THE NATURAL GENESIS
NATURAL GENESIS AND TYPOLOGY OF THE MYTHICAL GREAT MOTHER, THE TWO SISTERS, THE TWINS, TRIADS, TRINITY AND TETRAD
When, after many years research, the present writer discovered that mythology is the mirror in which the prehistoric sociology is reflected, his labour was forthwith doubled, but the fact furnished him with the real foundation for the work he was building. It may be difficult for the modern mind to conceive of the primitive priority (for it is that rather than supremacy in Bachofen's sense) of the woman; the priority of the sonship to the institution of the fatherhood; of the nephew to the son of the father; and of the types of thought, the laws and ceremonies that were left as the deposit of such primitive customs. Yet these facts, and others equally important, are reflected in the mirror of mythology.
The genetrix as Ta-urt (Typhon) is designated the 'Mother of the Beginnings,' 'Mother of the Revolutions' (time-cycles), 'Mother of the Fields of Heaven,' and the 'Mother of Gods and Men.' The priority of the genetrix as typical producer was plainly enough portrayed by Tesas-Neith, the Great Mother, at Sais. 'I am all that was, and is, and is to be; no mortal hath lifted my peplum, and the fruit I bore is Helios.' The title of the goddess as 'Tesas-Neith' signifies the self-existing; she who came from herself. The genetrix is celebrated as the 'Only One' in the Ritual. 'Glory to thee! Thou art mightier than the Gods! The forms of the living souls which are in their places give glory to the terrors of thee, their Mother; thou art their origin.'
Following this enunciation of the female priority we find that Seb, the father of the gods, is also designated the 'Youngest of the gods.' The earlier gods, Sut (or Sevekh), Shu, Taht, and the first Horus, were children of the mother alone. They were created before there was any father in heaven, there being no fatherhood as yet individ- [p.457] dualized on earth. Both on earth and in heaven the father was preceded by the totemic elders and fathers, the mythical pitris. The Kamite mirror shows us that when the fatherhood had become individualized in the human family it was first reflected by Seb as God the divine Father. Seb, the god of earth and of planetary time, who followed the earlier star-gods, moon-deities; and elementaries, was then termed the 'Father of the Gods.' When the fatherhood became individualized it was applied retrospectively, which often gives a false appearance of beginning with and descent from the father in place of the mother. But mythology begins with and reckons from the female, as in the totemic system of the oldest races. We can only begin at the beginning; the god could only be born as the child of the mother. Although the Hottentots have now attained the individualized fatherhood, and have elevated the divine father of the fathers to the supreme place, yet their languages show that the race, clan, or tribe, was always called after the mother, never after the father. Thus the Namas, Amas, Khaxas, and Gaminus have each and all the feminine terminal as their appellation. They are all children of the mother, and it is the same with the lesser formation in the family, which is likewise named from the mother.*
* The Wyandot mode of stating that descent is in the female line is, 'The woman carries the gens.'
Descent in the female line was universal in the earliest times and most archaic condition of society; the gens or kin being composed of a female ancestor and her children. The fatherhood is unknown to the primary group, and this status of the human family originated the figure of the Great Mother and her children in the heavens. Also in certain Chinese accounts of the founders of dynasties in the oldest time, long anterior to 2000 BC, they were invariably born of no father. One maid, or the Virgin Mother, dreams that she embraced the sun. Another dreams that she suddenly felt a mighty wind in the form of an egg. So the Virgin Mother, typified by the vulture, mu (Eg.), is impregnated by the wind alone without the male. Tradition said that the first king of Northern Gaoli had a maid slave who was found to be with child. The king desired the death of the boy who was born, but the mother said that she had conceived him by an influence which came upon her, and which she felt to be like air, as if in the form of an egg. The king, at once afraid to kill, and fearing to keep alive a prodigy, had the child thrown into the pig-yard. But it was the rightful heir, who lived to become the monarch.
The sole catholic and universal first producer was feminine. She was the mother Nature, la source, the goddess of beginnings (Ta-urt), the begetter of the universe (Ishtar and Atergatis). The [p.458] Great Mother, the grandmother (inner African), the godmother, the Old Woman (North American Indian), the Mother Earth (Nin-kigal), and Mother Heaven; the mother that opened in the void below or vault above in the uterine likeness of the human parent. This alone is beginning. She is yet extant in the African's and the Hindu's 'Mama,' and the papist's 'Mary.' When a piece of crewel work bearing the motto, 'God is my King,' was presented to Cetewayo in London, he at first declined to receive it with the remark, 'There is no one over me but the Queen, my Mother!' He himself was the king, the bull, as male; and such was the primitive status.
The lower world, says the Zohar, is created after the pattern of the upper, and everything existing above is to be found, as it were, in a copy on the earth. But this is a reversal of the real process; a result of the later thought which culminated in the Hindu tree with its roots above and its branches below. The lower was first in mythology, as in evolution. The esoteric interpretation was last. The Great Mother, the Virgin Mother, of mythology, represents the human mother, as the first mistress of the home in the pre-paternal phase, and thus mythology helps us to ascertain the natural genesis of such customs as those of the mother-right by becoming the mirror to the prehistoric past, which reflects the most archaic social conditions of the human race. The earliest god known is the son of the mother, who becomes her bull or male. It was thus with Sut, or Sevekh, so with Taht, Khem, and Khepra; and he who was the consort of his mother was necessarily born or reborn of his wife; and, as according to one Egyptian custom the son took the mother's name, in another the bridegroom takes that of the wife, and both are typical of the primordial derivation from the female with which mythology begins. Non-evolutionists have recently been startled at the rank of the wife and the priority and apparent supremacy of the woman in Egypt as late as the Ptolemian age. A writer in The Times has said, 'We shall probably never know how customs so strange and perverse came to be established among a people famed throughout antiquity or their wisdom and learning.'[6a] We never shall, except on the evolutionary theory, and also on the theory propounded in the present work, of Egypt's being the mouthpiece and inner Africa the birthplace of all such archaic and primitive customs. For example, the same supremacy of the female as mistress of the house, which is shown by the Egyptian marriage documents is extant today among the Hottentots. In every house or hut she is the supreme ruler, the taras. Dr. Hahn derives this title from ta to rule, be master; ra, which expresses a custom or intrinsic peculiarity, with s for feminine terminal. Taras denotes the supreme ruler, the lady of the house. Out of doors the man is governor, but the taras dominates within. Her place is on the right side of the house and the right hand of her husband. [p.459] He dare not take a mouthful of sour milk out of a tub without her permission. Should he break the law in such a case his nearest female relations will mulct him in a heavy fine of sheep or cows. When a chief died it has often happened that his wife became the ruleress and queen of the tribe, just as in Egypt. It is also a Khoi-Khoi custom for the sons to take the name of the mother (the daughters taking that of the father); and in Egypt the sons, instead of being called after their fathers were named after their mothers. Neither sons nor daughters could be named after the fathers when these were unknown. When the fatherhood was represented by the solar Ra, then she who had been his mother was called his daughter, and so the great goddesses became daughters of the Ra. This position of the woman is the oldest known in the world, and it is in perfect accordance with natural genesis. The mother was the first parent recognized, as in the mirror of mythology, where Ta-ur (with the Egyptian terminal, Ta-urt, Greek Thoueris), the old first chief ruleress is the taras of the gods in Egypt.
It was a law of the Basques or Iberians that he who married the heiress should take her name, and have no control over her children. In the event of her death he was not permitted to marry again except by consent of the deceased wife's relations.
The earliest societary conditions and typical modes of expression first established in inner Africa were continued one way or another by the Egyptians whose laws, literature, and mythology, are a complete Kamite fossil formation deposited by the life of the past. Egypt, as insisted in the previous volumes is the missing link between the inner African origins and the rest of the world. Remote as the postulate seemed when enunciated by me, every discovery and every day will bring us nearer to that truth. Such customs do not commence just where we first meet with them in history; nor were they established in Egypt in the sense of being imported or adopted by a civilised people. They are simply survivals from the inner African birthplace.
Neither did such customs arise from a primitive order of chivalry being established for the worship of womankind. Woman was the first known parent, and her priority in mythology and sociology was the natural result. As bringer-forth she was the cow of human kind, and the chivalry was doubtless somewhat akin to that of the bulls, rams, and stags, fighting for the finest females in the herd. Female supremacy was sexual at first but the precedence is afterwards registered in statutory laws. Diodorus had already told us that the queen of Egypt held a loftier position theoretically if not practically than the pharaoh himself; the Ra being a far later institution. The Emperor of China is not yet exempted from performing the kotou in presence of his mother.
According to the laws of Akkad if a son said to his father, 'Thou art not my father' and sealed it by making his nail-mark he was fined in a forfeit of money. But if he said to his mother even without confirming it with the nail-mark, 'Thou art not my mother' he was put into prison and had his hair cut off to humble him. The one was so much more certain a lawbreaker than the other. Still more interesting is it to learn that in case of homicide among the Kaffirs the scale of compensation allowed by law was seven head of cattle for the male and ten head for the female.
The reason why the mother was the ruleress and tyrant of the house and home was because she was the first house or home that was recognised. She was the abode of birth, and all early forms of the abode whether of the living or the dead were first named after her. Even the notion that a man is born of his wife abides in the Vedas. But, this did not originate in the fanciful etymology of jaya, a wife, from jan, to be born, as explained by the commentators. It must be read by the primitive doctrine. 'A man's wife Maghavan is his dwelling; verily she is his place of birth.' Simply because the wife was the abode of being like the mother. This may be illustrated in Cornish where kuf is the name both of the womb and the wife. Wife, woman and mother are three personifications of the womb, the earliest house of life. It is also shown by the wame, (Scotch) belly or womb; wamo, (Fin.), woman and wife; gwamm (Breton) wife.
The cave, cove, kof; the combe, wem, uamh, home and hamlet, are all forms of the dwelling founded on the female. Also, the chief type-names are inner African, continued in Egyptian.
|kam, in Yule.||kimu, in Munio.||ama, in N'godsin.|
|kame, in Kasm.||kamu, in Kanem.||uma, and ma, in Doai.|
|kumu, in Kanuri.||gama, in Bode.||koomara, in Dor.|
|kamu, in N'guri.|
This is a general type-name for the womb or belly. The dwelling is
|gomi, house, Kupa.||kompe, house, Gadsaga.|
|n'gim, " Munio.||kumba, a pit or cave, Gindo.|
|n'gim, " N'guru.||gumu, a village, Dewoi.|
We cannot derive the gens (or kinsfolk), except from the woman as producer; the khennu (Eg). In Ulfila's translation of the Bible (fourth century) the wife is gens, the woman is ginio. And the name is the woman's as that of the uterus, the birthplace of the gens; the khentu (Eg.), and kentu for the woman in Arabic. It has been previously shown how the type-name of the woman ranging [p.461] from yoni and gine to queen was based on the first abode of being. This type-name is inner African for the belly or womb as
|yauno, in Krepee.||konyo, in Toronka.||eni, in Ebe.|
|n'yoni, in Hwida.||kono, in Dsalunka.||ine, in Opanda.|
|n'yonu, in Dahome.||kono, in Kankanka.||ine, in Igu.|
|n'koma, in Saldina Bay.||kono, in Linmbara.||ine, in Egbira-hima.|
|gine, in Tene.||kenu, in Kasm.||hona, woman, in Agaumidr.|
|ginei, in Kise-Kise.||kuna, in Bode.||kento, " " Mimboma.|
|kun, in Bulom.||kunu, in N'godsin.||kento, " " Musentandu.|
|kun, in Mampa.||kunu, in Doai.||kento, " " Basunde.|
|kono, in Mandenga.||gungu, in Timbuktu.||onda, " " Mbarike.|
|kono, in Kabunga.||unna, in Yasgua.|
The hieroglyphics show the khun is the abode, the dwelling, or inn as it is in the boosing ken. Khen signifies in, within, the interior, the Hottentot and Bushman khoin for the entrails. The first interior, or inn, was feminine. When we have dug down to a root like this we find it is as simple as one of two, or rather it is one with two aspects these are the dual of the idea of within and without. The female is the inn, or within, and the male is out; Egyptian uta, a title of Khem, the one who puts forth or jets out; as it is in the Chinese duality of feng-shui. This is one of the names under which the typical female can be followed the world round, beginning in Africa as the birthplace for this name of the birthplace.
|kono, in Maori.||kuns, in Mandan Indian.||gean, in Irish.|
|quani, in Tasmanian.||ken or kons, in Curnish.||qen, in Hebrew.|
|koana, in Australian.||con, in Old French.||quan, the wife, in Old Norse.|
|ch'hen, in Chinese.|
Other forms of the dwelling continue the name. The village in Vei (African) is the ken, the kêne in Kono. In Egypt the royal court of the palace was the Pa-Khennu, and khennu is also the concubine as well as the organ.
The primitive man did not know that he came from the 'Bright Sky' as his father. He who did not know his father on earth could not recognise one in heaven! But he knew that he came from the mother's womb and derived his life there by means of his navel. Hence the naming from the primal dwelling-place. The goddess who wears the mural crown, or turreted tower on her head, is the abode personified, no matter under what name. Artemis, or Kubelê of Ephesus, is an Asiatic continuation of Urt or Kep. She carries the abode on her head in the shape of the tower or fortress, because, as Ovid says, she first created cities. This tower, therefore, is the type of the later dwelling-place evolved from the simplest beginning, but the earliest habitation was one that could preserve life in the water, hence the Great Mother as the pregnant hippopotamus, which was followed by the fish-type of Hathor in Egypt; Atergatis and Venus out of it. The enceinte water-cow was continued as the ark of the Great Bear. The cabin is consequently a type of the genetrix, and gestation is called 'going in the cabin,' the cabin of the [p.462] boat that was overhung with the peplos of Athena in her procession, and is likewise represented by the Hindu argha-yoni.
The lotus was another type of her who brought forth from the waters into breathing life. The infant sun-god was portrayed as rising up out of the waters on a lotus; not because the Egyptians were in the habit of floating on the Nile in lotuses, but because they had continued that symbol as divine from the time before boats were built. The lotus was the bark of the god and the womb of the genetrix in one; and when they made their barks of papyrus they were continuing the lotus into the boat which was lotus-shaped at prow and stern. So was it with the dwelling-place on land. Baba is a title of the old genetrix (Typhon); and Babia was the goddess of Karkemish. The bab (or beb), which modifies into bau, is the opening of the abyss or cavern, void or pit-hole, also called the hole of the tomb and the well; the bob, Arabic, the opening out of which the water wells; bebi, Coptic, to flow and overflow. This bab became the bahv והב or void on which the Hebrew dogma of creation was based. It is also the Babylonian and Byblian bab called the gate, but which is more comprehensively the opening, the outrance, uterus, or abode of life. So the Irish-Keltic brû, Cornish brys, for the matrix, was the primary form of the berry, boro', and burgh, the earliest habitation.*
* THE WESLEY-BOB
At the time of making his remark on the wesley-bob, the writer did not know that the 'bob' was the sailor's berth on board ship. He argued that the children's 'bob' with the dolls, denoted the birthplace of the genetrix, which is the 'berth' of the unborn child. The 'bob,' therefore, is one of the prototypes which survive from the first origin. It is the mother herself in the Australian, Akkadian, and other languages. It is the woman, the female, in various languages. It is the womb or belly in the Kanyop, pipas; Pepel, pobob; Mbe, fuburu; bourn, or bovo, in Tiribi. In Dutch the pop is the caterpillar's cocoon. The beb, or bub, in Egyptian is the hole, the pit, a primitive type of the berth. In Gaelic the beath is the tomb; bebo in Tiwi (African); and babisi in Melon, are hells (in the sky). The bab in Assyrian is the gate, place of outlet, whence Babylon. But the first bab is the uterus. Then the hole in the ground or berth on board ship. Hence the Great Mother who personified the abode is named Baba (Eg.); Papa, Mangaian; Babia, Khetan.
It is the same with place and locality as with house and home. The lici or loca, Latin, as matrix and womb was the primal place and locality of life, which was externalised by name as the lochos, a lair for lying in wait; the llych, Welsh, a covert and hiding-place (luka, Hindi, to lie concealed, ruka (Eg.), to hide), and other forms of the lodge or loggia. With the prefix b we have the covert as the brû or brough, and the brake, a covert for game, whence the brachen and heath which is bruk in Welsh; brag, Breton; brego, Portuguese; bruch, Grisons. The human covert as the brug (brie, Irish, the womb) became the burgh, burrow, brir-ham, brix-ton, brigh-ton, breck-nock, kaer-ebrauc, and pem-broke; also the brigh (Gaelic), as the tomb. The thought of man began at the starting-point of his [p.463] own beginning and language consequently bears the impress of its natural mould.
The cave or kep (Eg.), a secret dwelling, is the mere lair of earth, and this bears the name of Kef or Kep, the oldest genetrix; who, in Cornish and Breton is the kuf English wife. Hathor is the hat or hut of the child. Hest is the seat, a stone-chair being her sign of the bearer. From hest comes Hesta, goddess of the hearth and home. Nephthys bears the house in outline on her head, and hemen (Eg.) is the seat, the flame by name. Also our word abode is identical with the Egyptian apt for an abode, the hold of the vessel, a cradle and a name of the Great Mother. In like manner the Welsh bedd for the coffin, kist, or tomb, is identical with bed for the uterus, which was represented by Buto as the genetrix. In Akkad the dammal, or house-dame, was not simply the house-mother, for, like Isis, she was the mother-house, the uterine abode, a household divinity as representative of the Great Mother. The monogram of Uni-Umrna, the mother, also means broad, wide, and spreading; what is still termed a bowerly woman; the type of the mother great with child.
In Adampe the village is the edume; diambo in Kisama, demgal in Goburu. Itembe is the roof in Nyamwezi. The Irish diomruck is a cromlech. The Egyptian tem, like the Scottish tom, is a fort or mound; also a village. The Sanskrit dama is a house and home; Pahlavi, dernun; Greek, dames, Latin, damus; Slavonic, dornu; Bohemian, dum; Polish, dym; English, dome; and Irish, domhnach, a sacred shrine or a church. The Irish Fir-Domhnann and the Darnnonii of Cornwall, are known to tradition as the men of the deep pits; they were troglodytes who dwelt in a primitive form of the dum, a mere hole in the earth. The domus and domicile are one with the dame and dam in English, and the dome, as woman, in Correguage. Several kinds of land-family or house-community are traceable under the mother's name. The Russian mir, the aggregate of the inhabitants of a village, possessing the land in common, answer to the Akkadian mal and Egyptian mer. The French maorissa of the land-family was a form of the primitive mere, the mother, who in Egypt is the goddess mer. The Great Mother was mistress of the eight and of the region of the eight in Smen, as Ta-urt or Kefa in the stellar phase, and Hathor in the lunar. Now among the Southern Slavs a form of the house-community is yet extant called the zadruga. In this primitive institution the house-mother and mistress is the redusa, whose name signifies 'She whose turn has come,' i.e., to rule the community, which is governed by the females in rotation, each becoming the superior or mother who rules during a period of eight days. She is the social representative [p.464] of Ta-urt in Smen, or Hathor in Sesennu, both of which names denote the number eight.
The mythical abyss was the womb, the bab, kep, ken, khem, or tep of all beginning. Tep (Eg.) means first. With the feminine or dual terminal this is the tepht, the abyss of source, the hole of the snake or lair of the water-cow. The tepht is synonymous with the English depth; Welsh, dyfed; Shetland, toft; Lithuanic, dubti; Hebrew, tophet, in the valley. The abyss is also represented by the tuba (Xhosa Kaffir) or opening; the tupe, Maori, a hole over which incantations are uttered against evil demons whose dwelling is the abyss of darkness. The Greek τάφος was a barrow for the burial urn, and therefore a form of the teph as the abyss from which all birth proceeded in the beginning. The tiava, Butumerah, is the womb or belly; the dabu in Bornu. This name of the primordial place of birth is likewise that of the primal conditions of beginning, becoming, and being, as in the Maori and Mangaian tupu, to open, originate, begin; and the Polynesian tafito for the first and most ancient; teva, Cornish, to grow; tyfu, Welsh, to cause to grow; dhov, to come; tubu, Fiji, origin and growth; tapairu, Maori, the firstborn as a female; also the niece and nephew, the sister's children; teibe, Irish, the mother nature; tyba, Arabic. In Fijian the tubuna are the ancestors, but more especially the godmother. Davke, or davkina, is the Babylonian mother earth, or the abyss over which the god Hea presided. The first of the Two Truths being water accounts for the beginning in and from the abyss, the tepht of source. Tepht (Eg.) is a dual or feminine form equivalent to tephteph, and in Fijian dave-dave is the name for a channel from the source. Mystically the source is denoted by:
tef, Egyptian, to ooze, drip, bedew, menstruate.
tevah, Hebrew, to menstruate.
tep, Sanskrit, to distil, ooze, drop.
dhav, Sanskrit, to flow, to give milk as a cow, to cleanse, purify or, primarily, to menstruate.
diva, or deja, Zulu, first menstruation.
tabau, Yarra, (Australian), damp.
davi, Fiji, flow of liquids, expressly from the source.
tuphan, Arabic, inundation or deluge.
damu, Assyrian, blood.
tombo, Xhosa Kaffir, fountain, source, spring, shoots, germs, malt.
tomba, Xhosa Kaffir, applied to the female at the time of first menstruation.
This root, with its variants, is an inner African type-name for water and wet,
|a tebi, wet, Limba.||dsape, water, Dsuku.||ndsab, water, Bagha.|
|isof, " Kano.||ndsib, " Rayon.||ndsob, " Momenya.|
|sabe, " Toma.||ndsob, " Kum.|
Teb (Eg.), the mother of source, was a personification of the womb and manuna, and the female breast is named;
|debe, in Diwala.||debor, in Konguan.||diben, in Nyombe.|
|debe, in Mfut.||dibel, in Kanyika.||dibele, in Songo.|
|dibe, in Murundo.|
The procession of the gods from the abyss of beginning is not as Taylor the Platonist would phrase it, an ineffable unfolding into light of the one principle of all things. Damascius says truly, 'The Babylonians, like the rest of the barbarians, pass over in silence the one principle of the universe, and they constitute two, Tavthe and Apason.'
This beginning is followable. The earliest myth-makers knew of no one principle, or abstract spiritual entity in the Greek or still more modern sense. They observed phenomena and represented objective manifestations. Their beginning was simply the oneness that opened in giving birth and in bifurcating; hence the type of the female first, the one Great Mother of all. An illustration of the primitive profundity or the beginning with the abyss of darkness and the waters, may be found in the name given to their magicians by the Finns, who call them 'Abysses.' In like manner the Akkadian Hea, the god of wisdom and repository of all science, one of whose types was the fish, another the serpent, was the representative of the abyss. The abyss was in the north; the kibakiba, Fijian, or opening into the underworld. This is kheb-kheb in Egyptian, a name of lower and northern Egypt. It was also called the khepsh, or pool of the water-cow, khep, the typhonian genetrix who first brought to birth in or from the Abyss. The water-cow (hippopotamus) khep, or keb, has the inner African name of Ngabbu in Fulah. As khepsh it supplies the Pahlavi geusk for the typical cow which was also the earth; and the Greek gaes. The degrees of development are each preserved. The earth being considered flat, the abyss, however sunken and concealed, was still in the earth, or in the vast pool (sb) where the hippopotamus and crocodile had their habitat.
The ancient mother was portrayed as the pregnant water-cow in front and the crocodile behind. Thus she represented the two primal elements of water and breath, or the breathing life which she produced from the water. In a far later, because human type, the Hindu goddess Maya impersonates the Two Truths, the flowing and the fixed, as the ungirt and the upbound. She hovers over the waters of source and presses her two breasts with both hands; the feminine fount that streams with liquid life. The face and upper part of her body lighten with the radiance of the fire that vivifies, the spirit of life, the second of the Two Truths. Within the cincture of her scarf she is seen to be the bearing mother. It is also observable [p.466] that her figure and aureole of glory form the cross symbol corresponding to the ru and three-quarter cross of the ankh-sign. Her scarf also represents the tie.
In the second phase the genetrix as a personification of space below and above, of darkness and light, of water and air, of blood and breath, divides in twain and is then portrayed in two characters. A passage in the Avesta, translated by Haug, says, the 'Wise have manifested this universe as a Duality.' The word rendered duality is dûm, identified with the Sanskrit dvam (dvamdam, a pair), a word that is not found elsewhere in the Avesta; hence, says Max Muller, it is not likely the uncertainty
Maya: The Mother
attaching to it will be removed. This duality, however, is shown by the hieroglyphic double heaven the tem or tem.t, with the sign of the twin-total. Also the Chinese Thima is the goddess of the dual heaven: and Atem (Eg.) is the mother Goddess of Time. The Welsh have their equivalent of dvam in dwyf, called the self-existent cause or origin, from which they derive a pair of divine ancestors, as dwyfan the upper, and dwyfach the lower, or lesser cause. These are the dual heaven when referred back to phenomena. The genetrix of heaven or earth, in her two characters, was always the producer and bringer-forth in space; and the gods, whether elementary, stellar, lunar or solar, were produced and brought [p.467] forth by the mother, the sole supreme primordial being in (or as) earth and heaven.
Horapollo points out that the Egyptians thought it absurd to designate heaven in the masculine, τόν ουρανον, but represented it in the feminine, την ουρανον inasmuch as the generation of the sun, moon, and the rest of the stars is perfected in it, which is the peculiar property of the female. The heaven, whether upper or lower, was the bringer-forth, therefore feminine. Wheresoever the fatherhood is applied to the heaven itself the myth is later. The two heavens, or Heaven and Earth, were represented by the two divine sisters as Neith and Seti (or Nephthys), or Isis and Nupe, who were two forms of the first one, the mother and sister in the earliest sociology. These two sisters were represented not only as two goddesses, for in the cult of Atum at Heliopolis, the two sisters Urti, who bore the name of the double-uraei crown of maternity, were the servants of the god. These likewise agree with the two women of the temple that were carried away from Thebes by certain Phoenicians and became the first who established oracles in Lybia and Greece.
The author of the Book of God speaks of a picture of Paradise described in Brahminic theology. At the top of the seven-stepped mount there is a plain and in the midst a square table surrounded by nine precious stones, and a silver bell. On the table there is a silver rose called Tamara Pua, which is the shrine of two women, who are only one in reality, but two in appearance according as they are seen from below or above; the celestial or terrestrial one. In the first aspect the twin woman is Briga Sri, the 'lady of the mouth;' in the second she is Tara Sri, the 'lady of the tongue.' This dual being was depicted in Egypt as Pekht, the lioness. Pekh means division, and the genetrix divided into the double-mouth. One pekh (or peh) is the sign of the hinder-part (the back) the north, the mouth of birth the fore part (pekh-pekh or pekhti) is the mouth in front and therefore the mouth of the tongue. The double mouth typified the two horizons and the divided lioness was equivalent to the two sisters who represented earth and heaven.
In Chinese poetry the heaven is considered to be both father and mother. But in ancient Egypt, before the time of Seb, the plural parent was female alone; female above and female below female as the emaner of the waters of source (or blood) and female as the mother of breath, the gestator. Hence Seb also appears as the genetrix. In Chinese tien is the double heaven or heaven and earth as upper and lower of two. Thus ti denotes heaven and earth; and shang-ti the Supreme One, is of necessity dual, like the Egyptian penti for the one. The heavens are called ten or tien in [p.468] Amoy. Tem or ten (Eg.) signifies the division into two halves, and this is the root meaning of ten or ten-ten in Amoy, and tan in Chinese, to cut in two. We have the same duality in dawn for morning and den for evening.
The Hindu Aditi is the Great Mother of the gods who becomes twain. As the mother who yielded milk for them, she is identical with the cow of heaven in Egypt. Aditi was the primeval form of Dyaus, the sky divinity, who appears as such in the Rig-Veda, however rarely. She alternates with Diti as mother of the embryo that was divided into seven parts, the seven who were also called the seven Adityas. She became Diti in her second character, and is identical in both with the one original genetrix who opens and divides in all the ancient mythologies. The Aryanists who begin with little less than infinitude insist that Aditi signifies infinity, or the infinite, as a mental concept. Aditi, says Max Muller, is in reality the earliest name invented to express the infinite! Professor Benfey remarks that the conception of this goddess is still dark. Roth understands Aditi to mean the boundlessness of heaven as opposed to the limitation of earth. Aditi is, of course, the negative of Diti, and it is by aid of the latter that we have to recover foothold in phenomena. Then we shall find that the un-finited is not the infinite; the unbounded is not the boundless infinitude; timelessness is not necessarily the eternal. Diti in Sanskrit denotes cutting, splitting and dividing. Thut also signifies splitting and dividing. Tithi is the fifteenth lunar day, the day of dividing. So tutua in Tahitian, signifies splitting in two, and in the inner African languages we find didi in Timbo; didi Salum; didi, Goboru; didi, Kano, as the type name for number two, the divided one. Aditi has a mystical form on certain Hindu talismans under the form of Athithi, the unfixed, the undefined, or unestablished; and this was the sole character preceding that of Diti. Aditi was the primordial undivided one, the all, who when divided as the Egyptian goddess of the north, bifurcates in Uati, the dual one; or as Omoroka and the cow she is cut in two and becomes Diti the divided. Aditi produced Diti by a sort of self-splitting which may be compared with that of the entozoa, molluscoids and annelids; she being twofold in herself as the representative of the Two Truths.
The passage from a 'Mother Heaven' to a 'Father Heaven' is easily traced. The upper of the two females represented the breathing force as the inspirer of soul. This being the superior power of two, it came to be considered masculine, and was then portrayed as a male attribute of the motherhood. There is an extract rendered by Bunsen from the 'Great Announcement,' a work attributed to Simon, the Samaritan, which has a bearing on this change of sex in the heaven. Simon teaches that the root of all things bifurcated in two powers. Of these, the one appears above, [p.469] and is the Great Power, the mind of the universe, directing all things male; the other appears below, the great thought, female, producing all things. Hence, being thus ranged one against the other, they form a syzygia (a pair, copula), and make manifest the intermediate interval, the incomprehensible air. In this air is the father, supporting all things. This is 'him who stands'—as did Khem-Horus, Mentu or Khepra-Ra—and who was of a dual nature. These gnostic evolutions, whether Simonian, Valentinian or Marcosian, were but a continuation of the mythical characters in a later phase of thought. The great power was the female inspirer of the male, his Shakti; she who was the primary begetter as communicator of the breath of life; next, begetting was identified as masculine, and the upper was then called the father Heaven.
Our British Druids must have possessed the myths and symbols of Egypt right to the inmost core of the matter. The Great Mother who bifurcates in the two heavens, or the two divine sisters, is represented by Kêd in two persons as Keridwen and Ogyrwen. Also her daughter repeats the dual phase. She has two names. As Kreirwy her name denotes the token of the egg (i.e., virginalis) as Llywy she is the emaner of the egg; i.e., Matrona. The double daughter represents the two phases of the female nature. Kreirwy is the British Proserpine, she who in the Greek mythos was fated to dwell alternately in the upper and lower heavens, or the underworld. Another form of her name is Kreirddylad the token of the flowing or the mystical period, and this is the original of Cordelia by name. She keeps her character too as the dumb Cordelia of the drama in which our See of the Druidic Mystery is the silent one, the Mer-Seker (Eg.) type of the flowing (Nile or Nature), as a divinity humanized for ever.
'Of the vivific Goddesses,' says Proclus, 'they call the one older but the other younger.' These two forms of the mother appear in the Mapgaian mythology as Vari and Papa. Vari is the very beginning in the Abyss, the Polynesian Sige who dwells in the mute land at the bottom of Avaiki, where she is the originator of all things, from the water or mud of source. She is the blood-mother who creates her children from pieces of her own flesh, these therefore are equivalent to the embryos of A-diti. Vari is the first form of the Great Mother and Papa, answering to Diti, is the second. It is Papa who produces the first human being in a perfect human shape, as the mother of breath or soul called Foundation. In a dramatic song of creation Vari, the first of the two is celebrated as the source of all, and the singers claim descent from her, the mother, alone, 'We have no Father whatever; Vari alone made us,' and 'Vari the originator of all things, sheltered Papa under her wing.' [p.470] The mother was the first papa, and remains so in some of the oldest languages like the Australian.
|pappy, mother, Hamilton, Aust.||paapie, mother, Kulkyne, Aust.|
|pepie, " Camperdown, Aust.||bab, " Akkadian.|
|papie, " Upper Richardson, Aust.||babia, the Great Mother, Khetan.|
|bap, " Lake Hindmarsh, Aust.||vavy, female, Malagasy.|
|baboo, " Tyntyndyer, Aust.||fafine, " Tongan.|
|pabook, " Gunbower, Aust.||papa, " Egyptian.|
True, this is an inner African type-name for the father, because the one word first named the producer or duplicator in languages that did not denote sex.
Mythology keeps the prehistoric record of the past. It shows the mother was the first person distinguished from the herd. Descent from one mother was the first bond of blood. The sister was second. These two are typified as the two divine sisters, Isis and Nephthys, who are at one and the same time the two sisters and wives of Horus in his two characters. The 'two women' appear as the two wives of Jacob 'which two did build the House of Israel.' The king of Burma has two especial wives, the superior and inferior one. Manaboju, in the North American Indian legends, has two squaws. The Hottentot possesses his elder wife, Geiris, the great wife, and Aris the younger wife, as did Heitsi-eibib their first ancestor. The Kaffir chief has two typical wives; one, the great wife; the other the wife of the right hand; one being called the Elephantess, whilst his great wife is called the Lioness. And here, although the fatherhood is individualized the mode of distinguishing, dividing, and expanding by means of the two women is still extant. Each of these two wives produces an heir. The first is the principal heir, but a portion of the tribe is allotted to the Benjamin or son of the right hand, with which he constitutes a new clan; and so they spread abroad, even as men did originally in the first two castes. It may be noticed that the Namaqua Khoi-khoi have the two women as their two wives in a curious combination of polygamy and polyandry. With these, two chiefs hold four wives in common between them. This is the twin-wife system doubled, as if they might represent the twin-brothers of mythology married to the genetrix in her dual character of the two sisters.
The beginning on earth shows why the celestial beginning is with and from the great mother in earth and heaven, whose two characters become the two sisters. And the dual figure of Isis or Neith as the earth or lower hemisphere, and Nupe as the starry heaven represents the two women, the two sisters from whom the Kamilaroi claim their descent. The upper one is a common figure of the Egyptian Pê (heaven), and this alone is sufficient to determine a matter previously alluded to, against Brugsch Pasha, who says the Egyptians did not [p.471] reckon by the right hand east and left hand west. Their figure of heaven and earth does double duty and shows the south as front, the north as hinder-part; with the east for the right hand and west for the left. This can only be illustrated by one figure in the Egyptian fashion. The attitude of this, the upper figure, is equal to two figures for south and north as front and back; and the position of the face turns the natural left arm into the right, so that we have the face for the south, the hinder-part for the north, the right hand being east, and the left west. This is supplemented and enforced by the position of the lower figure. When one stands with the face to the north to represent the south, the face and front of heaven, as did Sut (or Sothis), the east is on the right hand, but it then needs another figure to stand for the north as hinder-part, and this would be the other female half. In all typology, the west and north are feminine, the left hand quarter and the hinder-half of heaven. In the Isubu language, Dia da modi, the female, is the left, because inferior hand. Also, when the death of an Australian black occurs after sunset, the nearest of kin, a male and female watch by it all night. Two fires are lighted; one toward the east, the other toward the west, and it is the male who watches eastward, the female westward.
The goddess of the Great Bear and northern heaven was the bringer-forth in the abyss of earth in one of two characters, that of the mother earth; in the other she brought forth above as the mother heaven, the feminine Dyaus who was Tep above and Tepht below. The duality of the genetrix which commenced in the division of earth and heaven was finally deposited in the zodiac of twelve signs. First, she was the abyss of birth represented by the dragon; second, the goddess of the Great Bear; third, the wateress with streaming breasts in the Hermean zodiac; and lastly, she was portrayed as the virgin mother in the sign of Virgo and the bringer-forth in the sign of Pisces, where she is half-fish and half-human, and thus combines the Two Truths of water and breath in one image. Ishtar-Bilit, the genetrix in her dual character of Venus above and Venus below the horizon was worshipped in the temples of Syria, as at Hierapolis, under the form of a statue with a golden dove on her head, one of her names there being Semiramis. Lucian calls Semiramis the daughter of Derketo (Atergatis) whom he saw in Phoenicia as a woman with the tail of a fish, whereas, at Hierapolis she was woman all over. The fish denoted the element of water; the [p.472] dove signified the soul of breath that was derived from the mother. The breath or spirit of life was first perceived in the motherhood, and the Two Truths of the water and breath were assigned to the mother. This accounts for the feminine form of the creative spirit in Hebrew. Julius Firmicus observes, 'the Assyrians and part of the Africans wish the air to have the supremacy of the elements, for they have consecrated it under the name of Juno.' And according to Proclus, 'Juno imports the generation of the soul.' Dido, who at Carthage was portrayed with a beard like the standing image of Aphrodite at Paphos, had a second character in Anna. These two divine sisters, the bonia coelestis and inferna coelestis were worshipped, the one, Dido, with dark bloody rites; the other, Anna, the charming one, with cheerful ceremonies. They divided into the good goddess of the upper heaven and the evil one of the lower. Pausanias tells us there was a temple of Aphrodite, and the only such one known to him, which had two storeys, the lower consecrated to the armed goddess; the upper to Aphrodite-Morpho who was sitting veiled with her feet bound. Pausanias thought the fetters showed the attachment of women to their husbands. The tie symbol denotes the gestator, the bearing mother.
One of the legends in the Mahabharata, describes Kaçyapas as taking two wives fruitful. One is Kadrü, the dark or red one; the other is Vinatä, the swollen one, that is the gestator, the mother of breath, she who emanes the egg, out of which issued the serpent.
Sufficient has now been shown of the Great Mother in her two phases of the virgin and gestator, also as the two sisters of sociology.
It is the most ancient and most primitive myths that are the most universal; and one of the most universal is that of the twin-brothers, born of the genetrix either in her single or her dual character. The abyss of darkness, is said, in the Bundahish, to be in the middle of the earth, and to have been formed there when the Evil Spirit pierced and rushed into the earth at the time when 'all the possessions of the world were changing into duality,' and the conflict and contention of high and low began. It is also said in the Bundahish that 'Revelation is the explanation of both these spirits together;' the two spirits of light and darkness that manifest in space and time. This was in the division or bifurcation of all beginning. The abyss of darkness became the hell as antithesis of heaven. The evening and the morning were the twin boundary in the first formation of night and day. And in Hebrew the evening or darkness has the same name as the raven, the blackbird, the gareb, identical with the Latin corvus, old German kraben, old Norse [p.473] harfn; Greek korōnë, Maltese hrab, Scotch garble, which modifies into crow. The same word in Egyptian khereb signifies a first formation, the model figure. 'The evening (gareb) and the morning were the first day,' and the raven was the type of the dark side. The dove is one form of the bird of light. This in Lithuanic is the golub; the golambo in Polish, and columba in Latin. Both birds were equally types of the first formation and both are named from that origin. The raven and dove are equivalent to the bird of darkness and the bird of light, which constitute the double-headed type of Sut-Horus and Sut-Nubti in Egypt.
It was argued in the earlier volumes of this work that the legend of Sut-Horus was pre-monumental, and belonged to the time of the Shus-en-Har, to whom an historical period of 13,420 years is assigned. This view has since been corroborated by the inscriptions discovered at Saqqara. In the later phase the twin-brothers are called the 'Sons of Osiris,' as was the way after the fatherhood had been established. They are described as having quarrelled and fought for the succession, whereupon Taht intervened, and assigned to each his domain, one having the north, the other the south. Hence, the first division of the heaven, or the land of Egypt, by north and south was the result of the quarrel and division of the twinborn brothers. These are the two brothers of universal mythology, and the myth is now proved to be incalculably ancient in Egypt; not a later importation from Asia as some had previously thought.
In the Magic Papyrus, the genetrix in two characters which may be identified with Earth and Heaven, or the two horizons of the solar myth is represented by Anata (Neith), and Astarte, the 'Two Great Goddesses who conceive and do not breed.' These two are said to be opened by Sut, and to be shut up or sealed by Horus. The figure of Sut-Horus was at first a dual type of that which is negative and positive in phenomena, whether as the alternate dark and light, or the double lunation, or the twin horizons, represented by the human being, as the impubescent boy, and the virile male; the one who opened and sealed the genetrix in his two characters. The earliest phenomenal form of the Twins as darkness (Sut) and light (Horus), shows us why Taht, the lunar god, should be chosen as mediator betwixt them and the determinator of their two boundaries, because he came between the darkness of night and the light of day as lord of the lunar orb.
Sut-Horus then is portrayed as the double manifestor of light and darkness on the two horizons, with the heads of two birds, one being the black vulture, the Neh; the other the gold hawk of the solar fire. It is a figure of the Two Truths of day and dark, the two elements of water and fire with other applications of the type to phenomena. [p.474] Horus was said to duplicate or rise again as the white god. 'Black and crystal are the faces of those attacked to him.' In the Avesta the Good Spirit is white, the Bad Spirit black. A am ah ve ho, the white man above, is likewise the Cheyenne name for god. In the earlier time the white or light god was the golden. Another name of this dual divinity is Sut-Nub, the original of Sothis-Canopus in the stellar phase; and Nub signifies the golden, Sut is black, like the English soot. The Sut-Horus or Sut-Nub reappears in Australia as War-pu, the male eagle or the hawk eagle who represents the star Sirius (Sothis-Sut), and War who represents the star Canopus. Thus the Egyptian Sut-Har (or Sut-Nub), the dual Har in Egypt is identical with the dual War of the Victorian Blacks; and the two-faced divinity is represented by the stars Sothis and Canopus. In the northern part of Victoria the natives say the beings who created all things were the eagle and the crow. And the hawk-eagle and crow are one with the bird of light and the black bird which form the dual type of the well-known Sut-Horus, or Sut-Nub in Egypt.
There was continual warfare between the twin-brothers, the crow taking every possible advantage of his nobler foe, the eagle; but the latter had ample revenge for his insults and injuries. At length the deadly struggle ceased, and peace was established by an agreement that the Murray Blacks should be divided into two classes, those of the eagle-hawk, the Mak-quarra, and those of the Kii-parra or crow totem. The same war is described in the Irish myth between the two brothers, Heber and Heremon, and it was perpetuated in Egypt as the war that went on for ever between Sut and Horus, in the eschatological phase of the mythos. This identification of Canopus is very remarkable, for, according to Plutarch, Canopus was the helmsman of the solar god. His wife's name was Menuthis, a form of the old suckler Typhon. In the Inscriptions on the Tablet of San, Sut-Nub is called the overthrower of the enemies of the sun in the Boat of Millions of Years. The golden Sut, the golden dog (jackal) was represented by the golden star, and a learned priest told Aristides the orator, that Canopus signified the 'golden floor.' The golden hawk of the Sut-Horus type is one of the golden images of the male Sut.
The Australian Blacks of Victoria account themselves to be very great astronomers. That is, they have preserved some of the primitive types which were first stelled in the heavens. We shall find they have the Great Mother of the beginnings not only in her earliest phase, as the bringer-forth in space, but also in time as the Bear, or goddess of the Bears and the waters. The Bushmen also identify the star Sirius as the Great Mother, or the grandmother of Canopus. Sirius or Sothis was the star of Sut. In its feminine type it [p.475] represented the Great Mother of beginnings in the Southern Heaven; and Canopus (Nub) is her starry son, in a pre-solar mythos. Thus we find the same mythos in Egypt and Victoria, whilst the connecting link supplied by the Bushmen serves as a bridge by which we can cross from inner Africa to Australia. Although not so obvious in every case, yet the entire system of the most ancient mythology which Egypt shows to be Kamite, is as surely one and the same in its origin.
The Orientals called the raven the 'Bird of Separation,' and it is primary, because darkness was reckoned to be first. The bird of light issues from it in the double-headed Sut. The rock sculptures of the North American Indians show the contending twins as gods of the north and south who continue the conflict for ever on behalf of warm and cold weather. The god of the south has two birds, the plover and crow, the equivalent of the hawk and the raven. These are sent out when he wants warm weather, and contests the supremacy of the world with the northern divinity. The crow, however, is the representative of the dark power.
The British Arthur must likewise have been represented by the two birds of light and darkness, for it is an extant Cornish and Welsh superstition that King Arthur did not die but transformed into a raven, in the shape of which he is living still. In Jarvis' translation of Don Quixote it is said that in the annals of England Arthur, whom the Spaniards know as King Artus (Art, Irish, is the Great Bear), it is a recorded tradition that Arthur did not die but was changed into a raven by magic art and that he would rise again and reign; 'for which reason it cannot be proved that from that time to this any Englishman has killed a raven.' The raven is our phoenix, the bennu of the resurrection. So the raven remained a type sacred to Apollo, in Greece, who was the Horus of Egypt.*
* Both birds were united in the phoenix as they are in our Royston or Dunstable Crow, which is white and black, and is called the fineog in Irish. The phoenix is the bird of transformation, and it is an English superstition that the cuckoo transforms into a sparrow-hawk in spring. So in Plutarch's Life of Aratus, when the cuckoo asks the other birds why they flee from him, who is not ferocious, they tell him they fear the future sparrow-hawk!
The earliest form of the motherhood is inseparable from the son who takes a dual shape under various types, as the child and pubescent youth who preceded the fatherhood, or the child of darkness and the hero of light.
Vari, the Mangaian Great Mother, gives birth to the dual child her Sut-Horus who is half-human and half-fish, the division being like the two halves of a human body. He has two magnificent eyes, rarely visible at the same time. Whilst one shines in the heaven [p.476] above, the other illumines Savaiki. These are now supposed to be the sun and moon, as we find them in an address to Khnum: 'O thou Lord of Lords, Khnum, whose right eye is the sun's disk, whose left eye is the moon.'
The first twins are two brothers. They consist of a bright being who is held to be divine, and a dark one who comes to be considered devilish, and who began as the devil in physical phenomena. In the beginning the mother Darkness opened and gave birth to her brood of elementaries as the evil-working powers. This beginning with darkness internal and external, and the starting from the night side of phenomena will account for the dark power, the deity as devil, being the uppermost of two with many of the primitive tribes. It was the dark power born of darkness, whose shadow put out the light, that was first dreaded by the black race; the influence earliest feared and longest believed in, whose type survived in Egypt as the black Sut, the black Hak or Kak, and the black Osiris. Although the latter were but forms of the nocturnal sun, they continued the type of terror in a psychotheistic phase.
The devil of a god who is recognised by the West Coast negroes is black, malignant, and mischievous. How should poor Caliban have apprehended otherwise when his chief teachers were wrath and danger; the blackness spitting fire and growling as if heaven were fuller of wild beasts than the forests of earth; the snap of the crocodile, the sting of the serpent, the stroke of the sun, the whirlwind, flood, and all the torments of incomprehensible disease? If there were a conscious power postulated behind phenomena it must appear of a very bad nature to Caliban.
Burton asked the negroes of the East Coast about the deity, and they wanted to know where he was to be found, that they might slay him. They said, 'Who but he lays waste our homes, and kills our wives and cattle?' Such being their very natural interpretation of the intemperate phenomena of nature.
In the Bundahish the evil demon and tempter is the darkness, and he shouts out of the dark his insidious, vile suggestions to the primal human pair, Mashya and Mashyoi. Their turning aside from the right way to worship the dark power is represented as the 'Fall.' But this form of Kotou from fear was primordial, the root of a religious awe, and as such the feeling has been sedulously fostered up to the present time! The dark power was primal.
An evil being that is propitiated and flattered or glorified so that it may not work any harm is always found to be related to natural phenomena which are inimical to man. He is connected by the Hottentots with thunder as well as with disease and death. Dr. Hahn shows that the worship of Gaunab, the bad being or inimical power, [p.477] who dwells in the black sky, was probably of a much older date than that of the good being Tsuni-Goam.
The Gabe Bushmen, the Ai Bushmen, the Nunin, and others, know, fear, and propitiate the evil-doer Gaunab, whereas the good power, Tsuni-Goam, is entirely unknown or unrecognised amongst them. In Mangaia it was the dark god Rongo who was the principal deity of the twins, and who had to be appeased by human sacrifice. With various other races the dark power is the worshipful, because it works harm to man.
Dr. Hahn learned from an old Habobe-Namaqua that TsuniGoam was a powerful chief of the Khoi-Khoi (Hottentots). In fact he was the first from whom they took their origin. Tsuni-Goam went to war with Gaunab because the latter always killed great numbers of Tsuni-Goam's people. In the continual conflict, however, the good god, though repeatedly overpowered by Gaunab, grew stronger and stronger with every battle he waged. At last he grew strong and big enough to give his enemy a fatal blow behind the ear, which put an end to Gaunab. But whilst Gaunab was expiring he gave Tsuni-Goam a stroke on the knee, from which the conqueror received his name of Tsuni-Goam or 'Wounded-Knee.' Henceforth he could never walk properly because of his lameness, but he was victor for the future. He could do wonderful things, and was very wise. He could tell what would happen in years to come. He died several times, and several times he rose again. When he came back there was a great festival of rejoicing. He dwells in a bright and beautiful heaven, and his opponent Gaunab dwells in a dark heaven, quite separate from the heaven of Tsuni-Goam.
There are several renderings of Tsuni-Goam's name and story. In Bleek's Hottentot Fables we have another version of the twins. 'At first they were two! One had made a large hole in the ground, and sitting by it told passers-by to throw a stone at his forehead. The stone, however, rebounded, killing the thrower, who fill into the hole. At last Heitsi-Eibip was told that many people died in this way. So he arose, and went to the man, who challenged HeitsiEibip to throw a stone at him. The latter declined, being too prudent; but he drew the man's attention to something on one side, and while he turned round to look at it Heitsi-Eibip hit him behind the ear, so that he died and fell into his own hole. After that there was peace, and people lived happily.'
Another variant reminds one of the negro chant, 'Chase the devil round the stump.' The two opponents hunt each other round the hole or abyss. We are told that 'All men who came near to that hole were pushed into it by Ga-gorip (the pusher into the hole), as he knew well where it lay. Whilst thus employed there came the Heitsi-Eibip (also [p.478] called Heigeip) and saw how the Ga-gorip treated the people. Then these two began to hunt each other round the hole, saying, "Push the Heigeip down," "Push the Ga-gorip down." With these words they hunted each other round for some time, but at last the Heigip was pushed down. Then he said to the hole "support me a little;" and it did. Being thus supported he came out, and they hunted each other again with the same words. A second time the Heigip was pushed down, and he spoke the same words, "support me a little," and thus got out again. Once more these two hunted after each other, till at last the Gagorip was pushed down, and he came not up again. Since that day men breathed freely, and had rest from their enemy, because he was vanquished.'
The same conflict of the twins is celebrated in the legends of the Australian aborigines. The story told by a man of the Wa-woo-rong or Yarra tribe is that 'Pundjel was the first man. He made every thing; the second man (Kar-ween) he made also, as well as two wives for Kar-ween. But Pundjel made no wife for himself and after a lapse of tune he came to want Kar-ween's wives—but he watched them very jealously, and wouldn't let Pundjel get near them. The latter, however, was clever enough to steal both the wives in the night, and take them away. Kar-ween, taking some spears, pursued Pundjel, but he could find neither him nor his wives. In a short time Pundjel came back, bringing with him two women. He asked Kar-ween to fight on the following day, and proposed that the women should fall to whoever conquered. To this Kar-ween agreed, having a different plan in his mind, which was this, to make ingargiull or corrobboree. Kar-ween spoke to Waugh (the crow) and asked him to make a corrobboree. And many crows came, and they made a great light in the air, and they sang as they danced round. Whilst they were thus singing Pundjel danced. Kar-ween took a spear, and threw it at him, and wounded him a little in the leg, but not in such a manner as to hurt Pundjel much. Pundjel however was very angry, and, seizing a spear, threw it at Kar-ween, and with such good aim that it went through Kar-ween's thigh, who could walk about no more, became sick, lean as a skeleton, whereupon Pundjel made Kar-ween a crane, and that bird was thereafter called Kar-ween. Pundjel was the conqueror and had the women.'
In another version we learn that the two beings who created all things had severally the form of the crow and the eagle. The conflict that was waged between the rival powers is thus preserved in song
|Thinj-arni balkee Mako;||Nato-panda Kambe-ar tona.|
|Knee strike cow;||Spear father of him.|
The meaning of which is 'Strike the cow on the knee, I will spear the father.'
The war was maintained with vigour for a long time. The crow [p.479] took every possible advantage of his nobler foe the eagle; but the latter generally had ample revenge for injuries and insults. Out of their enmities and final agreement arose the two classes, and thence a law governing marriages amongst the classes.
Mr. Bulmer says: 'The Blacks of the Murray are divided into two classes of the Mak-quarra or Eagle and the Kil-parra or Crow. If the man be Mak-quarra the woman must be Kil-parra. The children take their caste from the in other, not from the father. The Murray blacks never deviate from this rule. A man would as soon many his sister as a woman of the caste to which he belongs. He calls a woman of the same class Wurtoa (sister).'
Here we find the crow and the eagle, the birds of darkness and of light, are the two totemic signs of the people that were first divided into two different castes, just as they are the two symbols of the earliest divisions into light and dark, or the heaven into south and north, which shows what was meant by calling the raven the 'Bird of separation.' Moreover, we see the beginning with the dark power and type, the black bird being for a long time the superior one, and the conquest made by the bird of light over his brother. This is shown in another way. 'Waugh' is one name of the crow and of the 'Second Man'—he who was first in time. In the Phoenician legend, according to Sanchoniathon, Hypsuranius and Usous are a form of the two brothers who quarrel and are at enmity with each other. These, the typical dividers, are said to have been begotten when the intercourse between the sexes was so promiscuous that women accompanied with any man they might chance to meet, and men with their own mothers. The Eskimos of Greenland relate that in the beginning there were two brothers, one of whom said, 'There shall be Night and there shall be Day, and men shall die one after another.' But the second said, 'There shall be no Day but only Night all the time, and men shall live for ever.' Then they wrestled for the supremacy; the dark one was worsted in the long struggle and the day triumphed at last. The Singhalese have a pair of twins, Gopolu and Menkara, born of a queen on the Coromandel Coast. The mother died and the twins were suckled by a cow. The brothers quarrelled, and Gopolu being slain was changed into an evil demon who sends diseases from his abode in a Banyan tree in Arangodde. Mangara is worshipped as god or demi-god. The Mexican Great Mother who was called the woman with the serpent, and the woman of our flesh, was represented as the mother of the twins. She is depicted on a monument in the act of conversing with the serpent whilst her twin children are standing behind her; they are differently coloured in token of their diverse characters, and one of them is [p.480] likewise portrayed as overcoming or slaying the other. These twins were also born of Cihuacohuatl as two serpents. Her name is the Female Serpent, which shows her to be a form of the dragon Tiamat and Typhon the genetrix. She gave birth to the twins of light and darkness as her two serpents. One is, however, considered male, the other female; and to these the Aztecs referred the origin of mankind. Hence twins and serpents are synonymous as Cocahua—cohua being the singular for serpent, cocohua the plural.
The Mangaians relate that the genetrix who took the dual form of the two women, as Vari below and Papa above, bore two children. Tangaroa, the fair one, was the first by right, and ought to have been the firstborn, but was said to have politely given precedence to his brother Rongo, the dark one, just as Jacob gave precedence to Esau, but recovered the birthright from him afterwards. Rongo the Dark came up from the Mute-land-home of Vari, the first of the two mothers who never ascended from the lower world. Soon after this birth the genetrix, as Papa, the second of the two mothers, suffered from a great swelling. She resolved to get rid of it by pressing it. This she did; the core flew out, and it was Tangaroa. Another account says that Tangaroa came right up out of Papa's head, the precise spot being indicated by 'the Crown,' with which all their descendants have since been born. That is the double crown which is still considered to be auspicious. Tangaroa instructed his brother Rongo in the arts of tillage: he was the husbandman of the Phoenician and Hebrew myths, as Esau is a man of the field. Their father was desirous of making Tangaroa, the fair one, the sole lord of all that the parents possessed. So Isaac, the father of the twins, loved Esau. But Papa, the mother, interposes on behalf of Rongo, the dark one, as Rebekah interposed on behalf of Jacob, to secure the blessing for him. In each version of the myth the mother had her own way. Hence, whenever a sacrifice was offered to Rongo, the refuse was thrown to the mother who dwelt with him in the shades below. Through the cunning of Papa, the government, feasts, the drum of peace, all honours and power were secured to Rongo. Nearly all sorts of food fell to the elder twin-god, with this exception. Tangaroa was admitted to be lord of all the red on earth or in ocean. This was his lot; the red taro, the red yam, the red chestnut; four kinds of fish, all scarlet, and all other things that were red. This possession by the fair god of all the red on earth as his share is the exact parallel of Esau, the red man who is fed with a mess of red. If Tangaroa is not described as a red man, he has red or sandy hair. Rongo's hair is raven-black. Here, also, red and black correspond to the red heaven of Tsuni-Goam and the black heaven of Gaunab in the Khoi-Khoi myth. It has been previously suggested that Jacob was a form of the Egyptian god Kak, whose name means darkness [p.481] or black. At a feast made by the twin-gods each collected his own kinds of food only, and to this the mother and father were invited. Tangaroa, lord of the red, made a vast pile of all things red, crowned atop with red land-crabs, and all the crimson fish he could find in the sea. Rongo's pyramid was immensely greater, and the parents said that while Tangaroa's offering carried the palm for beauty Rongo's excelled in abundance. Tangaroa was so displeased at the preference shown to Rongo that, although he did not kill his brother as Cain did, yet he left the land of Rongo, became the earliest navigator, and went forth to find, or found, a place where he could dwell by himself. This corresponds to the rival offerings of Cain and Abel. Abel's were blood-offerings, and Rongo was the god of blood-sacrifice. In consequence of the preference shown to Abel's sacrifice Cain fell upon him, and then, like Tangaroa, he went forth to build a city in the land of Nod. According to the true mythos Cain is really the good brother, the light one of the twins, whereas Abel is the dark and disappearing one. Hence the doctrine of the Gnostic Cainites, who declared that Cain derived his being from the power above, and not from below. In the Algonquin versions it is the child of light who commits the fratricide. The sympathies of the Hebrew writers, however, have gone with 'righteous' Abel instead of Cain, as they do with Jacob, another type of the dark deceitful one, instead of Esau. But how honest nature rises in revolt against the treacheries and sharp practices described in the Hebrew scriptures! In a Syrian story relating to the 'seven oaks' on a hill in anti-Libanus, told by a native of the village of Zebdani, Cain and Abel, the two sons of Adam, are called Rabid and Habil.*
* Or Kabil and Habil.
The whole world was divided between them; and this was the cause of their quarrel, Habil moved his boundary stones too far; Rabid threw them at him; and Habil fell. His brother in great grief carried the body on his back for 500 years, not knowing what to do with it. At last, on the top of a hill, he saw two birds fighting, the one killed the other, washed him, and buried him in the ground. Habid did the same for his brother's body and planted his staff to mark the spot. That staff grew up into the seven trees. This shows that Habil was the encroaching dark one, and it restores the true mythos. The two contending birds, and the staff which marks the boundary, appear as in various other versions.
Jacob and Esau are a form of the mythical twins who struggle for supremacy in the mother's womb. Esau is really the god of light, the red Tsuni-Goam, or the Red Sun (Atum) of the solar mythos. Jacob is the demon of darkness, who was Kak (Eg.), the elemental darkness continued by name as Kak or Kã (Eg.), the nocturnal sun. Jacob appears in both these phases. Esau the red is the hairy man, [p.482] a type of pubescence. The Jewish traditions, which are worth the history in the Pentateuch ten times over, tell us that Esau, when born, had the likeness of a serpent on his heel. This shows two things. He was a personification of the light-god that bruised the serpent's head, and Jacob, who laid hold of Esau's heel, was primarily the serpent or devil of darkness—hence the wily one, the deceiver, by nature and by name. Esau is said to have sold his birthright for a 'mess of red' (מדא), and the traditions assert that he was called the red because he sucked his mother's blood before his birth. This, likewise, shows him to have been the divinity imaged by the solar hawk, which symbolised blood 'because they say that this Bird does not drink water, but Blood, by which the soul is sustained.' The hawk and serpent conjoined are a well-known type of the primordial divinity of a dual nature. In his second struggle Jacob wrestles all night with the opposing power and becomes a form of the Hottentot 'Wounded-knee,' who wrestled or fought with Gaunab, the dark and evil being, therefore it may be inferred that Jacob, like Kak, passed out of the elementary into the distinctly solar character of the nocturnal sun, as in other versions of the same mythos.
The hawk and eagle are interchangeable types of the soaring bird of fire or light; the eagle and serpent appear in the following Miztec myth. In this the twin brothers are the two sons of the parents of the gods called the Lion-Snake and the Tiger-Snake. One of these was the Wind of Nine Snakes, the other the Wind of Nine Caves. When the elder desired to amuse himself he took the form of an eagle, flying thus far and wide; the younger turned himself into a small beast of a serpent shape, having wings which he used with such agility and sleight that he became invisible, and flew through walls and rocks even as through air. The two, therefore, correspond individually to the double Horus who was represented by a serpent and a hawk, also to the feathered serpent which was twinned in the Quiche legends as the type of primordial power. These two agreed to make a sacrificial offering to their parents, the gods. Then they took each a censer of clay, and put fire therein, and poured in ground beleño for incense; and this offering was the first that had ever been made in the world. Next they created a beautiful garden and left the home of their parents to go and live in it and tend it. They prayed to the gods to shape the firmament, lighten the darkness of the world, and to establish the foundation of the earth, or rather to gather the waters together so that the earth might appear, as they had no place to rest in save only their one little garden. To make their prayers effectual they pierced their ears and tongues with flakes of flint, sprinkling the blood that dropped from their wounds over the trees and plants of the garden with a willow branch.
The beginning was with darkness and its division into dark and light, in the elementary stage of the mythos. Eznik, an Armenian author of the fifth century, who wrote a book on heresies, containing a refutation of the false doctrine of the Persians, says, 'Before anything, heaven or earth, or creature of any kind whatever therein, was existing, Zeruan (time) existed.' He offered sacrifices for a thousand years in the hope of obtaining a son, Ormizt by name, who was to create heaven, earth, and everything therein. Whilst he was sacrificing and cogitating Ormizt and Arhmen were conceived in the womb of their mother. Ormizt as the fruit of his sacrifices, Arhmen as that of his doubts. When Zeruan was aware of this event he said, Two sons are in the womb he who will first come to me is to be made king. Ormizt having perceived his father's thoughts revealed them to Arhmen, saying, Zeruan, our father, intends to make him king who shall be born first. Having heard these words Arhmen perforated the womb and appeared before his father. But Zeruan, when he saw him, did not know who he was, and asked him, 'Who art thou?' He told him, 'I am thy son.' Zeruan answered him, 'My son is well-scented and shining, but thou art dark and ill-smelling.' While they were thus talking Ormizt, shining and well-scented, appeared before Zeruan who, seeing him, perceived him at once to be his son Ormizt, and handed over to him his rod (the Barsom) and blessed him. Then Arhmen approached him saying, 'Hast thou not vowed to make that one of thy two sons king who should first come to thee?' Zeruan in order to avoid breaking his vow, replied to Arhmen, 'Oh, thou liar and evil-doer, the empire is to be ceded to thee for nine thousand years; but I place Ormizt over thee as chief and after nine thousand years he will reign and do what he likes.' Then Ormizt and Arhmen began the work of creation; everything produced by Ormizt was good and right, and everything wrought by Arhmen was bad and perverse. In the Hebrew version of the twins, Jacob and Esau, Isaac the father takes the place of Zeruan, Esau is the firstborn, but Jacob wins the birthright by deceit. Isaac, like Zeruan, tries to determine which is the true heir by smelling him. When the disguised Jacob came near his father, his father 'smelled the smell of his raiment, and blessed him, and said, See, the smell of my son is as the smell of a field which the Lord bath blessed.' Jacob is represented as being the 'well-scented,' like Ormizt in the Persian account.
In some forms of the myth the two powers are antiphonal rather than antagonistic; they meet amicably like Satan and the lord of light in the Book of Job, or in Faust. In an ancient version of the relationship of Sut and Horus the two stand on two opposite eminences in the character, as it were, of two land surveyors, they solemnly agree respecting the natural boundaries of each other's [p.484] domains and each pronounces the formula, 'The land of An is the boundary of the land.'
The circle of day and night was also typified by an egg which divided and gave birth to the twin brothers. The two Dioscuri are depicted with half of the severed shell on each of their heads as a cap or helmet. The Dioscuri are curiously portrayed upon the coins of the Greek city of Istros in Moesia. The opposition, alternation, conflict or contention of the twins is ingeniously illustrated. M. Lenormant has pointed out that their two heads seen on the obverse side are there placed side by side but in opposite directions, so that when one of them appears to the spectator in its normal position, the other is reversed, forehead downwards. Chaldaeo-Babylonian art had adopted the same combination to symbolise the opposition of the twins of the zodiac. Their ordinary representation on the cylinders of hard stone, which were used as seals, consisted of two small figures of men placed one above the other, with their feet in opposite directions.
In referring to the Chaldean form of the twin brothers, a fragment of Babylonian legend may be quoted here as a sort of summary of the earliest creations. So ancient is this recovered relic that the entire literature of the cuneiform inscriptions, contains nothing with which it has been correlated. It states that in the beginning the great gods created two kinds of men in the likeness of birds. 'Warriors with the bodies of Birds of the Desert (and) Men whose faces were Ravens. Tiamat gave them suck: their life was created by Bilat-Ili (the Mistress of the Gods). In the midst of the earth they grew up and became strong; and ... Seven Kings brethren were made to come as begetters.' The oldest of the seven brothers is named Memangab, the Thunderbolt. This brief rendering of a broken tablet contains the perfect legend of the typhonian creation, with Tiamat, the Deep, in place of the Abyss, Tepht. Tiamat and Bilat represent the two sisters into which the genetrix divided; one gives suck (water-source), the other soul (breath of life). The two kinds of bird-men correspond to the dual Sut-Horus, with the two birds of light and darkness for heads; the twins that issue from the egg. Following the twin-birth the total progeny of Typhon and of Tiamat is seven in number, i.e., seven altogether. 'The Sons of the Abyss (there are) Seven of them.' These were represented under one figure as the seven-headed thunderbolt of Tiamat: 'the Thunderbolt of seven heads like the huge serpent or dragon of seven heads.' Here the first of the seven is the thunderbolt by name. This is in agreement [p.485] with the adze of Anup or thunderstone of Sut. So thunder was reckoned the primary element by the ancient Chinese; and the stone from heaven is the firstborn of the Great Mother in certain American myths.
The ancient Slovakians had the twins as the Biel-Bog, a white god, and Czerny-Bog, the black god. Czerny-Bog was also the dark deity of the Anglo-Saxons called Zernebok.*
* 'Mista, Skogula, and Zernebok, gods of the Ancient Saxons.'
Bog is the common Slavonic word for God. This is a worldwide root-name for a spirit, found in the bwg, Welsh, ghost, or object of terror; bug, Puck, or bogey, English; puca, Irish, goblin; puke, Swedish, devil, bogy and boye, the spirit, ghost, or terror by night, with the blacks of Australia; pogooch (Pine Plain), a spirit; buk-ha (Vayu), distilled spirits; but the spirit, or God, may be either light or dark. Bogi, in Fijian, is night. Bogi, black, in the inner African languages. The Vedic Bhaga is the 'white one.' 'Let us invoke the Victor in the morning (that is the light which has defeated the darkness of night), the strong Bhaga, the son of Aditi (Bhaga was one of the Adityas or elementaries) who disposes all things.' Bagha is likewise known as the divider, and the type-name may be traced to the root with that meaning in many languages. Bagha, in the Avesta, denotes portion; pech, Breton, a division or piece; pagu, Tamil, to divide; phakh, Vayu, to halve; pekh (Eg.), to divide in two; peka, Maori, the branch, fork, or division in two. So the Bog divides into the white and black god, and is identical with the dual Sut-Horus.
The Asvins are a Hindu form of the twin brothers, the twin-born children of Aditi. They date from the earliest phase of the twinship, when the two brothers were simply the representatives of day and dark, or moisture and light, as the dew of evening and the light of dawn. These also were the first who struggled and contended for birth in the womb of the genetrix. Their separate characters have been almost lost in the legends of their twinship, and they have to be divided in order to be distinguished. The Asvins are born here and there (ihehajâte) on the two horizons of light and shade; the one is bright, the other black, like the Sut-Horus. According to the commentator, Yâska, the place of the Asvins is first among the deities of the sky. They are said to 'appear when one black cow sits among the bright cows.' They 'walk along during the night like two black goats.' One of them is born in the sky and one in the air. They are associated with two of the elements as moisture and light. So the Twins Shu and Tefnut represent light and moisture. The Asvins are also identified with the Gemini of the zodiac who are Shu and Tefnut in Egypt. Here, how [p.486] ever, two sets of the Twins have been confounded. The Asvins are two males, whereas the Gemini proper are male and female. Heaven and earth are said to be the Asvins who are born here and there, which identifies them with the two divisions in space. It is because they represent the day and dark that their place of meeting and twinning is the twilight, when light and dark are contending in their interfusion. This is called the time of the Asvins, and the nature of the one is to share in the darkness which penetrates into the light of the other to share in the light which vanquishes the darkness. Their vagueness has continued from the elementary stage. One form of the twins in Egypt was the double Anubis, a dual figure of the watchdog, in the stellar phase of the mythos. English sailors still keep a watch between four and eight in the evening called the dogwatch. This is divided at six o'clock (the time of twilight at the equinox!) into two dogwatches of two hours each. From four to six the watch is that of the dog of the light, and from six to eight is the watch of the dog of darkness. These dogwatches are commonly derived from an idea of a dog sleeping with one eye kept open to watch. But they are really a survival of the double Anubis and the Sut-Horus. These have two different types. In one the heads are two birds; one light and one black. In the other the heads are those of the dog or jackal. So the dog of Yama is double-headed, one head keeping watch while the other is sleeping; and this likewise has an alternative type in a double-headed bird. Thus our double-headed dog dividing the twilight watch is a survival of the double Anubis, the black and golden who was Sothis in one character and Mercury in his planetary phase, the watch-dog of twilight both at evening and dawn.
The earliest type of Sirius, the Dog-star, however, was not the dog of Europe, not the jackal of Egypt, not the fox-dog (fenekh) of Abyssinia, but the giraffe of inner Africa. This is the ser by name and it was a figure of Sut-Typhon. From ser we derive the name of Sirius as we do that of Sothis from Sut. The giraffe is an animal that can see two ways at once without turning its head or its eyes. This then was the perfect primary type of the fixed and steadfast watcher begotten by that nearness to external nature which belonged to primitive man. The ser, giraffe, is the proper African type for Sothis. The name is a word of words for measuring, calculating, regulating, arranging, disposing, organizing, renewing, also relating to science and wisdom. The ser was followed by the fox-dog and the dog. The giraffe was continued in the gryphon type of Sut-Typhon, which is often confounded with the ass. Also the name of the giraffe retains an older or equivalent form of ser (Eg.) and in Khoi-Khoi the jackal is the garib, and the dog is arib.
In some myths the twins and their types show that one is the [p.487] keeper of the fire and the other of the water. Sut the dark one brings the inundation and Horus the solar fire. Both were united in Sut-Canopus. In the Australian myth War, the male crow and brother of War-pil, was the first to bring fire from space (tyrille) and give it to the aborigines, before which they were without it. This can be read by the hawk of fire. Another account of the mode in which the aborigines of Australia first obtained fire is thus given by Mr. J. Browne. A long time ago a little bandicoot was the sole owner of a firebrand that he cherished with the greatest jealousy, carrying it about with him wherever he went, and never allowing it out of his own care, even refusing to share it with the other animals, his neighbours; so they held a council, when it was decided to get the fire either by force or strategy. The hawk and pigeon were deputed to carry out this resolution, and after trying to induce the fire-owner to share its blessings, the pigeon, seizing an unguarded moment, as he thought, made a dash at the prize. The bandicoot, seeing affairs had come to a crisis, threw the fire in desperation towards the water, to quench it for ever. But fortunately for the black man, the hawk was hovering near, and seeing the fire falling into the water made a dart towards it, and with a stroke of his wing knocked the brand far over the stream into the long dry grass of the opposite bank, which immediately ignited and the flames spread over the country. The black man then felt the fire and said it was good. Both the hawk and dove are birds of light or fire. The bandicoot is the bird of darkness, a type of the water that put out the solar fire.
The first divinity of fire and light was in a sense pre-solar. He began as an elementary or an element, before the sun was a timekeeper and before it was known to be the same sun that set and rose again. For illustration, Ptah is an Egyptian solar-god, and yet not the sun itself, in the later sense. But as a form of the Egyptian Vulcan or Hephaistus he is a god of fire, because the elemental was first and the fire or light was primary, whether the fire of the sun, or the lightning-flash, or the conflagration, as one of the elementaries. So was it in India.
Wilford learned from the Hindus that Agni, or fire, was an elementary divinity before the sun was created, or before the element was concentrated in the solar god, as it was in Egypt, and in Africa beyond—where ogon is fire simply in Akurakura; ikan or ag-an in Anan; akan in Bode; and the Yoruban god of blacksmiths is named Ogun, with whom we may compare Ogon, the Slavonic god of fire.
It is apparent in the Mangaian and other forms of the mythos that the sun making the passage out of sight was apprehended as the element of fire in the underworld. The observers saw that in the [p.488] dark void, the lair of light, between sunset and sunrise, the great fire was rekindled. The god Maui descends there to wrest his hidden wisdom from Mauike, the god of fire, and there he learns how to reproduce the element at will, because that was the place where the fire was reproduced. The god of light and heat was primally the daemon of lightning and the solar fire. Thus the lame god is the fire god. Hephaistus in Greece, and the crooked-legged antipodal Ptah is a kind of pre-solar sun-god in the elemental aspect; fire or heat having been the first solar type. This fire was almost put out by night when the dark one overcame the bright one. But it was reproduced each day from the fireplace in the nether world by the lame and limping god who warred against the darkness and all its creeping things, as Khepra (Ptah) the transformer and recreator. Kep (Eg.) means to kindle, to heat, to light, to cause a ferment, and this supplied a Kamite root for the name of Hephaistus. Thus the god of fire was an early opponent of the darkness and only in this elementary stage do we reach the rootage of the solar Horus. When Sut as Sut-Anubis is said in the later texts to 'swallow his father Osiris,' the sun, there is a reversion to the type derived from the ancient darkness. A perfect identification of the fire with the sun may be found in the Huron myth of the twin-born brothers, the light and the dark. Iouskeha, the light one was recognised as the sun who was their benefactor, and but for him they said their kettles would not boil, as it was he who learned from the tortoise the art of creating fire. The tortoise was a type of the ancient Typhon, one of whose names is Kar-tek, the spark-holder, the mother of the elementaries, whose sparks were the starry fires. This beginning with the god of fire or solar heat necessitated such a distinction, for instance, as the later 'Sun in his disk,' the Aten-sun of the so-called disk worship and the sun itself as Ra which followed the Har-Sun and representative of fire, in the elementary phase.
In his treatment of the Hottentot myths Dr. Hahn does not distinguish their phenomenal phases. All is sacrificed to the idea of a Supreme Being who is one and the same under various names and types. But this non-evolutionary treatment never can reach the origins. In the Namaqua dialect, for example, eibi is first. Whence eibib is he who is the first. And it is said, 'At first there were two (gods) Heitsi-eibib and Gama-gorib.' These are the two opposite powers who were elementary. Next Heitsi-eibib can be traced in the lunar phase, and lastly Tsuni-Goam, the Wounded-knee, is the hero of light in the solar phase of the mythos, the nocturnal sun who brings back the red dawn, and is the lord of all things red like Tangaroa.
In the Hottentot, as in the Fijian mythology, the moon is also a type of the Twin Truths. But the moon in its dual lunation had two [p.489] different messages for men, just as the natural phenomena are still susceptible of a double interpretation to the theist and the atheist. The moon sent the hare to tell mankind that as the lunar god died and rose again so should they also be renewed and rise again. But the hare played false and perverted the message. She told mankind that like as the moon died and did not rise again, so men should perish and should not rise again. This was the dark aspect of the moon and that was the true message at the time when it could not be known that the same moon re-arose. When this fact became known and the moon was recognised as the true prophet of immortality, then the hare was discarded. The moon is now the Khoi-Khoi deity who promises men immortality.
In a Caroline-island myth it is said that in the beginning mankind only quitted life on the last day of the dying moon to be revivified when the new moon reappeared. But there was a dark and evil spirit that inflicted a death from which there was no revival. The dark spirit and the fatal message were first in fact, and the assurance of revival like the moon depended on its being identified as the same moon that rose again.
Jack and Jill are a lunar form of the twins as we may see in the Norse version of the Younger Edda where they are Hjuki and Bil the twin children of the moon. Hjuki denotes the one who nourishes and cherishes, the increasing new moon corresponding to tekh (Eg.); Bil is an interstice, an interval corresponding to the latter half of the lunation; the fall and vanishing of the moon. In the Tuscarora myth, recorded by David Cusic, the twin brethren are the two children of Aataensic who is identified as the moon and the genetrix of the gods. This was the ancient mother who alighted from heaven on the back of a tortoise and bore her twin sons. The Hurons claimed her as their grandmother. The names of her twins in the Oneida dialect signify respectively the light one and the dark one. According to Cusic they were Enigorio, the Good Mind, and Enigonhahetgea, the Bad Mind, or more accurately the Beautiful spirit and the Ugly one; the god and devil of objective phenomena. The Good Mind wished to create light but the dark one desired the world to remain in its natural darkness. The Bad one made a couple of clay images in the shape of man but whilst he was in the act of creating them they turned into apes. The Good Mind formed two images of the dust of the earth, breathed into their nostrils, gave them living souls, and named them Ea-gwe-howe or 'Real people.' This expression alone proves the true myth. The doctrine was not derived from the missionaries, who assuredly knew nothing of the ape being the type of the dark half of the lunar twins, as it became in Egypt.
At length there was a final struggle between the two brothers to determine which should be master once for all. The light one played false, as did Jacob with Esau, and persuaded the dark one to fight [p.490] him with flags, or, in another version, the fragile wild-rose, as this would be fatal to himself. He then chose a weapon of deer's horn. The dark one was discomfited and went sorely wounded, dropping his blood at every step and wherever the life-drops fell they turned into flint stones. When dying the dark one claimed that he would have equal power over souls in the life hereafter, and on being thrust down into the earth, or abyss, he became the evil spirit, the Satan of later theology.
The two birds of Sut and Horus are the black vulture (Neh) and the gold hawk. The lunar ibis is black and white and its pied nature typifies the dual lunation. Birds and brothers both appear in the mythos of the Thlinkeet as the twin deities of light and dark. The two brothers are Yethl and Khanukh. The raven is the bird of Yethl, but it is described as a black raven that once was white, the same alternation of black and white as in the ibis. The white bird is represented as getting black in passing up through the flue of Khanukh's fireplace. This is a form of the Phoenix which transforms from black to white (or into the gold hawk), and from white to black in its passage to and from the underworld, Khanukh's flue.
Another legend tells how Yethl shot the large bird which had a long glittering bill; its name was the 'Crane that can soar to heaven.' This he skinned, and when he wished to fly he clothed himself in the crane's feathers. The crane is a heron, the hieroglyphic equivalent of the lunar ibis.
The ibis-headed Taht was lord of the eighth region, and Yethl was born in the eighth month, and his aunt was watched over by eight red birds called kun. Yethl supplied light to mankind. In the Thlinkeet tongue yethl signifies a raven, and khanukh a wolf. The wolf, or jackal, is a type of darkness. Khanukh is described as raising a magical darkness, in which Yethl, the light-bringer, howled helplessly. In a discussion between them as to which is the elder, Khanukh asserts that he has been in the world ever since the time that the 'liver came out from the belly.'*
* 'Seit der Zeit, entgenete Khanukh, als von unten die Leber herauskam.'
Then said Yethl, 'Thou art older than I.' Darkness was first, and the blood-source preceded that of the breath. The liver was looked upon as solid blood, and blood as fluid liver, or life; which shows the allusion to the first of the Two Truths in the biological phase. Hence Khanukh is the keeper of the waters, and has to be outwitted by Yethl before he can take possession of them in turn and give new life to the world.
It is possible that the Hindu Krishna and Bala-Rama may be as old as the elemental phase of light and shade. 'Do you not know,' asks Krishna of Bala-Rama, 'that you and I are alike the origin of the [p.491] world?' As the twins of creation, in a later phase, Krishna is said to be an incarnation of Vishnu, and Bala-Rama of the serpent Sesha. But the twins are earlier than Vishnu, and if not elementary like the Asvins, they were lunar before passing into the solar mythos. One is black, or rather, slate-blue, the other white. Krishna is reputed to have been produced from a black hair of Vishnu, and Bala-Rama from a white hair. The name of Krishna is identical with that of the dark half of the lunar month, from full to new moon. Also ens (or krish) signifies to wane, as the moon, to attenuate and become small. Bala means virile seminal force; rama, the phallic giver of pleasure. Bala-Rama impersonates the pubescent phase, he is the one who waxes in power like the horned moon, whereas Krishna is the one that wanes and becomes the little one, the child. Yet it is he who conquers the dragon of darkness in the underworld, just as the lunar child Khunsu is the slayer of the giants in the Kamite mythos. Bala-Rama is named San-Karshana, the withdrawing one, or the one who is withdrawn, although the withdrawal was different from that of another twin with which it has to be compared. In the present instance Bala-Rama gives precedence to the dark one, Krishna, but the double-motherhood of the two, heavens is employed, and the two women are both made use of to give birth to the twins; Bala-Rama being withdrawn from the womb of Devaki, to be born from that of Rohini.
There is a Babylonian legend of the twin brothers who are opposed to each other, which was preserved by Ctesias, and Nicolas of Damascus. In this Adar-Parsondas, a solar god, comes every night into the power of his dark rival Shin-Nannaros, who is called his brother. Shin deprives Adar of his virile power. The two succeed each other alternately in their dominion over nature. The elder brother is said to kill the younger, whom he sends to the dwellings of death. Shin, the moon-god, is called the Royal Twin; sini (Assyrian), and shen (Eg.), denoting plural, or twin. The twins in relation to the moon first personified the double gibbousness, the waxing and waning of the orb. Here, however, the twins would seem to be luni-solar. Adar is the Babylonian Herakles. But Herakles is also luni-solar in the Egyptian Khunsu, the youthful solar-god who carries the sun and moon on his head, and in whom the twins were unified. Khunsu is called the son of Amen-Ra and Maut, i.e., phenomenally the sun and moon. Both are twinned in him as their child because he typifies the solar light when it was known to be reborn in the moon. The legend thus interpreted supplies a luni-solar link in the chain of continuity, which extends from the elemental to the final solar phase.
The Hindu writers say the black one has never failed to give way to the white one in the eternal conflict of day and dark. But there are two sides to the fact, and in early forms of the myth we see it [p.492] is the light one who, like Tangaroa and Esau the red, has to give way and go forth on his own account to seek an abiding-place.
This going forth of the parting twins to found a city or find the second place, is a mode of describing the division of the whole into the two halves, and the two horizons of day and night, light and dark.
According to Bishop Callaway, the Zulus thought the white man made the world. But their white man did not originate with the European. It was the light spirit opposed to the dark. In this sense the first world was made, or the world was first made, when the two horizons were distinguished the one from the other as those of light and shade, by the gold hawk and black vulture; the eagle-hawk and crow, or the dove and the raven. In a Tongan form of the myth the elder and younger brothers divide the world between them, each dwelling apart; they were the two progenitors of the black people and light people, or the Noes and Yeas. The founding of a city or building of a temple by a fratricide is one of the common traditions of mankind. Cain kills his brother Abel and then builds the city of Enoch. Romulus slays Remus and the city of Rome is founded in his brother's blood. Olus, or Tolus, was murdered by his brother's slaves and his head was placed beneath the foundations of the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. Agamedes, co-builder with Trophonius of the Temple of Apollo at Delphi, is killed by his brother, who carries away his head. The building of a city is of course a late illustration. The establishing of the two solstices and distinguishing the heavens north and south, and marking these by two mountains, trees, stars or constellations would be earlier; these being followed by the signs of the four quarters, and the building of the Tetrapolis above. Belin and Brennus, the twin brothers of the British legends are, like Heber and Heremon in the Irish, identifiable as a form of the twins of the universal mythos, the light one and the dark one, the prince of peace and the turbulent warrior, combined in the Sut-Horus; and when Belin had conquered Brennus, we are told that he mapped out the island and made four roads through the length and breadth of the kingdom. But before cities were built or roads were made a stake was stuck in the ground. We still speak of having a stake in the soil. The stake and tree are equivalents. When the suicide was buried at the parting of the ways, or the crossroads, a stake was thrust through the body as a mode of fixing; this being related to the fourfold foundation of the cross. One of the earliest celestial types is the tree. This becomes twain in the two trees of the north and south; as well as in the rod or staff of Kepheus (Shu-Kafi) whose figure may be found in the decans of the Waterman.*
* Plate in present volumei. See Oedipus Judaicus, Drummond, pl. 16i, for Kepheus with his staff north and south, a twin-type of the tree which was divided to mark the two solstices.
On the Mithraic monu- [p.493] mentsi the two trees mark the east and west. Planting the tree would be a primitive mode of marking the boundary, and in the traditions of Central America there is a story of two brothers, who before starting on a journey to Xibalba, the land of disappearing, plant a cane in the middle of their grandmother's house, on purpose for her to know whether they are living or dead, according to the flourishing or withering condition of the cane. The cane is a sign of one of the four cardinal points in the Mexican symbolism. Grimm traces this type in the story of the 'Two Gold Children' who leave their father two golden lilies, saying: 'from these you will see how we fare. If they are fresh we are well; if they fade we are ill; if they fall we are dead.'[106a] The story is widespread like the myth of the twins themselves. Egypt will tell us who were the two gold children. They were the twins in a dual stellar phase of the mythos. Sut-Nubti (or Sothis-Canopus) was the golden Sut of a dual nature, represented double-headed, or as the golden twin; and the type would be the same if called the double Anubis (the goldendog, canis aureus), or if it were taken for the sun and Sirius, or the sun and Saturn in a later phase. The reader may see the golden Sut (jackal or dog) in the tree which is planted in the decans of the grand or great mother, Isis, who personates the sign of Virgoi.
The 'Two Brothers' in Grimms' Household Stories are another form of the twins. First we have them as the rich and poor brothers, the dark one being the rich one, as the dark Rongo is in the Mangaian myth. With this opening of the tale we may compare an Eastern tradition of the first two brothers of humankind current among the Ishudes, which relates that the elder brother acquired great wealth from his gold mines, but that the younger being envious, drove him away and forced him to take refuge in the East. The gold mines would be in the west where the light went down.
In the German tale the gold mines are represented by the golden bird which lays the golden egg; the roc, or rekh, i.e., the phoenix in Egypt. Then follows the tale of the twins. These go out into the world, but can find no place where they may dwell together. So they said to one another: 'It cannot be otherwise, we must separate.' The huntsman at parting gave them a bare knife, saying: 'If you separate, stick this knife in a tree by the roadside, and then if one returns to the same point, he can tell how his absent brother fares; for the side upon which there is a mark will rust if he dies, but as long as he lives it will keep bright as ever.' The knife is a type of the division. The younger of the twins becomes the slayer of the dragon which has seven heads, and lies coiled round the top of a mountain. He cuts off the monster's seven heads and rescues the princess who is waiting ready to be devoured. Ultimately he marries her and has the usual [p.494] 'half the kingdom besides', which dates from the heaven of only two divisions.
The twin brothers are found in the folktales of many lands. In the Norse they reappear as True and Untrue, where they are still identified with time by means of the year. Once on a time there were two brothers; one was called True, and the other Untrue. True was upright and good to all, but Untrue was bad, false, and full of lies. Their mother was a widow. They went forth and at evening they quarrelled, when Untrue, the dark one, plucked out his brother's eyes. The blind one climbs up a tree for the night and hears the confabulation of the bear, the wolf, the fox, and the hare, who come to keep Midsummer's Eve beneath the tree. From these he learns that he is in the tree of life and healing power, and from its leaves he recovers his sight.
The brother True, with his eyes put out by Untrue, is one with Horus sitting solitary in his blindness and darkness. In one account Sut wounded Horus in the eye; in another he plucked it out and swallowed it. 'I am Horus,' says the blinded brother; 'I come to search for my eyes.' In the Ritual the eye is restored at the dawn of day. There is also an eye that is the sign of a year. The meeting of the brothers True and Untrue is periodic; the time being at the summer solstice, where the Kamite year began; and Sut, the dark one dominated when the sun began to descend from its highest altitude. The bear, wolf, and fox, together with the hare (which is a North American Indian type) are suggestive of the four quarters. The tree of the solstice is an Egyptian sign, and the ancient genetrix, the mother of the mythical twins who preceded the fatherhood, survives as the widow. True of course is finally the victor. Through what he learned from the talking animals he becomes a saviour. He discovers a well of water for the king and restores his eyesight. He recovers the lost speech and hearing of the young princess, and gets her for his wire with half the kingdom besides. This is a clear and easily-traced continuation of a myth in the reduced form of the folktale, but twenty others are just as truly so, even where the likeness is far less apparent. The same types of mythology are minified in the folk- or fairy-tale, and magnified in theology. The Norse True is one at root with the Egyptian True Word (Har-Makheru), and with him who was True in the Book of Revelation. Dr. Dasent asks how is it that the wandering Bechuanas have got the story of the two brothers, the groundwork of which is the same as the 'Machandelboom' and the 'Milk-white Doo,' and where the incidents and even the words are almost the same? How is it that in some of its traits the Bechuana story embodies those of that earliest of all popular tales recently published from an Egyptian papyrus? My reply is, [p.495] because the origin was inner African and Egypt is the connecting-link with the outside world.
The twins appear in an American myth, and in a form that looks comparatively late in Egyptian mythology. In the Osirian solar phase the child Horus duplicates to become Har-Tema and avenge the death of his father. In the American version the child commands his grandmother to cleave him in twain, in order that he may become the double avenger of his father's death. Thus he is transformed into the duplicated one and is then called by the name of the 'One-Two.' The father of Har-Tema the twin or total Horus, was slain by Typhon, one of whose names is Stone-head, another being Stone-arm. The father of One-Two is killed by Stone-Shirt, and 'One-Two' in his duplicated character is the avenger. The shrewmouse was sacred to Horus in Skhem, the place of transformation and annihilation; and in the American myth One-Two transforms into the mouse or mice to make war upon Stone-Skirt.
A single type will serve to express different developments and applications of the one primary idea. These vary, according to phenomena, but are determined and limited by the prototypal Two Truths.
At first these Two Truths are simply day and dark, or dawn and dusk. Next the twins enter the sphere of time as two stars or constellations on the two horizons, or are the two gods of north and south. Then the double lunation is personified by the two children of the genetrix, and, lastly, the twins are the two Horuses of the solar myth. A glimpse of the mode in which the type was continued with a change of personages may be seen in Indra and Agni, the solar gods who are twinned as the Asvinia; Indra and Agni being the two later divinities of moisture and light, or the solar fire.
The twin brothers are Egyptian in every phase, whether elementary, stellar, lunar, or solar, beginning with the Sut-Horus (elementary), the twin lion-gods of light and darkness which the lunar genetrix boasts that she bears in her womb; the double Anubis (stellar), Sut-Nubti (stellar or soli-stellar), Hermanubis or Taht-Aan (lunar); and they were continued as the two Horuses in the Osirian mythos. Here there is alternation but no contention. The Twins are two representatives of the annual Sun that descends and the Sun that ascends. The first Horus is the child, the impubescent, maimed, or crippled deity, the phantom that fades and disappears or transforms into the virile Horus of the resurrection. Lastly, there is a moral and religious stage in which the Sut and Horus of the beginning typify good and evil, deity and devil, as the final form of the male twins.
The twin brothers in the Avesta can be traced from their natural genesis in physical phenomena as the ever-alternating light and [p.496] dark to their latest phase, as divinity and devil in Ahura-Mazda and Anra-Mainyus. They are called the 'Twins' by name in Yasna 30. This description, says Bleeck, agrees with that contained in the Armenian writers, Eznik for example, where they are both the 'Sons of Time,' that is the twins of light and dark, considered not merely as a dual manifestation in space, but also as manifestors of time. We learn that both these heavenly beings, the twins, of themselves manifested the good and the evil, and the wise do rightly distinguish between them; not so the foolish or imprudent. These two heavenly beings came together in the beginning to that which was the first creation. Whatsoever is living is through the purpose of Ahura-Mazda, who is the life, and whatsoever is lifeless or of death is through the purpose of Anra-Mainyus the destroyer. They are designated the Two Creators, the Two Masters, who are sometimes spoken of as the Two Spirits of Ahura Mazda. And Haug argues that 'in consequence of an entire separation of the two parts of Ahura-Mazda, and the substitution of two independent rulers governing the universe, the unity of the Supreme Being was lost, and monotheism was superseded by dualism.' He attributes the Persian dualism to a personal Zoroaster, and observes that 'this great thinker of antiquity having arrived at the grand idea of the unity and indivisibility of the Supreme Being, undertook to solve the great problem, how are the various kinds of evil in the world compatible with the goodness, holiness, and justice of God? He solved this difficult question philosophically by the supposition of two primeval causes, which, though different, were united. The one who produced the reality is called the Good Mind; the other, in whom originated non-reality, bears the name of the Evil Mind. All good, true, and perfect things, which fall under the category of reality are produced by the Good Mind; whilst all that is delusive and belongs to the domain of non-reality, is traceable to the Evil Mind. These are the two moving causes of the universe, united from the beginning, and therefore called the twins (Yema; Sanskrit, Yamau).' In Manichaeism the development of doctrine culminated, and the eternal antagonists were separately enthroned in ceaseless conflict in the domain of what are termed spirit and matter; the original division of day and night was deepened and darkened into a great gulf riven right through the constitution of all things and the moral nature of man. But the myths do not disclose any deeper meaning by our reading into them the ideas of later times; we are only imposing on them a sense quite foreign to them in order that they may impose upon us and others in return. Each phase of the mythos out of Egypt can be identified and interpreted by the Kamite typology from the beginning to the end; and to the beginnings we must go back to learn.
The mythical twins also became the dual messiah of theology. [p.497] So profoundly ignorant of the doctrinal origins have theologians been that even writers like Gfrörer have maintained the improbability of the Jews being in possession of the dogma of a dual messiah in pre-Christian times; and it has actually been contended that after the Christian era the outwitted Jews had to invent a secondary messiah as the lowly suffering one, the son of Joseph, who was a failure, because their messiah, ben-David, had not come in his expected glory. Whereas, so ancient is the twin-type of the messiah son, that the suffering one of the two who was at last represented as the crucified may be found in the New Zealand legend of Rupe, where instead of being crucified he falls off the beam which was laid at the crossing, when he formed the great house of the sun. This suffering messiah is as old in Egypt as the name of the month Mesore, in which the mesi (Eg.), or infant Horus was reborn. He, too, may be seen at the crossing or on the scales of the zodiac, whence Rupe fell, and the sun began to descend. The double Horus of Egypt survived in the cult of the Gnostics. Irenaeus says of Valentinus: 'He also supposed two beings of the name of Horus.' They show, he says, that this Horus of theirs has two faculties—the one, of supporting, the other, of separating. Insomuch as he supports and sustains he is Stauros (a cross), while insomuch as he divides he is Horus. They also 'represent the Saviour as having indicated this twofold faculty, first, the sustaining power, when he said "Whoever doth not bear his Cross (Stauros) and follow after me cannot be my disciple;" and the separating power when he said, "I came not to send Peace, but a Sword."' It is a startling discovery for all who ever dip, not to say dive, into the iconography of the catacombs, to find these palpable remains of the dead religion of the pagan past taking life as the divinity of the new. The twins are there extant, and were often reproduced by the artists of Rome, in whose representations two distinct characters of the Christ are frequently found, and these are generally portrayed in juxtaposition. One of the Christs is the eternal youth, the 'Universal Lad' of the Osirian myth; the blooming boy Bacchus of the Greek mythos; the youthful Mithra of the Persians; the fair Apollo of Greece in his beardless beauty. The favourite figure, says Didron, is that of a beautiful and adorable youth of about fifteen or eighteen years of age, beardless, with a sweet expression of countenance, and long abundant hair flowing in curls over his shoulders; his brow is sometimes encircled by a diadem, or bandeau, like a young priest of the pagan gods; a graceful youth, just as Apollo was depicted by the pagans. The other Christ is little, old, and ill-favoured, like the bad-smelling one of the Persian twins. The two are frequently found together.
Many examples are given by Bosio and others of the twin Jesus; Christ the younger and Christ the elder. The American writer Lundy is pitiably perplexed at what he comes across in the Christology of the Roman tombs. The only possible explanation, he says, of the double Jesus, the young-elder, and the juxtaposition of the youthful Christ and the old one is that this contradiction is intended to depict the two natures in Christ, the divine and the human; the little, old, ugly, hairy man being the human likeness, and the youthful, majestic beardless figure the type of the divine. The treatment is simply that of the Sut-Horus, and of Horus the elder and Horus the younger. The elder Horus, Har-Ur, was the old first one, the mortal, the one who wears the human image, he who was born to descend and suffer and die because he represented the declining sun in the lower signs. Horus the younger was the perennial youth, called the Lord, the Majesty, the God of the Beautiful Face. He was the sun-god, as the young immortal, the type of the eternal sonship. It is the same dual type that is traceable all mythology through. So Prajapati was one-half mortal, one-half immortal, and with his mortal half he feared death.
The statues of Dionysus show the same duality as the elder or bearded and the younger or beardless god. The duality is that of Shu, who is expressly designated the 'Young-elder' in consequence. It was the duality of Sut-Horus and of the twins of the Avesta; the primordial type being that of light and darkness; the latest psychotheistic.
The typical twins thus identified as simply a continuation of the type of the Double-Horus, the dual Mithras, the biune Bacchus, the two-faced Janus or Sut and Horus, prove that this twinship could no more portray a personal Jesus than the supposed Christ in Revelation who is a male figure with female paps, the hermaphrodite divinity of the mythos. These things are unthinkable apart from their origin, and hence they have become the unfathomable mysteries of theology.
Eros and Anteros are a Greek version of the twins. Eros (Cupid) accompanies Venus, the gestator; Anteros represents the negative character; and in some versions he is made the active antagonist of Eros, and shares the character of the dark mind in other myths. Plato, in the Symposium, allows us to see that he had not bottomed the Horus or Eros myth. Phaedrus calls Eros the oldest, Agathon the youngest, of the gods; and both appeal to ancient versions as their authority. Each was Horus was both. Har-Ur was always the oldest; Har-Ahi for ever the youngest; both were blended in Har-Makheru, the True Word. But he had continued the mythical twin-type, and this he has copied as his portrait of the soul, which he [p.499] calls 'double' and says it has two faces conformably to its 'paradigm,' according to the circle of the same and the circle of the different.
Peter, in the Clementine Homilies, adverts to the great power, which is also called the kuria (mistress), from whom two angels were sent forth, the one to create the world, the other to give the law, 'each of which, on account of his work, proclaimed himself to be the sole Creator,' and thus caused the ancient feud. This is a later form of the twins with the kuria in the place of the Great Mother. The bird of light and shade might likewise be traced all through. Horus, the child, the dark and disappearing one in the solar phase, whose bird-type is the phoenix of transformation in the lower world, is sometimes depicted with the hawk of his brother flying at the back of his head or skullcap, the hawk and phoenix being the two birds of light and shade in the latest Egyptian form of the myth.
This also survived in the Christian typology as a form of the dove of the Holy Ghost which blended both birds in one. A Franco-German miniature of the eleventh century shows the dove with six wings represented half in light and half in shade, with the forepart yellow and hinder-part dark. The golub (dove), and gareb (blackbird) are thus blended together, even as the two were twinned in the black and white ibis of the moon.
The 'Two Women' who brought forth the twin brothers were placed in the zodiac six signs apart. The one, Virgo, was the Virgin Mother of the child-Horus, the negative one of the twins who is born first, but who, in the solar mythos, has to be reborn, and this time begotten by the father, Osiris, or Atum, in the menti or 're-foundry' of the male generator. This second Horus, the 'only-begotten of the father (or from a father), full of grace and truth'—each phrase may be found applied to Horus, the redeemer—was reborn of the gestator in the sign of Pisces; and the dual imagery of the zodiac, the two women and the two children who were first born as Sut and Horus, and lastly as Horus the elder and Horus the younger, is perfectly paralleled or preserved in the gospel according to St. Luke. Elizabeth the barren, who is described as the barren when she was six months gone with the child John, brings forth six months earlier than Mary. The barren breeder can only be understood according to the typology of the mythos. One horizon was the lower, considered to be that of earth, the other that of heaven. The imagery is reproduced by John, who says of himself and Jesus, 'He must increase, but I must decrease.' 'He that cometh from above is above all; he that is of the earth is of the earth, and of the earth he speaketh.' The precise characters and relationship of the mythical twins is [p.500] preserved. John represents the element of water; Jesus the fire or spirit. John precedes the light, as does the dark one in all the true legends, and says, 'He that cometh after me is preferred before me; for he was before me,' as was Jacob, Ormizt, or Tangaroa, who was first by right of birth, although the latest born.
The description of Mercury in the Mysteries given by Apuleius proves how the old Egyptian mythology had found its way to Rome. 'Here, awful to behold, was the messenger of the gods above, and of those in the realms beneath, standing erect with his face partly black and partly golden, carrying a caduceus in his left hand, and waving in his right a green branch of palm. Close behind him followed a cow in an erect position, sealed on the shoulders of one of the devotees of this divinity; this cow being the prolific likeness of the All-parent Goddess.' Mercury was the Egyptian Sut-Anubis who passed into Taht, or Hermanubis, in the lunar stage. The double visage of black and gold is identical with the black bird and gold hawk of Sut-Horus and Sut-Nubti.
In the Australian version of the mythos we find the remarkable statement that it was out of the enmity and final agreement of the two brothers that the first two classes originated, and thence a law that governed marriages between those two classes. Thus the mirror of mythology reflects the primitive sociology and shows us the very bifurcation of the one into duality, as the primary stage of distinguishing from general promiscuity.
Here it will bear repeating that the first of the two original brotherhoods of the Choctaw gentes was designated the 'Divided People' i.e., the people who first divided and became the twin brothers of sociology and legendary lore. This separation of the people into two phratries was followed by the four subdivisions, and eight totems altogether. The Iroquois, the Onondago, Seneca, and Cayuga likewise began with the dual brotherhood, or twin phratries, the members of which were not permitted to intermarry. The two phratries were divided into eight gentes, answering to the eight classes of the Kamilaroi, which were also founded on the dual brotherhood with the dual motherhood of the two sisters at the head of all. Captain Burton found the two divisions and eight totems extant on the Gold Coast. The twin-children of the Mother-moon became totemic with the Arab tribes amongst whom the Banu Badr were named the sons of the full moon, and the Banu Hilal the sons of the new moon. The Greek φρατρία or organisation of the phratry is later. It is founded on the solar triad. Each of the four tribes of the Athenians was organised in three phratries, separately composed of thirty gentes, making a total of twelve phratries and three hundred and sixty gentes. This adjustment corresponds to the four [p.501] quarters, the thirty days to the month and the three hundred and sixty degrees of the ecliptic which corroborates and continues the astronomical beginnings.
The mythical twins are represented by the royal twinship. Royalty in Dahome is invested with this dual character. In one aspect the monarch is king in town, in the other he is king in the bush. In like manner the Egyptian Horus has two titles; one being the 'Youth in Town,' the other the 'Lad in the Country.' So the pharaohs of Egypt were crowned kings of the double horizon and the Sut-Ra continued the dual type of Sut-Horus. The twin-brothers who divided in the mythos are reunited in the Egyptian pharaoh. In the 'Foundation of the Temple of the Sun' at An (Heliopolis) Usertasen I says the god had exalted him as lord of both parts of Horus and Sut (Peseshti) whilst he was yet an infant in the womb. The god Amen says to Tahtmes III that he has 'united the hands of the pair of brothers to bless' the king[136a]. Japan until recently had her Tycoon and Mikado, the sacred and secular sovereigns. In ancient Sparta likewise we find the royal twinship or government by twin kings. Also the Samoan chief, whose title is 'You Two,' preserves the title of twinship founded on the impubescent child and virile male who were united in one at puberty. This is what is meant by mythology being a mirror to the earliest sociology.
The 'two women' in Egypt are the two sister goddesses, chiefly represented as Isis (Neith) and Nephthys (Neft) who appear on the two sides of Horus, their child and brother, in the act of wooing or worshipping him. The three-form triad which Champollion placed at the head of the pantheon. These are the dual form of the genetrix that Sut opened and Horus sealed, which equally applies to the later double Horus and the mother on the two horizons. From this origin we derive the two mothers of the child, one of whom may be uterine, one the milch-mother. The Egyptian pharaoh had two mothers. It is said in the Inscription of Queen Hatasu, 'Ra consorts with his two mothers, the uraeus goddesses.' On one side, over one of the doors, the temple of Dakkeh, it is said of the Ethiopian king, Ergamun, a he was nursed by the goddess Ank, and born of Seti; on the other he is 'born of Isis, and nursed by Nephthys.' Osiris is 'conceived by Isis and engendered by Nephthys.' Also, the Osirified ceased says, 'I am Horus! I know that I was begotten by Pasht, brought forth by Neith;' another form of the two goddesses, are the two sisters of Horus in the drawing below.
To judge from the prevalence of this triadic type, a special litera- [p.502] ture must have been devoted to the two sisters and their desire for the child, fragments of which have survived. Plato mentions the hymns of Isis that were 10,000 years old. A papyrus found in the ruins of Thebes contains what have been termed the 'Lamentations,' but which are more properly the invocations or evocations of Isis and Nephthys. They are the 'beneficial formulae made by the two divine sisters in the house of Osiris,' and when recited, 'two women, beautiful in their members,' were directed to 'sit on the ground at the principal door of the Great Hall,' holding bread and water in their hands, and having the names of Isis and Nephthys inscribed on their shoulders. These correspond to the two sisters
Urti in the cult of Atum, and Iusaas, whose son, Iu-em-hept, as the Iu-su, was the Jesus of Heliopolis and Pa-Tum. The two sisters invoke the god as the babe.
'Thou who comest to us as a child each month.' 'Thou comest to us from thy retreat at the time, to spread the water of thy soul, to distribute the bread of thy being.' 'Come to thine abode.' 'I am Nephthys thy sister who loveth thee.' 'Come to Aper; thou wilt see thy mother Neith. Beautiful child, do not stay from her. Come to her nipples; abundance is in them.'
'Come to thine abode, come to thine abode!
God An,* come to thine abode!
Look at me; I am thy sister who loveth thee.
Do not stay far from me, oh, beautiful youth;
Come to thine abode with haste, with haste.
* Osiris reborn of the moon.
I see thee no more,
My heart is full of bitterness on account of thee;
Mine eyes seek thee;
I seek thee to behold thee.
Will it be long ere I see thee?
Will it be long ere I see thee?
(Oh) excellent sovereign,
Will it be long ere I see thee?
Beholding thee is happiness;
Beholding thee is happiness.
(Oh) God An, beholding thee is happiness.
Come to her who loveth thee.
Come to her who loveth thee,
(Oh) Un-nefer, the Word-made-Truth!
Come to thy sister, come to thy wife;
Come to thy sister, come to thy wife;
(Oh) Urt-het, come to thy spouse.
I am thy sister by thy mother;
Do not separate thyself from me.
Gods and men (turn) their faces towards thee,
Weeping together for thee whenever (they) behold me.
I call thee in (my) lamentations,
(Even) to the heights of heaven,
And thou hearest not my voice.
I am thy sister who loveth thee on earth
No one else hath loved thee more than I,
(Thy) sister, (thy) sister.'
We find in these fragments the essence of the Canticles assigned to Solomon. It is also evident that some other remains of Egyptian poetry translated by Goodwin are either spoken in the character of one of the two divine sisters, or were composed in closest imitation of the Invocations addressed to the divine lover.
THE BEGINNING OF THE SONG OF JOY AND BEAUTY OF THY SISTER
'Beloved of my heart, come to the meadows, my brother; beloved of my heart (come) after me, thou who art beloved in all thy doings. Thou fair one! thou who comest to the garden of one who loves him. The voice of the bird resounds, occupied with his Uai.* Thy love draws me back. I know not how to unloose it (the bird). Shall I call to my mother that she may come to me? The bird flies and perches. Many birds gyrate around; (thou) art my love alone, my heart is bound to thy heart; go not far from me. I go, for I find him whom Amen hath given to me for ever and ever. Thou fair one! When thou wast in thy chamber, thy arm was laid upon my arm; thou didst survey thy love. I poured forth my heart to thee in the night. I was as one in my bower; thou didst strengthen my heart to seek thee. The voice of the swallow resounds. It saith the earth is enlightened. Bow do I wait for thee, thou bird! I found my brother in his bedchamber. Go not far from me. Let thy hand be in my hand, let me be with thee in every pleasant place.'
* Uaui, is to discourse, meditate, melt.
THE BEGINNING OF THE SONG OF JOYS OF THE FRAGRANT FLOWERS
'Thou enchantest my heart, thon hast caused me to be as one who seeks, that I may be in thy bosom. My prayer is to hear the (beat) of his heart; that I may behold the brightness of (his) eyes. I fawn upon thee; to behold thy love, O man of my heart! Most delightful is my hour of going forth; an hour of eternity ... I am thy oldest sister. I am unto thee like the garden which I have planted with flowers and sweet odours. It is watered by thy hand, refreshed by the breezes, a pleasant place to walk in. Thy hand is in my hand. I remember, and my heart is joyful at our walking, drinking together; how I listened to thy voice, it was life to me to hear it. I bring thy garlands when thou comest drinking.'
It is the song of Solomon, matter and music, phrase after phrase, and there is no poetry in literature more full of love-longing. The bosom is also called the 'Breast of Rerem.' Rer was some kind of Egyptian food; the word likewise means a nurse, and to nurse. This, therefore, was the breast for the suckling, the divine child.
The 'black but comely' lady of the Canticles says: 'My Beloved feedeth among the lilies,' 'My Beloved is gone down into his garden, to the beds of spices, to feed in the gardens and to gather lilies.' Still more occultly, 'I would lead thee and bring thee into my mother's house; I would cause thee to drink of the spiced wine of the juice of my pomegranate.' This fruit was the emblem of the womb, and was held in the hand of the Syrian Juno; the illustration belongs to the primitive physiology, and relates to nourishing the child before birth in the maternal abode. In the Egyptian song the lady says: 'My sister issues forth angry, uttering all sorts of exclamations at the porter.' In the Hebrew, 'My mother's children were angry with me; they made me keeper of the vineyards.' 'I spoke not,' says the one, 'but my heart remembered.' The other, 'I sleep, but my heart waketh.'
In both the feminine triad appear as the mother and the two sisters. Horus is called the brother of the two sisters as Isis and Nephthys and the child of the mother as Neith; the genetrix who becomes twain in the sisterhood. The lady of the Canticles is one of two sisters, and Solomon is their brother. 'We have a little sister and she hath no breasts.' But the speaker has breasts that stand erect like towers. This agrees with the two characters one of whom gave the breast to the child, the other being without a breast; hence the female Egyptian figures having only one breast!
The lady in the songs says: 'Thou tookest my breast, thou didst revel in its abundance in the day of (****).' Nephthys pleads: 'Come to Aper; thou wilt see thy mother Neith. Beautiful child, do not stay far from her. Come to her nipples; abundance is in them.'
The two sisters and the brother are the children of one mother who represents the abode of being. This abode was figured on the head of Nephthys as the house of breath. Another type of it was the double-turreted tower-crown of Kubele. This is the character of the lady of Solomon's song; she is the wall, the tower, 'her neck is as the tower of David built for an armoury' like the Kubele crown.*
* The duality personated by the two divine sisters will explain an obscure passage in the Canticles. 'What will ye see in the Shulamite?' 'As it were the company of two armies.' The word makanaim denotes something double that dances up and down. Fuerst says a 'double row of dancing youths and maidens' It is simply the twin-sisters of the double horizon. Mak (Eg.) is to dance. Makka (Eg.) means the balance, scales, equinox, and the two characters are here combined in the Shulamite, as the mother who divides on the horizon.
The present reading permits of a sense similar to that claimed by the Christian commentators for their 'Loves of Christ and the Church,' [p.505] only the Christ was the youthful solar god Horus, Iu-su or Khunsu, the 'Good Peace' in Egypt; the mythical Solomon, the Hebrew prince of peace. The difference between the mythical and the human representation is as great as that between the virgin of Pinturiccio feeding the little one 'among the lilies' and the fleshly display of one of Sir Peter Lely's painted courtesans.
The child Horus was the Kamite Christ who became the Anointed at puberty. The Great Mother was his abode and shrine, or sekhem. The abode or house is carried on the head of Nephthys. This type was likewise continued in Rome as the Mother Church, the sanctuary of the divine child.
The primordial genetrix appears as the House of God in the visions of Hermas where she is seen as an old woman because she was the 'first of all creation, and the world was made for her', omnium primus creata est. She who had been the abode from the beginning, the abode in life and death, became the Church in the end.
Further, as the Great Mother divided into the two sisters represented by Isis and Nephthys who stand at the two sides of the child-god, so is it in the imagery of the catacombs, where various examples are found of two female Orante figures which stand on the two sides of the mythical Christ. These two women are believed to symbolize the Church. Being two, however, they are supposed by the religious Agnostics to typify the Church under two dispensations of the law and the gospel.
The Christ between them is the good shepherd whose original crook, the hek, is carried in one hand, by Horus, and his fan (khu) in the other, as he stands between his two Orantes, Isis and Nephthys!
Horus is conceived by Isis, the mother of flesh, and generated by Nephthys, the mother of breath. Rhea and Hera were the two mothers of the child Zeus. Bacchus called Bimater had two mothers; he was conceived by Semele and brought into the world by Ippa.
The two divine sisters were continued in the gospels as the two manes, the Virgin and Mary Cleophas, both of whom were the mothers of Jesus. This, that is impossible as history, is perfect according to the mythos—the Christ being bi-mater; and true to the celestial allegory, which is illustrated in the catacombs by the mythical Christ who is portrayed in more than half-a-dozen different but identifiable forms.
To recapitulate: first, the Great Mother is personified in space, and as space takes two aspects in the upper and lower hemispheres; she divided and there are two women, the two divine sisters. The great mother bears the twins as male, and these are then assigned to the two sisters. We have now got the characters of the mother, sister, and brother of the earliest sociology. Then follows a pair of twins [p.506] that are male and female, as Shu and Tefnut, the brother and sister who represent the primitive consortship.
The Polynesian twin-brother and sister have their dwelling-place near the great rock which is the foundation of the world. So the brother and sister as Shu and Tefnut the twin lion-gods kept the gates of the north and south on the Tzer Rock, the foundation of the world. The Greeks identified their Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri, with the Gemini of the zodiac. But the Egyptians distinguished between them. The male twins were represented by the two male lion-gods as Sut-Horus, the Egyptian Dioscuri. Next the twin lions become male and female in Shu and his sister. The first were pre-zodiacal, or belonged to an earlier inner zodiac, the two stars being distinguished before the twelve signs were formed, or the brother and sister had been adopted as the Gemini of both sexes. Further, the male and female twins as Shu and Tefnut were also placed in the opposite sign, the Archer, by the Egyptians. On referring to the oblong zodiac of Denderahi (in Drummond) the reader will see Shu as the Archer twinned with Tefnut as his hinder face. The arrow elsewhere is a well-known symbol of Shu. In this same zodiac Shu appears in the human form, and Tefnut in her type of the lioness. The Archer formed of Shu and his sister exhibits a male-female shape of the Gemini. So that when we find these are the twins in the sign Gemini, whilst Castor and Pollux denote the twin-brothers, we are able to distinguish between the two different pairs of twins now clustered together in one group.
The Serranos and Acagchemens of California have a myth of the twins who were male and female like Shu and Tefnut in Egypt. They say that before the material world was in existence there lived two beings the nature of whom they are unable to explain. They were brother and sister, and the brother's name signified the heaven above, the sister's the earth below. From the union of these two sprang the first man, Ouiot, who was a grand captain. This happened in the north, for they affirmed that men were created in the north, the birthplace in the oldest mythology. In Egyptian Uat is a name of the north, and of Lower Egypt, or the abyss of the waters, and uau (Eg.) is the name of the captain. In another myth we see the sister following the twin brothers.*
* Reported by an early Spanish missionary, Father Boscana.
The Indians at the heads of the St. Lawrence and Mississippi rivers relate how the first woman descended from heaven and hovered some time in the air seeking where to set her foot on solid ground. The tortoise offered his back, which she accepted as a place of rest and residence. There the spume of the sea gathered about the tortoise and made the earth. The woman found it lonely, and another descent took place. A spirit came, and finding the woman asleep drew near [p.507] to her and accompanied with her. The result of this connection was the twin-children of the myth. When she was delivered these two sons came out of her left side; they were jealous of each other, and the one who was an unsuccessful hunter treated the successful one so badly as to compel him to leave the earth and withdraw to heaven. After his withdrawal the spirit again descended and returned to the woman, who bore a daughter, and she became the Great Mother of the North American Indians.
The mother, the two sisters, the child, and the pubescent male, the brother and sister, completed the first group of relations, there being as yet no individualized fatherhood. Following the motherhood simply, a type of the producers was now evolved in the likeness of the male and female twins.
These two different pairs of twins, who were the twin brothers Sut and Horus, and the twin brother and sister Shu and Tefnut in Egypt, enable us to detect and expose another example of the elaborate historicizing of mythic material which was practised by the re-writers of the Hebrew scriptures; for the story of the twin-brothers is told a third time in the Book of Genesis as the history of Judah and Tamar and of Pharetz and Zarach. In this the red one who ought to have been born first puts forth his hand, which the nurse binds round with a scarlet thread. He then withdraws, and his brother breaks his way into the world. The nurse, however, identifies Zarach as the one who should have been the firstborn, and who is it named as the one who appears like the sun, the light, or the red dawn, i.e. the one that makes the first visible appearance. Pharetz is the dark one, who breaks his way through to be foremost. So Sut was fabled to have broken a way into the world at the wrong time. So, according to Plutarch, Anra-Mainyus, the Dark Mind, broke open the eggshell to be born first—the eggshell which images the heaven. The twin-brothers Zarach and Pharetz, the breaker-through, are born of Judah and Tamar, who are represented as relatives and consorts, if not called the brother and sister. Now the male and female twins who consorted as Shu and Tefnut are the twin lion-gods; and Judah was the lion-god in Israel. He is called the lion's whelp, and is represented by the twin lions which were portrayed on the standard of Judahi and in the planispherei. The lion was the totemic type of Judah because Judah, like Shu, was the lion.
The primitive ideas of the past were expressed, embodied, and stereotyped in images that are still extant. The early men did not begin by conceiving of creative cause and portraying it in an androgynous figure, male in front and female behind. Such a [p.508] representation was the necessary result of beginning with the female, and continuing with the man-ess; the male being added to express progenitorship; and ending in a type of both sexes which was the male-mother of one cult and the mother-male of another. The mother being first was foundational, the male was additional. The earliest sphinx is the dual female, a figure with a female face and breasts. This is rarely discovered in Egypt. It does appear on the Turin statue with Mut-Snatem, the consort of Horemhebi, and has been found elsewhere. Its rarity, however, is no proof that the feminine sphinx was not Egyptian. It belongs to those types cast out by Egypt which survived in Assyria and other countries among the worshippers of the mother and child. The dual lioness of Pehti and the Ruti, as the two mouths of the horizon, was equivalent to the sphinx that is feminine at either end. But the later and more orthodox Egyptian sphinx was male in front and female in the hinder-part. It was given to the gods in the later religion, not to the goddess-mother. She took her place finally as hinder-part only, the front being assigned to the male-mother as divinity or royal pharaoh. The processes of evolution may be traced when we start from a beginning: when we do not, mythology and typology become a maze without a clue.
As before mentioned, in one of the Hottentot songs the lioness identifies herself as the 'Liontail.' She thus addresses the dying lion, her son: 'Thou yellow child of the liontail, why didst thou not listen to what thy mother told thee!' Liontail is the lioness; the female is distinguished by and as the hinder-part; the gender by its emblem; the male (bahu) being before, or in front. The lion-tail in Egypt is pekh (abraded peh), the lioness-goddess whose name and sign is that of the rump (6). In agreement with the lioness as lion-tail, the mother is the she-bull: 'Thou son of a red she-bug thou who drankest my milk,' is the address of a Hottentot mother to her son. So the genetrix under the cow-type in mythology is the she-bull as Astarte, Sothis, and Gayomard.
The name of the sphinx has never been fathomed, but from its dual nature and Egyptian origin, we may infer that the word was based on the ankh, meaning a pair, to couple and duplicate. Spu (Eg.) denotes the creator and preparer. Thus sp-ankh would be the dual creator or biune being, whether considered to be doubly female or epicene.
The personified Pan has a prior name as Phanes, and still earlier as Phanaat. He says 'the Musians name me Phanax.' Here again the ankh as a type of the total is the probable origin of the name. The all in sex was composed of a twin-total, the biune being, and this was imaged by the ankh, the sphinx and the goat-footed Phanax. Pan is a sphinx, male (human) above, and female (beast) below.
In the mythology of the Vedas there is great confusion of personal [p.509] characters and relationship. Sometimes the brother is the husband and the mother is the wife, because of the primitive order and sequence in the social status. The son became the father; the brother was the husband and the sister was the wife.
The most primitive human customs were preserved in mythology as divine. In Egypt the royal brother and sister continued to marry long after incest was otherwise prohibited, because they typified the gods like Shu and Tefnut, who were consorts as the sister and brother of the totemic type, and a form of the mother and her son continued from the earliest time. The oldest gods are named as the children. Sut signifies the child. Kebekh is the child of Kep. Hes-Ar is the child of Hes. The gods are said to recognise him as the 'Eternal lad himself.' So Bacchus was called the Eternal Boy. Aten, Adonai, or Adonis, is the at (Eg.) the child, babe, the lad. Ar, al, or el the child, supplies the Semitic לא and the Ili, Ali, or Elohim are the companions, primarily the children, the seven elementaries or embryos of the mother alone.
When Prajapati the lord of creation is said to violate his own daughter, it is but a result of mythical relationships, which were based on the primitive sociology. So is it with the biblical stories, the repulsiveness of which is the result of transforming into human history that which is only natural in mythology. This apparent confusion disappears the moment we get the divinities once more rightly related to phenomena. With the development of doctrine and the gradual exaltation of the male over the female, the characters are seen to change positions. For example, the goddess Ishtar is called 'Eldest of Heaven and Earth,' although in the list of the twelve great gods she is placed last.
The fons et origo was feminine at first, as was acknowledged in the Roman worship; Fontus, the father source, was the later object of adoration. In the first chapter of the Ritual we read, 'I am one of the gods born of Nu,' the primordial water. Nu, Nun, or Nnu is the mother of the gods. 'The mother Nu, all birth is received through her.' The sun is called the 'eldest born of Nu.' Sut is the son of Nu. The serpent is the son of Nu. Nu was the mother-heaven, the firmament, considered as the celestial water. Yet in chapter 17 of the Ritual it is said, 'I am the great God creating himself. It is water or Nu who is the father of the gods. P-etar ref Su.' The explanation to be given here, the gloss on the passage, if truly interpreted, would be, 'The celestial water Nu, Nun, or Nnu and the firmament were held to be feminine at first, but the later theosophy made them masculine. It was the mother who came from herself but the self-creator had now been made in the male image in the solar religion.'
The Greek Ouranos is derived from the Egyptian Urnas. Urnas is [p.510] the 'Celestial Water,' that is, the heaven above considered as the water of the firmament. This was feminine, the water of Nupe, the woman-heaven. In the Greek Ouranos and the Vedic Varuna the sex is changed; they have become deities who are both male and paternal, in accordance with a far later stage of sociology and mythology. It is the blood of Ouranos which gives birth to Aphrodite and that represents the celestial or biological Urnas of Egypt.
The beginning with the two women, as dual heaven, or earth and heaven, still survived after the male progenitorship had been established. Thus it is said of the solar god, 'He comes forth from the bosom of his mother Seb (the earlier form, Keb, is a name of the genetrix), born of Nut.'*
* Pierret thinks this is merely 'a liberty taken in handling the allegory.'
So when Seb is called the 'Mother of Osiris,' Renouf suspects an error in the text. But the Egyptians constantly think from the phenomenal origin; and if Seb either as god of earth or morning-star were spoken of as the bringer-forth of the sun—that introduces the idea of parturition, and therefore a feminine phase. It is a matter of typology, and a survival from the beginning. The return to the mother as first cause is strikingly shown in the Praise of Learning, in which it is said of the scribe that he 'Adores Ra, the father his mother;' rightly rendered by Dr. Birch, despite the seeming incongruity. Maspero reads, 'Tuau (or Seb) is his father and mother.' But that omits the doctrine of derivation from the motherhood. The mother being the primal parent, it was in her image that the fatherhood was founded. The masculine deity Khem, at Denderah, is depicted as the double-mouth of emanation, instead of the female. His title of Ka-Mutf shows him to be the male-mother, the second type of the producer or the man-ess. For this reason the male member even is named Mut or Mat (Eg.) after the female Mut, the mother as the emaning mouth of being.
It was the feminine origin which accounts for Num at Philae being called the 'Mother of mothers' as well as the 'Father of fathers.' In like manner, Jove is designated by Orpheus the 'Mother of the Gods.' This beginning alone explains that sudden reversion to the mother in the text as the 'father, his mother,' which according to modem ideas would need to be corrected, like so many more misunderstood expressions. The mother produced the male child who grew up to become her consort and eventually his own father in the character of the generator. At this stage originated the worship of the Virgin Mother and the fatherless child, the at (Eg.), which still survives in Rome. But she came to be portrayed as a male virgin or male-ess, to indicate the begetting and creating power, on the way toward the final fatherhood.
Manu said the male-virgin gave birth to life and light. This male- [p.511] virgin, observes Theodoret, was designated Joel (Ιωηλ). An Egyptian goddess is denominated the female Horus.
Astarte is called, in a Phoenician inscription, 'The King,' whilst Baal is called 'Goddess' (ή Βάαλ) in the Septuagint, and in the New Testament.
The Chinese Venus, whose immortal peaches ripened every 3,000 years, was called the Western King-Mother. In an Akkadian hymn Ishtar the Lady of Heaven, the Queen of Heaven, the opener of the locks of the high heaven, is celebrated as the begetter. 'Heaven she benefits, earth she enlightens, my begetter. Queen of Heaven above and below may she be invoked, my begetter.' Ishtar has the dual form of the Great Mother who fills the one character above the horizon and the other below.
The Assyrian zikar or zikarat signifies the male-female or man-ess. It is said on the Babylonian tablets: 'Venus is a male at sunrise; Venus is a female at sunset.' In the Ritual we read of 'Hathor at evening called Isis.' Also the planet Venus is called Har, the lord, as Har-Makhu; Har denoting above the horizon. The Peruvians made Venus, the morning star, to be male, and called it Chasca, the youth with the long curling locks.
We have a form of the zikarat or male-ess applied to the female in England. This is our 'Old Scratch,' the original of which is the 'scrat,' the hermaphrodite, the twofold nature exhibited in the mysteries of the Sabbath as the black goat-divinity, afterwards called 'Old Scratch' or the devil. 'Scrat' is also an old woman. Even in the worship of Old Scratch the feminine image dominated, as in Ishtar the zikarat. The Neeshenams have an Old Scratch, in a ghost named Bohem Culleh, which is of both sexes.
Astarte the supreme goddess, says Philo, placed on her head a bull's horns as the symbol of her lordship. The horns were a masculine type, and these denoted the male-female. The bull-headed goddess is also found on the Egyptian monuments. The ancient Sanskrit literature shows that in early times the bull was eaten as food; its sacredness was a later investiture. On the other hand, the cow always was and always continued to be too sacred to be eaten. She was the mother of life. The bull's horns added a male character, as did the horns of the female goat. According to Horapollo the Egyptians consecrated a 'two-horned and bull-formed' beetle to the moon, 'whence the children of the Egyptians said that the bull in the heavens is the exaltation of this goddess.' In this character the speaker making his transformations in the likeness of natural [p.512] phenomena says, 'I am the bull sharpening the horns—the great illuminator.' The male character of the feminine moon was derived from its horned phase; the horn of renewal. The meeting-point is shown by the Kamite karn-at, for a phallus, placed in position as horns. This is identical with the Assyrian karnu, Hebrew keren, Latin cornu, for the horn. Neith and the vulture were both depicted with the male member erect in front of them, whilst Ta-urt (the typhonian genetrix) is figured with a phallus for a nose, which makes her masculine in front. These are the equivalents of the bull-headed Astarte, the horned Ashtoreth, the bull-horned beetle, the male-ess, or goddess-lord.
Macrobius observes that some persons corrupt the line in Virgil by reading dea, goddess, instead of deo, god, for Venus; and that Acterianus affirms that in Calvus we should read Pollentemque Deum Venerem, Venus that powerful god, non deam, not goddess. Servius in his note on this line says, 'There is in Cyprus an image of the bearded Venus with the body and dress of a woman, but with a sceptre and the sex of a man, which they call Aphroditos (male), and to which the men sacrifice in a female dress and the women in a masculine one.' It was of this cult that a Latin author says, 'There were to be seen in the temples, with a general public moaning, lamentable celebrations, and men manifesting the menstrualia, and exposing with honoured ostentation this blemish of an impure and shameless body.' Such abnormities (or were they commoner among the earlier races?) were held to be sacred, like hermaphrodites, on account of their including the signs of both sexes in one, and thus becoming representative of the biune being. Dosiades styles Semiramis the woman with the masculine raiment. Breeches for women were first said to have been invented and worn by her, and men were first emasculated in her worship. She was the divine male-ess, the middle type between the motherhood and fatherhood made to partake of both sexes and men sought to attain the nearest likeness to divinity by becoming intermediates also, called eunuchs, who unsexed themselves with their own hands, and offered up their virility as a sacrifice. The pseudo-Heraclitus scoffs and mocks at this worship of the virgin-mother at Ephesus, and laughs at her Megabyzus, who were compelled to be mutilated because she was too great a prude to be served by a virile male or a man. It was a strange mode of becoming a child of God, or the goddess, and of illustrating the text, 'Except ye become as little children ye cannot enter the kingdom of heaven,' and yet a literal method of accomplishing it. Attes, the unsexed devotee of Kubele, and Aten, both derive their names from at (Eg.) the child. The child-god was the pre-pubes- [p.513] cent, and the worshippers in unsexing themselves were at once conforming to the likeness of the male-mother, called the Virgin, and of her divine infant called the 'Eternal Child.' This man-ess or male-female divinity was adored as the 'one,' since it was of a dual nature unified.
The duality was first of all female: next male-female, and lastly female-male. The male-female and the female-male were divinities or types of two different and opposed religions, according to whichever sex was considered primus. Androgyneity is not a natural but an unnatural fact. Non-sex-denoting language was of necessity androgynous. In typology it is but a symbolic combination like the sphinx adopted to express the two truths of source when these were known to be both male and female. The first real departure from nature was made visibly manifest when the male organ was typically added to the female as her sign of producing power. Arnobius derided the 'heathen' for praying to deities without knowing of what sex they were, whether gods or goddesses, or the intermediate sex, which is precisely the position of those who have invoked Jehovah ever since the time when the gnosis of the incommunicable name was taught.
An Assyrian king calls Merodach, under the name of the goddess Ri, 'the Mother who bore me,' and he addresses this divinity as both mother and father in one. Merodach is described as a goddess by Jeremiah, 'her idols are confounded.' The idols here are gillulim, excrementitious divinities. The Seventy sneeringly call her the delicate Merodach. Not only is Merodach feminine but excrementitious, that is, menstruating. This is the point of the passage in Isaiah where the parturient deities are mockingly described as being in labour without bringing forth. They bowed the knees and bent the back but were unable to produce, whilst in the act and process of straining, their own life went forth. They merely menstruated. But Jehovah, our Ani-Hva, he is the true God whose children are 'borne from the belly, carried from the womb,' but who says, 'I will bear, I will carry, I will deliver.' This shows the uterine type continued. Jehovah was the genetrix at first, Jah, or Iao, was a form of the male-female, and when the sun-god became the type of a Supreme Being, the female characteristics also survived. Aten, the solar disk, is called 'Mistress of Arabia' in the Inscription of Queen Hatasu. On a monument of the twelfth dynasty De Rouge found the sun styled the 'Mother of the Earth.' In consequence of the beginning with the feminine nature the solar god has to represent both sexes and their operations. M. Deveria points out a curious figure of the sun having a hawk's head and shedding light in the shape of stars and red globules on a mummied body; the sun saying, 'I manifest hidden things, I elucidate the mysteries, I give life to your souls; your nourishment is in my back; your souls live there. There [p.514] are waters for you at the station of the abyss; your souls follow my transformations.'
The transformations included, the male and female phases, hence the sun or Osiris (or Adonis) was described as menstruating in Smen, the original type of the bloody sweat in Gethsemane. As Belus, in the Berosian account, takes the place of Omoroka, and the creation proceeds from his blood instead of hers, so in the Ritual it is said the 'Sun mutilated himself and from the stream of blood all things existed.'
This marks the change of sex in the producer, and also shows the perfect identity of the Babylonian and Egyptian typology. Jupiter was formerly the Ju-mater or Jupiter genetrix. Valerius Soranus calls Jupiter the 'mother of the gods.' Hesychius identifies Jupiter with Helen. Proclus, in Timaeus, says all things were contained (έν γαστέρι Ζηνός) in the womb of Jupiter. The same writer exclaims, 'Female and father is the mighty god Ericapaeus.'
Brahm begins with the nature of the female. 'The great Brahm is the womb of all those forms which are conceived in every natural womb.' 'The great Brahm,' says Krishna, 'is my womb, and in it I place my foetus, and from it is the procreation of all nature.' This feminine origin of the imagery alone shows how all beings can be said to have been created from the mouth of Brahm, Jehovah, and other deities. It is said of Brahm in two characters: 'They who know the divine essence (Brahma) in Perusha (male) know Parameshthin; they who know the highest divine mystery (Brahmana), in consequence know Skambha,' of whom they say 'divine knowledge is the mouth,' and who is identified with the dual revealer and the bifurcating one of the beginning, in whom the two paths of the Sun's two courses meet, and the 'Two young females of diverse aspects, the day and the night, hasten in union.' Here the two females preserve the type of the feminine double-first. Brahm is depicted as the male deity with a pregnant womb, and, as a type of self-emanation, with his foot in his mouth, like the tail of the serpent.
'The king's uncle found a head of corn with two stalks in two different plats of ground growing up into one ear. Upon this was made the Kwei Ho.' The god, as figured in mythology was similarly grown from the two stalks of sex, both of which had their single rootage in the motherhood.
The lotus was a twofold type peculiar to the dual motherhood, and the nymphae nelumbo has two stalks, one of these being the bearer of the fruit. The fruit, or seed, was the child who grew into the virile male, and thus was constituted a biune being that was twin in [p.515] sex and triadic in manifestation; the mother being the opening one; the child a duad in sex, and the virile male a natural figure of three. The deity with four arms is likewise an embodiment of the dual nature. This is not so common in the Egyptian as in the Hindu pantheon, yet Amen Ra and Ptah are both portrayed with four arms. One type of the dual divinity is the calf, an image of Ahti, the duplicative abode. The calf, of course, may be of either sex, hence it represents both in one. The calf is the Au, and Au or Iu is a deity with the head of the calf or bullock. Au signifies was, is, and to be, like the AO, or Alpha and Omega. Alpha and Omega are likewise to be seen among the classical curiosities of the British Museum in a terracotta imitation of a foot wearing a hobnailed boot on which the nails are arranged in the shape of a pointed A at the toe, and in the form of the Omega at the heel; the beginning and the end is thus figured on one foot. When the present writer was young this same pattern of A and Ω in tips or hobnails was dear to the hearts of our canal boatmen. This epicene nature is portrayed by the AO of the Mexican drawings, in which the O is entwined about the A, after the fashion of making the capital letter A with the O of a flourish about it thus—
which survives in the symbolism of schoolboys. Out of this biune figure issues the fish or some other type of emanation from the source. The Chinese have the same AO or IAO, and in Amoy iu signifies first cause, origin, the son and the masculine principle; the three manifestations of the dual one. The Greeks used the letters 'Ie' 'Ie' in their religious invocations and evocations. Ie renders the Egyptian Iu. This diphthong of deity attains unity at last in the letter O. 'We worship O,' says Euripides in Bacchae; and with this letter we get back to the beginning where the O (or omega, Ω) is an emblem worn as the headdress of Hathor-Isis. It is also the astronomical sign of the nodes of the lunar orbit, which represents the ascending node one way, and the descending node the other. In Egyptian and Welsh au is a plural form, and the calf au, which might be of either sex, is a dual type. This imaged the AI of divinity which was of a male-female nature, but to portray it as more than human, beyond sex, and as one, it was represented by the castrated male, so that the eunuch or the bullock was likewise a final figure of the deity.
The accompanying drawing portrays the twins who were Shu and Ma or Shu and Tefnut, the male and female Gemini in Egypt; the one being of both sexes. The calf below, with its tongue thrust out, tells the tale in gesture language, as the type of both sexes. [p.516] The beard of the male above denotes the third phase, and thus the figure contains the trinity in unity.
Here the beginning in the typology is identical with that of language when it had no sex-denoting words. The child bifurcates into the man and woman at puberty, and the calf into the horned bull and milch cow. The calf represented both sexes in the non-pubescent phase, or the mother and child only in the cult that did not include the fatherhood. Even the bull was made to conform to this type as the ox. According to Varro there was a vulgar Latin name for the ox, viz., trio. The ox being of a third sex, neither male nor female, return was thus made to the primitive nuter, or neuter of the beginning. The Greek τρία is of a neuter gender, in which form the biune one was imaged by the calf the castrated male, or the ox, trio.
Taken from Guigniaut
The AΩ in Revelation denotes the biune being, or hermaphrodite deity, who is described as a man with female paps, and he does not differ in nature from the two-sexed Bacchus, or the Etruscan Priapus, with the male member and feminine breasts. So 'Jesus Christ as Saint Sophia' is the male-female, identical with Venus-barbatus. Bacchus, the biune being, is called 'Ia' as one of his titles; that is IE in Ionic, the same as IU (later IE) in Egyptian, the dual one. Thus Iasus, another form of his title, would be Iesus or Jesus, the Iu-su (Eg.), the coming child of a twofold nature. The gnostic Iao, seated on the lotus, is a male-female. Har-Iu is found with female breasts. In the Soane Museum there is a Greco-Egyptian figure of the child Horus of a female nature, which is only feminine instead of being effeminate or infantile.
The lamb, like the calf was a type of this biune being, the child of either sex, and representative of both. Horus was the lamb of either sex; Mithras was the lamb of both sexes. The [p.517] human child being of either sex, the divine was of both. This mythical type could only be fulfilled in nature by an hermaphrodite. The epicene messiah is described in the Codex Nazaraeus. 'Nebu Messiah shall call the Jews and shall say to them, "Come ye, behold! I quicken the dead and make them arise again. I pay the price of the ransoming. I am Enos Nazaraeus Spiritus, even a voice being sent that shall give testimony of him in Jerusalem, but he himself will captivate the sons of the men by the allurements of cunning delusions, and will imbrue them with blood and monthly (menstrual) pollution."'*
* 'Eisque dicet, venite videte, mortuos, vivifice et ut resurgant facio, pretium redemptionis solvo, sum Enos Nazaraeus Spiritus etiam voce in Jerusalem missa testimonium de eo dicet ipse autem illecebris praestiglarum filios hominis captivabit et eos sanguine et menstruali pollutione imbuet.'
Such language could not be interpreted without the types on which it is based. It is one mode of describing the biune being of either or both sexes, corresponding to the feminine 'paps' of the 'Son of Man,' the supposed messiah of Revelation. In the fragment quoted by the two Clements we are told that 'the Lord, having been asked by Salome when his kingdom was to come, replied, "When you shall have trampled under foot the garment of shame (mystically, when the woman shall cease to menstruate), when two shall be as one, when that which is without shall be like that which is within, and when the male with the female shall be neither male nor female."' Which shows an application of the neutral type evolved from the child, calf, colt, or lamb, to the eschatological phase; that which preceded the division of the sexes at puberty is continued as a type beyond sex; the neuter image of divinity. Paul identifies the doctrine of this unity in the biune one, the mythical Christ, when he says, 'There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither bond nor free, there is neither male nor female, for ye are all one in Christ Jesus,' who was the biune being, the Alpha and Omega.
When the biune being was finally figured as male in front and female behind, the adorers of the Great Mother are known by the prominence given to the hinder-part. Thus when the divinity as Iah showed the hinder-part to Moses, that denoted the feminine half of the whole. The Egyptian feh, or pekh, is the feminine hinder-part of the lioness, the goddess Pekh; and pekh and back, as before said, are identical. This cult was continued in the witches' Sabbath, where all the imagery and actions illustrated the backward way. The witnesses describe how in their circular dances they were placed back to back, and struck each other at intervals. Among the curious figures engraved by Von Hammer there is a naked female form wearing the crown of Kubelé, holding in one hand an image of the sun and moon, both of which have faces turned bottom upwardsi. This representation was sculptured on a stone coffer found in Burgundy, together with a series [p.518] of scenes indicative of the secret mysteries. The scarabaeus was also a type of the backward way, because it rolled its little globe in an opposite direction to that of the natural motion of its own body. Thus it was an image of the moon, that makes its passage from west to east, the backward way; and of the sun in its annual motion, which is the reverse to the order of the signs. This will explain the picture of the sun and moon turned upside down. In the witches' Sabbath the divinity appeared in the image of the biune being, and was male before and female behind. According to the confessions of the females he saluted them in front and they saluted her behind. The hindward face was the most worshipful, and to this the unclean kiss in ano, the obscene 'Memra' of the Arabians, was given by the devotees. This was called the goat's face. The goat in French is bouc, in Cornish bouch; and the deity was called the bouch, the bug, bugan, or bogy. In this cult the she-goat was a type of the male (horned) in front, and female behind; the especial figure of a Hebrew dual divinity; a natural sphinx before the male-lioness could have been compounded as a sphinx. Thus the goat as bouch, the back, as pekh (Eg.) rump, and the back itself, came to be synonymous. To back or go back is to buck. To set a back is to buck; and in the game of 'Buck Buck, how many horns do I hold up?' we have a portrait of the bouch in the boy who bucks, and at the same time a glimpse of the mysteries and a survival of a primitive mode of consulting the oracle, which was feminine, and always placed in the hinder-part, whether of the goat, lioness, calf, ass, or sow; the Adytum of the Temple, or the Lady Chapel at the end of the Church. The oracle and behind are synonymous in the Hebrew רבד, or Deborah, if personified. When the Sabeans made their adorations to the north it was because that was the feminine hinder-part of heaven.
Typology gives a very different account of the religious origins from that which has been promulgated by the philologists. According to M. Renan, for example, the deity as a male monad was conceived by and evolved from the Semitic consciousness. In his essay on the 'History of the People of Israel,' he declares, that whilst all other races wandered in the wilderness of Polytheism without finding the one God, the Semite stands first and alone in grasping the idea of the divine unity, which all other people have had to adopt from its example, and on the faith of its declaration. The Semitic race, guided by its firm and certain sight, instantly unmasked divinity by a primitive intuition, and from its earliest days, and without reflection or reasoning attained the purest form of religion that humanity has known. This is that beginning without nature commonly called 'revelation!' He further maintains that the desert is monotheistic, and the one God is the natural image of its great loneliness! A sandy [p.519] foundation on which to establish the Eternal! On the other hand, Jeremiah, who knew his contemporaries, affirms that they had a very desert of deities; or, as many gods as cities: 'According to the number of thy cities are thy gods, O Judah!' Exactly as it was in monumental Egypt.
It has been shown in a previous volume how the gods of Israel had their origin in phenomena like those of Egypt, Phoenicia and Assyria. Hitherto we have been told that the Latin Jupiter is one with the Greek Zeus, and Zeus is the Sanskrit Dyaus, meaning the father above. But when the Hindus employ the name of Dyaus for the bright heaven, the day, they have adopted one-half of the whole, which in this instance is a circle, that of day and night, as their monad of deity; but the duality of the word dyu is not to be effaced in that way; the twin pattern stamped by the original mould of thought is visibly extant the world over. The bright heaven is one-half of the whole, and the Persians, says Herodotus, call the whole celestial circle Jupiter. In Sanskrit dvi is two; dva, two, both; English, tuy or tvi; Gothic, tvai; Lithuanic, dvi; Akkadian, dub; Greek, δύο. This in Egyptian is ti (or tiu), the Irish di. Thai (Eg.), or taui (tfui) also denotes two halves. The Maori tio for the oyster, the bivalve, shows a perfect type of the two-one under this name. The two halves were the upper and the lower heaven, which were discriminated by various means. There is no div without duality. Devi has a double nature. Dian is dual because of her double lunation. Deuce is said to have been a divinity of the Brigantes, who was also described as appearing to women in a male form, and to men as a female; which gives a natural rendering of the duality. The first dev, as the heaven itself, was dual, as upper and lower, the place of day and dark. Hence the div, in Sanskrit the bright, is the dark one, the devil, in the Avesta; whilst dub (Akkadian) for the white surface of a reed tablet is black in the Irish duibhe, or dub. There is no fundamental rootage save in phenomena. The double heaven was solely feminine at first. In Egypt the tef, teph of source, and abyss of beginning, or Tef the genetrix, represented by the dragon, the water-horse or cow, was earlier than Tef the divine father; and in India the earliest form of Dyaus was feminine, as the mother heaven; she who was personified as Mahadevi, or the still earlier Aditi. This may explain why Dyaus, the sky, does not occur as a masculine in common Sanskrit, whereas Dyaus does occur in the Vedas in a feminine form. Tep is the Egyptian name for heaven. In inner Africa this is
|Debo, heaven, Mfut.||Doba, heaven, Diwala.||Dioba, heaven, Baseke.|
In Arabic tiba is heaven or paradise. This African and proto-Aryan root is the Sanskrit div or dyu, whence the names of heaven, [p.520] day, and divinity; but it did not merely mean to shine, or be bright; that is but the final shimmer of words upon the surface of things, with which the Aryanists begin their interpretation, and beguile themselves. Neither will the primitive myths disclose their fundamental significance to a philology that only penetrates the latest formation of language.
Tep (Eg.) is the heaven, over; one with our English top. Tep (Eg.), means to breathe, sniff, inhale. Div in Toda is breath; dufe, Vei, to blow; and the upper was the heaven of breath and light, the lower of the water and darkness. Diev in Welsh is day; daboi in Brunka (Costa Rica), is the upper, the heaven of day. Divi in Sanskrit is the blue jay (our name for the dove), and taubber is the Bavarian name for the blue or blueberry; div is the blue heaven. Blue and red, white and black are found under one and the same name as types of the heaven, because it was double. For duality, and twofoldness, are inseparable from this universal root.
|dobil, or, double, English.||dvi, no. 2, Sanskrit.|
|dub, double, Akkadian.||δυο, " Greek.|
|topu, couple, pair, twin, Maori.||di, " Irish.|
|dva, two, Avesta.||twai, " Gothic.|
|dube, the zebra, Xhosa Kaffir.||twi, " Anglo-Saxon.|
|dvi, no. 2, Lithuanian.||ti, " Egyptian.|
Where and how then did a male god originate under the name of Div, the Father in Heaven, who is found as—
|Tef, Divine Father, Egyptian.||Dio, God, Zulu.|
|Dio, the Father-Sky, Sanskrit.||Dewas, " Lett.|
|Dwyf, the self-existent One, Welsh.||Deus, " Latin.|
|Tivisco, the Father, German.||Duw, " Celtic.|
|Tivi, God, Icelandic.||Dia, " Old Irish.|
|Dipti, " Amardian.||Dhu " Arabic.|
The evening and morning were the first day, and these were marked on the two horizons by certain stars. In Egyptian the star is the sign of day; it reads both seb and tua (or tel), the sebat or tuaut being the gateway of light that was opened by the star of dawn. Tuai (or tefi), is the morning, the morrow-day. Thus tuai is equivalent to day. The time of opening and closing of day was determined by the morning and evening star, seb. Again seba and tuai signify adoration, worship, as in the Greek seba, and the time was reckoned by the star of dawn. Now the only planet that can be assigned to the god Seb is Jupiter, the Egyptian Har-pa-ka.
Mercury was given to Sut-Anup, Mars to Shu, Saturn to Sevekh, the earlier form of Seb or Kronus. In Seb the fatherhood was first established; he is the youngest of the gods and yet the father of the gods. In him the fatherhood was founded as the god of earth, and Har-pa-ka, the Egyptian Jupiter, is the lord of the house of earth, in accordance with the astrological phraseology. There was no father in Egyptian mythology until Seb was crowned with the title of Tef. [p.521] He is called 'the Lord of the Gods,' 'the preparer of the Egg,' which was previously produced by the mother alone. Osiris is the eldest of five gods begotten of Seb. Seb as the great inundator is called the 'father of the gods,' the Tef-Nuter; Seb then as Tel the father is identical by name with Tefi, modified Tuai, the star; the star of day as the planetary morning-star. Now the name of Seb when written with the tes sign thus sÑ is Tseb. When written with the Coptic djandja j it is djeb, and with the bifurcation of tes into t and s (which has been explained), the original word yields both Seb and Tel (or Tüa) as the two names for the star. The form tsef is an inner African root that has both variants in Tef and Seb, and can be traced thus. Tseb is the father, the virile male god, the elder or old one. And
|etsafe, signifies old, in Bola.||zufa, signifies old, in Kadzina.|
|o tafe, " " Sarar.||zofo, " " Xano.|
|ataf, " " Kanyop.||sobo, " " Gura.|
|defi, " " Banyun.||saib, " " Wadai.|
|ar-safi, " " Pepal.|
Atef (Eg.) is a variant of tel, whilst ar-shefi (Eg.) is a title of Num as the father-force; the elder or old one. So Tivisco who was worshipped as the great heaven-father is especially called the father of Mannu, or man. This name of the father is curiously applied in the Accra (African) language where Tsebi is the half-brother by the same father, but born of a different mother. In Toda, tob is the father and, in Manatoto, the man as vir, is etobu. Sepha (Sans.) is the emphatic male, the type and token of virility. Both tef and seb then are inner African with an original tsafe, and the z is a representative of the ts, as it is in the Hebrew צ tzaddi.
Deo in Gaelic for the life, soul, or divine essence, is pronounced like jeo, which becomes jo in Scotch. This also implies an original dfeo. Jeo modifies into jo, the equivalent of ju (Eg.), to be dual; and it is identical with the ju in 'Jupiter' or 'Juno.' Ju, to, deo, jeo, wherever found, meet in a primary djf, tsef, or kef which is dual in phenomena, in the two halves, two heavens, twin parentage, or two hands, as demonstrated in the 'Typology of Numbers.'
The Oscan djovis, a form also given to the name of Jove by Varro, continues the Coptic djandja which deposited the Latin j, and djovis equates with tsef. Tsef or djef accounts for both Djovis (Djovis-pater, or Jupiter) in Latin, and Tzeus (Zeus) in Greek. All three together with Dev, Dyaus, and Deus are derivable from one original tsef or tseb, whence the tel and seb as twin names for the divine father in Egyptian. Also, in the Chemmesyan language of North America tzib is the name for man, the father; and this tzib is identical with the African tsef; Egyptian tseb; Armenian teiseba (divine father), Coptic djeb and Oscan djovis. Moreover, [p.522] in the Central American group of Costa Rica dialects described by Professor Gabb, the father god is known as Zibo in Tiribi; Zubo in Terraba; Sibi in Bribri; Sibu, Cabecar, and Siboh in Brunka. Seb then was the first form of the father in heaven founded by the Kamites, and his planetary star was Jupiter, the star of the double horizon, which gave the dual character to it as a star of morn and even, of Tuai, or the two halves, reckoned by evening and morning as the day—day as it were on both sides of the dark, the twy-light. The star of the horizon is in keeping with Seb as the god of middle earth, the mundane deity of Horapollo.
Tsef becomes tef, which passes into tui or tiu, whence ti (Eg.) for two; ti, Chinese, two, to cut in two, and iu (Eg.) to be dual or duplicative, the equivalent of Ju in Jupiter, the star of the double horizon. The paternal element dominated in Seb or Tef, yet he was of a dual nature, mother as well as father, the Iu-pater or Diu, i.e., the dual one.
Jupiter is the lord of the fifth day, and the name of Seb signifies no. 5. As the lord of earth and the fifth region he will be described in the following section. He was a form of Kronus, or time, in his planetary character. Now time was not founded on any vague bright heaven, but on the revolutions and periodicity of the heavenly bodies. It is here we have need of the distinction between the gods who had their origin in space and those that were horn of time. If there be a god Dyaus who was a personification of the sky he cannot be one with Zeus; he would be a divinity of space but not of time. The Greeks knew that their Zeus was Κρονίων, and they called him Κρονίοης, because he was a god of time. His brothers, Hades and Poseidon, are not time-gods but gods in space, and neither of these was originally called Κρονιοης.
Pherecydes (BC 544) describes Zeus or Kronos as the fundamental cause of all phenomena in nature, distinguished according to the Phoenician tradition, from the chthonian or elementary divinities. This makes him a god of time, not of space or sky personified. Moreover, he describes Kronos as the deity dwelling in that part of heaven which is nearest the earth. So the Egyptian Seb is a god of earth and the heaven of day, who declines when Shu uplifts the heaven of night.
Tseb, Djovis, or Zeus, as Jupiter, the planetary, was Kronian, because the maker of a twelve years course of time. All the timekeepers are kronian according to their cycles. Sevekh, of the seven stars, was a form of Kronus in the year of the Great Bear, or dragon. Seb was Kronus in the later planetary time. Dyaus was not kronian, and therefore cannot be identical with Zeus. The sequence shows that Saturn was one with Sevekh, the first form of Kronus, and that Zeus and Jupiter are identical with Seb-Kronus, the first father in [p.523] time or in heaven, who followed Sevekh and superseded the son of the mother in the orthodox and anti-typhonian cult of Egypt.
Not Dyaus, but Shiva, in a pre-solar character, was the first genuine father in heaven, or heaven-father, represented on the earliest physical plane as the male progenitor and begetter of souls. According to some, Shiva was the most ancient and principal god of the aboriginal, non-Aryan tribes of India; he represents the father-god. He is the Mahadeva. Much evidence might be quoted to show that he is the original one of the later solar triad consisting of Shiva, Vishnu, and Brahma. One legend relates that the three had a dispute as to which was the supreme being. Brahma, who was seated on the lotus floating visibly alone in creation, seeing nothing but himself on the wide waters, claimed the pre-eminence. He descended the stem of the lotus to the root, and found Vishnu there asleep. Brahma asked who he was. 'I am the firstborn,' said Vishnu. This Brahma resented, and he was about to attack him, when Shiva threw himself between them, exclaiming, 'It is I who am the firstborn. Nevertheless, I will acknowledge him to be my superior who can see the summit of my head or the sole of my foot.' Vishnu then transformed himself into the boar, pierced through the earth, and penetrated to the infernal regions, where he saw the feet of Shiva or Mahadeva. On his return Mahadeva saluted Vishnu as the supreme. Vishnu had then become the supreme in the depth as Brahma was in the height; but the god on the horizon, whether stellar or solar, was indeed the firstborn.
The masculine soul was, so to speak, discovered in Egypt by Tseb or Tef. Hence Seb is the name of the soul as the seminal essence, 'Shiva's Quicksilver.' This is represented in India by the lingam being the especial symbol of Shiva, who was the masculine soul and source in person. Shiva and seva are Sanskrit names of the lingam, which was likewise the sign of Seb. Shiva is identical with Seb by name and nature. He is portrayed with the serpent around his neck as the measure of time by years. He wears various other serpents about his person as symbols of the cycles of time. His name—also that of the lingam—is synonymous with the serpent's; Seva in Sanskrit, and Seb or Sep in Egyptian. In the Kamite typology the time-cycles and revolutions are described as being the 'Serpents of Seb.' Ra says to Seb, 'Be the guardian of thy serpents which are in thee.' Seb-Kronus, or Time, is the great destroyer and renewer. He was fabled to be the devourer of his own progeny whether as Saturn-Kronus or Seb-Kronus. Shiva wears the necklace of skulls (together with the serpents of time) which typify the periods of the dead past that have been devoured by him as the destroyer. Kronus, the time-god, was represented in Greece as the swallower of his own children, [p.524] and in an inner African myth the planet Jupiter is said to swallow his own daughter.
In Egyptian the wolf also bears the name of the god Seb. At one time the spring equinox was marked by the rising in the evening of the Wolf constellation. This shows the wolf, Seb, to be a type of equinoctial time. The equinox is midmost in time, and was so before the horizon could be midmost in space, as between the upper and lower heaven. Seb, or the wolf, was the god of this mid-region in the stellar stage, before the abyss below and the solar triad were established. The equinox is the station assigned to Seb, and this was represented by a hill. Now Zeus is radically connected with the wolf. The most famous temple dedicated to him was his sanctuary on the Arcadian Mount Lykaios. According to the Arcadians, Zeus was nursed by the nymphs upon the Lykaian Hill. This was fabled to be a sanctuary without a shadow. Pausanias says when the sun was in the sign of the Crab there were no shadows at midday in Syene (the Egyptian sen or esné) but that in the temple on the Lykaian Mount there were no shadows cast the whole year round. This hill then represented the mount of the equinoxes which the Egyptians placed up in the zenith; the tower in the midst assigned to Jupiter; the mount of the mid-region or earth assigned to Seb. This marks the station of the equinox, the mid-position, where stood the double house of the wolf and Anubis; and when the Arcadians assert that their own Lykosoura, or tail of the wolf, was the first city beheld by Helios, that points to the equinoctial station from which Atum, who was Ra in his first sovereignty, made a new point of departure in the astronomical mythology. Sir G. W. Cox says the same root having furnished a name for wolves, λυκοι, and for brightness or rays, the growth of a myth converting the rays into wolves would thus be inevitable. This, as usual with the school, is an utter reversal of the process. The wolf Seb was equally a type of brightness with the star Seb, and the wolf with all its imagery can be traced in the planispherei, to which our appeal is now made. From the beginning of mythology with the elemental powers, which ruled in chaos before order was established, down to the time when it was finally transformed into the Christian mytholatry, Egypt has preserved the links of the series and sequence.
The fatherhood, first founded by Seb the planetary god, was next represented in the solar mythos.*
* In a previous allusion to the fatherhood, it was said that Atum-Ra was the first father in heaven. This should have been limited to the solar regime. Seb was the first father in the stellar mythos.
Previously the sun was the Horus, the child of the mother. It was shown in the preceding volume that the change from Abram to Abraham implied the change from the god who was the son of the mother only to the god who was the father. [p.525] Thus, the alteration in Abram's name which followed a change of mythical type is coincident with the appearance of the male triad (Men), the Adonim, who are three in person but one in name. In these the masculine solar triad is visibly introduced. The change first occurred when it was known to be the same sun that went round by night to conquer the powers of darkness and rise again. The completed change from the fear of the dark and angry powers of nature to the worship of a god of light is traceable by means of the sun in the underworld. This was the sun-god out of sight, the Amen, who was both the hidden and the coming Ra, since amenu (Eg.) signifies to come. The sun in the netherworld is the regenerator of souls, the creator of the living, the great judge of the dead. He is termed 'Master of the hidden spheres; Revealer of the mysterious empyrean,' he who 'chases away the waters,' as lord of the inundation; he who 'dissipates darkness,' and 'gives eyes to the gods in obscurity.' He is the road-maker of the resurrection, who 'causes the mummies to come forth.' With this new knowledge a third region of space was comprehended and typified. Previously there were but two regions or horizons, the upper and lower, the earth and heaven of Seb and Nupe, or Isis and Nephthys. Considerable perplexity has been caused by the change from the two regions to the three, and we are sometimes told that the ancients conceived of the Hades as being within the globe itself. The time was when they had to dig down mentally in that way to get below the surface at all. Before the solar abyss existed the upper and lower were the heaven and earth. In the later, the eschatological, phase of Egyptian or Akkadian mythology, the spirits of the dead, the demons, have their abode in the abyss beyond the earth, but in the Finnish mythology this abode was still on the earth, however far north; Pohja or Pohjoia was a polar region (compare the Egyptian pekh for the hinder-part, the north) but no Sheol, Hades, or Amenti. It was not the third region in space, but the opening of the earliest division.
It has been shown how the third person in the trinity was equivalent to the root of the tree. The Vishnu Purana terms Vishnu the root of the vast universal tree. This figure was also applied to the third division of space, the abyss or nadir, which the Akkadians called uru the root, for the foundation of the whole which had been divided into three parts with six directions in space. The pharaohs of Egypt were crowned rulers over the two regions, but the three are also mentioned in the Instructions of King Amenhat: 'Now thou art a King of earth, now thou rulest over the Three Regions.' In the inscriptions on the sarcophagus of Seti the earth is used as equivalent to Amenti, and opposed to heaven. Also, the sun descending into the underworld is thus addressed, 'Open the Earth! traverse the Hades and Sky! Ra, come to us!' This we may look on as a survival of the two regions in the mythos belonging to the later three. 'Adored be the god Skambha,' says the Hindu poet, 'upon whom the [p.526] City of the Three Worlds rested in the beginning, as upon its main pillar.' Skambha at first sustained the dual division as the prop that stemmed a part and supported the twin-whole. 'These two (worlds) the Sky and the Earth, exist, supported by Skambha.' But, in Vedic cosmology there are three skies—the upper, the middle, and the lower. The three divisions are elsewhere stated to be the sky, earth, and waters, and these are the same three regions as those of the Egyptian and Chaldean solar mythologies. Vishnu passes through these three regions in three strides; his three footprints being figured in the twenty-third lunar mansion, Sravana. The three footprints equate with the trident symbol; and in some astronomical works, the Sakalya, for example, the trident is depicted for Sravana instead of the three footsteps. Plutarch observes that the trident is the symbol of the third region of the world which the (mystic) sea possesses, situated below the heaven and the air (or earth). The trident is a type of the male triad, and is assigned to the supreme one of the three. This may be Siva in one cult, or Vishnu in another. The god of the third region, the abyss of the waters, was the Af-Ra, in Egypt; Yav or Hea in Assyria; Javeh or Jah in Israel; Vishnu in India. Khnef (or Num) was likewise a form of this solar god; nef being the sailor, the Neptune of the Romans, and the British nevvy. This was the sun of the waters, the darkness, the abyss; the god who completed the circuit round, the protector by night, the seer unseen. The Egyptians, says Plutarch, offer incense to the sun three times every day; resin at its rising; myrrh when it is in the mid-heaven, and what they call kyphi about the time of its setting. That was in recognition of the sun of the three regions. In like manner, the gods of Greece were invoked in three forms of gesture-speech. The Olympians on the height were prayed to with upraised hands; the marine gods with hands held horizontally; the gods of Tartarus with hands held down. The sun in the three regions is the origin of the masculine triad, the Hindu trimurti. The Hindus say the sun in the eastern horizon and in the morning is Brahma; from noon to evening he is Shiva; at night and in the west he is Vishnu. These three are one. And of these the Indian dramatic poet Kalidasa (who wrote about 50 BC) sings—
'In those three Persons the one God was shown,
Each first in place, each last, and each alone;
Of Siva, Vishnu, Brahma, each may be
First, second, third, among the blessed Three.'
According to the Assyrians, the wide heaven is the seat of Anu the King. He is Anu in the height. Bel is lord of the world, countries, [p.527] or lands. Hea is the dweller in the deep. These are the heaven, earth, and hell. In the oldest, the Akkadian, cult these three deities are the recognised zi or spirits of the three divisions.
A papyrus at Turin shows the solar god speaking in his threefold character and as the creator of the 'mysteries of the twofold horizon,' who says, 'I am Khepera in the morning, Ra at noon and Atum in the evening.' Speaking generally, it may be said that the trimurti proper, composed of three male figures, is not Egyptian, although a three-headed and four-armed lion-god found at Meroë is referred to by Rawlinson. There is, however, a solar triad in the Ritual, consisting of Atum, Kà (Kak or Hak) and Hu. In this Atum is the manifestor of the Two Truths, and his two manifestations are personified as Kâ and Hu, who are called his sons. Kâ is the black sun in the abyss. Hu is the white sun in the height. Atum is the red sun on the horizon of the west.
This triad is very ancient and rare. The solar god Hak or Kâ was the child of the mother. According to the present reading, he was a continuation into the solar mythos of Kak, the god of darkness, the crocodile, Khevek (Sevekh), who was the earlier form of Seb, the father-god, and whose name of Khevek would modify into Kek or Kak, whence kâ, still written with the crocodile's tail. In this way the star-god passed into the solar mythos, and into the triad in which Atum was considered to be the father, and Kâ and Hu are then called his sons.
A doctrinal application of the Tum triad is made in the Tablet of Rameses II at Kuban. 'Truly thou art the living image of thy father Tum, of An. The god Hu is in thy mouth, the god Ka is in thy heart, the place of thy tongue is the sanctuary of truth, a god is seated on thy two lips.'
The title of Har-Makhu, the sun of the double horizon, distinguishes that god from the sun of the third region, in the Amenti, and preserves a proof of the Har Sun being an earlier solar deity than the Ra of the three heavens.
The Chinese male triad appear as Yu, Yih, and Tseih. Yu put a stop to the deluge, when it had broken in, by preparing nine proper channels for the waters. In this work he was helped by Yih, who opened up the forests with fire, and Tseih, who showed the people how to cultivate the ground which had been reclaimed from the waters.
The Chinese symbol of these three regions is made with three horizontal bars . To denote the supreme ruler of the three spheres the lines are crossed . This forms the figure of the papal crozier, which is thus shown to be a cross of the threefold heaven, that of the [p.528] hexagram or space in six directions, already identified with the papal triple crown.
The triad who divide the sovereignty of the universe in the Finnic mythology are Ukko, the old one, the god of heaven above, the supreme one; Ilmarinen, the eternal forger, god of the earth; and Wainamoinen, the friend of the waves. These three were said to have established the celestial vault, fixed the gates of air, and sowed the stars in space.
At one time the Hawaiians had the male triad as a trimurti named Kane, Ku, and Lono, equal in nature but distinct in attributes. Ku was surnamed Ka-Pao, the builder or architect; Lono was Noho-ika-wai, the dweller on the water. They formed a triad as 'The one who is established.' These three were held to have broken up the ancient darkness of Po, the underworld, which shows the dependence of the triad on the sun that passed through the abyss; they created the heavens, three in number, as their dwelling-places when they were considered to be distinct from each other. The triadic one is thus addressed: 'Kane-po-lani! O Heavenly Father, with Ku the builder in the blazing heaven, with great Lono of the flashing eyes, a God, the God of Lightning, the fixed light of heaven, standing on the earth; on the earth of Kane-Kumu-honua, he is God.'
The New Zealanders also have the masculine triad as the three brothers Maui—the 'elder Maui, the tallest Maui, and the young Maui.' The younger Maui, as in all the European stories of three brothers, is despised and badly treated by the other two. They leave him at home whilst they go abroad, and do not suffer him to sit at meals with them, but toss him a bone or offal to eat whilst they devour the best of everything. At last he plucks up spirit, and when the elder brothers next go fishing, he takes his place in the boat, and insists on going too. 'Where is your hook?' ask the two brothers. 'Oh, this will do,' said little Maui, taking out his own jawbone. This he threw overboard for his fishhook, but on trying to pull it in again found it very heavy. By hauling away at it he at last lifts it, and finds it has brought up the land from the bottom of the deep. This was the first great feat of little Maui, or the sun which made the passage of the underworld. It happened that near the habitation of the three Mauis there lived an old woman called 'Great Daughter of the Night,' a most terrible person. Maui the youngest, however, determined to visit her, and see if he could find anything good. Coming near the spot where 'Hine-nui' lived, he began to play a tune on his flute. When the old woman heard the sound, she said to her slaves: 'If the man comes down the hill walking upright on his legs, catch him, he's a thief. But if he comes on his hands and feet with his belly and face upwards, be sure not to meddle with him, he is an Atua' (or God). This little Maui heard, and came upon the old [p.529] woman as an Atua. He crept into her kumara-store, and ate what he could, besides carrying off a basketful. The other brothers are pleased with the fruit, and the elder thinks he will try his luck, but the young Maui gives him the wrong instructions, and he does not proceed like an Atua, but plays on the flute and goes marching proudly and tall into the old woman's kumara-store, whereupon he is seized and squeezed between the thighs of Hine-nui so hard that he is killed.
The god advancing in a reversed position is the sun in the underworld. The image accords exactly with an Egyptian scene of the sun passing through the hades, where we see the twelve gods of the earth, or the lower domain of night, marching towards a mountain turned upside down, and two typical personages are also turned upside down. This is in illustration of the passage of the sun through the underworld. The reversed on the same monument are the dead. Thus the osirified deceased, who has attained the second life, in the Ritual says exultingly, 'I do not walk on my head.' The dead, as the akhu, are the spirits, and the atua is a spirit who comes walking upside down.
Little Maui personates the one of the triad who does pass through the belly of Hades; does attain land; the sun that crosses the waters of the deep, the reduced and diminutive winter sun that rises up again and greatens and grows into the glorious conqueror. This is the Jack of our nursery legends, the Scottish Assiepet, Danish Askepot, German Aschenputtel, who pokes in the ashes and blows up the fire—the solar fire which he has to keep and rekindle. He is the male likeness of Cinderella. Maui is the same as Boots, and Dummling of the Germans—the little hero who starts up when the two big brothers have failed and the call comes to him to do the great deed; he climbs up the beanstalk, rides up the hill of glass, asserts the hidden majesty of the ascending sun of morning or spring, and wins the princess and half the kingdom besides. Manifold are the Aryan forms of the male solar triad reduced to the status of a folktale, which may be interpreted by the mythos.
The bull of Hu represented the sun in Britain, and this took a threefold form in the well-known three bulls of Hu, which drew out the Avanc monster that caused the deluge; one of these was called the ox that stopped the channel of the waters, as did the Chinese Yu. Nash says: 'They talk of an ox that tolled the bell at Woolwich, and how from an ox he transformed himself into an old man, and from an old man into an infant, and from an infant into a young man.' This is the triadic transformation of the sun just as it is depicted in the temples of Egypt. The ox was doubtless a survival of the ox of [p.530] Hu, the British sun-god. The triad of solar divinities, that passed into the three brothers of the popular tales on the one hand, survived on the other in the Christian, Greek, and Roman iconography; not only in the three identical human persons with three distinct bodies, but also as the trimurti with three heads on one body, and even the one head with three faces.
Sancta Trinitas was one of the names conferred on the triad composed of three identical persons who were all males. A perfect example has been copied from a manuscript of the twelfth century. The three are one, as regards likeness,—the attitudes differ slightly, but significantly. The right hand one lifts his right hand with upward pointing fingers, as god in the height. The left hand one makes no sign, unless with the fingers turned down. The central figure answers to the god on the horizon.
The Three Kings of Cologne, called the Three Magi, who came to adore the infant Jesus, are a form of the solar trimurti. One of these, Melchior, is black. He represents the sun in the Amenti, which was portrayed as a god, ruler, or king of a black complexion.
The sun in the three regions being the original of the male triad, the three regions themselves form a feminine triad as their consorts. On either side there is one who is the source of the hypostasis. This in the female triad is the Great Mother; she who was the one that bifurcated into two, when the regions were limited to upper and lower, now becomes triadic. Sarasvati is said to occupy three abodes. Three Sarasvatis are also recognised, although details are wanting.
Mahadevi is the great mother who divides herself into three distinct forms of different colours—black, red, and white—to become Sarasvati, Shakti of Brahma; Lakshmi, Shakti of Vishnu; Parvati, Shakti of Shiva. When she appeared in presence of the male triad, they asked, 'Who art thou, lovely one, and why art thou distinguished by the three colours?' In Egypt the Great Mother is called the mistress of darkness—that is, the black one; her upper crown is white, the lower red, which will account for the three colours.
The dual motherhood is expressed by the gnostic Achamoth, who is first the mother of material substance or man on the left hand, and next of spiritual substance or man on the right hand; like the Hermean genetrix, the wateress, she divides into the two sisters of the zodiac, and is then called the 'Sophia above' the 'Sophia below.' In a triadic division of the regions, Achamoth is said to dwell in the intermediate abode, answering to the horizon of the three regions. 'Her place of habitation is an intermediate one, above the Demiurge indeed, but below and outside of the Pleroma, even to the end.' The 'Mother in the Horizon of Heaven' is mentioned in the Ritual. [p.531] When the three regions were spaced out, the mother was the horizon, as place of emanation, the mut, or mouth of birth. She is represented in the vignette as a Deess with three heads, one the vulture, one the lioness, and one human; the latter being the wearer of the two crowns in one. The goddess Hathor, in Egypt, is said to receive the dead in the west as the spotted cow. The British Triads also speak of three cows, one of which typifies the genetrix, Keridwen, the other two being devoted to her service; one was called the spotted cow; the other two were one white and one red, the colours of the two Egyptian crowns of the upper and lower hemispheres. There is a Buddhist emblem called the sri yantra, in Hindustan, copied from the gates of Somnauth, which will serve to illustrate the three regions—upper, mid, and lower—by south, east, and north, with the corresponding positions assigned to the feminine triad. The diagram is a common one. It is found in the Mason's 'Royal Arch,' and is to be met with in some old English churches. It constitutes the hexagram of the sixfold heaven, or of space in six directions. In the Hindu figure, the three gods and their consorts are arranged with Brahma east, and Lakshmi west, Shiva north, and Parvati south-west; Vishnu south, and Sarasvati north-east. The order of the trimurti varies according to the particular cult; all that we are concerned with here is the hexagram.
One name of the most ancient genetrix who divided into the two sisters was tef (Eg.), identical with the abyss of the beginning. She was continued as Tefn or Tefnut under her lioness-type, and from her name and nature it is now proposed to derive the dawn. The word is common for opening, and to dawn is to open out. In Egyptian tebn means to rise up, spread, illumine, i.e., to dawn. But the name of dawn or tefn includes more than the dawn in heaven. The dawn with which primitive mythologists were first concerned was the dawn of womanhood, and the day of procreation. This was a dawn that broke in blood. We speak of the rose of dawn, but they drew their simile from blood; and blood first manifested through a breaking open, as it did in the human dawn. In Egyptian tef means to shed, evacuate, spit, menstruate, drip, and drop, with the flower-sign of bleeding; the bleeding wound, the breaking open in blood, blood itself, are all determined by the flower of blood as the sign of flowing. So in Fijian, dave signifies the flow; tevah and daveh in Hebrew denote the menstrualia. The Assyrian dav-kina (or dam-kina) is the blood-mother. The mother opened in the first of two phases in the red dawn that broke in blood. The first mother divides and assumes the forms of the two sisters, as she did in sociology; one form of this double mother being that of Neith the wearer of the red crown, and Seti of the white crown, whose name is written with the arrow of light, a sunbeam. The three may be described as black night, red dawn, and white day. These reproduced the light, or the solar god, [p.532] in three corresponding characters. The dark night represented the hidden sun, whence Mut, the mother darkness, was the consort of the hidden Amen. The red dawn reflected the coming sun and gave it birth.
The verb uben, applied to the act, is identical with the word open; uba (Eg.) is a window as an opening for light, and the uben of Neith is our opening. Seti, or day, reflected the sun at white heat. Now one image of the reflector was the pupil of the eye; and the two reflectors, as dawn and day or north and south, are also called the two eyes of the sun. The Great Mother, as Mut, Uati, Buto, or Pekht, divides (pekh, to divide) in the two characters of Tefn and Sekhet, who represent the two elements of wet and heat; the dewy red of dawn, and burning white of day. Hence tef denotes moisture or dew (which is the same word as tef); and also means to drip and drop. Tef moreover, is the pupil of the eye, the mirror in which the sun was reborn of the genetrix at dawn. Nu is the heaven or firmament. Thus Tefnu (or Tefne) is the reflector of the sun as the opening dawn; when the dawn reddened it shed blood, and when the dew dropped, the eye wept. Then the mother passed into her second phase as Sekhet whose element is fire, and who is the eye, as reflector of the sun in his fury or double force. These were the two eyes of the sun. The eye of dewy dawn becomes the eye of burning day, or Tefn transforms into Sekhet. This is the transformation of Daphne, the dawn, that was poetised by the Greeks. For Daphne does not come from India, and is not derived from any Vedic Ahanâ, which the present writer would explain by han (Eg.) the young, youth, to go to and fro, the ever-returning; but she is the Egyptian Tefne, whose transformation into the goddess of fire or heat was portrayed as the metamorphosis of Daphne into the laurel-tree, the wood of fire; which was only another type of the change from dawn to day, from Neith to Seti, from Tefne to Sekhet, that represented the elemental metamorphosis according to the mythical impersonations. Elaborate explanation may make some of these things look incredibly ingenious, whereas they are only excessively simple. The eye and water were the first natural mirrors, and their application to phenomena is just as natural from the primitive standpoint. The gestator, who in later times carried the artificial mirror, bore an eye on her head in an earlier presentation of the character. Meri is both the eye and the water, as the mirror or reproducer. Also, the two eyes, when used as separate symbols, are painted the one (left) of a red colour; the other (right) being blue; answering to the red of dawn and blue of day; the red of flesh and blood, and the blue of soul. The left eye of the sun is described as shedding blood. The sun is born daily from this eye which is also called the Great Water, the mirror.
The British Barddas describe Arthur as having three wives, each of [p.533] whom is a character of Gwenhwyvar, the lady of the summit of the waters, a form of the one that triplicates. The feminine triad is also presented as what are termed the 'Three Unchaste Matrons' of Druidical mystery. The first of these three sisters is named Essyllt, or spectacle, surnamed Vyngwen with the white mane, who was the concubine of Trystan. The second is the lady with the splendid head, Penarwen, wife of Owen, son of Urien. The third is Bun, the maid, the British Proserpine, wedded to the flame-bearer.
The feminine triad, however, was not left to the indefiniteness of space, or of the firmament divided into three and six parts. The Great Mother had other visible types. To say nothing now of the Great Bear, which was a personification of the pre-solar time, there was Venus above and Venus below the horizon fulfilling the characters of the two divine sisters; and once a year the genetrix was represented by the moon in its annual conjunction with the sun in the place of manifestation, when the child of another year was born. In the cuneiform tablets, the male triad is associated with the moon in three phases. The first fifteen days are assigned to Anu, Hea, and Bel, and the three divisions of five days each in the latter half of the lunation are given to the Great Mother, who triplicates and becomes a triad of consorts, a threefold reproducer.
In the Russian story of the Norka, the fabulous monster is attacked by the two elder brothers in vain, then by the youngest who vanquishes the beast. The Norka flees to a great white stone, tilts it up, and escapes into that world out of this, saying, 'You will only overcome me when you enter here.' Ivan pursues the beast in the underworld, and there finds a triad of sisters, one of whom dwells in a palace of copper, one in a silver palace, one in a palace of gold. It is the youngest sister who lives in the golden palace. With her the beast is found and slain. In this legend, the triad of the three brothers is conjoined with that of the three sisters, as they are in the hexagram or sri yantra.
The triple feminine type is assigned to Bhavani and to Hecate, who is probably a continuation of the Egyptian Heka.t, the frog-headed goddess. A gnostic gem also exhibits a triformed female figure. She bears in her hands swords, torches, and serpents. The other side of the gem shows the cock-headed Abraxas, whom we identify with the Af-ra (Eg.), or sun in the lower world, the sun that triplicated. This feminine triad corresponds to one that accompanies Num (Eg.) who is the Af-ra. The mother of life, as Ank, wears a crown of hemp-stalks on her head, typical of the weaver of the woof and spinner of the thread of life. She takes two forms, or we may say has two sisters, in Heka.t and Seti, and the three are a feminine triad attached to Num the solar god in the abyss. Again, the genetrix [p.534] Neith carries the shuttle or knitter on her head. She too weaves or spins the woof of existence. She also takes two forms, or has (becomes the) two sisters, Isis and Nephthys. These two forms of the feminine triad show us the three spinning sisters of the folktales as three Egyptian goddesses, who became the three Norns (Vurdh, Verdhandi and Skuld); the three weird sisters in Macbeth; the three Latin Parcae, and the three Greek Fates, one of whom furnishes the flax, one spins the thread of life, and one cuts it off. According to Plutarch, Atropos was placed in the sun and conferred the principle of generation. Clotho, being lodged in the moon, is she who joins, mingles, and unites; and Lachesis is on the earth, where she adds a helping hand, and with her does fortune very much participate. A German version of the three spinning girls will prove their identity with the feminine solar triad. One of these is quite white, the second is half white and half black, the third is blind. Blindness equates with blackness, and the blind shrewmouse was sacred to Mut, the mistress of darkness. The white sister represents the wearer of the white crown—Seti in Egypt; Sita, the white, in India. The blind one is the goddess in the underworld. The sister who is half white and half black agrees with the spotted cow of Hathor, and the goddess who bears both crowns joined in one. The story of 'Little One-eye, little Two-eyes, and little Three-eyes,' contains another mode of describing the feminine triad by sight instead of complexion. Three-eyes represents most sight, as the equivalent of most light; the wearer of the white crown. An Arabic expression says, 'al-leyl-a'war,' 'the night is one-eyed,' and One-eye personifies the goddess of the lower heaven. Two-eyes, the intermediate, is the goddess of the horizon. In the story, One-eye and Three-eyes are the two imperious sisters, proud of their extraordinary aspect, who both look upon Two-eyes as a most common-place, vulgar mortal, with no possible attraction. 'You are no better than common folk,' they said to her, 'you do not belong to us;' they despised her, flouted at her, pushed her about, made her wear the coarsest clothing, and eat offal for food. This is Cinderella.
The story of Cinderella and the slipper is Egyptian. Strabo tells it of Rhodopis, the rosy-cheeked, who is confused with the builder of the third pyramid of Giza, Neith-Akar, or the perfect Neith. It is said she dwelt at Naucratis, and one day while she was bathing the wicked wind seized her sandal and carried it to the king, who was sitting in the court of justice in the open air, and laid it at his feet. The event was so singular, the sandal so elegant, the king's curiosity so excited that he could not rest until the owner was discovered and he had made her his queen.
The romance was but a later form of the mythos. In the feminine triad, one of three transforms. If we take the moon as the type, then [p.535] the orb in the underworld is transformed from the dark and blind phase into a thing of brilliance and beauty. The transformer in one triad is Heka.t, the frog-headed—the frog being a symbol of transformation in the waters or the abyss. Heka.t appears in one representation as the waiting-maid or Cinderella of the three sister goddesses. It is she who transforms into Seti, the sunbeam, the arrow of light; the poor girl who becomes the princess. Three days were assigned to the moon out of sight, and it was at the three days' festival that Cinderella lost her slipper and won the heart of the prince. It is exceedingly likely that the original Phryne of Greece was a form of the frog-goddess who transformed. Her name signifies the frog, and the most famous representation of her, made by Apelles, was as a Venus transforming from the foam, as did the frog-goddess Heka.t. This would account for the stories told about the exhibition of all her naked blinding beauty, suddenly revealed by the dropping of her garment. The courtesan was a character of the goddess who was earlier than marriage. In a Zulu form of the tale of transformation the girl enters the earth, and it is said of her that her body glistened, for she was like brass in her pristine state, but she took black earth and smeared her body with it. She was then seen by a chief to enter a pool being very dirty and black, and to emerge from it with all her natural radiance restored, and her body glistening like brass. The transformer in the Russian tales retains the frog-type of Heka.t and changes into a lovely woman. The frog-skin here takes the place of the slipper of vair or fur, as the token of transformation from the beast phase to that of the beauty.
The female triad was brought on as the three manes of the Christian mythology. The triad of this name was found on a tablet at Metz, with the inscription, 'In Honorem Domus Divine Dis Mairabus, Vicani Vici Pacis.' 'In honour of the divine house, to the goddesses Mariae: they of the street of peace.' Montfaucon held them to be divinities of the country, and therefore extant before the Christian era. If so, there can be no difficulty in identifying them as a triadic form of the goddess Meri, who as Mer-Seker, the divinity of the Nile, takes two other forms, as Meri-ras (south), and Meri-mehi (north). This reading will be elucidated hereafter.
The male and female triads in the Chaldean mythology were totalled at last in the god one, or one god as the supreme, who was of a biune and sixfold nature; the double trinity united in one person. This was Anu, the god in the highest heaven. His signs show him to have been the one and the six. He attained what is termed the 'Primordial unity,' but which was the final totality of the godhead composed of the male triad and the triad of female consorts. Each [p.536] of these compounds and combinations was represented by figures and images which were held to be sacred and talismanic on account of their secret significance. The double triangle or six-rayed star was a type of the triads twinned. The Chinese attribute the foundation of the trigram to Fo-hsi; and the combination of the double trigram, as in the hexagram of the Yi-King, is sometimes assigned to King Wan who arranged the 'Posterior Heaven.' The dual triad imaged by the double triangle or hexagram, the sixfold one, is extant in the Christian iconography. The trimurti, together with the feminine triad as a triangle, are drawn in an Italian engraving of the fifteenth century. Two of the male faces are bearded, one is boyish, and the triad of male heads is set in the triangle, all being enclosed in a circle. The doctrine of a biune being, who was compounded from the natural factors and afterwards divided into the two triads of sex, is reproduced by the writer of the Clementine Homilies, who says, the body of man consists of three parts, and derives its origin from the female (the mother of flesh). The spirit consists of three parts, and derives its origin from the male. Both of these triads have one root, so that man is a compound of two ingredients, the female and the male. This, when applied to the deity, recovers the Chaldean sixfold one. 'One, then, is the god who presides in a superior shape, as the heart of all that is above and below.' The text is corrupt, but the context shows, and the doctrine demands, that this is the biune being. 'From this (or these) is sent forth, as from a centre, the life-giving and incorporeal power extending the wise nature from him over three infinities.' This is the masculine triad of the height, depth, and mid-region. The 'extensions taking their rise from thence possess the nature of six infinities, of which the one penetrates into the height above, another into the depth below, another to the right hand, another to the left, another in front, another behind; to whom he himself looking as to a number that is equal on every side'—that is a dice-shaped, six-sided figure—'completes the world in six temporal intervals, himself being the rest. In him the six infinities end, and from him they receive their extension to infinity. This is the mystery of the hebdomad, for he himself is the rest of the whole.' Such, according to the Homilies, is the nature and shape of the Christian God. An infinite made up of six infinities, a dice-shaped deity, the six being forms of the one, and the one formed of the six. The six sides were also imaged in the six days of creation, or temporal intervals, the seventh is the type of the Sabbath rest, and the sixfold god here culminates in the god Seven as the outcome of the hexad. He is the rest or peace. This in Egyptian is the hept, the peace, and no. 7; whence Heptaktis, the seven-rayed Iao-Sabaoth, god of the later but superior, that is the planetary, hebdomad.
The gods were founded on identifiable phenomena, and there is no one God in the male likeness that is not a unity instead of a unit. As the Zohar says of the trinity, 'When these three are combined in a unity, they are one in a single unity,' and, it may be added, not before. The primal unity was in the prehuman phase, when the pleroma of powers formed the first hebdomad who with the genetrix composed an ogdoad in one—a type of totality that was neither lost nor effaced.
In the earliest human likeness the godhead comprised the mother, child, and virile male. This was the first trinity in unity. The dyad of mother and child is well known in Sut-Typhon, or Kheb and Khebekh (the mother of time, with Khebekh or Sevekh as her son, her Saturn, the earliest form of time in person) Hathor and Horus; Ishtar and Tammuz; Belit and Adar; Astarte and Sutekh; Ked and Aeddon; and many more. But the triadic nature of the mother and her child has been overlooked. Yet in each case the child is also the mother's consort, called the 'husband of his mother,' and thus the triple character of the two sexes is demonstrated. The epicene nature of Adonai, the Egyptian Aten and Greek Adonis, is mocked at by Jeremiah, who says of Jehoiakim, in reference to this particular type, 'They shall not lament for him with their "Ah me, my brother!" and "Ah me, my sister!" "Ah me, Adonai!" and "Ah me, his Sakti!"' as they did in the mysteries. He was to have the burial of an ass, and this was the type of Sutekh, the child and consort of Astarte. Also, the ass in Egyptian is the Iu and Aai, the biune one, by name.
The earliest and most universal divinity evolved in the complete human likeness was this triune being who included the nature of the mother, child and virile male; and having identified the original we can recognise the copy wherever found.
The Trinity were continued in the gnostic system as Achamoth, the mother, and her son in his two characters; in one of these he is the Demiurge or creator of material on the left hand (he who was represented in the child-image as Ptah in Egypt), on the other he is the creator of substance (or the virile force) on the right hand. As son of the mother without the fatherhood he is styled Apator and Metropator. He also created seven heavens, over which he dwells as Hebdomac, the sevenfold one, who, with the mother, constitutes the primary ogdoad. In him the Trinity were united under the title of Iao. This deity, therefore, is identical with the Iao-Sabaoth; the Iao-Chnubis, Iao-Heptakis, and Sut-Nubti, the dual Au in sex; the triad of two sexes and threefold character; the divinity of the seven spirits, seven rays, seven planets, whose totality of trinity and heptad was tenfold in accordance with the ten sephira.
Plutarch observes that the Egyptians likened the nature of the [p.538] universe chiefly to the triangle, and this Plato appears to have employed for the same purpose when he formed his nuptial diagram.
The letter tau, or T, is both twofold and triple and therefore a perfect sign of the two in sex and three in character. The Greeks called fig-leaves, vine-leaves, and ivy-leaves thria, as Athenaeus says, because each consisted of three parts. But the type was not derived (as Plutarch fancied) from a direct resemblance to the member, but from a mental image of the trinity which was fulfilled in the virile male as Thrion, whose triumph was celebrated in the Threambos.
The mystic 'Aum' (\) of the Hindus is a formula of the trinity in unity now summed up in Vishnu; and it is observable that in the hieroglyphics A is the personal pronoun I, which denotes the old first one. U is a plural for they or them—answering to the child of either sex. M is the emblem of the virile male. Thus if we read the A, I, for the old first mother, Aum signifies the threefold one composed of the triple hypostases or persons who were united in Khem-Horus as they are in Vishnu; he who was third in the series having been made princeps as perfecto of the triune pleroma.
The triad is figured in the in which, as the hieroglyphic ?, denotes generation in agreement with the sign of the generator.
The final shape of the first letter of the alphabet is triadic in the Semitic aleph and the Roman A, which is derived from the head of the horned steer found in the Phoenician signs. The cow was first as the kau, the calf second, as the Au or aa (Eg.), and thirdly the bull which had been latest in advent was elevated to the primacy in place. This accounts for one ê being single in the hieroglyphics; one dual, as the written a, and one triadic in the A; the latest form that was deposited.
The trinity are united by name as well as by nature under the cow-type of Isis. Hes (Isis) is the cow, calf and horned steer; the three being one by name. This was a type adored in the times of the ancient empire as the 'Sacred Heifer'; the 'Golden Calf' The steer or epicene bull was masculine because it was horned, and feminine because castrated. Thus the three are one in type, one in name, and one in the letter A.
The letter a, however, had more than one hieroglyphic type. It is also a form of the pyramid i called the 'aa' in Egyptian; and as this is a figure of seven or seb-ti (i.e., 5 + 2), which unites the square and triangle, it is a sign equivalent to the sevenfold vowel, or vowel of a sevenfold sound, previously described as representing the name and the powers of the god of breath, the Iao of a triune and sevenfold and therefore of a tenfold totality. Thus a type of the all is permanent in the pyramid and in our leading letter of the alphabet.
The triangle was a symbol of this trinity in unity. In later monumental times the Egyptian Horus of the triangle was considered to be unorthodox and typhonian. The cult is looked upon by some as a late importation from Asia into Egypt, but it was, in truth, a survival from the earliest times, and the type was inner African. No deity ever formed in the human likeness—and all which preceded were elementaries and zoological types—is earlier than the threefold one whose sign is the triangle or pyramid: the deus trinus unus worshipped many lands. The trinity being brought to a point as imaged by the triangle, it was then said the point was first, the beginning of the figure; whereas the feminine base was foundational, the twin sides were secondary, and these culminated in the male apex. The natural process of development was reversed and called spiritual. The nature of the gods has to be determined by their types when these have been identified in the originating phenomena. According to the Imperial Dictionary of King-hi, the character Δ is the sign of union. Chinese books and scholars also affirm that it depicts the junction and blending of the three tsai, the three essences or origins which compose the Tao of the Taoist sect in one harmonious and perfect unity. The triangle is sometimes portrayed on the ancient coins of Tibet painted blue, with the lotus-flower in the centre. This shows the genetrix was the source of all, the emaner from the water of life, which was her own blood.
The Mexicans had a triune god one of whose names denoted the deity of threefold dignity, or the three-in-one, and one of its emblems was an eye enclosed in a triangle. This compound deity was called Ao, Iao, or Yao, the ineffable, as it was in Britain, at Klarius, and on the gnostic stones. In this the eye is the mother-mirror. The letter n likewise served as a figure of the trinity with the Gnostics. It was worn as a talismanic device on a ring, and considered to be a potent charm against, or a cure for, barrenness. The nature of the triad which was perfected in the pubescent male explains upon what grounds it was so considered. Alexander of Tralles prescribed it only for those who could keep secrets and were trusty (φιλαρέτους). The headless cross, or the tree-tau of the British which was cut by the Druids on the cross of oak, was a symbol of tri-unity. This being sacred to Hesus, Belin, and Tarony, it becomes probable that the three were a form of the mother, child, and virile male; and as Tarony was the vir and Belin the branch, it follows that Hesus (although sometimes thought to be male) must have represented the goddess Eseye, whose seat and sanctuary was at Stonehenge; the genetrix whose name is Hes (the stone seat) in Egyptian, and Isis in Greek. This tri-unity of nature constituted the [p.540] great mystery of Ser-Apis, or Sher-Apis, which may be penetrated by means of the word sizer (Eg.), that denotes the child of either sex, and is also the name of the adult, the pubescent youth who was third in the triad. The Sher-Apis represented both sexes, which were triadic in their manifestation, but under an epicene neuter, or nuter symbol of divinity. The mystery is as ancient as the Sut-Horus myth, in which Sut opened the genetrix whom Horus sealed, but how this was effected can only be comprehended by applying the human factors to the external phenomena. For example, the triad of mother, child, and virile male was lunar before it became solar. This is illustrated in the triple division of the month of thirty days. The Assyrian moon-god Sin is represented by the three tens as the sign of no. 30. The three tens, however, signify more than the mere division of time. According to the Babylonian reckoning, the moon had a 'triadic character, one in longitude, one in latitude, and one in orbit.' This triadic division and number shows that Sin, who is one with the Akkadian lunar deity Aku, 'the Seated Father,' also represents the triune being, the Khemt male, or homme fait of the three tens ∩∩∩ reckoned by days instead of years.
The natural genesis has to be sought for far beyond Babylon and Assyria. The moon-god was the reproducer of himself as we have seen in the Hottentot legend, where he is the virile male in one phase, and a little child in the other, who became virile to re-beget himself on his own mother. This natural genesis in phenomena was concealed in the later stages of symbolism, but the origins remain in the primitive typology, without which nothing that is first in mythology can be attained, and nothing that is final can be established.
It has been demonstrated that the primary types of powers or divinities were nonhuman, and the earliest supposed one god that was created in the human likeness is the triune being unified from the three natural factors recognised in the mother, the child, and the virile male; the three who were united in the one god. It does not signify which of the three was placed first in any particular cult, the mother, the child, or the male consort, because the human being was completed in these three; and these three were one on earth, and in the mirror above, before the individual father was known.
Here the beast is a connecting link with the lunar genetrix who came to wear the human likeness. In Egyptian the cow and the moon are synonymous as Aah, and the cow-moon, or female moon, was first as Aah, Aahti, or the cow-headed Hathor, because the female reproducer was primary. The full moon was the type of the genetrix, and the waxing and waning of its dual lunation were her two manifestations. The circle of the full moon was the figure of the feminine reproducer. Hence Ishtar in one character is called the goddess 15. So Aahti, or Hathor, was a goddess 15, for the lunar genetrix (in the [p.541] Ritual) who brings her orb to the dark round and reproduces the light, says 'I have made the Eye of Horus when it was not coming on the festival of the 15th day,' the eye of Horus being the mother-mirror, the reproducer of the infantile image (compare anhu, for the eyebrow with anhu in Sanskrit), and so we identify the Egyptian form of the goddess 15 with the moon at full.
The crescent of the new moon rises with horns erect, and sets with its horns comparatively inverted. The horned phase of the moon was considered its masculine manifestation, and its waning was the infantile phase. These two were typified in Egypt by Taht as the bull of the cow, his mother, and Aan, the cynocephalus. The feminine moon was first as the cow Aah, or Aahti; and Aan, her dog or ape, was her child, her little one who represented her lessening phase, who transformed at puberty, so to say, into the horned and begetting bull, as Taht. The modern idea of the lunar imagery would be that the new moon was the child, and such was my notion for years; but this idea is erroneous. We find it difficult to think within the primary limits. The child of the full moon was born in the wane as the powerless or impubescent one of the triad. So Krishna denotes the diminishing one on the dark side, the 'obscure half' of the moon. Taht, the bull, is the pubescent virile youth corresponding to Balarama. Taht or Tekh (another name signifying full), the virile god, was the refiller of the orb with light (in the pre-solar stage), the cause, therefore, of his mother growing great, which accounts for the human nature of the typology. The solar mythos can only be fathomed in the lunar stage. The child Horus was born of the genetrix when the year, like the moon, was at its full circle. Hence he typified the descending and diminishing sun, the khart, or, as in English the crut, a dwarf, or deformed child.
The second Horus was the waxing sun of the vernal equinox, the virile and pubescent type of power. From this standpoint the types can be correlated and read. Certain Greek theologists held that the moon was drawn by two bulls, which denoted her waxing and waning. As the cow and moon (aah) are identical, the two bulls are the calf and bull, only the Egyptians used the cynocephalus, instead of the calf, for the non-virile one. The calf-type was applied to Epaphus, the child of Io; the horned maiden, moon, or cow. The triple moon was also represented by Hekate Triformis, who appears as the mare, snake, and dog. In this combination the mare (Hippa) is the mother; the serpent is the symbol of renewal, and the dog is the type of the waning moon, as was the cynocephalus that bewailed the lessening light.
The dove was the feminine bird of soul or ghost when the Two Truths were both assigned to the female nature. On the coins of Sicyon, the dove is portrayed on the reverse (the tail), with the lion [p.542] as obverse (or head). So the Persian triadic figure is male in the upper part, and the dove denotes the female below, the serpent being a type of renewal. The dove-winged circle encloses and emanes the male figurehead of the triad as the supreme one, but the feminine Yoneh, or yoni, was primary; and these are united in the circle with the wings and tail of the dove. This type of the godhead is called the mihir-sign. The most ancient form of the figure appears on the Assyrian monuments, in the shape of a winged eye. The eye is the mother-mirror, the reproducer of the infant image. Now the mirror is the ma-her (Eg.), ma being the eye and to see; her, the face. The eye was the mirror or mer (Eg.) from ma-her; and this will explain the Persian mihir as the eye-mirror and foundation of the triadic figure, when the male in the circle takes the place of the image in the eye. The winged circle and serpent are Egyptian not only as a solar form of the triad; the winged disk and eye are also lunar types.
A heart-shaped gnostic gem in the British Museum shows the trinity consisting of Bait, a hawk-headed god, Athor as a frog-headed goddess, and a winged uraeus serpent called Akori. On the reverse is a Greek inscription, 'Thou art Bait! Thou art Athor! Thou art Akori! Hail, father of the world! hail, three-formed God.' These three are Egyptian; they denote the genetrix, the child that transforms (serpent of Har-ur), and the generator or masculine soul (ba) of the hawk-headed Horus.
The natural genesis of the trinity is of necessity lunar. Throughout the whole range of phenomena the lunar orb alone in its three phases gives objective representation to the three characters of the human triad which furnished the primal factors. Only the moon can include the triune image of the producer, reproducer, and produced in one single type. The three are one as homo and one as moon, but nowhere else can the trinity be found in nature. Thus by means of the lunar triad we can now explain the tradition extant in the Isthmus of Darien that tells how the man in the moon was guilty of incest with his sister; also the stories of the man who made love to his mother-in-law each month, and she threw ashes in his face, which accounts for the black side of the orb. The male moon re-begot itself on the female, whether she was termed his mother, his sister or mother-in-law. This would be first described in interpreting the natural phenomena when sexual intercourse was promiscuous, and mother, sister and woman were one. But when distinctions had been made, the man in the moon was pointed to as a warning. That was the guilty one who went with his own mother, and came back bearing the brand of blackness on his face! And yet this primitive type cast out by the savage races serves as a representative of the triune god for the most civilized! The type was continued and applied to the solar god who represented the 'Primordial Unity' of [p.543] the mother, child, and vir in one, as did Num and Ptah. This was in the secondary and symbolical phase. Har-Khuti or Horus of the triangle was the great solar type of the trinity in unity whose sign is set in the stars.
One great incentive to the study of astronomy will yet be to find out at first hand what the Kamites typified in the book above with which we have been so deluded at second hand below. By turning to the plate in the present volume the reader may see Horus seated in the decans of the Ram holding the whip of rule in his left hand and the starry 'Triangula'—supposed to have been added by Hevelius!—in his righti. Proclus employs this imagery as a mere figure of speech when he says the 'Celestial Triangle is connective of all generation, being proximate to the ram.' We read in the Litany of Ra 'Thou commandest the Osirified deceased to be like Khuti, the brilliant Triangle which appears in the shining place.' Thus the dead rose on the horizon of the resurrection like the sun in the sign of the vernal equinox when that was the Ram, in the shape of the triangle, as an image of the trinity in unity. The triple Horus was the threefold sun which was unified once a year at the time and place of the spring equinox. There is a form of him as the child crowned with a triple crown of reed and called 'P-neb-Ta,' the lord of the world. This was he who also united the two worlds or two heavens, upper and lower in one according to the doctrine stated in the Epistle to the Ephesians; 'For he who is our Peace, who hath made both one, hath broken down the middle wall of partition,' on which the dividing-wall of the second court of the Temple had been founded.
In the ninth of Hugo de Prato's Sermones Dominicales, he says of the nativity of Christ, 'On this day there appeared in the east three suns which were immediately joined into one to signify that the three, i.e., divinity, soul and flesh are combined in Christ.' The old Adam of the flesh, he says was combined with the newly-created soul and the deity to make one sun, one man Jesus Christ. Such terrible tell-tales are the ancient types. The triadic type was cast by the mind of man before the individual fatherhood was known, and no fatherhood was ever acknowledged by those who worshipped this form of the divine totality or godhead. That was the religious cause of quarrel with the Osirians and Amonians against the disk-worshippers in Egypt. For this they were denounced as the typhonian Aati, the fatherless; from aat the orphan, the lad. These were the original 'Mamzers' amongst the Jews. In the Mishnah the question is asked, 'What is a Mamzer'? And the answer is, 'every child born in that degree of parentage in which cohabitation is [p.544] prohibited.' This does not merely denote the bastard born in adultery. The type of the child who was consort to his own sister and husband to his own mother, which was as old as incest, was represented by the mamzer. It was a very primitive type preserved in mythology and divinized by religion.
The modern notion of ancient monotheism is that men conceived of the one god as the father of souls and that the son and mother or Holy Ghost were added to express a mode of manifestation. On the contrary there was no conception in the matter. 'The nous of the Father said that all things should be cut into three. His will assented and all things became three.' That is the Greek metaphysical mode of statement, whereas the primitive mythology of the black races shows the natural genesis of the doctrine, and tells us the earliest division into three occurred when the child that was second to the mother became the third in the human series at puberty. This was when the sexes were divided by the lizard and serpent; when the tree was split by Tiri, when the stone of Pundjel effected the severance which constituted the third person of the original triad in nature. What sense is there in applying the primitive thought to the nature and manifestation of an eternal being who cuts up all things into three? 'There are three that bear record in Heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three are one. And there are three that bear witness on earth, the spirit, the water, the blood; and these three agree in one.'
These three in heaven or on earth are derived doctrinally from the natural genesis of the human triad of mother, child and pubescent male. The Kabbalah identifies this primordial trinity with the 'Three true witnesses' who testify to the nature of the infinite one. Leo di Modena, an orthodox Jew, questioned whether God would ever forgive those who printed the Kabbalistic works, because the doctrine of the triad contained in them had actually led many Hebrews to embrace Christianity and accept the modern error on account of the ancient truth. The great pity, however, is that this and all other doctrines of the religion of symbolism were not published earlier and more widely spread, as that might have prevented a huge accumulation of misrepresentation and error.
Plutarch tells us the Egyptians held the divine nature to consist of three, and this trinity was typified by the triangle, the base being considered female, the perpendicular male and the subtense that which is produced by them both; Osiris being considered the first cause Isis the recipient and Horus the effect. According to this reading the father god is one of three, and the trinity was perfected in the three characters of the latest sociology with the father, mother [p.545] and child. But in this version the second character of the child is merged in the fatherhood; yet the dual character of the child was continued and this finally necessitated a fourfold totality.
In the previous section it was shown how four earlier types or genii of the four quarters were totalled in a one god, as Ptah, Ra, Brahma, or other form of the fourfold one, including Iao. The name, however, will not determine the Iao without the types. Both the triple and tetradic types come under the one name of Iao, the unified one god. But there was internecine warfare between the two cults, because the four-faced, four-headed, four-natured Iao included the father who had been individualised in the human family, and transposed thence to the type of the deity as the father in heaven. The nature of the triune Iao is indicated by the three letters, just as it is by the mystic Aum of the Hindus, the triangle and other signs of the threefold one. Baal-Shalisha was a form of this triple deity and the Agla-Shalisha, or triple-Baal is the calf-headed Iao referred to by Isaiah, who did not mean a heifer of three years old but the calf type of the triune nature, whether or not represented by a triple-headed calf. The Carthaginian Baal was portrayed with four faces corresponding to the four characters assigned to the Phoenician Iao according to the oracle of Apollo Klarius. Lucian has a Pythagorean dialogue in his Auction, in which Pythagoras asks, 'How do you reckon?' The reply is 'One, Two, Three, Four.' Then Pythagoras says, 'Do you see? In what you conceive Four there are Ten, a perfect triangle and our Oath.'
In the Hebrew Shebâ the oath is identical with no. 7 taking an oath was synonymous with 'to seven,' and the 10 expressed by the letter yod was the full number of Iao-Sabaoth. We are also told that 'The Father of the golden verses celebrates the Tetractys as the fountain of perennial nature.' Pythagoras thus alludes to the four:
'Ναί μα τον άμετέρα ψύχα παραδόντα τετρακήν
Παγάν αενα ό Φύσεως.'
The mother was the only one, the first ancestor who conveyed a sense of personal μονώσις, onlyness or oneness, to her children. The child was dual in sex and thence the twin or type of two. Vir the triadic at puberty, was a figure of three, the Thrion. The individual father was fourth, the figure of the tetrad. In this most natural way were founded the mythical monad (mother), the duad (child-twin), triad (virile male), and tetrad (complete human family) the 1, 2, 3, 4 =10. The secrets of the mysteries have to be unfolded in figures rather than words, because figures belong to the language of gesture-signs.
In elucidating the mystery of simplicity relating to numbers, it was suggested that our notes of punctuation are typical figures, and that the comma, semicolon, and colon, correspond to the mother as first one, the child of both sexes as two; the colon being like the [p.546] pubescent male who was accounted third in the series. A fourfold form of Iao takes us one step farther; and the only human element left to be added is that of the personal fatherhood in the individualised patriarchate. This character was divinized as the god of the four letters or figures, instead of the earlier three. Now, in our notes of punctuation, the full stop is reckoned fourth. With that the tetrad is completed. Also, as the fourth stop is the perfect one (the comma being an imperfect one), this agrees with the one god who, on this line of combination, was perfected as the fourfold one, who included the triad, duad, and monad, in the unity of a tenfold totality. The number ten was mystically said to be the 'Begetter of Souls,' and the power of ten was held to reside in the number four.
The wisdom was so simple that if published the gnostics would be put to shame, hence they remained 'mum'; and to 'mum' was to initiate into the mysteries.
One form of the oath, then, was that of the fourth nature, the individualised fatherhood, the tetramorphic Iao. Plutarch tells us this was the greatest oath amongst the Egyptians. 'That which is termed Tetractys or the sacred Quaternion, being the number thirty-six (as the decans of the four quarters) was according to common report the most sacred oath and was called by them the World.' This was a symbol of the fourfold divinity, based also upon the four quarters, who included the nature of the father that followed the triad of mother, child, and pubescent youth. Here the fourfold Iao was sworn by instead of the threefold as in the Greek oath, 'by Three am I overthrown.' Amongst the Jews the three yods, which have the numeral value of 30, expressed the triple Iao, the one who was the shemu, the khemt (Eg,) or triaded; as did the three letters in the name of Jah; but the sacred Tetragrammaton expressed the Iao of the fourfold nature, and this was the god of the later Jahvists and those who spelt the name with the four letters Ihoh. On one of the gnostic gems the tetradic form of Iao is distinguished by the name being written with the tetragrammaton itself, as Iaeo.
The order of development was the same in the Jewish mythology as it was in Egypt. Jehovah Elohim was first. Jehovah being the genetrix and the Elohim her progeny of the seven elementaries who became the Phoenician auxiliaries of Kronus in their second phase. Jehovah was followed by Jah or Iao, who was the male-female divinity, the dual child of the mother; the triune being united in Asher-Jah. The contention of the later writers is for a Jahveh who shall be considered wholly male; to whom no ram even was to be offered that had been castrated, or was a blemished type of the begetter.
The Gnostics were men who had continued the most ancient and, as was considered, the most mystical types from the beginning; and here we find the tetrad in a feminine form as it was represented by the genetrix Typhon or Apt in her figure of the four chief elementaries [p.547] which were combined in her image and which became the types or the spirits of the four quarters. Marcus insisted that the infinitely exalted tetrad had descended on him from its invisible place, to be made visible through him, in the form of a woman, and expounded to him its nature, and the origin of all things.
A form of the fourfold motherhood corresponding to the tetradic fatherhood is also intimated when Plutarch tells us that the properties of the quadrangle appertain to the goddesses Rhea, Venus, Keres, and Vesta, 'as Eudoxus relates.' The type was further extended to the hexagonic figure of the genetrix who, as Durga (in India), is called the six-sided; a sort of shasha-yoni of space befitting the shasha-lingam, the cube, or the six-armed cross. Thus when the hexagonal heaven of the three divisions and of space in six directions had been established the cross of the four quarters, the swastika of Agni, or fylfot of Thor, was represented by the double triangle, the six-cornered figure, the Shat-Kona, called the thunderbolt of Indra, the cross of the three regions and six corners. It is in this way the mythical types contain relative dates in their data.
Each type each doctrine of the mythos was continued into the later religious stage, and these survived in the Roman church. The conquest of Egypt by Rome had its other side in an Egyptian conquest of Rome; for Rome was the bringer-on of the Kamite mythology and Egyptian religion, which were adopted with a difference by the mytholators of Christendom. Rome was the centre where the Greek, the Hebrew, the Mithraic, and Egyptian versions of one original mythology met as in an assimilating vortex, and every essential dogma of the new religion reissued by Rome (save one) was preextant as Egyptian.
The triangle of Horus-Khuti supplied one type of the Nimbus or glory of the god in the Greek iconography. The Holy Ghost, as the dove, also wears the triangular aureole in a mosaic of the ninth century, in the cathedral at Capua. These likewise point to the trinity of the mother and child in which the child became his own re-begetter, he who was no. 3. In a fresco from the apse in the crypt of the Auxerre cathedral, belonging to the twelfth century, the god is portrayed holding a book as the AO and with his right hand he makes the sign of the trinity, the thumb and two forefingers being extended and the other two held closed. The AO denotes the dual being; the three digits make the gesture-sign of the threefold manifestation. Bishops of the Christian Church still continue to make this gesture-sign of the trinity, in blessing the people, with the thumb and two forefingers thrust out, or with the tips pressed together; a ring being sometimes worn upon the middle finger denoting the trinity in unity. When this sign was employed by the Otomacs and others to signify the number 3 it was a natural posture, but when used by men who are [p.548] entirely ignorant of the origin and significance of primitive symbolism as the gesture-language of a supposed revelation not yet nineteen centuries old it becomes an imposture.
The cult of the Roman Church as illustrated by the typology that survived in the catacombs and by other traditions proves that her religion was fundamentally founded on the virgin mother and child of mythology; the god who had crossed or decussated and duplicated as the consort of the genetrix from the time before the fatherhood was recognised. Hence God the Father is almost wholly absent from the early monuments claimed to be Christian, which are in genial agreement with the Gnostics who continued the opposition to a paternal deity and exalted Sophia, the great mother, from the beginning, together with the child Horus, who became the anointed messiah in his second character of Stauros the cross.
As admitted by Didron it took some thirteen centuries for God the Father to obtain his place in the Christian iconographic art. Until that time there is little, if any, distinction between the portraits of the supposed father and son. Even at the commencement of the fourteenth century the father is too youthful to be accredited with paternity. But about 1360 and onwards into the fifteenth century the difference in their relative ages was preserved and appropriately portrayed. In the fourteenth century art the mother, son and father have taken the place of the mother, child and virile male of the pre-paternal trinity in unity. Until then the son was generally represented as the Creator of the world, but in the fifteenth century God the Father comes to the front as Creator of the world instead of his son.
The father was represented somewhat earlier, although by a sign unread by Didron. That is the square. It is easy to understand the triangle, says this writer, but it is difficult to understand why the square nimbus should have been given to God the Father. It was because the square was tetradic and the fourfold nature was summed up in the father-god, as it was in Greece, in Egypt and in India. A miniature of the fourteenth century exhibits God the Father wearing a four-cornered nimbus, the shape of a trencher cap. This icon shows the survival of the tetrad; the deity of a fourfold nature who was completed at last in the human image of the mother, child, vir and pater combined, and personified as the divine unity or one God.
Also in a fresco of the great convent of Salamis (eighteenth century) the father God is portrayed seated within the symbolic square, which has concave sides, and thus emphasizes the four corners. Moreover he makes the figure of four in gesture language with the thumb and fourth digit of the right hand, in token that he is Tetramorphus, the true tetradic god. Everywhere the father followed the son, as Osiris the father had been As-Ar the son of Isis, and as Abram preceded Abraham. It was the same in the religious phase as it had been in the mythological which was the mirror of the primitive [p.549] sociology; and the same in Rome as it had been in Egypt. The cult of Rome was founded on symbols. Her primary dogmas and supreme doctrines were rightly designated 'symbols,' and the whole of these were pre-existent and pre-Christian. Amongst other survivals is the doctrine of conversion, regeneration and rebirth in what Paul terms the 'baptism for the dead.' This second birth belongs primally to the entrance of the youth into the ranks of the fathers in the totemic stage of society. It was continued in the solar allegory after the fatherhood had become individualised.
The first Horus was the child of the mother only. He is said to have been born, but not begotten, the child therefore of the virgin mother; she who came from herself. The month of this birth was Mesore, at the time of the summer solstice. The rebirth occurred at Easter or the vernal equinox, nine months afterwards. The first Horus being the child of the mother solely was an 'oon egg,' i.e., an egg with no tread in it; Tammuz, Aten, Adonai, El-El (Har-Ur, Eg.) represented this impubescent god. The fatherhood having been established, Osiris, Atum or Amen-Ra, called the generator, became the paternal god in the Amenti, the place of regeneration. Here the child Horus was re-begotten by the father in the masculine likeness. In keeping with this typology, all firstborn sons of the Egyptian pharaohs were assimilated to Har-Si-Hesi, Horus the son of Isis, and continued to be born as the sons of the genetrix; whereas the dead were the sons of Osiris, the begetter for another life. Here again, the motherhood is acknowledged to be first in point of time. The scenes and transactions of this region of rebirth were represented in the mysteries and constituted the secret kernel of all their teachings. The present writer could fill a volume with this drama alone. But there is no need. It is so well-known in another guise. In the transformation of Horus the re-begotten, the sun, or god, has to cross the waters. That is the river of the Waterman in the planispherei, the Eridanus, Iarutana (Eg.), the Hebrew Jordan—the river of the division. In this the baptism occurs. Plutarch asserts that the child Horus fell into the waters and was drowned—like the youth Wut-Yune, whose death by water is still represented and bewailed, as with the 'Weeping for Thammuz,' in the Dragon-Boat Festival, celebrated by the Chinese. This would agree with the institution of baptism for the dead. In the Inscription of Shabaka, the baptism occurs apparently without the death. Either way, the baptism or death was but figurative of the regeneration and rebirth which were effected in this region, from which the second Horus issued at the age of thirty years as the adult god, the sheru or homme fait, whose name signifies the man of thirty years. The baptism for the dead was continued by the Christians although its origin and significance seem to have been unknown to them.
The object of all this fundamental research is to lay bare and expose the foundations of theological and other dogmas, and to trace the outcome back to the root.
The male is reborn at puberty. He was reborn into the totem at that time. This was the natural genesis of a rebirth and of being twice born. The Chaldean oracles call Saturn 'once beyond,' and Jupiter 'twice beyond.' Saturn was the born child of the motherhood, and Jupiter represented the fatherhood. The full initiates in the mysteries the regenerated among men were denominated the twice-born, because assimilated to this second solar character. The once-born were but offspring of the mother, who when the fatherhood was established was the mother of flesh only, mere matter; the spirit having been acknowledged to be the product of the male.
In India 'Twice-Born' is a term religiously applied to caste and race. The Brahman as the 'twice-born' is assimilated to the divinity on this ground. At least two castes are so founded. The Sudra is only 'once-born,' needing rebirth in the later likeness. The superior classes are the 'twice-born.' The Laws of Manu state that a 'twice-born' man who not having studied the Veda, applies diligent attention to a different and worldly study soon falls, even whilst living, to the condition of a Sudra, and his descendants after him. From their first origin the Aryas of India assume the status of the twice-born without going through the process; being so much later they began as the second birth, the begotten of the father, sons of the sun and despisers of the earlier mother-born who were once the first because primordial.
The divine sonship however is still the most divine, most mystical and worshipful in Rome, when sacred to the mother alone. Jesus as son of Mary the Virgin is dearer to the papal church and the English ritualist than as the son of the father. It is a pet name, to call the child son of the mother. So Horace called Augustus Filius Maiae. So Buddha is the son of Maya, and Hermes is the son of Maia, as Jesus is the son of Mary. And if the monkish Mariolator no longer becomes the eunuch for heaven's sake he does his best to assimilate himself to the androgynous deity composed of the virgin mother and impubescent child; the little black bambino of Italy, the 'Kriss-Kringle' of Germany, the child-god of the mythos who represented the diminishing moon or dwindling suffering sun as the black Krishna, Kak or Osiris in the underworld. Shaving the crown is the same mode of becoming un-masculine as shaving the eyebrows or of plucking them out. The monk wears the sign of the woman on his head, and the frock of the female down to his feet, and thus presents the likeness of the virgin goddess and the non-virile god in one; the AO of a neuter gender.
The mystical circle on the shaven crown is identical with the red circle figured on the forehead of the Sakteya, and the eye worn by the [p.551] Hindu within the crescent moon. The eye is the mother-mirror, the emblem of the female as reproducer of the infantile image, hence it interchanges with the 'mark of another sort,' with which Indra, on a certain occasion, was covered. Hence the eye was drawn within the new moon: the horned moon and eye on the forehead of Ardha-Nãrii being typical of the blended male and female. The circle is equally the figure of the female reproducer. Moreover, the circle of glory, the aureole of divinity, is no mere solar radiation as supposed. It is still the circle of the female who was the Shakti, the power and energic force of the male, the glory of the god, both in India and Egypt. The eye of the sun and the glory are identical in the goddess Pehti (Peh-peh), or Sekhet. See the mother Maya (p. 466), for the origin of the glory which is the aureole of the cross. The priest who shaves his crown to wear the glory (or who passes his head through the pallium or chasuble) presents the same figure as the male cross within the female circle, and the tau in conjunction with the ro. The types may be misinterpreted, but they remain true to their natural genesis.
The virgin mother continued the pre-monogamous type of the female who became the prostitute of later sociology and language. Thus Menka, the mere concubine or wet-nurse of inner Africa, the Great Mother in Egypt, became our Minck or minx as the wanton; and also the Nun who is a minch by name, the nunnery being known as a minchery in English. This persistence of the types will explain why the harlot should be denominated Croshabel (in Kent), from crosh, the cross. And our poor Croshabel is a final shape of the cruciform Maya, the Cyprian Venus, and Sophia, who are figured as the female crucified, or crossed by Stauros.
The cult of the virgin mother and child has no meaning outside the mythos. This cult was continued in Rome, and there converted into its Christian phase. Consequently there was no scope left for an origin with any historical virgin who gave birth in the year one to a child that was born without the fatherhood. The doctrine of the immaculate conception of the virgin mother which had been held secretly for eighteen centuries, was publicly reaffirmed in the year 1855. This proclaimed the non-human nature of Mary!
This perfects the mythos which belongs to the time when no man knew his own father on earth, and there was no image of the fatherhood in heaven. Such was the primitive stage of religious barbarism re-attained in the middle of the nineteenth century.
St. Augustine naively confesses that it was by means of the Platonic system that he was enabled to understand properly the doctrine of the trinity. Justin Martyr was also a Platonist who became a Christian, or was converted, as the phrase is, to Christianity in the second century. Aristotle had smilingly asked which one of the platonic ideas it was that connected the rest with sensible things? But such a question never occurred to a Christian father. The platonic [p.552] system spun its own umbilical cord. The connecting link, however, was mainly one of metaphysical misinterpretation of mythology, and a total inversion of the order of its development. The objective realities of the earlier thought were transmuted into subjective idealities, and that which was latest in mental evolution was thereby turned into a fresh starting-point for the Christian fathers. For example, Plato says in Timaeus, 'It is necessary for us to believe in the Ancients, who, being the progeny of the gods, as they tell us, must have a clear knowledge of their parents, for it is impossible not to believe in the children of the gods, though they should speak without probable arguments and necessary demonstrations.' And this is exactly what has been done, and what Plato greatly helped to do. Whereas the 'gods' originated in the elementary forces of external nature represented by the animals, fish, reptiles, and birds, who were man's superiors in relation to the elements. It was the work of Plato and his followers to cut the moorings of men and set them adrift from their ancient anchorage in phenomena, and thus prepare the way for a still greater perversion of mythology. He subtilized and sublimated the primitive types of thought until they became obscured past finding out. The trinity, the hexad, the hebdomad, or ogdoad when relegated to the domain of abstract ideas without the key of the origins, or the clue of the genesis, are very literally preposterous. Commencing as it did in the natural phenomena of the visible sphere the trinity could never be fitted to the metaphysical representation because there were no known divine or spiritual correspondences to the primitive factors. Hence the fruitless, futile, fatuous endeavours to define and fix the triadic dogma after it had been ignorantly adopted. All foothold in the phenomenal basis was lost without any new standing ground being gained. The pyramid of the ancient builders had its slope of ascent and upward steps. It was so constructed as to be climbable. In the platonizing system this was reversed; there it only presents a broad basis bottom upwards, with no legitimate means of mounting to the summit. And, when once the natural genesis of theosophical dogmas like these of the triadic and tetradic nature of deity has been truly traced and is firmly grasped all claims made on their behalf to authority either supernatural or commonsensical, must end for ever. A divinity composed of three or four human characters by simple ignorance in the past, and then made historic by the cunning of later ignorance, cannot co-exist in the same mental world with a knowledge of the origins.
This page last updated: 09/03/2014