual apparition[243]. This is within sixty years of the entrance of the colure into the sign of Aries at the time of the vernal equinox. Of course the data would be the same if the arrangement had been made 25,868 years before; we are only concerned here with a beginning and ending, not the beginning. The sieus have been employed by the Chinese for the division of time from an immemorial antiquity, and yet they are one with the Egyptian sin for the star and for a division of time. Mr. Proctor has shown good reasons for believing that about this time certain constellations were in their exact position which must change shape and vary in the course of precession. He traces the displacement of these from that position which they held at the initial point of the motion four thousand years ago. The constellation Argo, for example, 'stood on the horizon itself at her southern culmination, with level keel and upright mast,' but now the vessel cannot be seen with any likeness to a ship 'at any time or in any place on the earth's surface.' When Argo sank down it was represented as being caught and overcome in the crushing coils of Hydra, the dragon of the deep[244].

It was during the course of precession that the great catastrophes represented in the astronomical allegory had occurred. We can now see how one deluge was caused, by the reeling motion of the world making the movement of precession; and how the reckonings, figured as the writings, were actually lost in the overwhelming waters. In consequence of this movement, the starry structures earliest shaped in heaven by the mind of man began to tremble and transform. The Babel said to have been erected at the autumn equinoxwhich shows it was a type of the Kamite mount of the equinoxestoppled and was overturned as its foundations sank down in the south. At the present time the Southern Cross is not only below the horizon, the ark itself is a wreck that has left but few fragments afloat. As the earth reeled certain constellations not only dislimned and lost their shape, they [p.336] crumbled and sank into an abyss of the celestial waters. In this way the deluge was let in on the scale of the great year, chaos came back again, and the first formations and foothold in heaven failed. The heptanomis of the earliest circumpolar or revolving seven timekeepers was drowned, the mount submerged, and paradise or AryanaVajo lost. Some of the stars that went down south came back no more in their appointed seasons. These were the watchers who were unfaithful to their trust; the giants who proved to be abortions; the sons of heaven who fell in love with the daughters of earth, and were fettered below 'until the consummation of their crimes in the secret year,'[245] i.e., the Great Year of precession, when the restoration and renewal were to take place, according to the gnosis, revelation, or prophecy. Thus the north was also the great birthplace in the circle of precession. As one constellation sank and got submerged in the abyss of the southern heaven, another was slowly emerging from that of the north. Hence the genetrix, who was the abyss at first and became the goddess of the seven stars, the constellation that represented the female place of birth, did not depend merely on the annual turn round in the circumpolar heaven; she also brought forth on the scale of the great year. Mr. Proctor's observations lead him to the conclusion that about 2400 BC the observers of the heavens had attained a system of exact astronomy[246].

Ancient Hindu astronomers speak of some great conjunction of the planets, which occurred at the epoch of 3102 BC, from which they date the age of a new world. No actual conjunction did occur at that time nor ever will take place, and yet there was a convergence and an approximation to such a conjunction at the particular time in the neighbourhood of the initial point of the Hindu sphere[247].*

* See positions of planets at midnight, at Ujayini, Feb. 17-18, 3102 BC[248].

It is also well known that the Hindu astronomers looked to a particular star in the east, that marked the initial point from which they held that the motion of the planets (as it is phrased) commenced at the time of creation, and to which, at vast recurring intervals, they return, for the same conjunction and departure to be repeated. At the time of Al-Biruni's visit they appear to have known that the initial point was marked by one single star, but either they could not or would not point this out to him[249]. One fixed point in the Hindu sphere, identified by the different schools of Hindu astronomy as the point d'appui of creation, is at the end of Asvini (in the backward movement), an asterism consisting of the stars β and γ Arietis, and the first asterism Revati in Piscium. This proves that they were still following the course of precession[250].

[p.337]

A Persian priest named Giamasp, in the sixth century before the present era, wrote a work called 'Judgments on the grand conjunctions of planets, and on the events produced by them;' and it has been asserted that he predicted the advent of Jesus Christ[251]. It is further said that a knowledge of this prophecy sent the three wise men to Jerusalem at the time when the star appeared in the east. So it has been interpreted. But if he wrote in accordance with the ancient gnosis or Kabbalah and its doctrine of repetitions, he would be simply identifying the different dates in time and points of manifestation in the heavens at which the divine child, the messiah of the mythos, had been and was to be reborn. The birthplace above was always that of the equinoctial colure, whether in the sign of the Fishes, the Ram, the Bull) or any preceding sign. The planisphere in the previous volumei shows the child to have been born in the sign of the Bull, in the decans of which sign it is held up in the left hand of the figure that presents the cross symbol in the other. These are the Christ and the cross of Easter from 6,448 to 4,293 years ago Then the birthplace was in the Ram until the year 255 BC; and next in the sign of the Fishes, where the genetrix lifts up the reborn child as Ichthon, or Ichthys.

It is possible that the Egyptian festivals of the invention, the losing, and the finding of the cross had some relationship to the Great Year. Travellers in Palestine are shown the 'cave of the Invention of the cross,' which is denounced by Dean Stanley[252] and other travellers as an imposture. Nevertheless the feast of the 'Invention of the Cross' is in the Roman calendar. The truth is that the 'Southern Cross,' or crux australis, is lost and re-found in the course of precession; the earth's movement causing the constellation to sink down into the subterranean cave of the south. According to Dupuis, the ancient Persians solemnized their feast of the cross a few days after the sun's entrance into the sign of the Ram, at which time the Southern Cross was visible by night; and at the date of this new beginning in Aries, 4,000 years ago, the Southern Cross was to be seen above the horizon, at the feet of the Centaur[253]. This constellation, including the Southern Cross, is described as being under the Scorpion in the chart of Eudoxus of Cnidus, fourth century BC[254]. Now the southern passage or telescopic tube of the great pyramid points directly to the star a Centauri, which rises right over the Southern Cross! Mr. A. Proctor says of the two passages: 'The direction-lines for the midday sun at midsummer, mid-winter, and the equinoxes are shown; also the lines to the two stars, Alpha Draconis and Alpha Centauri, are given at the sub-polar meridional passage of the former and the meridional passage of the latter at the date when the descending and ascending passages thus commanded both these stars.'[255] Thus the [p.338] polar dragon in the north and the Southern Cross were the two chief objects of the astronomers.

Aratus describes Centaurus as carrying a sacrifice to Ara, the altar[256]. But the time was when the cross just beneath must have represented the sacrifice. The war in heaven, as described in Revelation, relates to the fall of the dragon and the victory of the lambthe lamb connected by the Persians with the Southern Crossand my suggestion is that the Great Pyramid was erected with power to show the facts that would verify the end of a cycle in precession; the Southern Cross and northern dragon being two supreme determinatives; the end and re-beginning being finally fixed in the zodiac by the entrance of the vernal equinox into the sign of Aries 2410 BC, when the ancient twofold heaven of the north and south was finally superseded by that of the three regions, 'and the great city (Babili) was divided into three parts,'[257] in the process of passing away or transforming into the new heaven of the crucified lamb, the lamb of the cross, which is connected with the foundation of the world.

The mythos of the tree that disappeared to be restored as the cross at the end of some vast period of time, together with the persistence of the cross or tree upon the mount in the sign of the Ram, points very significantly to the time when the vernal equinox re-entered the Ram and the Southern Cross returned once more in the course of precession as the starry emblem of the ancient festival of the cross.

The return of the cross, considered to be that of a crucified Christ, was a tradition continued by the Christian fathers. Chrysostom maintained that the cross vanished into heaven with the Christ and would reappear as the emblem of his future triumph: βούλει μαθειν πως και βασιλείας σύμβολου ό τής τής, άλλ̀ ανέσττασεν αύτου, καί είς τον ονρανο άνήγαγε. Πόθεν δηλον τουτο; μετ΄ αυτου μέλλει ερχεσθαι έν τη δετέρα παρουσία, κ.τ.λ[258].

 

The culmination of the whole subject has to be pursued in the concluding section of this work. At present the ground has to be gone over again for the purpose of showing that from the least to the largest, every one of the cycles of time had its representative voice or logos. First, the various modes and forms of phenomena had their typical manifestors and utterers in the pre-eval phase. The elements, as already shown, had their voices, sayers, or logoi in the vague stage of mythology, as when the howling of the jackals gave voice to darkness, the hiss of the serpent to the lightning, or the roar of the hippopotamus to the sound of many waters. The primitive typology and symbolism consists of the signs made by the earliest 'sayers' in external nature; and these sayers, as the zootypes, were the primordial logoi of the elemental powers. The ideographic alphabet of the Kamilaroi consists of sayings called [p.339] gurre (so, in Egyptian, kher is to say, the voice, word, or utterance), and the signs are portraits of the sayers as birds, beasts, and reptiles. These were the sayers of the seasons, the logoi of sign-language voices of the elements that afterwards became the types of time.

It is said in the Ritual[259] the Osirified has 'heard the great words said by the ass and the cat in the house of Put.' Here the ass and cat are two of the sayers, utterers, or logoses. It was in the shape of the cat that Ra made the likeness of Seb or Time in his annual transformation, when he was reborn in the pool of Two Truths, the place of the beginning of years, where the cat was a type of time, and therefore a time-teller or sayer. The priests of Syene abstained from eating the sea-bream (phagrus) because it first appeared in front of the approaching flood of the Nile, and was a voluntary messenger bearing the joyful news of increase to the laud of Egypt[260].

The cock is a logos of daybreak, and Seb-Kronus, whose goose was a bird of return, is called the old cackler. The Apis bull was a manifestor or messiah of twenty-five years.

The serpent was a type of the month Mesore and of the reborn Horus. Messi (Eg.) is the name of a serpent designated the 'Sacred Word.' When Augustine declares that certain of the Ophites identified the serpent that seduced Eve with Jesus Christ, it is as a symbol of the logos[261], which Tertullian says they preferred to the Christ[262]. So the Jewish Kabbalists identified the meshiach (חישמ) with the serpent nachash, the numeral value of the letters being the same in both words.

In the circle of Yima, says the Bundahish, 'they utter the Avesta in the language of birds.'[263] That is, in the heavens where the birds, reptiles, beasts, and fishes, the logoi of the elements, were configurated in the stars as celestial announcers of time and season. The palm-branch, the papyrus-plant and lotus were all messengers to men. In the 'chapter of changing into the lily-lotus' the speaker exclaims in the usual dramatic way: 'I am the pure lily which comes out of the fields of the sun. I give messages.'[264] The date-palm was the tree of Taht, and the papyrus-plant the sceptre of the genetrix. The phoenix was one of the great sayers or logoi, as the red one, the tree and bird. There were various phoenix cycles of time, ranging from that of six days, and several birds. There was a phoenix of the year, of 400, and of 500 years; and as this latter is the period assigned to Seb (time), his phoenix may have been the tef-goose which he carries on his head. The Sothiac cycle of 1,461 years was also a phoenix period. And because the bird was but a type, it was further continued as a figure of the Great Year, which enables us to understand the Talmudic legend of the bird over which the angel of death had no power, and which was fabled to have had no [p.340] fall, because it refused to eat of the forbidden fruit when offered by Eve.

Mr. R. S. Poole identifies the phoenix, the bird of birds, with the bennu, a periodic visitant that alighted in the Nile valley as a herald of the inundation[265]. The Bennu constellation contained the most conspicuous star in heaven, that of Sirius or Sothis, the Dog-star. The bird was set above as the phoenix of the year related to the inundation, and the type was afterwards extended to the Sothiac cycle of 1,461 years, and finally to the Great Year of 25,868 years. Here, however, the type may have passed into the symbolical phoenix as the rekh; all we need is a phoenix, as the bird of the long period of time. Solinus affirms it as a fact well-known to all the world that the Great Year terminates at the same time as the life of the phoenix[266]. Pliny tells us the revolution of the Great Year corresponds to the life of this bird in which (year) the seasons and stars return to their first places[267].

Cicero[268] had learned that the Great Year of the world extended to the length of 12,954 years. According to Solinus this is the exact period assigned by others to the life of the phoenix[269]; and 12,954 years make one half the cycle of precession calculated with more than common closeness, as it differs only twenty years from Delambre's tables[270]. Here the phoenix of the half cycle in the year of precession can be identified with the bennu or phoenix of Osiris, which marked two points of the Egyptian year six months apart by its heliacal and evening risings. Six months after it opened the year at sunrise, 'the bird' rose in the evening midway in the circle of the year, and this length of time in the lesser year corresponds to 12,934 years, or one half the cycle of precession.

In the Egyptian fixed year founded on the primary four quarters represented zodiacally by the Lion, Scorpion, Waterer, and Bull, the initial point was marked by the heliacal rising of Sothis, with the sun in the sign of Leo. When Berosus applies the signs of the zodiac to the double ending of the Great Year, he speaks of the conflagration occurring when the planetary conjunction took place in the sign of Cancer, and the flood when the same conjunction occurs in the sign of Capricorn[271]. This shifts the initial point (not, however, as a mere fact in precession) from the Lion to the Crab, or the equinoctial point from the sign of the Bull to the Ram, but, as in the reckoning by the phoenix of 12,954 years, it also recognizes the midway reckoning of the Great Year according to the zodiacal signs of the lesser year and the Two Truths of fire and water, or summer and winter.

The phoenix culminated as the typical bird of the Great Year. So was it with other symbols of time that were extended to become the types of immortality by transformation and renewal. There is [p.341] a phoenix of the tree as well as of the bird, and sometimes the phoenix-bird is portrayed in the phoenix-tree. The phoenix as tree also takes the place of the bird as a figure of the same numerical value. It does so in treatise 'Berachoth' of the Talmud, as the sign of 500 years. It is said to be 500 years in length, i.e., so tall it would take 500 years to climb it. Rabbi Juda, in the name of Rabbi Hai, explains that the length was not the result of adding branch to bole; the tree itself was of this length[272]. It is further affirmed that this tree represented one-sixtieth part of the whole garden of Eden. Sixty is used as a round number; the exact proportion is a fifty-second part52 500 = 26,000 yearsbut the general drift is obvious, the tree of 500 years typified a cycle of that length of time. The typical tree has been traced from the root as the one that bifurcated into the figure of the two solstices, the four quarters, the nine divisions overarching the pool in which it stood, and the final twelve branches of the zodiacal signs. At last this tree of time grew up into an image of the eternal, as the phoenix of 25,868 years.

And here we find the phoenix-bird on the summit of the phoenix-tree. The perch or resting-place of the Persian bird variously named as the simurgh, roc, sinamru, kamros, sana, and sin, is on the phoenix-tree of immortality, the horn-tree of all the seeds of life or cycles of time. It is said that when the bird alights upon the branches of the tree it breaks off the thorns and twigs and sheds the seed therefrom. And when it soars aloft a thousand twigs shoot from the tree[273]; this identifies the bird of thousands of years.

The phoenix as bird and tree meet under one name. The bird is called 'Asar,' the 'bennu asar,' usually identified with Osiris. But the asar was also a mystical tree (compare the Assyrian asherah), the tamarisk, which is the Tree of Knowledge in Eden, according to the Book of Enoch[274]. The bennu bird is portrayed in the asar tree, where it watches over the tomb of Osiris at Philae, as the phoenix of resurrection. Here then the phoenix-bird and phoenix-tree are also found together under the same name.

Clitarchus describes the Indian phoenix or bird of fire called Orion, which resembled a heron in size, had red (φοινιξ) legs, and was musical as the sirens[275]. Indian kings had wagons constructed for trees to grow in them on the top of which the phoenix sat and sang. Nonnus describes it singing in that position with a divine voice like the sagacious swan[276]. This is evidently the Egyptian bennu in the tree, the constellation corresponding to Cygnus as the bird, the swan of the Greeks, the eagle of the Romans, and the peacock of the Hindus.

If the reader will turn to the planispherei in the preceding volume, the dog in the tree will show the Egyptian phoenix in the celestial tree, as the Dog-star belongs to the bennu in another rendering of the same constellation. But the phoenix bird is also portrayed in the [p.342] same tree. This seven-branched tree standing in the actual water-quarter of Egypt is a figure of the first heaven of time and the seven divisions, then of the nine divisions, the twelve, the seventy-two; and lastly the type of immortality as the tree of eternal years.

The aborigines of Guiana relate how the spirit Orehu (or Oreku) rose up out of the waters to teach them the mysteries of Semecihi, and the keeping of time. They say that, 'In very ancient times the Vauhahu (evil spirits), being unrestrained in their practices, inflicted continual misery on mankind, causing not only great affliction, such as sickness, but perpetual annoyance in other ways, even destroying their food and defiling their cooking utensils. An Arawak, named Arawniti, or Orowama, was walking by the waterside, brooding over the condition to which men were reduced, when a female figure, the Orehu, arose from the stream, bearing in her hand a small branch, which she presented to the man, desiring him to plant it, and afterwards gather its fruit. He did so, and thus obtained the calabash, till then unknown among them. She again emerged front the water, with small white stones in her hand, which she desired him to enclose in the gourd in the manner before described. After instructing him in the mysteries of Semecihi she again retired to her watery abode. He followed her directions, and thus became the founder of that system which has since prevailed among all the Indian tribes.'

When the missionary inquired where Arawaniti was now, and whether he had not 'long ago died like other men?' the old man said that, according to their belief, 'he went up and did not die.'[277]

He was identical with Enoch and all the other manifestors of time who ascended to heaven at the end of their period, and thus proved they were not men nor mortals.

The Orehu is described as appearing at times with the head of a horse. At others she arose from the water with the head of a cow, and was thus called the water-mama. One of the Obia dances of the blacks is commonly called the 'water-mama' dance, that is, the dance of the water-cow as the mother. There is but one animal answering to the water-cow and water-horse in one, that is the hippopotamus, the Kamite type of the Great Bear, and the goddess of beginnings, the ancient mother or mama who was worshipped at Ombos as the primordial revealer, mother of the revolutions or circles of time, designated the 'living word,' and portrayed with the token of her tongue protruding from her mouth. This obscure but precious relic shows the goddess in her primitive shape as the revealer, the instructor of men in the art of circle-craft and timekeeping called astrology and magic or semecihi. The water-mama is also known to the Arawaks as the Manati, and menati is an Egyptian name of the ancient mother as the wet-nurse. In the hieroglyphics the primordial time-teller in heaven (the river-horse or Great Bear) had been [p.343] reduced to become the sign of an hour[278]. Also 'Apt,' one of the forms of the ancient genetrix, was the first angel, messenger or ambassador, whose name was continued for the typical angel in an abstract phase.

According to Max Muller, 'the name of the Arctic regions rests on a misunderstanding'[279]in common with so many other things that are misunderstood. His account of the Great Bear is that ark and rik are interchangeable in Sanskrit, and arktos in Greek answers to riksha, a word originally applied to any bright object, which was afterwards given as a name to the Bear. Now, when the Greeks had long forgotten why these stars were called 'Arktoi,' they symbolized them as a Great Bear fixed in the sky[280]. But the root ark, rik, or rek, does not begin as a word signifying brightness; such an abstract meaning is altogether late. The Αρχαι are the beginnings, identical by name with the Egyptian arkai which shows their nature. Arkai (Eg.) means to appoint a limit, fix a decree, in reckoning time and period; ark signifies the turn-round that makes the circle, to encircle, enclose or tie up a time, the end of a time, the setting of the stars. Arracha (from root arkh) in Arabic, is to fix the time by date. Hence ark (Eg.) for the thirtieth of the month, and raka in Sanskrit for her who presides over the actual day of full moon. Arksha (Sans.) is the being regulated by stars. Urshu (Eg.) is applied to astronomical observation, keeping watch and vigil, or the science of stargazing. The Ari-at-n-Urshu is a keeper of the astronomical observatory. The urshi had become the genii of the night, the watchers[281], but the earliest stars that regulated time were the seven Rishis or Rikshis, the seven watchers in the mythos. Not because they were bright, but on account of their turning round in the arc or circle of the earliest year. These seven are identified with the seven in the ark or chariot of the Bear. Here the seven Urshi or Rishis are synonymous with the seven Ursae or Bears, the Iranian Hapto-iringa.

The root of the matter lies in the reckoning of time. Rekh (Eg.) is to reckon, keep account, to know; and the rekhi or magi are the time-reckoners and knowers, men of the gnosis, as were the Rikshis. These rekhi are also the pure wise intelligences, the religious men. There was no misunderstanding. The north was denominated Arctic because it was the region of the ark and rekhi of the time-reckonings, and the seven reckoners whether called Rikshis or Bears. It was the region of the ark that crossed the waters as the ark of souls, the ark of Osiris, the ark of the enceinte mother, first represented by the river-horse, and by the seven cows before the constellation had been assigned to the Bear or Bears.

The origin of the word religion itself can be traced to the reckonings of time. The man or woman who manifested, knew and kept the cycles and periods, being the first sacred or religious person. Cicero [p.344] tells us that those people who diligently practised all the duties relating to the worship of gods were called religiosi, from relegendo (or relegere) to read, repeat, go over again, reconsider[282]. But Augustine[283], Lactantius[284], Servius[285], and others derived the name of religion from religare, to bind, tie up, to make fast. The word is a compound, and the full form is red-ligio, whence rě-ligio. Ligo, to bind, tie, tie up, make fast, answers to the Egyptian ark (lek or rekh) a tie, a bond, to bind, limit, fix, the symbol of a reckoning. This gives us the ligature of connection. The ark-tie was carried by the goddess of the seven stars, as the sign of her reckoning, the end of her period. This was her 'quipu' knot, a Mexican type of ten; and the Latin legia consisted of ten cohorts. The tie, the binding, related to time and numbers. Further, the , red or reddo of the Latin, which is employed for various kinds of repetition, answers to the Egyptian ret, to repeat, be repeated several times. Ret-rekhi (or red-ligio) would be to re-reckon, repeat the reckonings, relate the knowledge, the wisdom of the rekhi or sage. Knowledge preceded belief, and the early men went upon knowledge for ever repeated. This sense of rekh passed into ligo, to make fast and sure, and into intellectus for the understanding and sense of perceiving as means of knowing. Religious service still consists in eternal repetition of the formulas of belief and what is supposed to refer to the worship of the gods.

The ark-tie of a surely-recurring period of time became the later type of an obligation or a sacred bond and covenant. Hence ark (Eg.) signifies an oath, to swear and conjure. In taking the oath or covenant the swearer was calling on the true timekeepers above to bear witness that he kept troth below, and pledged himself to be true to his bond even as they were. When Abraham took the oath at Beersheba, the well of the seven, he swore by the seven or 'did seven.' By degrees the tie and bond of time had become the moral tie that was held to be binding in fulfilment of the word, promise, or covenant. In this sense religio meant a binding of the person to keep his word; the result of reverence for the oath and for the divine witnesses and faithful timekeepers in the heavens above. The liku-tie, however, that was sent by the Fijian mother to her future son-in-law, was her type of a bond (ark) and covenant, equally with the book on which the oath is taken now. And that same tie is the hieroglyphic ark, a primitive type of periodicity.

Following the genetrix, who was designated the 'Living Word' as the goddess of the Great Bear and mother of time, Sevekh-Kronus, whose type was the crocodile = dragon, the pre-planetary form of Saturn, was called her son and consort; he was her word = logos. Sothis was an announcer, voice, word, or logos of the Dog-star cycle of the year. After a while it was found that this logos was not the true word. Sothis lost time when reckoned by the recurring seasons. From this origin came the mythos of the dog that let in the deluge or admitted [p.345] the devil into Eden. The dog was not in the circumpolar paradise itself; but kept watch and ward far away as a protector of the primal pair, who are represented by the Two Bears or Behemoth and the dragon. This position is described in the Bundahish, 'Of the Dog they say that out of the star-station, that is away from the direction of hapto-ringa (the seven bears), was given to him further by a stage than to men on account of his protection of sheep.'*[286]

* 'This sentence seems to imply that, on account of the useful qualities of the dog, he has a part of the lowermost grade of paradise.'[287]

That is, the dog was stationed as a sentinel south of the circle of paradise called the dwelling of men, the Airyana-vajo of the Avesta. There he did not keep true time, and was charged with being an unfaithful watcher one of those who fell, as it was fabled. In the British mythos Sut, as Seithenhin, not only let in the deluge, but drowned the seven provinces of Dyfed, or put an end to the celestial heptanomis, the sevenfold heaven of the earliest time. Sothis also let in the delugeduring the course of precessionon the scale of the Great Year! One of the checks upon Sothis, in its lapse and loss of time annually was furnished by the moon. So that, although Sut-Anup had acquired a bad reputation in his stellar phase, he might retrieve his character as a timekeeper by means of the moon. He became the male lunar logos. The old Typhon passed into the lunar phase, and Sut-Anup was her manifestor in the telling of time by each new moon. He was now the dog of the mother, her Mercury who preceded the planetary representative of that name. Sut-Typhon then passed into the lunar from the earliest star-station to measure time by the month instead of the year. Anup was now the guide of the genetrix when she sought her lost light in the passage of the underworld; the first form of the lunar genetrix being typhonian, in Hes-ta-urt, Aahti the calf-headed hippopotamus, or Ment.

In Japan the moon god, in a male character, is represented as a fox[288], and there is a current belief that the fox after death returns to life in the shape of a man. Here the fox takes the place of the fox-dog or fenekh, and the jackal, Anup, in Egypt; also of the later Taht-Aan, the dog-headed ape of the waning moon that transformed and returned to life again as a man in the person of Taht. It is in his lunar character that Sut-Anup, the Mercury of the moon, comes to the assistance of Sothis, as it is described in the Bundahish, when that star (Tishtar) is overcome by the power of the evil Aharman, in whose dark shadow he suffers eclipse, or, in other words, is discovered to be losing time.

Now, the ass is a known symbol of Sut, although the type is mixed up and confused with a kind of ass-headed bird, the giraffe and the jackal. The ass'the sayer of great words'was cast out of later Egypt, but survived in Asia. It is particularly [p.346] prominent in the khetan ideographs. The ass-headed Sutekh was the god of the kheta, whose great goddess was Astarte. In the battle between Sut and Horus, mentioned by Plutarch[289], Sut (or Typhon) fled during seven days on the back of an ass. This conflict is evidently in the lunar phase; and the seven days obviously refer to one quarter in the dark half of the moon, in the same way that Ishtar is described as descending and ascending through the seven gates of the moon. The head of the ass is an Egyptian hieroglyphic determinative, with the numeral value of thirty[290]. This number shows the relationship of the ass to the moon in the month of thirty days, which was divided into three parts of ten days each, and we are now able to identify the Egyptian origins for the 'three-legged ass' found in the Persian scriptures. This is described in the Pahlavi Bundahish. 'Regarding the three-legged Ass they say that it stands amid the wide-formed ocean, and its feet are three, eyes six (its procreative power ninefold?*), ears two, and horn one, body white, food spiritual, and it is righteous.'

* Such is the possible and probable meaning[291].

'With the sharpness of those six eyes it overcomes and destroys.' 'The one horn is as it were of gold and hollow.' 'With that horn it will vanquish and dissipate all the vile corruptions due to the efforts of noxious creatures.'[292]

In the Ritual the pool of salt and of purification is described as the place of the beginning of years. The three-legged ass is personified standing in the celestial water as its purifier. It is said, 'When it stales in the ocean all the sea-water will become purified.' It is on this account that all asses which come into it stale in the water. 'If, O three-legged ass, you were not created for the water, all the water in the sea would have perished from the contamination which the poison of the evil spirit has brought into the water through the death of the creatures of Ahura-Mazda.'[293] This is primitively typical, and has to be interpreted. The ass is righteous, like Noah, as a true timekeeper. In the Bundahish the waters are identified with time, and the ass is the special assistant of Sothis in keeping correct time, or in preserving the waters pure by his micturation, which destroys the creatures of corruption. It says in Revelation (the formula for the Persian scriptures) that Sothis (Tishtar) 'seizes the water more completely from the ocean with the assistance of the three-legged ass.'[294]

The ass, here coupled with the Dog-star, Tishtar, as his assistant and purifier of the waters with his salt, had a stellar phase as well as lunar. This is shown by the constellation of the Ass, which rose like Sothis and was a guide to the inundation. If the ass had not been created for the water the evil power would have triumphed, the time-reckonings would not have been kept. So the ass is the guide to the [p.347] water, and a spring gushes from its jawbone in the Hebrew legends. The Dog-star announced the inundation and was accompanied by the ass. The station of the ass is near the Dogi in the decans of the Lion[295]. This was the point of commencement in the Egyptian fixed year. The Greeks placed two Asses in the sign of the Crab. The Bundahish groups together Sothis, Mercury, and Cancer in relation to the inundation when it says, 'Every single month is the owner of one constellation. The month Tir (the month of Mercury) is the fourth month of the year, and Cancer the fourth constellation from Aries. So it is the owner of Cancer into which Tishtar sprang and displayed the characteristics of a producer of rain, and he brought on the water aloft by the strength of the wind.'[296] This identifies the rising of Sothis with the stars of Cancer. The ass is a figure then of Sut in the southern heaven corresponding to Typhon (the Great Bear) in the north. But in the three-legged ass of the Bundahish the type had passed into its lunar and more symbolical phase. It was by aid of the moon in its three phases that Sothis was enabled to keep true time in the bringing on of the waters and the years! The Tishtar-Yasht celebrates Sirius as the star Tishtar, the shining majestic who 'brings hither the circling years of men which are reckoned after the will of Ahura-Mazda.'[297] That is as the star of the Sothiac cycle. This Yasht describes Tishtar in his first character as uniting himself with the body of a pubescent youth of fifteen years, at which a man first comes of age; in his second with the body of a bull, and in his third with the body of a horse. It is said that, 'The first ten months Tistrya, the shining, majestic, unites himself with a body going forth in the bright space, with the body of a youth of fifteen years.' The second ten nights he unites himself with the body of a bull with hoofs of gold. The third ten nights he unites himself with the body of a horse[298]. In the Bundahish we read 'Tishtar was converted into three forms, the form of a man, the form of a horse, and the form of a bull;' and in each of these he produced rain, poured out the waters (or kept the reckoning) during ten days and nights[299]. That is, Sothis made use of the triple phases of the moon reckoned by ten days each; or, under another figure, of the ass of thirty days. This ass of 310 days was figured as standing upon three legs, hence the three-legged lunar ass. Thus Tishtar (Sothis) could seize the water more completely from the ocean with the help of the three-legged ass. Now we can understand its having six eyes, as the three tens of days were subdivided into six periods of five days each. Its single horn, the emblem of Sut-Typhon, is not the horns of the moon, but the type of phallic power, the forepart of Sut-Typhon previously described. The single horn was emblematic of unity under the male type of [p.348] power, which showed the unification of the triple character, the deus trinus units, and the horn-type of reproduction beyond the horns of the moon. Here the figure may be repeated as a lunar type.

With this interpretation of facts founded in phenomena should be compared that of M. Darmesteter, translator of the Avesta into French, who in his Ormazd et Ahriman[300] puts forth a theory of the 'three-legged ass' in accordance with the Aryanist view that the myth-makers were cloud-gazers in the habit of talking ingeniously concerning smoke. He holds that the 'three-legged ass' is the monster of a meteorological myth, a personification of the storm, or a mere figure of cloud. Whereas the true myth-makers did not talk figuratively in the modern sense. Their figures express the profoundest facts, more particularly as kronotypes. They did not carve mere monsters of cloud who reproduced the drama and scenery of human life, eternized the recurring cycles of time in the stars, and turned the heavens into their book above.

The author of the Unicorn[301] has shown that the 'three-legged ass' of the Parsee scriptures is related to the moon, and to other types of triplicity such as the triquetra. The present reading agrees with his in some points, but is not founded on it. A form of the same original type of the triple moon, which was represented by the three-legged ass of the Persians, is still extant in the three-legged sign in the arms of the Isle of Man. Planch[302] says, 'The arms of Man are legs. The ancient kingdom of Man was, and the island itself is still represented in heraldry by three legs in armour conjoined at the thighs. The origin of the bearing has yet to be discovered.' At the centre of the three legs is the disk of the full moon which identifies them with the typical lunar triad. Ynys Mon, or Mona, is named as the Island of the Cow. It was also called the Island of Hu, one of whose types was the Bull. The cow is the feminine moon, aah (Eg.), which has the dual manifestation as aahti. The two manifestations were those of the child and the virile male, the 'bull of the moon,' a title of Taht. Thus Ynys Mon is the Island of the Cow and Moon under the same name. The Isle of Man is also connected with our British Mercury named Manannan. Manannan Mac-Llyr, and Manawyddan (or Mana gwydion), son of Llyr, the sea. It was Gwydion who instructed Hu and taught him how to conquer in his contest with the waters, and who is the great preserver against any future deluge of time[303]. Manannan-Gwydion was the divinity of traffic and merchandise, the guide of ways and journeys, as Caesar described our British Mercury[304]. Manannan-Mercury, according to Cormac, was known in tradition as having been an ancient and celebrated trader of  [p.349] the Isle of Man. He was famed for telling the signs of the sky and foretelling the changes in the weather. He was said to wear a helmet in which two glittering precious stones were set, one in front and one behind, which correspond to the two aspects assigned to the masculine moon[305]. Kerid-gwen, the White Lady, was the moon at full in her feminine aspect, the centre and source of the threefold manifestation.

The three-legged ass with horn of branchy gold also finds a fellow in one of Dr. Schliemann's figures, which shows an animal with the head of an ass and the very significant paws of a bear, or of Typhon, the goddess of the Great Bear[306].

Typhon was continued in the lunar mythos as Menat, or Menuthis, the wet-nurse, whose name was given both to the moon and to the month. The name of the moon is derived from the same root in the most diverse languages. It is

men, in Asia Minor. mano, in Lap. moena, in Enganbo.
mona, in Anglo-Saxon. menyil, in Cahuillo. mangong,in Tinibora.
menu, in Gothic. menyan, in Witouro (Mist.). minofe, new moon, Param.
mane, in Swedish. meni, in Port Phillip (Aust.). minotsu, full moon, Param.

The Aryanists tell us the root is the proto-Aryan 'ma,' to measure, because that is a meaning of the word in Sanskrit. But ma, to measure, is proto-Aryan as Egyptian, and the root is not ma; this, the accent denotes, is mak, to measure, whence mak, meh, and m, for the cubit, and makha for the scales. The hieroglyphics show that the words moon and month were derived from a root men, and not from mak or m. This can be proved. The moon, to the earliest observation, was that which went round in its orbit and grew round in its orb. These two facts preceded the measurement of time and led to it. Now men (Eg.) signifies to go round, perambulate, make the circuit. That was observed in space before it could be reckoned in time. Pigeons are named menuti because they fly round. The collar or bracelet is a menat because it goes round. But this also applies to that which grows round, and both are included in the moon. The gestator grows round and is named mena, like the moon. Because the moon grew round and made the circuit the lunar festivals were celebrated by the circular dance, and the 'minnying' was performed by perambulating round. Men (Eg.), for the measure and memorial, supplies the root for the Arabic al-manac in relation to the moon and mensis.

The Chinese divide the moon into a first, a middle, and a final decade[307]. The Akkadians likewise reckoned and wrote the length of a moon as 10+10+10 days; the lunar orb being considered to have a triple character as well as a threefold movement; one in longitude, [p.350] one in latitude, and one in orbit[308]. Sin, the male moon, being reckoned god of the number 30. The reckoning is the same as that of the Egyptians, who had a week of ten days, three of which made a month of thirty days in the year of twelve moons. This was the month of Menat, Gothic monoth. The menat, or ment, was a measure of ten feet, the oldest unit of Egyptian land measure. Menat for the number 10 is reduced as the Coptic mt for ten. Moreover Ment, the measurer by the moon, has an earlier type as Menkat, the creator, as the potteress whose vase represents the womb. She was the measurer of the period of gestation as ten moons in the year of thirteen moons of twenty-eight days, and afterwards the measurer of the month in three periods of ten days each. Thus Menat was both the measurer of days and months by the number 10, which is her name, and that name is the earlier form of Menoth or month. It was on the number 10 of menat that the triple division of lunar time was founded; and it is the ass (or Sut as her son) who was her lunar Mercury; the ass that has the value of number 30; the three-legged ass of the 3 10 = 30 days. The name of Horus, the light one of the twins, also signifies number 10.

Primitive man had to think in external things, distinguish the sexes and describe characters by means of phenomena before this could be done by the aid of verbal language. Before he was able to say the moon was at full, or it waned in one lunation and waxed in the other, he could see that she was refilled with life like the mother with child, and thus the enceinte mother, the procreant cow, the pregnant water-horse, the ass in foal, became its feminine types. When it waned and lessened it was the impubescent child, the calf, or the foal, as product. In its waxing lunation it was the horned one, the procreative power, the virile male, the bull, the Chamor. But the moon was one, and these three formed the trinity in unity, in which three manifestations of phenomena were expressed by three forms of relationship, animal or human.

Sut-Anubis was continued by the Egypto-Greek and Chaldean Gnostics, both as the jackal and the ass, or a figure that looks like a mixture of both, as the image of Anubis cannot always be distinguished as jackal or ass. They have the type also as the double Anubis, and this proves the Kamite origin. The double Anubis is as ancient in Egypt as the twins of light and dark, the twins of twilight, or of east and west. As Sut-Nub, the dual character is indicated by the two birds, black and golden in the elemental phase: sut is black, and nub is golden; the two being twinned in Sut-Nubti. Under the jackal type, Anup is the black jackal of the western land, and golden dog of the east. Sut-Anup kept the equal road (Ap-uat) of the equinox, as guide of the crossings to the mother, who sought for her son, the solar god, when he was shut up in the ark at one equinox, and only found [p.351] again at the other, at the place where the lost cross was likewise recovered by Apheru (or Porphyrius), another name of Sut-Anup. Anubis of the crossing reappears in Rome, in conjunction with the figure of the cross, that is of the crossing. One form of this representation was found in a rude scrawl, drawn upon the wall of a vault in the Palatine Hill. The Anubis type is unmistakable, although the head looks more like an ass than a jackalboth being types of Sut-Anubis.

Garrucci, the Italian antiquary, claimed this as a blasphemous caricature of the real crucifixion, so that an early date might be assigned to the parody of an event which is wanting in other witnesses[309]. The figure looks like an image of the crucified, and has been taken for such by the Christians, yet it is only Sut-Anup, the keeper and guide of the crossing, or the equinox. Christianity having begun with the cross, it was natural to claim all the figures that accompanied it as representatives of the Christthese included the ass in Chaldea and Rome; the ass, giraffe, and jackal in Egypt. Tertullian, in his Apology, refers to the current notion of the Romans that the Christians worshipped the ass. He says that recently a new version of their god had been put forth by a certain hireling convict of a bullfighter, who portrayed him with the ears of an ass; he was hoofed in one foot, carried a book, and wore a toga. The picture was inscribed 'ΟΝΟΚΟΙΗΤΗΣ, the born ass.'[310] The caricaturist was identifying the Christ of the crossing, not a personal or historical Christ. Sut-Anup as lunar logos was the pre-solar Christ or crosser. He is termed the 'clean crosser over the birthplace.'[311]

The book indicates the god of letters, the typical prophet or announcer, who was Sut-Anup in Egypt, and Nebo, the 'supreme intelligence,' in Chaldea. The Romans knew somewhat of Anubis and his station at the cross, but they knew nothing of a personal Jesus Christ the crucified, and thus they identified the Christ with the pre-existent types. Iu, the root of the name Jusu or Jesu, is an Egyptian name of the ass, and it also denotes a dual nature. The ass was a type of Anubis, and the Romans did precisely what the Christians have likewise done, they identified the pagan type with the Christ, and consequently with the Christian God. Anubis was the earliest form of Mercury; and Mercury is also portrayed, Greek fashion, in the catacombs. He appears as the guardian and conductor of souls through the underworld, in a fresco-painting of the cemetery of St. Calixtus, where he must surely be an antitype of the Christ. He is claimed, however, by the idiotes, as being a pagan type of the veritable Christ[312].

The passage of Sut into the lunar god Taht is represented by Hermanubis, i.e. Hermes-Anubis, a title assigned to Taht in the [p.352] zodiac attributed to the second Hermes, or Taht; the first being Sut-Anubis, the Mercury of the Dog-star as well as of the moon. In this zodiac, also in that copied into the preceding volumei, Taht is seated in the sign of the Crab; Anubis is in the opposite sign of the Sea-goat. These, therefore, are directly connected according to the dual character of the signs, as they are in the Ritual in relation to the moon[313]. In the Egyptian lunar mythos, Taht superseded Sut, and became the recognized logos or word, the chief manifestor of the moon as the measurer of time and period. He is the word, tongue, teller, and mouth of utterance by name; the lord of divine words by nature, having the head of the ibis in one phase, and the cynocephalus Aan in the other. Aan is the kaf-ape, the howler of the dark lunation; its relation to the lessening moon is denoted by aanu, meaning to look back, go back, recoil, howl. Aan typified the messenger of the moon in the darkening half of its cycle. It also represented this phase of the moon as the menstruating monkey. It was the word or lunar logos as the howler in the dark, the voice of the suffering unillumined moon. It likewise denoted letters. Horapollo speaks of a race of cynocephali that is acquainted with letters, and says that when one was brought into a temple, the priest placed before it a tablet, reed-pen, and ink, to ascertain whether it was one of the writing race[314]. This, of course, is symbolical, but the language helps us in the interpretation of the symbols.

Taht was the representative of the new moon, the logos of its light half; the bull of the mother, or consort of Sefekh. In this character the ibis or habu is his type; and habu signifies the messenger. Thus Aan and Taht personify the two lunations, as the voice of its darkness and the logos of its light. At a later stage of mythology, when it was known that the moon was only a reflector of the solar light, and the sun-god had been made supreme, it is declared that Ra created Taht, as a light to show the evil enemy by night. By his words, utterances, or manifestations of periodic renewal, Taht keeps off the enemies of Ra from the solar horizon. But Taht the moon-god was a far earlier creation than Ra. It is Taht who grants the makheru to the sun; that is the gift of making law by means of the word.

The lunar trinity of Typhon, Sut, and Horus, or Sefekh, Aan, and Taht, may be compared with a Mexican triad. The tradition is that there were two divine personages in a cave at Cuernavaca, a male and female who were consorts; he was Oxomoco, she Cipactonal. The old woman thought that her descendant Quetzal should be called in, and the three then set to work and formed a calendar. The old woman named the first sign. She painted a kind of water-serpent called Cipactli, and thus designated the symbol of the serpent. In his turn, the male god depicted two canes. Then Quetzalcoatl drew three [p.353] houses. They proceeded thus in rotation until the number of thirteen signs was made out. This number was duplicated in the well-known twenty-six signs, the basis of which was the thirteen that correlate with the thirteen periods of twenty-eight days, and with the thirteen moons to the year[315].

Quetzalcoatl is usually recognized as a sun-god, but like Osiris, he must have had a lunar character, for this is the lunar trinity in propri persona, identical with the woman of the moon, Sefekh, Aan, and Taht in the Egyptian mythos. Also, the thirteen moons reckoned to the year are the obvious origin of the twenty-six signs. The old woman or great mother represents the moon at full, which has the two manifestations of waning and waxing. These are two other characters into which the moon transforms. Hence the serpent-symbol of transformation chosen first by the old woman. She was number one. The two canes signify the second one, and the three houses the third one, in whom the trinity was complete. The mother being typified by the full moon (the Goddess Fifteen), the two halves were assigned to the two males, the child and vir and thus thirteen signs were given to each of the two, corresponding to the halves of thirteen moons to the year; hence the twenty-six signs.

An Alexandrine physician of the third century, named Serapion, held that the face in the moon was the soul of Sibylla, that is the sibyl or prophetess, the woman who kept the books. In Egypt, the bookkeeper for Taht, the lunar god, was Sefekh, who represented the full moon, and reckoned its time at 3 10 days to the month in the time of the number 10. In the Sibylline Books there are ten ages or generations of the world[316]. The Sibyl was to live through ten generations. Also the number of Sibyls was reckoned to be ten, and there were ten keepers of the books. The sibyl was reputed to have lived from the time of Noah, whose existence depended upon the number 10. The sibyl being a lunar form of the feminine logos, we can now understand her reckoning by ten.

The final form of the logos as a kronotype was solar. Here it became the 'true word' as Har-Makheru, who has been described as the keeper of perfect time, or the maker of truth. When James, for instance, says, respecting the Father, 'Of his own will begat he us with the Word of Truth,'[317] he reproduces the Egyptian Ma-kheru, the solar logos, whose word was law.

 

The personified logos, word, or mouth, is pre-eminently an African product. Various kings employ an official as their mouth, who utters the word to others. In Abyssinia there is, or was, an officer of the court named 'Kal Hatze,' the 'word of the king.' The monarch [p.354] himself sat concealed behind a curtain, and spoke to the Kal Hatze, who then communicated the royal commands to the officers, judges, or others who were in attendance. The king of Dahome has his 'Men,' who speaks for him to ordinary mortals; and king Blay on the Gold Coast keeps his kyami or speaker, who is known as the king's 'mouf' or mouth[318]. In the Egyptian Ritual, the divine father Atum only manifests by means of his word, which is infallible. On the back of a figure of Maut, the mother of Khunsu, is written, 'The speech (or word) of Maut the great mother.'[319] The Osirified spirit is said to be 'born like a word,' when he is repeated in the future life[320]. An Egyptian artist boasts that he is one of the initiated who knows the mystery of the divine word[321]. There is a Japanese religious sect called the Shingon who are worshippers of the 'true word;' and the Mi-Roku or Maitreya who is expected to come, is the logos or messiah of the Japanese Buddhists. Logios (Δόγιος) is an epithet frequently applied to Mercury by Greek writers.

Proclus asserts that 'the angel or messenger of Jupiter (Hermes) who has the relation of logos to the intellect of his father, announces the will of Jupiter to secondary natures.'[322] But 'in Essences, Soul, which is the logos of intelligibles, unfolds the united cause of wholes which is in them, she receiving from them her hypostasis. And in the genera superior to us, the angelic order has the relation of logos to the gods.' Lego in Greek signifies to say, to declare, to utter oracles. Logos is a saying, an utterance, a revelation. The logos is the word personified by John; 'En arche en o LOGOS, kai o LOGOS en pros ton theon, kai theos en o LOGOS,' or 'In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God.'[323] But the genesis of the 'word' that was in the 'beginning' was not to be reached in any abstract or doctrinal phase, or bottomed en fair; any more than it could be embodied in an historical personage. The logos was pre-Christian under all its typeselementary, stellar, lunar, solar, psychotheistic, spiritual, female, male, and epicene. We are now in a position for the first time to follow the 'word' into its psychotheistic and final phase.

The most mystical dogmas of the Christian cult begin as such with being unintelligiblethat of the word or logos includedbecause they had been continued from an earlier status by those who were ignorant of their origin and significance. Professor Jowett frankly confesses that the doctrine of the logos 'begins with being unintelligible.'[324] Hence they are treated as teachings that commence and end in mystery, and as if it would be the death of them to be understood. They could not be understood without the interpretation [p.355] of the gnosis, nor become intelligible by being assigned to an historic teacher with whom they did not originate, and from whom they did not emanate. Celsus, as we see by a glimpse of his work, over the shoulder of Origen, charged the Christians with having recast and misconstructed the ancient doctrine of the logos; and he wrote his book, which the enemy succeeded in stamping out of existence, to show which was the false and which the 'true logos.'[325]

The first form or mode of the logos was feminine because the mother nature was the primordial mould and manifestor. The mother was the earliest utterer forth at a period earlier even than speech. She was the mouth of utterance, hence mut (Eg.) is both mother and mouth and in the Indian sign-language the mouth and mother are identical. She was also the silent mouth or silence personified in Van, Sige, and Mer-seker, in relation to the first of the Two Truths and the mystery of motherhood. The oraculum of the goddess Vach, or the prophetess Deborah, was earlier than the oracles of God. The Hebrew Bath-Kol, which has been rendered the daughter of the voice, had no other origin in nature than as the Vach of female pubescence and gestation. This was the first and most mystical of all the tellers of time, which became the Holy Ghost of a feminine nature that was represented by the dove of Hathor, Semiramis, and Mary.

Kal in Sanskrit means to announce the time, to count and reckon. Kala is a space of time, a period, a fixed or proper time. One form is the Ritu-Kala, or season of the menstrual course. The menstrual flow itself is kala. The bloody goddess Kali came from this source! The womb or uterus, as the utterer forth, is the kalana. Kala, like the Hebrew kol, is the voice, in a mystical sense. It is an indistinct, inarticulate voice; also, in the form of kara (Sanskrit), it is the word, the messenger or feminine logos, one with the Bath-Kol. This manifestation of the feminine word is revealed by Hermes to Tat when he sees the primordial darkness which appeared to change into a 'certain moist nature, unspeakably troubled, which yielded a smoke as from fire.' From this there issued 'a voice unutterable and very mournful, but inarticulate, inasmuch that it seemed to come from light. Then from that light a certain holy word joined itself to nature.'[326] Both voices were at first assigned to the mother of blood and breath, but the spirit or nous came to be considered masculine, and this led to an endless contention as to the real sex of the logos.

We are told by Irenaeus how the motherhood and feminine logos were represented in the mysteries of Marcus, who pretended to consecrate the cup mixed with wine, and in lengthening out the words of invocation contrived by magical practices to work a miracle (one that could be wrought monthly) and turn the wine into blood by giving it a reddish hue, so that Charis, who is one of those that [p.356] are superior to all things (that was the male Christ), should be thought to effuse her own blood into the cup in response to his invocation, and the grace of Charis flow into those who tasted of her cup. He handed cups to the women who represented Charis in person and in presence. These women then consecrated the cup with an effusion of Charis proceeding from themselves. This effusion of the feminine logos took two shapes, one of blood and one of spiritthe Shakteyan spirit or inspiration of the femalethat illustrated the Two Truths of the motherhood relating to flesh and spirit. The blood of Charis preceded the blood of Christ, and there would have been no doctrine of cleansing by the blood of Christ but for the purification by the blood of Charis. The male messiah or word of God would not have come arrayed in a garment dipped in blood, if blood had not been the feminine manifestor of the word as wisdom. Moreover, the change of sex did but turn the typical mystery into meaningless mystification. This consecration of the cup of Charis and of the Hindu Shakteya had a natural genesis in the most mystical nature of the feminine logos[327].

The male and female logoi are described and distinguished in the Clementine Homilies. The female is first because the night precedes the day, disease precedes healing, ignorance precedes knowledge, error precedes truth, and the present world, which is female, precedes the world to come, which is male![328] The female nature, ruling the present world as her like, was in trusted with the first prophecy, she was the primeval announcer, announcing prophecy with those born of woman[329]. 'The other, as the son of man, being a male, prophesies better things to the world to come as a male.' 'Let us then understand that there are two kinds of prophecy, and let it be defined that the first, being the male, has been ranked after the other in the order of advent; but the second, being female, has been appointed to become first in the advent of pairs.' She is likened to a female in her courses, and is said to steal the seed of the male and sow it with her own flesh[330].

Philo's two logoses called ευδιαφετος (Eudiaphetos), which name indicates a conception or conceiving, and προφορικος (Prophorikos), the utterance or speech, are derived from the double Horus of Egypt, the solar god in his two aspects[331]. Plutarch, who writes of the mythos in its more doctrinal and psychotheistic phase, will furnish the evidence. He tells us that when Isis felt she had conceived with child she hung a charm or amulet about her neck. This was on the 6th of the month Paophi, or at the autumn equinox, the maximum of the Nile and the beginning of cultivation, according to the Alexandrian year. The child-Horus then represents her conception. He is portrayed with the finger pointing mystically to the mouth. He is not the word or logos itself, but visibly embodies the silent con- [p.357] ception of the genetrix as the 'inarticulate discourse.' Hence, when Isis had conceived, she put on the amulet, which meant 'a true voice' in the Greek language. This in Egyptian is Ma-Kheru, the true voice or word, the real logos Prapkarikos. The first Horus is the manifestor at the autumn equinox; the second, called the afterbirth, is the Horus of Easter and of the vernal equinox[332], Har-Ma-Kheru, the virile voice or logos. The child of the mother was the image of her silence, and he did not become the image of the father, or utter the true voice, until the time of puberty, when he was the 'Un-Nefer.' According to the Persians, the creation took place or form when Ormazd spoke the word 'honover.' That is the Egyptian 'Un-Nefer,' the opener or revealer, or the one who has been opened. Un means open, to open, applied to pubescence. Nefer is the adult youth; and the first male form of the Un-Nefer was the youth at puberty; the last was the revealer, personified in the psychotheistic phase as the logos. Up to the time of pubescence, when the child-voice changes and the virile voice is heard, the Parsees hold the child to be a ninny, who is not responsible for 'unseasonable chatter.' The time of transformation is the turn of the fourteenth year, after which the child ought to utter the true voice, and 'unseasonable chatter' then becomes a sin[333]. This is the human image of the divine child Horus, who is the ninny until his time of transformation at puberty. This child of silence, Harpocrates, is a type of the Christ in the catacombs[334]; and as late as the middle of the fourth century it was asserted by Marcellus of Ancyra that Christ was the logos who issued from silence, the gnostic sige[335].

The true root of the name 'messiah' is the Egyptian mes, which denotes birth and rebirth. Messiah is the reborn or aeonian Iu (Eg.), Iao or Jaheven as the month Mesore was named from the rebirth of Horus the child, which was annual. In Egypt the repa, prince or heir-apparent, was the messiah by name and nature, as the messiu or messui, the representative of Ha, the ever-living, who was continued by transformation into the young one, the ever-coming messiah. The messiah of Christology and supposed prophecy was the manifestor who was for ever being reborn in time. The messiahship was cyclic, and wholly dependent on the fulfilment of the cycles of time. The Egyptian Ra and repa were the representatives of this manifestation in time, as personifications of the divine or solar messiah, in the two aspects of father and son. The Egyptians celebrated the rebirth of this messiah every year at the last supper on the last night of the old year, and by the evening meal on the first day of the new year, the day and the meal being both designated the 'mesiu,'[336] from mes, the birth, and iu, to duplicate; which [p.358] also means the coming one, who forever comes and brings, as the year or other cycle comes to an end and is renewed.

The messiah, then, is the one who is reborn according to the cycle of time; but the natural genesis has to be traced beyond the symbolical aspect. The first messiah was reborn at puberty. This was the earliest form of the anointed male. These things can only be fathomed in their fundamental phase. The anointed one did not commence from having oil poured on the head. The first male type of the prophet was the anointed by nature at puberty; the aboriginal anointed, who preceded the oil-anointed, manmade prophet. As previously explained, the earliest mode of artificial anointing is that of inner Africa, where the ointment was composed of red ochre mixed with grease or oil. In one of the Hottentot songs there is an allusion to the red ochre of anointing, and this is actually contrasted with the flesh-forming source. Lightning, the daughter-in-law of fire, is thus addressed: 'Thou who hast painted thy body red like Goro,' i.e., with ochre or red-clay, 'Thou who dost not drop the menses,' or redden that way[337]. The Hottentots also had a certain image or fetish-god which their women were accustomed to anoint by covering its head with a kind of red earth and buchu or sweet-smelling herbs[338]. This was their typical messiah; and we learn from Egyptian thought and expression that anointing or coating with red ochre was a symbolical mode of refleshing. It was in this manner that Ptah refleshed the spirit for its rebirth from the womb of the underworld; and the red earth represented the human or Adamic clay. In anointing the fetish image, the Hottentot women were imitating nature in fleshing the child for birth. Instead of calling on the saviour to come, they enacted the rebirth of the Messiah in the process of refleshing or, as it came to be called, anointing or embalming. The Egyptians had discovered how to preserve the dead body intact with the flesh upon it, and its lineaments wearing the likeness of life; by which art they superseded the encasing or refleshing of the bones in the red ochre of the earlier stage.

This embalmment of the dead body is termed 'karas,' and the embalmed mummy reborn by the preservative process, and placed in the tomb to await the rebirth in spirit life, is named the karast or krust, as the mummy-type, the shabti or double, an image of rebirth. This type of immortality or continuity was the anointed, the Messiah, the Christ, who in the later application of the ointment or oil is literally the greased. Mes (Eg.), the root of messiah, also means to anoint, to generate, as well as to give birth. The mother was the anointer with her own blood as embodier of the child. The primary anointing applied to birth. But the Messiah was the anointed at rebirth, or puberty. The virile male was the natural [p.359] messiah, the anointed of the totemic mysteries. Thus the messiu or messiah is named from this origin as:

mas, vir, or male, in Latin. masha, vir, or mate, in Kakhyen.
mes,   "           "        Esthonian. mosi,        "         "        Chutia.
mes,   "           "        Vod. masaketh, "         "        Pelew Island.
mios,  "           "       Fin. al-maz,     "         "        Lap.
mes,    "           "       Olonets. amashe,    "         "        Intibuca.
mish,   "           "       Deer. umasoi,     "         "        Betoi.
mesa,   "          "       Silong. mashyo,    "         "         Pazend.
musha,  "          "      Shina. mush,        "         "         English Gipsy.

Hence:

masculescso, is to turn male, Latin. masha, the bean, Sanskrit.
mastos, is a cock, Latin. masuri, a beard, Sanskrit.
maaiz, to be muscular and sinewy as a man, Arabic. misha, to be strong and firm, Hebrew.
mushka, a stout man, Sanskrit. meas, procreation, Irish.
musculosus, full of muscle, Latin. mzr, to go together, cohabit, copulate, Hebrew.
mushka, testicle, Sanskrit. misr, to mix, mingle, mess, blend together, Sanskrit.

The inner African customs and languages show us whence came the messiah as the anointed at puberty, and the name that was continued in the Egyptian, Hebrew, Arabic, British, and many other tongues. The male child was anointed at this period of rebirth, and established as the man. Misa in the Kaffir dialects means to institute, establish, confirm, to cause to stand, to erect, and cause to stand up; the miso is a statute or ordinance, an institution. The transformation into the male, signified by the Latin masculesco, to turn male, was acted in the drama of pubescence, the most primitive form of the mysteries. They put on masks of the rudest make, and their anointing was performed with coloured clay and grease or oil. To maskh in Arabic is to transform into an animal, and this transformation was enacted under some totemic type of power. The boy was clothed in skin, hair, horn, and other emblems of pubescence, in imitation of the animal. In this rebirth he changed into the nakh (Eg.), as the strong bull, the massive elephant, the howling hyena, the terrible lion, the cunning fox, jackal, or some other beast of the totem into which he was reborn.

This was the natural genesis and primordial phase of masking and mumming which was continued in the later mysteries as a representation of the rebirth of the dead, and which yet survives in the English pantomime, as well as in the custom of masking every year about the time of 'All Souls' Day,' when the children still make their transformation in the mask, as they did in the mysteries where the spirit of puberty descended on the male child at its rebirth into manhood or messiahhood, and nature taught the female the earliest need of cover and concealment, or a mask. In Latin, the mask and personage are synonymous as persona. In some of the African totemic rites a man in a mask represents a spiritthe spirit of manhood that has descended [p.360] on the boy in this drama of pubescenceand the scene described reminds one of the descent of the logos portrayed by Clement Alexander, who says: 'The word took the mask of man, and having shaped to himself the flesh, acted the redeeming drama of humanity.'[339] The period of pubescence had its logos in the male as well as in the female nature. The supreme manifestation of male pubescence was the stone that was fabled to have fallen from heaven; the Stone of Pundjel that opened the way in an incomprehensible manner. In Egyptian the tes is a stone, a stone knife, that which is hard, thick, and dense, whence the testis; and the word signifies selfhood, that fundamental self on which the male personality was primarily based. The typology of horn, tooth, pubes, beard, hair, skin, and other pubescent signs was founded on this period of masculine power and messiahship. Jerome, in his exposition of the Hebrew alphabet identifies the letter shin ש as the sign of the logos[340]. The shin, as already said, is a tooth, a symbol of adultship in the male. Jerome was perfectly right. The tooth was a type of the logos when it was (or still is) extracted from the pubescent lad in the African mysteries, at the time of his coming of age. Also the tooth was a type of Hu the white sun-god, a solar form of the logos in Egypt.

Primitive thought commenced with a nearness to nature that has never since been attained or approached. Yet it is only at the original standpoint that we can see as primitive men saw, and follow the later developments of their typology in mythology, theosophy, and eucharistic rites. The meanings read into the early doctrines are a hindrance altogether, and only when we do get back to the starting-point can we look round in all directions, for the first time. From this simple origin the typical stone might be followed like the serpent, the tree, or the water, through ramifications that would take a lifetime, to trace and only a few of which can be indicated here.

The lightning-stone or cloud-cleaving thunder-axe was a type of destroying power, and therefore a primary form of fetish-image. But the stone of virility from whence the fire of life was rekindled became the great type of creative and causative power which was first identified as human. This, as representative of the procreator and pubescent soul gave further significance to the stone of fire and the mineral stone that were afterwards discovered to contain the metals, and thus the type was continued. The lithic linga has chiefly caught attention, but the tes (Eg.) was the more important type. This was the true foundation-stone, the living stone, the stone of power, the speaking stone, because a time-teller in relation to the age of puberty. The true ancestor-stone was the cause of what has been termed 'stone-worship.' This fact was recognized by the Dakotas when they took a round boulder and painted it red, or anointed it with the [p.361] blood source to make it a fetish image which they called their 'grandfather.'[341] In doing this they were identifying the stone of age by name, the stone of power and puberty which was the token of the boy's first coming of age to join the ranks of those who were of age, the elders, old ones, the grandfathers of the totem. It was the same type to the Basutos, who had a large block of granite, round as a ball, for a fetish, or typical image; this they danced round on one leg, whilst anointing the stone by spitting on it[342].

The celebrated Kabbalist and erudite scholar, Reuchlin, intimated that the two first persons in the trinity were indicated by the stone, in the passage[343], 'The stone which the builders refused is become the head stone of the corner.'[344] He too was right, only there had been a further development when these two were known as father and son in the later deus trinus unus.

The supremacy of the third person in the triadi.e., the third in the order of development, but considered to be the first in power and importancewas established on the stone of manhood, and on this type the stone of messiahship was founded. The stone is employed as a symbol of pubescence in the Maori, Australian, Mithraic, and Masonic mysteries. An engraved white stone was given to the initiate who passed into the inner court as a full brother in the Christian mysteries[345]. This is referred to in Revelation: 'To him that overcometh I will give to eat of the hidden manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it.'[346] So was it in the mysteries of puberty, where the name was conferred on the new member of the totem, and the mark was sacredly cut with the knife of stone, because the living stone had descended which transformed the boy into the adult. The natural genesis alone explains the typical nature of the stone and the lithic customs. The egg-shaped stone used to be sent by Oriental pontiffs as a present to princes and a type of dignity which originated on very natural grounds. The first seal of manhood conferred upon the boy was the natural stone. This was imitated by the seal-stone with the tattoo-mark, named of the totem, tribe, or later family, for a seal. The boy was sealed when he became a bull and wore the bulla; and the seal-sign passed on into the papal bull, and the seals affixed to deeds that used to be called bulls. The names of the twelve tribes of Israel were to be engraved on two onyx-stones, six upon each, as their dual masculine basis. The ragah (הער) or ruler of Israel (compare rek, Eg., for rule) was the stone, the rock, the rock of the Lord (when distinguished from the feminine type of the producer, as the tsila-rock followed the tzer), the begetter emphasized [p.362] as the rock that begat; a type that only the natural genesis can account for[347].

No illustration of the origin of religious typology, more strange or more profoundly true, is likely to be traced than is furnished by the fact that the symbolical Rock of Ages is the final form in a religious phase of the stone of age, the foundation-stone of manhood that was laid when the boy first came of age at puberty. Hence, the stone is a symbol of the messiah in the Hebrew scriptures, and was continued as the corner-stone, the foundation-stone, the standing-stone, the stone of stumbling. 'Behold I lay in Sion a stumbling stone and rock of offence; and whosoever believeth on him shall not be ashamed,' that is on account of the natural stone which furnished the figure[348]. 'And Simeon said this child is set for the fall and rising again of many in Israel,' i.e., as the stumbling stone of Isaiah, the messianic stone, the type of the pubescent Horus, called the khemt or triaded one.

In the dialogue between Justin and Trypho, it is urged that Christ is said to be a king, a priest, a god, a lord, an angel, a man, a captain of the host, and stone. Trypho answers: 'Suppose it to be true that Christ was to be called a stone?'[349] Well, it helps to show the nature of the anointed. A root like that of the word Christ has many meanings, which meet in the Christ personified. One of these is to be found in karu (Eg.) for the stone, the stone of power, one form of which is karu (Eg.) the testis, the type of potency, hence of the potent, whether as the king, the captain, or the Christ.

The natural stone was the prototype of all the magical stones, charms, and amulets that have ever been worn as signs of a power which protected the wearer against the influence of the evil eye that was supposed to render impotent those it looked upon. This was the real fatal stone that slew the monster, the giant, and other forms of the adversary who was the opponent of production, fertility, and plenty; the silver bullet or button that slays the witch and her particular animals in the folktales. The primary type is yet recognizable in the stones, sticks, horn, teeth, claws, nails, hair, and feathers of the Africans. No fetish, excepting the emblems of the feminine producer, has had so large a following as this representative of pubescent power. The stone was the sign of transformation from childhood into manhood; and therefore the prototype of a stone of transformation found in the myths of men and animals that were turned into standing stones as the obverse of the same type or mental coin. The stone that transformed was human; the creatures which are transformed were mythical, and thus we reach the natural genesis of the parable.

The natural stone as a teller of time at the period of puberty was [p.363] the earliest guiding-stone, the first milestone or measure of a boundary in time; and the standing-stone that marked the primitive terminus suggested the upright boundary-stone of Termes and Hermes; which origin will account for the phallic form of some of the upright stones of boundary. The phalli, described by Lucian at Hierapolis, show that these served to mark the boundaries in time as well as space. 'Twice in the year,' he says, 'a man ascended one of these phalli, and remained on its summit seven days.'[350] They were associated with the deluge, the natural opposite to time and boundary. Because it had been a type at the starting-point or opening time of life the stone was continued as a monument erected at the end of life. Because it had been a type of time-telling, it was adopted in foretelling, divining, and other practices called magical. The native Tasmanians employ a very sacred talismanic stone for divination which is known as a leelea. Also, an egg-shaped crystal stone was made use of for divination and the charming away of disease by the Highland priests. This stone was called the leic. Both name and thing are yet extant in the leic, luck, or lee-penny. The name is likewise common for magic, divination, and things pertaining to the occult craft of the earliest wisdom. Loga, in Swahili, is to work magic, charm, bewitch. Lechash, in Hebrew, denotes secret speech, magical and mysterious formulas and words, the charming of serpents. This shows the word or logos in one of its most simple and therefore secret shapes. The Akkadian lugud was an omen of luck or good.

lachos, is fate, lot, destiny, in Greek. likka, is fate, destiny, predestination, in Hindi.

lykke, is chance, hap, fortune, English luck, in Danish.

The Hindu richa is a magical invocation, the likeliest original of the Rig-Veda. The rakhi is a Hindu talisman or charm. The raki (Hindi) and the rikshi (Sanskrit) are identical with the rekhi (Eg.), the mage, knower, intelligent spirit, otherwise the magician, charmer, evoker, or medicine-man, who was the inner African doctor, as the ologu (Ondo, etc.). To this natural genesis of the logos we may trace the symbolism of the rocking stone, the maen-llech, which was rocked as another mode of divining according to some law of numbers odd and even applied to its oscillations; the stone that told being turned into the stone that foretold when its motions were reckoned up and interpreted by the magi. Sanchoniathon affirms that Ouranos devised Baetulia'λίθους εμψύχους'animated or living stones. The writer asserts that the stones were so contrived that they moved as if they had life! Who does not see that these were rocking-stones? one with the 'speaking-stones' and stones of fate that foretold in the British Isles; the meaning being completed by mental reference to the living prototype[351]. On account of what the stone first said it was adopted as one of the sayers or [p.364] logoi. Hence the stone, the sayer as logos, and language, are synonymous[352]. The stone is

luku, Meto. rekh (or kher), is the voice, Egyptian.
nluku, Matatan. rake, mouth, Gadsaga.
likanga, Muntu. uraka, tongue, Msambara.
lekoke, N'kele. lakh,       "       Waag.
lechi, stone or rock, Hebrew. elakala,   "      Pangela.
lech, stone, Cornish. likanua, mouth, Kasands.
llich,    "     Welsh. likano,      "      Lubalo.
leac,     "     Irish. laka, the epiglottis and palate, Kaffir.
lakh,     "     Persian. lisi, tongue, Pika.
oraga,   "    Sobo. lusu,    "      Karekare.
ragu,      "   Limbu. las,       "     Dsarawa.
rugu,     "    Gyarung. lisan,    "     Beran.
ragg, white stone or chalk, English. lisan,    "     Wadai.
rack,     "        "             "    English. loga, to speak, Kiriman.
rukkah, stone, Mille. lugha, language, Swahili.

Logos and language are here identical, hence the logos is the utterer, sayer, or the word personified. But we have to go back to the natural genesis for the origin of the male logos to discover the primitive sayer whose type was a stone. Him we shall find in Ioguo, the Carib first man who descended to earth and created the human race; Ioguo, who was the creator, as begetter, the true Protogenos, who reappears by name as the logos of John's Gospel.

It is recorded that, when Clement asked Peter the meaning of messiah's name, Peter replied that in the beginning the Creator set up an ideal type for every species of thing created; an ideal angel for the angels, a fish for the fishes, a bird for the birds, and a man for the men; that ideal man is Christ Jesus[353]. He has the right to the name of messiah because the Jews call their kings the Christ, the Persians call theirs Arsaces, the Romans Caesar, and the Egyptians Pharaoh. The cause of this denomination is this, because he was the (ideal) son of God, and the beginning of all things, and became the ideal man, the father first anointed him with the oil which he had taken from the tree of life, and because of this ointment he is called the Christ[354]. This is true when interpreted. The ideal type was that of the pubescent male, which applied to the Christ or Messiah as it did to the Caesar or Rex, the Sheru, Khemt-Horus, or any other typical adult. It is said by Esdras of these who are to be saved 'They shall have the tree of life for an ointment of sweet savour,'[355] and Celsus affirms that, in answer to a certain question, the initiate in the Christian mysteries said: 'I have been anointed with white ointment from the tree of life.'[356] This ointment is called spiritual when the doctrine is abstractly applied, but the natural genesis is physical, and was derived from the anointing of the male at puberty. Epiphanius declares that some of the gnostic sects, including the Manichaeans, did verily make sacramental or eucharistic [p.365] use of the seminal essence itself[357], which identifies the figurative tree of life with the natural origin of the type. Here we have to recognize the fact that the profoundest mysteries were biological, and most sacred because sexual; that the Christian eucharist was a survival of the sacraments of totemism and taboo, and that these are to be interpreted by the doctrine of the Two Truths of source which were first recognized as the blood and breath of the female, and lastly as the blood of the female and seminal soul of the male. The two were actually or symbolically blended in the perfect rite. One of the deepest mysteries of the Shakteyas, as Kabbalists and Gnostics, was known as 'the kiss,' or the conjunction of the soul with the substance from which it emanated[358], that was the maternal source, the primal cause as substance born of, the Egyptian sh, when the soul was considered seminal. Epiphanius charges the gnostic Shakteyas with improperly mixing the twin-sources of life in their religious rites.

They were actualizing that which is typified in the Eucharist, but notas he informs usfor the purpose of procreation. The Eucharist is derived by Clement Alexander from the mixture of the 'water and the Word,' and he identifies the word with the blood of the grape which desired to be mixed with water. The blood, he says, is of a twofold nature, the blood of the flesh, and the spiritual or energic principle of the word[359], which confers immortality. Now the 'bloody wafer' of the ancient Roman mass was the complete emblem of both sources of being, the blood of life and the seed of soul, and both were assigned at one time and in one cult to the genetrix. The virgin daughter of Babylon is invited by Isaiah to consecrate that form of the mass when he tells her to sit in the dust, grind the meal, uncover the thigh, and menstruatefor that is the true meaning[360]. He calls on her to make the cake of Charis which preceded the flesh and blood of the Christ.

In the eucharist of the opposite cult the bread and wine of a later communion symbolized the male soul and female source as acting conjointly in the sphere of causation. The female was the source of flesh, the male of spirit. Ceres supplied corn of earth, but Bacchus inspirited it with the leaven of life, which caused the ferment that transformed it into bread of heaven; his was the work of transubstantiation. The mother-tree produced the fruit, but it was the generative heat that ripened it into spirituous drink. Ceres furnished the matter but Bacchus worked the miracle of fecundation; his was the spirit that quickeneth. The water was the mother element which the Christ or word turned into wine. When the dogmas of transubstantiation and regeneration are presented in their modern dress they are the poorest parody of the mysteries once explained according to the natural genesis; the symbolical becomes a play of shadows which [p.366] continue their imitation of the drama that was once living, and still keep up their pathetic pretence of not being dead.

Certain of the gnostic sects had remained loyal to the motherhood, and held Sophia to be the source of soul and inspirer of the breath or spirit of life; they preserved the earliest natural type in the latest spiritual phase, because insufflation from the maternal spirit appeared to them less gross than derivation from the divine, when represented by the masculine type of source. Irenaeus asks, 'What kind of talk is this concerning their seed?'[361] which they derived from the mother alone. With them, as in the Apocrypha, Sophia or feminine Wisdom was the true eternal logos; she who had been from the beginning. It was she who gave birth to the angels and aeons of the time-cycles which were to be superseded by the Christ, the male manifestor of the later cult. The 'word spoken by angels' was the word of Sophia. The sting of Stephen's speech in answer to the charge of blasphemy is that the Jews not only resist the Holy Ghost of his preaching, but that they have not kept the law which they did receive; the law as it was given according to the ordinances of angels[362].

Hippolytus tells us that the angels, having administered the world badly on account of their love of power, Jesus came (as Simon said) for the work of restoration, having been transformed and made like the principalities and powers, and to the angels. He thus appeared as a mannot being suchand seemed to suffer in Judea, although he did not really suffer, but was manifested to the Jews as the Son, in Samaria as the Father, among other nations as the Holy Spirit. 'He allows men to call him by whichever name they please.'[363] The description here attributed to Simon does not apply to any human person, but it does represent the trinity called the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, in its final phase, of which various illustrations have been quoted. It was on account of the failure and fall of the earlier kronotypes, the children of the mother, that the word or manifestor was born as Son of the Father for the redemption of the world. Such is the natural genesis of the typology.

Paul is the great opponent of those Gnostics who maintained the supremacy of the feminine wisdom or logos, and who set forth the essenic doctrine of angels, or the gnostic aeons. And here it may be observed parenthetically that the pleroma of kronian powers which were seven in number (with the eighth for manifestor), the gnostic aeons, twelve in number, the Persian yazads, essenic angels, and all other typical personifications that can be identified with time by means of their number as representatives, manifestors, or logoi of the various cycles, had entered the psychotheistic phase, as the ghosts of old dead times and manes of the periods long since past. Paul exclaims: 'Let no man beguile you of your reward in a voluntary humility and worshipping [p.367] of angels, intruding into those things which he hath not seen, vainly puffed up by his fleshy mind, and not holding by the head.'[364] 'Know ye not that we shall judge angels?'[365] Paul speaks 'Wisdom among the Adepts,' or perfected. He speaks 'God's Wisdom in a mystery,' the 'wisdom that hath been hidden, which God foreordained before the worlds.'[366] Only the initiated could understand what he meant by this transfer of type and substitution of the male logos for Sophia. He states that all the treasures of Sophia and the gnosis are contained in Christ[367]. Christ is both the power and the wisdom of God[368]. Christ was made unto us wisdom[369]. His wisdom is not the fleshly Sophia, the feminine logos of the Gnostics and Kabbalists, by whom the world cannot know God.

The 'world by Wisdom knew not God' because she was feminine, and represented the genetrix who preceded the father in heaven. The Lord is the spirit, Christ is the spirit, says Paul, not Psyche, not Sophia, not the feminine nature. It was the express office of the typical son to make known the father above, the begetter or creator of souls. Hence the prayer to the father in heaven. Hence the claim of the son as the begotten of the father to be his sole revealer, a claim made thousands of years before for the virile Horus, and on behalf of Iu the su (son) of the divine father Atum. Paul has no more confidence in the Christ or logos according to the flesh, the logos of the circumcision, the Christ who was the rock in the wilderness, and thus he says: 'Even though we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now we know (there is no personal him in the case) so no more.'[370] It is not pretended that Paul knew a personal Christ in the flesh; his Christ then is not personal, it is a spiritual logos opposed to the fleshly type now elucidated.

The feminine wisdom was also unrobed and robbed to clothe the male logos. The same words that are assigned to Wisdom (Sophia) in Luke's gospel are given by Matthew to the Christ[371]. The vine was first a feminine type, and Wisdom cries, 'Come eat of my bread, and drink of the wine which I have mingled.'[372] But in John's gospel the type is transferred, and Christ is the vine and the bread of life. This however is only an exchange of type for type, whatsoever meaning may be read into it; of male logos for the feminine word, of Christ for Charis, of Jesus for Sophia. The Christ of the gnosis could no more become man than Sophia have been incarnated in a woman. Both sexes of the logos are found united in Jesus Christ, as Saint Wisdom; a bearded female who holds in her (or his) hands two forms of the Word, a roll in the left hand, a book in the right[373]. Yet the type is identical with that of Venus Barbatus, and other forms of the [p.368] male-ess. But Paul is at one with those Gnostics who represented that it was nous alone, or the masculine mental logos who had the intelligence necessary for the discovery of God the father. The elementaries were not intelligences. The superior hebdomad were planetary intelligences only as tellers of time. The feminine revealer of time, age, and season, was a natural but not an intellectual logos. But nous was mind itself in person as the male manifestor. The propator, they tell us, was only known to nous, who sprang from him, and who alone had perfect communion with him. To all the previous aeons, angels, or manifestors, the father-god was unknown, invisible, incomprehensible; in reality because they existed first! Nous alone knew and took pleasure in contemplating the father. 'He also meditated how he might communicate to the rest of the aeons the greatness of the father, revealing to them how vast and mighty he was, and how he was without beginning, beyond comprehension, and altogether incapable of being seen. But in accordance with the will of the father, Sige restrained him, because it was his desire to lead them all to an acquaintance with the propator (himself), and to create within them a desire of investigating his nature.'[374] Nous, described as the son of Ialdabaoth, is said to have been twisted into the form of a serpent[375]. So in the gospel Nous, or anthropos, is to be lifted up like the serpent. In the quarrel between Horus and Typhon, or mind and matter, light and darkness, Hermes the logos (discourse) bears witness (like John) that Nous is the true light of the world; and shows that nature only produces the world in the mental image by herself receiving the impress of mind and becoming of like form with the mental principle.[376] In the later Egyptian theosophy we learn that 'Mind, being God, male and female, life and light, brought forth by his Word, another Mind, the workman, which being god of fire and the spirit, fashioned and formed seven other governors, which in their circles contain the sensible world. Straightway leaped out or exalted itself from the downward-born elements of God, the Word of God into the clean and pure workmanship of nature, and was united to the workman Mind, for it was consubstantial ... The workman Mind, together with the Word containing the circles, and whirling them about, turned round as a wheel his own workmanships.'[376a]

Here the mind and the word are identical with the God and the word of John; 'the Mind being God,' the 'Life and Light' brought forth the word who is the 'Life and Light' in John's version. 'All things were made by' the word, 'and without him was not anything made that was made.'[377] Pymander informs Tat that all things in nature were made by the 'will and the counsel of God, [p.369] which taking the word and beholding the beautiful world in its archetype imitated it, and so made this world.'[378]

The logos of John was the 'true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.'[379] That was the nous or mind of the gnosis, which always had lighted every man who came into the world as a mental being. Mind did not wait until Anno Domini to be born into the world as the text would imply when historically interpreted. Moreover it was through this mind that the world was first made. The god, or mind, as Pymander, is the 'Lord of the Word,'[380] and is addressed as the mind who has established all things by his word[381].

The logos of Philo is the Eternal Word and Son of God, identical with that of the Gnostics, of John, and of Paul.

Philo's word is the 'image of God'[382]; the 'first-begotten of God.'[383]
Paul's is the 'image of the invisible God; the first-born of every living creature.'[384]
Philo's 'ordered all things.'[385] Paul's 'created all things.'[386]
Philo's was the 'fountain of wisdom.'[387] Paul's is the 'wisdom of Cod.'[388]
Philo's is 'before all things.'[389] Paul's is 'before all things.'[390]
Philo's divine word is 'superior to all angels.'[391] Paul's is made 'so much better than the angels.'[392]
Philo's is 'superior to the whole creation.'[393] Paul's has 'all things put under his feet.'[394]
Philo's is the 'mediator standing between the living and the dead.'[395]
Paul's is the one 'Mediator between God and men.' The 'mediator of a better covenant.'[396]
Philo's 'liberates men from corruption and entitles them to immortality.'[397]
Paul's 'delivers the creature from the bondage of corruption into the glorious liberty of the children of God.'[398]
Philo's is 'nearest to God.'[399] John's 'was with God.'[400]
Philo's is 'sent from God.'[401] John says, 'The Father himself hath sent me.'[402]
Philo's is 'the second God, the Word.'[403] John's 'Word is God.'[404]

[p.370]

Philo's was 'the intellectual sun, the Light of the World.'[405] John's was 'the Life that was the light of men, the true light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world.'[406]
Philo's is 'the heavenly bread of the soul.'[407] John's is 'the Bread of life, the true Bread of heaven.'[408]
Philo's is 'the Shepherd of God's flock.'[409] John's is 'the Good Shepherd.'[410]

Philo looks upon the divine word, which was in the beginning, as John has it, 'with God,' as the begetter of mankind. He argues that it is necessary for every one who, 'finding himself unworthy to bear the name of the Son of God, to strive and perfect himself after the firstborn Word of God, the most ancient angel, who under divers names is represented as an archangel, a principle, a word, the pattern of man. It is for this reason (he says) that I have been lately led to praise the virtues of those who say that we are all the children of a single man. And if we do not yet deserve to be accounted children of God; at least we are already the sons of his formless image and of his most Holy Word.'[411]

Theology is everywhere the final phase of mythology. The Christian theology born in Rome is no exception, and mythology transformed into theology signifies that the ancient mode of expression has been converted into a modern mode of thought. This is the cause of the great European error which the enlightened natives of India cannot comprehend when the missionaries reproduce the ancient symbolism made ridiculous by literalization, and assure them they must accept this new version as the one sole divine revelation, or be damned for ever. They do not laugh in our faces because they half suspect us of insanity, which begets a sort of respect in the Oriental mind.

In Philo, Paul, John, and the Gnostics, the doctrinal identity is indisputable; yet the cardinal doctrines of Christianity, the fall, the incarnation, the atonement, and the resurrection of the body, were as impossible to the Gnostics of seventeen and eighteen centuries ago as they are to the man of science or the phenomenal spiritualist of our day, because they knew better. The word, according to Philo, could not become incarnate in corporeal shape. He knows no more of a Christ that could be made flesh than he knew of a Jesus in human form. So is it with the Gnostics, who declared it was not possible that he should suffer who was both incomprehensible and invisible[412]. According to the Gnostics, says Irenaeus, 'neither the Word; nor the Christ, nor the Saviour, was made flesh. They insist upon it that the Word and Christ never came into this world. Not one of the heretics would admit that the Word of God ever was or could be made flesh. They maintain that the Word was neither born nor did he become [p.371] incarnate.'[413] It was impossible that the Gnostics could accept the doctrine of a masculine logos being made flesh or incarnated in human form. That would not carry them beyond natural procreation, whereas their logos, or manifestor, who in the male form was their Christ, was the spiritual antithesis and eternal opposite to matter, not a redeemer of the flesh by wearing it. The advent of the gnostic Christ could only be in the mind, the spirit, or heart, according to the organ of communication; could only be manifested by an illumination of the mind, a purification of the spirit, a change of heart in the religious sense; an advent that could only dawn about a Christ that could only come within. The type had no more possible application to an external history, or Saviour then, than it has now after the assumed history; it was a sublimated type, a spiritual ideal that could not be realized in utero. Yet it is identical with the Christ of Philo and of Paul. 'They speak of him under the name of Saviour and Christ, and patronymically, Logos, and everything, because he was Formed from the contributions of all.'[414] 'Some maintain that this Saviour was formed out of all, wherefore he was designated Eudocetos, because the whole pleroma was well pleased to glorify the father through him.'[415] He was also called 'all things,' since he was the sum of all.

The fullness of the godhead dwelt bodily in the gnostic Jesus just as it does in the Christ of Paul. It is related that the total pleroma of the aeons with one design and sole desire, and with the approval of the father, did bring together whatsoever each one possessed of all that was most perfect and precious, and these individual contributions they united and skilfully blended into one whole to produce a being of most perfect beauty, the very star of the pleroma, the consummate fruit of the fullness, namely Jesus[416]. And Paul says that God has 'made known unto us the mystery of his will, according to his good pleasure which he purposed in him (the Christ), unto a dispensation of the fullness of the times (or cycles) to sum up all things in Christ, the things in the heavens and the things upon the earth; in him (I say) in whom also we were made a heritage, having been foreordained according to the purpose of him who worketh all things.'[417]

The gnostic 'word' could not become flesh inasmuch as he never passed outside the pleroma[418], except in a figurative sense when he became the saviour of Sophia. The drama which the idiotes mistook for human history was performed in another world. This may elucidate a passage in John's gospel that has been a block of stumbling to all commentators, in which Jesus says to Nicodemus, 'No man hath ascended into heaven but he that descended out of heaven (even), the son of man which is in heaven.'[419] It is not surprising that many ancient authorities should [p.372] omit the four last words. Yet they point plainly enough to the speaker being like the gnostic Christ, within the pleroma, or in heaven, whence he could only descend as a spiritual influence, and not as a human being. The Gnostics taught that the Christ announced among the aeons that which related to the gnosis of the father. He, as the son begotten by the divine father, bore his likeness and became his especial announcer, manifestor, logos, or word. He becomes the later instructor of the aeons who were earlier than himself, and who preceded the knowledge of the fatherhood. He teaches them that the father cannot be understood or comprehended, nor so much as seen or heard, except by Monogenes alone. He explains to them that the reason why they exist who were unbegotten of the fatherhood is to be found in that part of the paternal nature which is incomprehensible, but the reason for their origin and formation is in that part which may be comprehended through the son who reveals him[420]. He also taught the aeons that 'those who possessed a comprehension of the unbegotten were sufficient for themselves.'[421] But this could only be attained through the Christ who taught them the mystery.

This nous of the Gnostics, the only begotten of the father, his manifestor and revealer, who instructed the twelve (as the duo-decad of aeons), the number of the apostles, in the nature of the fatherhood, is the Christ, logos, or Monogenes of the gospel according to John, who proclaims that, 'No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten son, which is in the bosom of the father he hath declared him.'[422] And who also says, 'All things are delivered unto me of my father; and no one knoweth the son save the father; neither doth any know the father save the son, and he to whomsoever the son willeth to reveal him.'[423] 'The father loveth the son, and hath given all things into his hand. He that believeth on the son hath eternal life.'[424] 'The son can do nothing of himself but what he seeth the father doing; for what things soever he doeth these the son also doeth in like manner. For the father loveth the son, and showeth him all things that himself doeth, and greater works than these will he show him, that ye may marvel. For as the father raiseth the dead and quickeneth them, even so the son also quickeneth whom he will ... The father which sent me, he hath borne witness of me. Ye have neither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his form.'[425] On mystic ground this can be comprehended as the address of Horus the Christ to the twelve aeons within the pleroma; but on mundane ground it is converted into a voice of the impossible.

The human likeness and the sociology had been continued to be reflected in the psychotheistic phase. First the mother was divinized, then the child of the mother, and next the virile male, who became the individual progenitor, the son of the father being the final [p.373] type of the begetter. As it was on earth so is it above; and it is a profound study for the evolutionist to watch this capitalizing of the results of human development as a treasure laid up in heaven, and observe the change in the likeness reflected in the status of the divinity as the mirrored image of humanity. The logos of the learned, the Christ of those who alone were able to explain the messianic mystery, could not come in any historical sense except as a figure in chronology. For those who knew the doctrine there was no final fulfilment of prophecy once for all. The Christ was he who came in the end of the age, or aeon of time, as the perfect aeon. He was aeonian, a figure of that which for ever came. In all its phases until the last, from the beginning with the mother who was the 'Living Word' at Ombos, the logos had been aeonian; a type of time that manifested the eternal by continual repetition as the ever-coming one. Sut-Anup and Taht as logoi of the moon uttered their message monthly, and went and came. So was it with the annual sun that fulfilled the word in truth as the ever-returning one. Time, or Seb-Kronus, was both the father and the manifestor of the gods, and Horus, the Messiah, was for ever reborn as his son.

The cycle of time might extend to that of the Great Year and be fulfilled by the Christ who came at the end of it as the typical ram of fulfilment, or ichthys, the fish of the following sign. But this could not take the mythical manifestor out of the sphere of time and repetition. He was the ever-coming one who for ever came. The end of a cycle however long approached only to be renewed; and this renewal applied also to the manifestor. The doctrine and type had their origin in the nature of time itself that was for ever continued by renewal, as an earthly image of eternal continuity. The mode of conceiving or representing the eternal had been as a never-ceasing manifestation in time, not in person.

The coming one of the true teaching had no locus standi save in coming. The doctrine of this coming one was well known to the Hebrew 'prophets.' His manifestations had been aeonian from of old, from everlasting[426]. So when the Jesus of the apocrypha was to manifest within 400 years; it was to be as it had been in the previous periods. There was to be a silence or a deluge during seven days, and a resurrection when the coming one, the Jesus of 400 years (the phoenix period assigned to Osiris) would be the again-coming one.

The Buddhist Tathgata, or he that is to come, is explained by Turnour[427] as being he who had come in the same manner as the previous Buddhas. That is, according to the gnosis, as the doctrinal or ideal representation of the various cycles of time. Professor Beal translates the title of Tathgata by the coming one[428]. He likewise was the ever-coming one; hence the innumerable incarnations of the [p.374] god, who, like the word or logos, got humanized at last in the belief of the ignorant.

'The Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God,' who is the A Ω in Revelation, is identical with Iu (Eg.) the coming one[429]. Hecataeus said the Egyptians used the word 'amen' as a call to come, a term of calling[430]. He was right; amenu (Eg.) means 'come,' or 'to come'; whence the invocative 'amen,' and the name of Emanuel, the 'coming one' of Virgo parturiens. So the Christ of the gospel is the 'coming one.' Philo Judaeus has defined the incarnation as Αρχαγγελος πολυωνομος, the many-named archangel[431]. And just as the logos or manifestor had many names according to phenomena, so it had various times of manifestation. But this incarnation was not of a nature to be embodied as a human being in any time past, and could not be at any future time. There is abundant evidence to show that the logos, or manifestor in the Christian writings, was the 'coming one' continued. This is most apparent in those of the earliest Christian Fathers. Justin Martyr asserts that Christ the word had 'sometimes manifested in the image of incorporeal beings,' and that Christ also taught regarding the 'host of other angels who follow him and are made like unto him.'[432]

The writer of the Epistle to Diognetus[433] says of Christ that it is he who was from the beginning. He who appeared as a new one, and was found to be the old one. That is, he who is for ever; he who this day was declared as the son, through whom the church is richly furthered, and the grace which is unfolded in the holy ones is perfected; that grace which gives the true understanding which reveals the mysteries, which causes the courses of the world to be known. The nature of the word, or the angel, had to be determined by the gnosis, the essenic doctrine of angels, or the 'grace which revealed the mysteries,' and was the means of making known the 'courses of the world,' or the cycles of time from the first to the last. The logos, or word, had always been the voice of the horologe that struck the hour at the end of the period; but Kronus could not be incarnated in human form. The word, or utterer of time, according to the gnosis, could no more be 'made flesh' than Seb (time) could issue personally from the clock-case.

The Chinese illustrate the doctrine of the ever-coming one by a curious custom connected with the worship of ancestors, or the ancestral spirit. In the yearly solemnities the head of the family is always represented by an infant who is styled kung-chi, the illustrious deceased. Offerings are made to the child, who is supposed to be a medium for communication with the dead. Should he utter any words it is considered to be the ancestor who speaks, the child being his mouthpiece or word[434]. The Chinese julai is a form of the Iu, and [p.375] his name is explained by Medhurst as meaning the coming one as Buddha[435]. Also, during the whole period of Egypt's monumental past, Iu, the su, i.e., the son, Iu, the coming one, had been the infallible word of Atum, the father god in the solar phase, as Iu, the sayer to whom a book of the logia was assigned, i.e., Iu-em-hept, or he who comes with peace. It was the eternal founded on 'time, or renewal, coming of himself,' that necessitated the type of the eternal child, the old child, depicted as the ever-coming one. 'Old child is thy name,' is said in a hymn addressed to the first Horus, as the ever-coming one; and the pigmy-Christ, who is the 'old child' in the catacombs, attests the unbroken continuity of type.

But the fact of facts found in natural phenomena that supplied the living root of the male logos, the messiahship and shilohship, was the change, the transformation, the re-genesis and rebirth that occurred at the time of puberty. The child was the logos, the word, or inarticulate voice of the motherhood; a kind of dumb logos that opened not his mouth, personified as Harpocrates. The pubescent and virile Horus is called the afterbirth[436]. This was the Hebrew shiloh, הלש, as that which follows and comes after. As person it is the sheru (Eg.), or adult youth. The Kaffirs have their shiloh in this phase of the anointed one, and the dance performed by the pubescent and circumcised lads is called the 'uku-tshila.'[437] The root of the name denotes renewal and rebirth, like sheru and mes (Eg.). Sut, as the child, opened the mother whom Horus sealed when the creative power descended on him at puberty. This was the masculine soul. This was the logos, or manifestor, of the fatherhood on earth before the individual father could be recognized. Hence the second Horus, the adult sheru, became the revealer and maker-known of the father in heaven, who superseded the mother and child in the cult of the more masculine-minded. It was not the child of the mother alone that was the ever-coming one, but also the virile manifestor of the father whose power came and for ever came with the transformation at puberty.

Moreover, the fulfiller who was named the coming child as the Iu (Eg.), who was the Iusu, or Jesus in Greek, still continued to be the coming one after he was alleged to have come, and still keeps up the mythical character throughout the history. According to James[438], the coming or the presence of the Lord was still at hand. He pleads: 'Be ye patient' until 'the coming of the Lord,' for 'the coming of the Lord is at hand.'

Peter denounces the astronomical prophecies as 'cunningly devised fables,' and says, 'we have the word of prophecy (made) more sure.' 'No prophecy of Scripture is (to be) of private or special interpretation.'[439] [p.376] Yet he founded upon the astronomical prophecy for the end of the present world. There were heavens from of old, which had been formed by the word of God. These perished by water. But the heavens that now are have been 'stored up for fire'[440] according to the figurative prophecy of Berosus and others which the idiotes mistook for fact, and used it for the purpose of frightening poor folks into thinking as they did.

Nay, the Lord himself is turned into the prophesier of his own coming. 'There shall be signs in sun, and moon, and stars,' 'for the powers of the heavens shall be shaken. And then shall they see the son of man coining in a cloud with power and great glory.' 'Verily I say unto you, this generation shall not pass away till all things be accomplished.'[441] This contains the imagery and language of the celestial allegory which is considerably belated in the gospels. Nor is the deluge missing as a type of the ending, for the 'coming of the son of man' is to be as in the days of Noah, and the end as the 'flood' that 'came and took them all away.'[442] According to the astronomical mythos such a fulfilment came and such things were accomplished in the end of an aeon, or the world, as when the equinox set up its sign of the cross in the Ram, or Pisces, but to this day they remain unfulfilled in human history.

Facing of the actual facts is avoided by the assumption that a second coming was intended. But that is a fatal fallacy, as eighteen hundred years of time and fifty generations of men can testify to the error or falsehood of such an assumption. No second coming of the historical Christ has ever been pretended, even though that coming was prophesied by his own word of mouth. Those who had mistaken mythology for history continued to look for the historic fulfilment of the mythos. The coming one only came in the end of an age, or aeon, that was called the end of the world. Consequently the end of all things was bound to come and authenticate the coming one when he had come. This was the great, the consistent, the never-ceasing expectation after the fulfiller of prophecy was believed to have come. The minds of those believers were all aglow with the ruddy reflection of a supposed universal conflagration of the heavens in which the earth would pass away, 'and the works that are therein shall be burnt up.'[443] This was because in their simpleness they had mistaken the nature of an ending whether by fire or water, and believed it was to come in reality. It did not, could not, come in their sense, because the mythos never had that meaning; andas we shall further find the mythos prescribes the limits to the history.

The Samaritans still expect the Messiah, who has never yet come in person for them; and this in a way that proves their possession of [p.377] the astronomical gnosis. The Coming One is called Hotah or Hoshah, the restorer, commonly designated Taebah, the son of Joseph, of the tribe of Ephraim. He is expected to appear about the year AD 1910that is, at the time the vernal equinox enters the sign of Aquarius; which demonstrates the continued dependence of the prophecy upon the fulfilment of the periods in the cycle of precession.[444]

 

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This page last updated: 03/04/2014