The 149th chapter of the Ritual suffices of itself to demonstrate the astronomical nature of the Egyptian mythology after it had passed out of the first elementary phase. This chapter, said to be the most profoundly mystical and absolutely incomparable is the 'Book of instructing the Spirit, the Delight of the Sun, who prevails as Atum, and is rendered great as Osiris.' 'There is not known any other such, at any time, or anywhere. No men hath spoken it; no eye hath perceived it; no ear hath heard it; not any other face hath looked in it to learn it. Do not thou multiply its chapters[1], or do not thou let any face except thy own see it and eat thy heart, doing it in the midst of the Hall of Clothes (the Judgment Hall). It is put forth by the God with all his power. It is a true Secret; when it is known all the providers in all places supply the dead (Spirit) in Hades; food is given to his soul on earth; he is made to live forever; nothing prevails against him.'[2] The contents of this chapter show that the secret of its revelation, considered to be of such supreme importance in the eschatological phase, belonged to the gnosis of the celestial allegory, the earliest formation of the starry heavens, and a knowledge of the seven cows and the bull; the four mystical eyes; the four paddles of the boat of the sun, which are arranged according to the four corners or points of the compass. The seven cows; or seven Hathors, are but a later form of the water cow, the sevenfold one of the Great Bear, first represented by the hippopotamus, the old Typhon, whose son Sut, or Sevekh, was the bull of the seven cows, as Sut-Anta [p.2] before he had been superseded by Taht in the lunar mythos[3], and Osiris in the solar.

When the tail of the Great Bear points to the west at nightfall, the Chinese say it is autumn. That is the position of the constellation in the planispherei copied into the previous volume. The cowsign is the type of Hathor, and the seven stars in that position are the seven Hathors, the foretellers of coming events, and therefore they were connected at this point with the inundation and the future harvest, which is indicated by the seven ears of corn in the hands and crown of Hathor-Isis who represents the sign of Virgo. It can be proved by their names that the seven cows are not the supposed 'Seven Pleiades.'*

* Ernest de Bunsen, for example, is wrong from first to last in assuming that the 'seven stars' of mythology are the Pleiades[4].

The Pleiades never were the 'seven stars' out of Greece. The Pleiades are six only, as the mothers, or sucklers of Krtikya in India; six only as the hen and chickens of the planisphere; six only as the 'tau-one,' or the six, of the Mangaian Matariki[5].

In the Avesta the typical seven stars are the female companions of Sothis (Tistrya), and these are the stars Haptoiringa, the seven Bears[6].

The first one of the cows is called 'Hat-ka-neb-ter,' i.e., the maternal abode in which the lord (Osiris) was reconstituted, reimaged, or reborn; for the Great Bear constellation, designated the car and coffin of Osiris, was also the meskhen of new birth, the womb of the genetrix who first gave birth to time in heaven, and the elements or seasons on earth; next, to the manifestors of time and season, the kronotypes, including the solar god; and lastly, to souls in the psychotheistic phase of the mythos.

The seven cows passed into the seven ploughing oxen of the Romans, the septentriones in Cicero's Aratus[7], as the seven of the Great Bear. The seven cows are also the seven Arushis of the Vedas, which, like the seven Hathors, are called the seven sisters. 'He brought the Seven Sisters, the Arushis,'[8] the bright cows, says the Vedic poet. These are no indefinite daughters of the dawn. The number seven has no foundation in the phenomena of dawn. Moreover, 'When the Sun flew up the Arushis refreshed their bodies in the water.'[9] This description applies to the seven stars, or cows, becoming invisible by day, when they retire once more into the celestial waters, like other teachers of time in heaven.

The Persians also have the seven sisters, who are the wise women considered to be present at birth as foretellers of fate, like the seven Hathors, or cows, in Egypt. The four paddles and eyes are Amset, Hapi, Tuautmutf, and Kabhsenuf the genii of the four Ritual[10] [p.3] quarters, who are also represented by Ra, Shu, Seb, and the Great Mother; or by other forms of the universal four. The very earliest four quarters were indicated in the circle or year of the Great Bear. Hence these four genii are four of the seven spirits of that constellation, who are also called seven planks in the boat of souls. Next the four quarters were founded in the lunar zodiac. Thus it is said of the ancient Babylonian king, Agu-kak-rimi, whose glory is the moon, that he was the establisher of the four regions[11]. Lastly, the four corners were the foundations of the solar zodiac, also termed the four paddles of the solar bark.

In the complete making out of time in heaven, all tune was perfected when the sun-god was acknowledged as chief ruler. He was the true Kronus in place of Sothis, Anup, Shu, Seb, and Taht, who receded to secondary and subordinate positions, or, as in the case of Sut, were degraded altogether. The paeans of exultation raised to this the one true god, who at last became first of the first, can be heard in all the later religious literature. It is said of the pharaoh assimilated to the sun 'His majesty went sailing as the image of Har-makhu; for lo! he took possession of that land, he obtained it for the time of the Sun.' This was following a reign of the Sut-Typhonians in Egypt. It is further affirmed that he took possession of the temples, priests, spondists, and offerings, and 'they were timed for the worship of the Sun.'[12] He 'has come forth like the Sun,' says the Osirified deceased in the Ritual. 'The Sun knoweth his going down,' exclaims the psalmist[13]. 'Helios will not overstep his boundaries,' sings the Vedic poet. 'Surya does not injure the appointed places,' as did those unfaithful guardians of time, period, season, and bounds, who had been cast out as the 'Children of Inertness,' founded on the stars that were fixtures.

In his exaltation of the solar type, which was the latest perfected, one Hindu writer asserts that the sun is the source of time, and that which was before the sun was no-time[14]. This is the language of the latest race or religion in all lands. When safe in heaven at last the deceased exclaims: 'The Osiris takes the time of heaven; his Time is that of the whole creation.'[15] His beatitude being expressed by a figure of time that was perfected. And here the final type of the various divinities is the sun as Amen-Ra the generator and father of souls who was Atum in one cult, Osiris in another, Abraham in Israel, Surya in India, and Hu in Britain. Proclus observes that: 'In divine souls likewise there is time, since as Plato says in "Phaedrus," they survey, through time, real being itself.'[16]

Chaos precedes creation in mythology. The elementary powers were the rulers in chaos, the domain of lawless force, discord, [p.4] dissolution, and timelessness. The first creation represents the passage of mythology out of chaotic space into the fixed world of time. The idea of a beginning with the observed motions of the stars is conveyed by the fixed stars being called and impersonated as the 'Beginningless lights' the anaghra raokau of the Avesta, in contradistinction to the movers and periodic revolvers.

In one of their creation legends the Blacks of Victoria relate that the moon at one time was aberrant in her motions until these were regulated by Nooralie. Nooralie, or old time, told her to die and let her bones whiten and crumble into powder. This the moon did and still she dies and reappears at regular intervals and does her duty to the black fellows as Nooralie in times long past commanded her to do[17]. These Aborigines have a group of typical powers under the name of 'Nooralie,' or beings of old time, and in Egyptian Nun is time; the earliest types of gods associated as fellows or grouped together were the Nnu. The legend of the moon identifies the Nooralie with the creation of time.

The 'Ritual' shows that a knowledge of these hidden facts of the celestial allegory concerning time was preserved in the Egyptian cult for making the safe passage through all the trial scenes in death, or in the judgment hallthe earliest guides in the darkness of night having survived as types of guidance through the dark of death and the salvation of the deceased depended on his having the facts treasured up in memory. 'Do not record beginnings; neither consider the things of old,' is the advice of Isaiah[18] to his countrymen. But the Egyptian priests preserved the beginnings by investing them with the most sacred significance; teaching them in the secrecy of the mysteries, and burying them with the mummies of the dead. They did not throw down the ladder by which they had climbed the heavens physically, but re-erected it in the caves and temples of the mysteries.

The earliest recorded beginnings of time then are with the bull and seven cows, or seven Hathors, seven bears, seven maidens, seven Rishis, seven princes, or other types of the seven stars or constellations of Ashtoreth Elohim, Jehovah-Elohim, or Ta-Urt-Typhon, whom we can recognise and identify.

In the Bijek it is said, 'from one mother is the universe born.'[19] This beginning is universal in mythology. The Great Mother in her primordial phase was the abyss in space, and the goddess of the seven stars in time. No superseded type was ever lost, and the mother as space and domus did not pass away when time was established, but was continued in Nu, the lady of heaven, and consort of Seb-Kronus. Heaven as the bringer-forth was continued in the female figure arching over earth. In addition to this the Egyptians portrayed the zodiac in human shape; and astrology has brought on a human-shaped zodiac founded on the [p.5] female form. In this the sign of the Ram serves for the head; the Bull for neck and throat; the Twins for arms; the Crab for the breast; the Lion for the heart and back; the Virgin for the womb; the Scales for the lumbar region; the Scorpion for the groin; the Archer for the legs and thighs; the Sea-goat for the knees; the Waterer for the legs, and Fishes for the feet.

As bearer and bringer forth, the Great Mother became the goddess of the bear, or chariot, the merkabah (marukabatu, a chariot, Eg.), with which Jehovah is identified in the Kabbalah. Urt, or Ta-urt (Eg.), means the chariot, the great bearer, who in the sphere of time was represented by the Great Bear, as the cow of the waters, the beast that came up out of the deep or 'sat upon' the celestial waters as the 'Mother of the Revolutions,' and therefore of time, who was her firstborn as Sevekh-Kronus, Sut, or Saturn, her dragon of the seven stars that went round with her in figuring the primary circle and cycle at the polar centre.

Philo on the Allegories of the Sacred Law, shows that he knew something of the mystery of the seven cows or bears. He observes 'the constellation of the Great Bear is made up of seven stars, which constellation is the cause of communication and unity among men, and not merely of traffic.'[20] It continued the celestial model on which they were grouped together in sevens, whether as the seven eundas or totems of the Damaras, the seven tribes of the Ja-jow-er-ong Australians, the seven Hohgates and seven Rishis, the seven patriarchs who preceded the ten; the seven sons of Mitzraim, of Japheth, Sydik, Ptah or Jesse, the heptanomis of the seven Egyptian nomes, the seven-portioned earth of the Iranians, or the seven provinces of Dyfed and of Alban, the one type of the whole being the seven primary constellations. It is not in the Hebrew, Assyrian, Greek or Hindu scriptures that we shall find the most archaic forms, the bare skeleton of the mythos, but in the traditions of races which are now almost extinct. The Indians of Los Angeles, California, who relate that the divine Quaoar descended from heaven and reduced chaos into order and then put the world on the back of seven giants[21], possess one of the most primitive forms of the creation-myth. These are the seven giants who in another myth are the builders of the tower; the seven who formed the gigantic cycle of the stellar year which was connected with the revolution of the bears. The Murray natives have the Great Bear under the name of Koob-borr. This is the old kheb (earlier khub) of Egypt. The same original is apparent in the North American Indian languages, where it is applied to two different representatives of the water-horse kheb as

jabai, the bear, Omaha. chapa, the beaver, Yankton.
tsa-kohp,   "      Natchez. tschawpah,    "       Dakota.
wa-sauba,  "      Osage. chaupee,        "       Catawba.
shobah, the beaver, Osage.  


The Crow Indian name of the bear, duh-pitsa agrees with the Swabian pecister; the Assyrian batsiati (hippopotamus), whilst the Pawnee koorooksh for the bear corresponds to another Australian name of the Great Bear as Kur-ruk-ar-ook. Kur-ruk-ar-ook is she who assembles all the bears[22], and settles the quarrels respecting the waters. The bears are said to be seven in number. The waters are celestial and the settling of the quarrels is a primitive mode of stating that the genetrix of the bears was the arranger and determiner in space and time. This distant re-identified goddess of the Great Bear (Koobborr or Kur-ruk-ar-ook) is known to have been a 'Very fine and very big woman,' and is equivalent therefore to the Great Mother[23]. Kurruk-ar-ook, a female, now the seven stars[24], was the only one who could make fire (weenth) and in a story told by the aborigines of the river Yarra, Kur-ruk-ar-ook, the keeper of fire, would not give any of it away. In the Egyptian mythos the genetrix of the seven stars is likewise the keeper of fire, as Kar-tek, the spark-holder. Otava the Great Bear in Finnic has the same name as the Egyptian Tef, Tep, or Tabi of the seven stars. The Great Bear in Britain and Ireland is Arth, who, with her starry son Arthur, identifies our beginnings with the Bear constellation, and the typical seven stars and constellations.

The Ainus, or hairy men in the Island of Jesso, the most northern part of Japan, trace their beginnings back to a bear and a dog. They say that the first human being was a woman, who, when the world was formed out of the waters, floated on the deep carrying fishing and hunting gear. She landed on an island, where she dwelt alone in a beautiful garden, which still exists although no man can find it. The loss of this paradise is connected with the increase and dispersion of the race, following the advent of a 'protector' whom she had permitted to enter the garden which was their Eden of the foreworld. The dog, as already shown, was a type of the Lesser Bear constellation as well as of Sirius, the star. In certain tales told of the Peguans their progenitors are said to have been a dog and a woman; and some anthropologists (Camoens[25] amongst other writers), in the absence of the mythical typology, have discussed the possibility of such beginnings. In this, as in the Ainu legend, the woman and dog are represented by the Greater and Lesser Bear, or Sothis the Dog-star.

The starting-point in all the oldest mythologies is on the nightside of phenomena. Hence the counting by nights, and not by days or dawns of light as with those Polynesians whose reckoning of time was by nights, and whose days had no name. Out of this darkness issues the first shape, that of the Great Mother, followed by the twin brothers, who are represented under various but correlative types. In the beginning, say the Gallinomeros of Central California, there was no light, but a thick darkness covered all the earth. It was so dark that men stumbled blindly [p.7] against each other, animals against animals, the birds clashed together in the air, and there was nothing but the confusion of constant contact. The hawk happened by chance or luck to fly into the face of the coyote, and after mutual apologies and a long discussion concerning the situation, these two resolved to set about finding a remedy. The coyote gathered a great heap of tales, rolled them up into a ball, and gave it to the hawk, together with some pieces of flint[26]. In this version the prairie dog takes the place of the typhonian wolf-dog, the fenekh of Abyssinia; and the two, the coyote and hawk are identical with the Sut-Horus of the monuments, the brothers Warpil and War of the Australians, and with Heber and Heremon in Arthuria or Ireland. The whole nation of the Thlinkeets is separated into two great divisions, one of which is called the wolf, the other the raven. Bancroft says, 'Upon their houses, boats, robes, shields, and wherever else they can find a place for it, they paint or carve their crest, an heraldic device of the beast or bird designating the clan to which the owner belongs.'[27] This, the oldest division into two, corresponds to that of the eagle-hawk and raven of the Australian aborigines.

Moreover, the black bird and wolf, two of the types of Sut, are here combined by the Thlinkeets. The black bird represented the son of the mother on one horizon, and was the type of the lower world, the wolf or jackal (Anup) on the horizon of the resurrection, where it arises in other of the American myths. These legends of the twins, however, belong chiefly to the vague stage of mere light and dark, and the earliest division of night and day which is often applied to the human creation.

The Yumala negroes say that Til,* the Great Creator cut the kneecaps from the hermaphrodite Venus, and made from them a black and white human pair.

* Til. It is observable that tir, the arrow, still used in Persian, is the name of Mercury in the Bundahish, the planet assigned to Sirius; and that Tiriel in the Kabbalah is the intelligence of the planet Mercury.

Another version of the negro myth was taken down from a native in Tumale, near the centre of Africa, by Dr. Tutschek[28]. In this, Til (God) made men and bade them live together in peace and happiness; labour five days, and keep the sixth as a festival. They were forbidden to hurt the beasts or reptiles. They themselves were deathless, but the animal suffered death. Til ordered the men to build mountains: they did so, but they so on for got the god's commands, killed the beasts and quarrelled with one another. Wherefore Til sent fire and destroyed them, but saved one of the race, named Musikdegen, alive. Then Til began to recreate beings. He stood before a wood and called, 'Ombo Abnatum Dgu!' and there came out a gazelle and licked His feet. So He said, 'Stand up, gazelle!' and when it stood up, its beast-form disappeared, and it was a beautiful maiden, and He called her Mariam. He blessed [p.8] her, and she bore four children, a white pair and a black pair. When they grew up, Til ordered them to marry, the white together, and the black together. In Dai, the story goes that Til cut out both Mariam's kneecaps, and of each He made a pair of children! Those which were white He sent north; to those which were black He gave possession of the land where they were born[29]. This black and white pair, however, were celestial at first, not human. And here it may be observed that when the African or Australian aborigines speak of going down in death as 'black fellows' and coming up as 'white fellows' we need not think it is intended as a compliment to Europeans. The doctrine belongs to the earliest division of light and darkness. The sun as Kak (or Hak) went down black and rose up white as Hu Osiris the father was black; Horus the son was white. The Hottentot Urisep, the son of Heitsi-Eibip, is the whitish one by name. In a later stage which reflects the red race, the ruti, Atum set as the red sun and re-arose as the white. His hut sign signifies white. Sut was black and Horus white.

White denoted the second of the Two Truths, and was used in the shape of pipe-clay by the Africans as the paint of puberty. Also the black fellows must have pipe-clayed their dead both In Africa and Australia ages before ever they saw a white man.

In Egyptian, paint has the same name of khu as white or light; and the khu is a spirit. Pennant in his tour through South Wales[30] says on inquiry into the origin of the prevalent whitening of the cottages there, he found the good people thought by thus whitening they were shutting the door of their houses against the devil, or black man. The act was precisely the same as that of the blacks who whiten themselves with pipe-clay.

Froebel says of the negroes in the United States that they believed the damned became monkeys, but if they behaved well they would be changed again into the human form, and their ultimate beatitude consisted in becoming white[31]. The imagery is as old as the observation of night turning into day, or the black moon that was typified by the black ape transforming into the white disk which the ape carried.

The hermaphrodite Venus is identified as the inner African 'first woman' who is called Iye, or life[32]. Iye is the earlier Ife, Eve, Heva or Kefa, the mother of life, or life personified. Now the kneecap is a hieroglyphic k; earlier kab (kabt), for the knee and kneepan. Kab means to duplicate, hence the cap, the joint, as the sign of kab or modified k. Of course the kneecap is a symbol and here it can be shown how the Yumala negroes continued to talk that language of typology which can often be interpreted by the hieroglyphics, in [p.9] which the kneecap remained and bears the name of the genetrix and duplicator Kep or Eve. Moreover when the Tasmanian natives assert that men had tails originally, but no knee-joints or kneecaps, they are talking the same typology. The Maori Ponaturi are the people of the knee-joint, or the division of heaven above and the waters below. But here the people who have no knee-joint are the undivided, the undistinguished herd which preceded the 'divided people.'

The hermaphrodite genetrix of the blacks whether in Africa or Australia, is one with the ancient Typhon in Egypt, the earliest form of the producer in space and time; the one alone whose children were the undivided, undistinguished mongrels of promiscuity. As goddess of the Great Bear, and the hinder-part north she was the thigh, the backside, and her type is the tail. Hence the men, tribes, or races who date from this beginning were derided and scoffed at in later times as the men with tails but without kneecaps. The Jew's were reported to be born with tails. In China the Miau-tze, the aboriginal children of the soil are accredited with tails. The wild tribes of Africa, the Cagots of the Pyrenees, the Coata Tapztya in South America, are all considered to be people with tails. The men of Kent were called the long tails. Bishop Bale[33] says Englishmen had a perpetual infamy of being considered men with tails, through lying legends. The people of one county after another as they shed the tail themselves threw it behind them in the face of those of another backward county. The belief that Cornishmen had tails is yet extant in Devonshire. When the Jewish father cut off the tails of the future progeny in a symbolical representation he was repudiating that most ancient, prehuman and totemic type of the primordial people.

In the Magic Papyrus, spells and prayers are uttered against all animals having long tails[34]. One of these is the 'Bad dog;' another was the kant or kaf-ape. From the dog and ape descended the men with tails, as the children of Typhon.

The goddess of the seven stars was cast out as Baba the Beast. She was the beast under several forms, the hippopotamus, lioness, crocodile, bear (tabi) serpent and monkey (her muzzle or mouth being that of the kaf-ape). Her progeny too were represented by the crocodile, the ass, the fenekh, the ape and other animals. A caricature of an Egyptian concert in the Turin Satirical Papyrus is anti-typhonian. In this the ass is playing the harp, the lioness a lute, the crocodile a guitar, and a human-headed ape blows a double wind instrument[35]. The ass, lioness, crocodile and ape were four types of Typhon the genetrix.

The men who had tails but no knee-joints were the Typhonians of Chaos. The mother was not then even cut in two as Omoroka [p.10] or as the cow; the genetrix was not divided into the two sisters of one blood. It was the state of promiscuity, and according to the later thought men were all beasts together then without distinction, division or kneecaps.

The Tinneh Indians of North America whose languages extend in a line four thousand miles in length and diagonally over forty-two degrees of latitude, stretching from the northern interior of Alaska down into Sonora and Chihuahua, ranging from the borders of Mexico to the mouth of the Mackenzie River, claim their descent from the dog[36], like the Ainus of Japan. They say that whereas all other people owe their origin to the bird deity, they derive theirs from the dog and therefore to this day the dogs flesh is an abomination to the Tinneh. Indeed only a short time before the visit of Captain Franklin, the Tinneh had nearly ruined themselves by killing all their dogs because some fanatic had broken out afresh on this subject of their origin, and persuaded them of the wickedness of working their near relation[36a]. One of these tribes is the Takulli and in their tongue the dog is named thuli.

The Nez Percs tribe of Indians trace their origin and that of the human race to the wolf. Originally, they say, there were annuals only, and a monster devoured them alive. At last the wolf entered the monster's belly where he found the animals engaged in snarling at and tearing each other as they had done in the world outside. The wolf addressed them and urged them to cooperate against the common enemy. This they did and all fell upon him with one accord, eating their way out of the devourer's side. The monster perished and the animals were transformed into men. The wolf (or jackal) was one of the seven elementaries born of the genetrixthe wolf of day and dark, or the twilight. As Sut-Anup the wolf kept the horizon of the resurrection and showed the way up from the underworld, like Nebo, who 'kept the morning and evening gate of souls.' The tradition affiliates the Nez Percs to Anup one of the first male types that were figured in heaven as the sons of the primordial mother, Typhon, the goddess of the Great Bear. The primary and most honoured totems of various tribes among the red-skins are the bear, wolf, and turtle. The Osages claim descent from the beaver. The totem represents the name of their progenitor according to this beginning with the elementaries and zootypes that were afterwards figured in the stars of heaven.

But the ancient mother whose constellation was the Great Bear, had several types on earth. She was called the 'Dipper' in latitudes where she descended below the horizon, when the heaven was known as the celestial water. She was also the 'Digger' in relation to the earth which she was seen to sink into or ascend from; and the 'digger' takes various forms, hence she has several types. [p.11] Rerit, the sow, was one of these; and as Typhon was of a red complexion, it is probable that the river-hog (genus choiropotamus) now of tropical Africa, which is of a bright red colour, was an inner African prototype. The sow was the poker in the earth; as such it passed into the plough; for the plough is derived from the pig's snout. The pig has been recognised as the first plough in Africa[37]. The Latin porca, a ploughed field, is identical with porca a sow. Plutarch derives the name of the ploughshare from that of the boar[38]. The sow Rerit made the circuit complete in heaven by ploughing through the earth long before a plough was invented to open the ground, and her name of Kheb was afterwards given to the plough. Also, the Great Bear is still called the 'Plough.' A pig figured on a cross is one of the symbols found upon the ancient Gaulish coins or talismans. This represents the pig that crossed, the pig of the crossing, corresponding to Rerit the sow that crossed in the northern quarter of the heavens, where the bear dipped down and re-arose.

In the island of Celebes the world is described as being supported by the hog, and when the animal rubs itself against the tree there is an earthquake[39].

The tortoise that buries itself underground and emerges periodically is another type of Typhon. The North American Indians assert that earthquakes are caused by the buried earth-bearing tortoise[40]. Mythology rather than geology will tell us why. The tortoise having been adopted as the type of an established order of things called the 'world' or the 'age,' it remains at the sunken foundations of the past, and at the same time this will also explain the ancient custom of burying a live tortoise at the base of a building. The Hindu grammarians tell us that the tortoise is a type of woman, who ought never to stir from home. This also recognises the feminine foundation of which the tortoise was a symbol. The tortoise that supported the earth of mythology and was fabled to sustain the universe is portrayed at the base of the beginnings in the temple of Meaco where there is a stately chapel dedicated to the creator of all things. The opening is depicted by an ox in the act of breaking an egg; the egg that is still broken at Easter in many lands, which is a symbol of the opening year. In the midst of the temple there is a pit full of water, surrounded by a wall, seven feet high from the ground. In the middle there is an enormous tortoise with its feet, head, and shell under water, out of its back rises the stem of a great tree of brass, on the top of which sits a grotesque figure with four arms. One hand holds a cruse; from this water issues continually; another contains a sceptre. About the middle of the tree an exceeding great serpent has wreathed itself twice, whose head and body is held fast on the right side by two shapes; the remaining part thereof (i.e., of the serpent) to the tail is stretched out by two kings and one of Japan's [p.12] sages, one of the kings having the duplicated Janus head. Such is Ogilby's description; and as the reader will see by comparison the imagery is substantially the same as in the Hindu churning of the ocean[41] and the second incarnation of Vishnui. The representation contains the pool of the Two Truths and the tree with the dual being issuing from the primordial one, whose type is the tortoise. And again, the twin being issues from the tree like the bifurcating Mashya and Mashyoi in the Bundahish.

The first and oldest types of the Kamite beginnings went to the bottom, as sediment deposited in the underworld of eschatology. And in monumental times the tortoise, together with other typhonian figures, had sunk down from its place in heaven as the base and support of the world or the celestial beginnings, to become a type of evil and death, a dweller solely in the Hades where it is an image of the power opposed to light. But its names of apsh (or khepsh) and shet prove that it was a type of Sut-Typhon. In a myth of the beginning related by Cusick, the chief of the Tuscarora Indians, who set it down in the year 1825, he says there were two worlds among the ancients, one upper, the dwelling-place of mankind; one lower, the lurking-place of monsters. A woman who was in labour (the enceinte mother) sank from the upper region to the dark world beneath. Here she was received on the back of a tortoise, which had a little earth on its shell, and this became an island. She bore twin sons into the dark lower world and died[42]. The story has been mentioned in the mythos of the twin brothers. When the Chinese relate that the original hieroglyphics were invented from the figures marked on a tortoise which came up out of the celestial waters, they do but go back to this beginning, and tell us in their way that the tortoise, a type of Typhon, and therefore of the Great Bear, was a primordial hieroglyphic ideograph in the heavens, with which the signs began, and from which written characters were founded. Such statements become historical facts when interpreted by mythology. In like manner the origin of music may be traced to the tortoise of the seven stars. Hermes is said to have met with a tortoise, which he killed in order that he might invent the lute by furnishing the shell with seven strings. The same myth is manifest in the story, told by Plutarch, of Hermes cutting out the muscles of Typhon to make lute-strings* of them[43]. The fable probably refers to the superseding of Sut by Taht-Hermes and the application of the number seven which was Typhon's own, to a week of seven days in the establishment of lunar time. This lute was figured in heaven as the constellation Lyra, the star Gamma of which is known in Arabic by the name of Sulhifat, from sulhifah a tortoise. Also Lyra was the constellation of Arthur, son of Arth the bear, in Britain.

* Nefer, (Eg.) the lute, Assyrian 'nabal.'


Sometimes the elephant supports the world and stands on the back of the tortoise. The elephant in Asia took the place of the hippopotamus type of puissance and power, but it has the same name of Abu in Egyptian as the rhinoceros which interchanges with the hippopotamus as an image of Typhon; and in the Hindu legends it is the world-supporting elephant whose movements are the cause of earthquakes. In inner Africa the two types are interchangeable under the same names. The African mother was Kheb and Khebma; her great types were the hippopotamus, the rhinoceros, (or elephant), and crocodile, found under these names. It is noticeable also that the elephant is named yomuroka in the African Dsekiri language and that this is identical with the Babylonian Omoroka, a form of Tiamat, the one who was divided in the beginning, to make the heaven and earth. Because the beginning in time was based on the revolution of the sphere, and marked particularly by the Great Bear, these images of the elephant, hog, tortoise or others remain at the foundations of the so-called world. The duck, goose or swan was another of the types, as the diver under the waters. Khep (Eg.) is the name of some kind of duck (the neophron?), and khepsh may be read the pool of the duck as well, as the hippopotamus. Tel is another name of the duck or typical waterfowl; Apt is another. These likewise are names of the genetrix Typhon. Time was says an Indian legend, when the world was covered with water, and the only creatures in existence were a duck, a hawk, and a crow. The duck dived and brought up a beakful of mud and then died. With this bit of earth the hawk and the crow began to build the mountains of California. The hawk working on the eastern range and the crow on the western, they met at Mount Shasta. But the crow had stolen some of the hawk's share of the mud and consequently his was the larger half. This is the same story as that told by the Australian Aborigines of the contention between the eagle-hawk and crow. In this legend the old mother who bore the earth on her back as the tortoise, brings it up from the depths as the duck, which was Apt in Egypt, the genetrix by name; whilst the hawk and crow are identical with her bird-headed twins Sut and Horus, the hawk being the bird of the eastern horizon and the blackbird the phoenix of the west. The swan that floats double in light and shadow presented another dual image of the goddess above and in the waters below. In a myth of the island of Celebes seven celestial nymphs descend from the sky to bathe. They are seen by Kasimbaha who at first took them for seven white doves, but when they alighted in the bath he saw they were women. Whilst they were bathing he stole the robes of one of them named Utahagi. These robes gave her the power of flying, and without them she was caught. She became his wife and bore him a son[44]. [p.14] The seven swans denote the same original as the seven bears or seven cows (Hathors). In a German story the swan-maiden bears seven sons at once who are able to transform themselves into swans, and seven was the number of the primal progeny of the ancient mother. The serpent was a supreme type of the encircler and turner-round. One of its names in Egyptian is rer, rru or ru. Rer denotes the circuit, to go round and make the circuit. This also was a symbol of the old mother who bears its name as Rerit or Lelit (written with the l) the serpent-woman Lilith of rabbinical tradition. Speaking under this type the osirified deceased says. 'I pass through substances. I pierce the darkness. Hidden reptile is my name. The soul of my body is a serpent of lift.'[45] The formula of faith found inscribed on a bowl or goblet which Von Hammer argues belonged to the Templars, is Latinised by him to the following effect. 'Let Mete be exalted who causes all things to bud and blossom, it is our root; it (the root) is one and seven.'[46] Mete was the Baphomet or mother of breath. An invocation addressed to this form of the bearded mother is shown by Du Puy to have been 'Yalla' a supposed Saracenic word[47]. This like so many other titles of the genetrix, such as Nana and Maya, is an inner African name for the Great or Grand Mother who is

Iyaila, in Otsa. Iyalla, in Dsebu. Kara, in N'guru.
Yeyela, in Egba. Yeyerea, in Ife. Kara, in Dsarawa.
Iyalla, in Idsesa. Yare, in Dselana. N'kara, in Ntere.
Iyela, in Eki. Kara, in Munio. N'kara, in Bumbete.
Iyela, in Dsumu.    

The oldest form of the Great Mother, the mother of the gods, known to the Greeks as Rhea, Kubele, Kubebe, Abbas and M, is identified by her names with this the most ancient genetrix. Under the name of Orthia too, she is recognisable as the Egyptian Urt (Ta-urt) the Irish Art, Welsh Arth for the bear. Hence her representation as a bear and her attendants as little bears. 'I was a Bear at the Brauronia, wearing the saffron coloured robe,' says one of the women, in the Lysistrate, who had been one of the arktoi or bears at the festival of the Fundatrix, Archegetis, or Brauron, otherwise Orthia, who is described by tradition and who was celebrated as a bear, calling for human blood[48]. This identifies the goddess with her celestial type. The red terracotta hippopotamus found by Dr. Schliemann at Hissarlik at a depth of twenty-three feet[49], is the expressly Egyptian image of the typhonian genetrix who was reputed to be of a red complexion. 'Archegetis,' shows that she was the goddess of the beginning. The deess Hippa, whom Proclus styles the 'Starry Soul of the world,'[50] was the still earlier Kheba (Eg.) the water-horse. The Arcadians claimed to have been in [p.15] existence before the moon, they called themselves Proselenes as the people who preceded the moon. But, the country of Arcadia which existed before the moon had been created (or reached up to) was the celestial land in the northern heaven, the place of beginnings with the bear and the seven bears. Ortygia the land of the quail, the birth place of Artemis and Orthia, originated in this region, not in cloudland merely, but in the circle of the bear, of Urt and Arth whence came the name of the quail όρτυ and Ortolan, the bird urt of the hieroglyphics, as the hearer of news and the herald of spring.

Juhu, personified, is the wife of Brahma and the goddess of speech. Juhu is the tongue; the name is supposed to be derived from the root hve[51]. But the h of hve implies a prior k, which modified into the j of Juhu and Jihva; this is found in Khefa or Kep, the ancient genetrix who was the Kamite living word, and who was portrayed with the protruding tongue, as goddess of the seven stars. 'The whole World is her Seat,' may well be said of the lady of the seven stars, the seven constellations, seven hills or other shapes of the hebdomad and heptanomis, by which she can be followed round the world as Urt, or Art, i.e., Rerit in Egypt, Rī in Akkad; Lri in India, Rhea in Greece; Kd in Britain; Kivutar or Otava in Finland, and Koob in Australia, the lady of the seven bears, seven cows, seven hills or the seven-stepped mountain of the world, who as the African Eve, Ife or Iye, (the woman in scores of African languages), probably had her throne on the seven African mountains, or ridges mentioned by Ptolemy, in the human birthplace[52]. A country called Ife (5 E. Long; 8 N. Lat.) is looked upon by the Yorubans as the birthplace of being, both human and divine. The Ethiopians, says Diodorus, relate that they are the first of all men in order of time[53]. They were the children of Kep or Khepsh, i.e., Ksh or Habesh, who as genetrix of the seven, formed the first cycle of time in heaven, and who became the Hebrew Chavvach or Eve, the life, the bone of all flesh; the typical substance born of; she who was personified as the Great Mother of inner Africa, and as the mother whose name means life, bone, and the rib.

The mother is ekafo and ekami in the Anan language; and with the nasal articulation, n'gob in Mbe. E'kafo (or ekami) wears down to iya in the same language (Anan) for the mother, which modification is very general in the inner African dialects. Bone was a primitive form of substance, power, kep, (Eg.), or Eve; and bone is

kup, in Ham. gbawilli, in Gurma. ekab, in Eafen.
gba, in Basa. ekap, in Ekamtulufu. egap, in Akurakura.
gba, in Gbe. ekab, in Udom. ukub, in Yasgua.
gba, in Kra. ekeb, in Mbofon. akup, in Mbarike.


agbo, in Anan. epa, in Orongu. kebant, in Timne.
ekepa, in Pangela. gvo, in Kum. gboku, in Yala.
ave, in Momenya. kifoa, in Kasands. kowe, in Guresa.
uve, in Bini. kifoba, in N'goala. okawa, in Okam.
ovoa, in Oloma. kefoba, in Lubalo. okewi, in Alege.
efu, in Adampe. kifowa, in Songo. guo, in Bagba.
efu, in Anfu. kebant, in Landoma. yuh, in Penin.
oupa, in Kamuku. kebant, in Baga.  

gub is the tooth in Khoi-Khoi.

The rib is

kafef, in Filham. ekeb, in Mbofon. efe, in BIni.
guepfe, in Egbele. egbane, in Eafen. efe, in Ihewe.
gbara, in Goali. agba, in Bagba. efe, in Oloma.
gafe, in Bode. gba, in Momenya.  

This identifies the mythical mother of all flesh with the bone and rib, as inner African by name and origin.

The womb or belly is the

afua, in Aro. ofu, in Anfue. afu, in Dsuku.
afo, in Isoama. efu, in Igala. evuo, in N'gola.
efu, and evu, in Sobo. ifu, in Emegha. efo, in N'ki.

The thigh is another feminine type, as khep, khepsh, or khept in Egyptian, and this is

kebei, in Nso. gbara, in Toma. kebele, in Ntere.
gba-wasi, in Boko. gbara, in Mende. kebele, in Mbamba.
kufu-gesger, in Bode. gbara, in Landoro. kibelo, in Babuma.
gba, in Gio. gbarai, in Gbandi. ebiu, in Momenya.
gba, in Mano. kebel, in Mutsaya. gbaro, in Vei.

Here then we find the types of the womb, bone, rib, and the mother under one prototypal word in inner Africa; which is the name of the old Typhon Kep or Kefa, the Hebrew Chavvach, or Eve of Genesis, and the Great Mother Ife of the land of Ife locally known as the birthplace of existence, human and divine.

Although not so frequently found as Eve the mother, yet the name of Adam occurs often enough in inner Africa, to show whence came the primal pair who were personified as the typical parents in Egypt, and continued in the sacred writings brought out of that land by the Hebrews. The type-name for the father is

adam, in Yala. odam, in Koro. itame, in Bini.
adam, in Opanda. dame, in Esitako. etame, in Ibewe.
adam, in Igu. dami, in Esitako. itame, in Oloma.
adam, in Egbira-Hima. atame, in Dsuku. etemi, in Anan.
adama, in Yasgua. atami, in Igala. tamo, in Bute.
adamu, in Yasgua.    

The first form of the Adam as vir was the male who became of age, not the individualised father, but the elder or old one, which is

odam, in Akurakura. kodoma, in Kankanka. gadim, in Soa.
kodama, in Dsalunka. kotama, in Okam.  

[p.17] 'Adam' is also the 'grandfather,' in several inner African languages, as

atem and atemu, in Pepul. itama-dodede, in Ihewe.
atemu, in Bola. itamanagbas, in Uloma.
atiam, in Kanyop. itemise, in Eafen.
atiamu, in Sarar. otem, in Landoma.
etamudide, in Egbele. tampa, in N'goten.
itame-nokoa (my grandfather), in Bini. tampa, in Melon.

A group of the Southern African languages are known as the Atam or Adamic tongues. They are peculiarly distinguished by an initial inflection. The people of these tribes are all called Atams or Adams in Sierra Leone. One form of the name is Udom, as in the Assyrian Udumu, and Egyptian Tum, which is the type-name for mankind, the human race, as created man. Thus in Southern Africa we find the race of Atam and the family of Atamic languages; whilst the same root in Egyptian indicates those who may have preceded language, the dumb (tum) people in contradistinction to those who are known by name as the speakers in a later stage. An Adamic country is also extant in Adamawa, lat. 8 0, north, 13 30 east, on the way Egypt-ward. A Buddhist saying affirms that those who know not Adi Buddha are ignorant of beginnings. And here the ancient race or totemic name of Gotama applied to Buddha, to Durga, the Naga-king, and others, is identical with that of the inner African Adam (Kotama), the elder or oldest one. The Hebrew םדק (qdm), likewise denotes the original one, that which is primitive in place, position, time, and person; the oldest and first one.


The universal mother of beginnings is one on earth, as in heaven, because she was the first form taken by space, and next the first describer of a circle, as the sign of time. Making the circle as a type of the cycle is the figure of all beginning. Nen-put (Eg.) the word for never means more literally no-circle, or un-circled, without boundary, boundless because there was no period of time. On the other hand the age, aeon or ever (heh), is signified with the circle for its ideograph. This figure being first drawn in heaven by the constellations of the seven stars, the Great Bear was therefore personified as the genetrix and bringer-forth of the primal birth of time. The creation was here effected by, in, and as the circle of the seven stars; the creation which appears in the Book of Genesis as the work of Jehovah-Elohim.

The Chinese creation begins with the circle represented by the ideographic Tae-Keih, or the great limit. Woo-Keih, no limit, or the absence of limit, is their representative of the Kabbalist 'Ain-Soph,' and the Persian 'Zarvan-Akarana' that preceded time. This circle denoted limit, and included duality expressive of motion and [p.18] rest. The Chinese introducer of the circle, we are told[54], applied to the figure, the terms 'extreme limit, chaos, primitive existence, and unity.' 'Tae-Keih' likewise includes tri-unity as well as duality within the circle of its power[55]. At first the circle expressed a limit, and a total of time, in which the oneness was then divided into the two heavens, or heaven and earth, and the various twofold forms of the twin principle, expressed as the yin and the yang. Yin and yang are the twin-total([), the biune being consisting of the two principles into which the primary oneness everywhere divides to become male and female. Both principles of source, as water and breath, are feminine at first, on the most natural grounds of observation, but when divided and distinguished by personification as the mother and her son, yin is the female, and yang becomes specifically the male. According to the Chinese accounts, when the circle was divided and became two, there then existed an odd and even number; the odd number being yin, the imperfect nature and lower half of the circle, but still primary; the one of all beginning. Yin for the female represents one of the commonest type-words in the world as in the Sanskrit yoni, and it is inner African in all its variants, as already shown. Yen, in Chinese, is to take origin from. Yun means to come round, make the round, encircle. This circle and circle-maker was the female one who was afterwards reduced to a mere cipher. Un (Eg.) is the opening, the cycle or period as one, one hour, one round. Yang (Ch.) signifies number two, or an even number. Yen was the feminine first, who bifurcated into the two sexes before yang could exist.

The celestial Eden, or Gheden (ןדע), is described as a land of delight, on account of the feminine birthplace. But the root word ןדע denotes periodicity and a definite time, especially related to the female. Both demonstrate the human origin of Eden. Eden also means time, to measure a time, or make a round of time, a period, a year. This was first figured above as one turn of the stars in the circumpolar heaven. Thus aten (Eg.), an equivalent for Eden, means to make a circle, or a circular formation, a disk. The heten (Eg.) is a ring, the earliest form of which is kheten; the khet (Eg.) being a seal-ring, the type of reproduction; and the word means to shut and seal up; the khetem is a shut-place, the circle, with the signs of life, of bringing together, embracing, and reproducing. The seal-ring khet, the type of the inclosing and reproducing circle, illustrates the Gathas of the Avesta.

'When thou madest the world with its bodies, and gayest them motions and speeches; then Thou, Mazda, hadst created at first, through thy mind the Gaethas or Enclosures.' This occurs in the 'Gatha Anunavaiti.' The gatha is divided into the typical seven chapters, [p.19] and in the heading we are told that the archangels first sang the gathas. The archangels are identical with the stars that sang together in the dawn of creation when all the sons of Elohim[56] shouted for joy. These were the seven children of the genetrix, or the seven singers of the seven gathas, because they were circle-makers. By these gathas, Haug understood the ancient settlements of the Iranian agriculturists[57]. So in the Mohammedan legends an Eden is represented as a place fit for the pasturage of flocks. Unquestionably the gathas were afterwards applied to agriculture, just as ancient cities were called kheti or gates. But the primary khet of mythology is physiological and celestial; it is the circle in space, and cycle in time. This khet, kheten or khetam was formed before the earth was cultivated by agriculturalists. The Dravidian kutam is an enclosure, as a water-pot. The Arab khitmah is a seal, a ring. Kati, Maori, is shut in, enclosed. Qata (Fiji) means enclosed. The cotha (Ir.) is an enclosure, cuta (Xhosa), to close in; godi (Zulu), a hollow place, a grave; kata, a coil; kohtu (Fin.), koht (Esth.), kat (Eg.), kyte (Scotch), kete (Fijian), quiti (Alem), the womb; koti (Fin.), cwt or cyd (Welsh), cot (English), the dwelling-place. This word is one of the prototypes of all languages. Even the wise men of Gotham who went to sea in a bowl were in a form of khetam or Eden of the circular shape. In Arabic the kadah is a bowl or cup. The pail or bucket is a kit, English; chad Hebrew; kad Slavonic; ghada, Sanskrit; cadus, Latin. The khet (Eg.) is a port and a ford. The Canoe in Banyun is a kiden. The Welsh kadair or Irish cathair is the seat or settlement; khet (Eg.) and seat being identical.

The inner African seat as a bench or a stone is a kudun in Barnbara, kudun in Dsalunka, getumi in Nso. Ketam or ketanam, in Sanskrit, is the abode, the symbol of a goddess, a feminine type. Also a form of khetam (Eden) exists as the Paradise or Dead Man's Land of the Dahome people, which, Captain Burton says, is called kutom[58], a name certainly not derived from the Hebrew writings attributed to Moses. The Egyptian am indicates a residence in a park or paradise.

The following list will show how the type-names of khet, kedamn, gheden (ןדע) or Eden had been applied to the enclosure, house, home, place of reproduction, in inner Africa.

kato, house, Bola. hodu, house, Bulanda. udumo, farm, Kambali.
kato,     "     Sarar. kuta, village, Gugu. itema,      "     Basa.
kato,     "     Kanyop. akodo,    "      N'kele. otoma,     "     Kamuku.
kata      "     Nupe. kademo, farm, Ankaras. iteni,        "     Penin.
kati,      "     Gugu. kademo,     "    Won. edume, village, Adampe.
kata,     "     Basa. gatama,     "    Fulup. katun-gbo, farm, Limba.


The keten, or Eden, wears down into or was derived from the

tana, village, Soso, idon, town or village, Anan,
tan, town or village, Koama, odane, house, Ashante,
tan,     "            "       Bagbalan, dan,         "     Akurakura,
dan,    "            "       Kiamba,  

and these were continued in the etans of Keltiberia, the tuns of Scandinavia and duns of Britain, which are especially identified as enclosures on the tops of hills, and with the mounds devoted to the dead. The Irish dun was a royal residence on the height that represented the typical mount above. In Caledonia a whole country is designated as the duns of the Gael, and its capital is named Dunedin, the dun with the rampart round.

Another name of Gan-Eden is Paradise. According to M. Renan, the word was borrowed by the Hebrews from the Persians[59]. Max Muller assures us that the name was derived from the Persian through Xenophon into Greek as paradeisos, and transferred thence as a foreign word into Hebrew. 'This,' he says, 'is the real history of the word. It is an Aryan word but it does not exist in Sanskrit.'[60] This comes of looking for the old lost paradise in the shape of a Hebrew garden. Eden signifies pleasure, and the place of pleasure. Pari-tosha (Sans.) is complete satisfaction, delight, pleasure, contentment, gratification. Parada is a region of supreme loveliness. Pari-dha is to put round, wrap round, clothe round, surround, encompass, clasp. Pari-dhi is a hedge, fence, enclosure, that by which anything is enclosed, a circle, or circumference. Paridhi-stha is situated on the horizon. Pari-tas is around, about, all round, on all sides, the round, and there are twelve tushitas, who are astronomical, and related to the round in the heavens. Para (Eg.) means to go round, surround, encircle. Tesh is the nome, the frontier and boundary. Paradise was the Para-tesh, or nome, first mapped out on the celestial chart in the circle of the seven stars that revolved about the mount, and thus defined the earliest astro-nome or Para-tesh.

Paz-des, the Armenian paradise, the Persian pardis, modern Arabic firdaus, applied to park or garden, is too late an application for an interpretation of the beginnings. Human gardens were not enclosed or cultivated when the Para-tesh was formed, and the nome first named in heaven. The Pairadaeza in the Avesta is a mound thrown up around a corpse bearer to isolate the unclean person. 'Let the worshipper of Ahura-Mazda raise about the space a Pairadaeza,' i.e., make an inclosing circle. Paradise, then, is an inclosing circle without defining the nature of the space fenced off and ringed round that may vary indefinitely. The creation of paradise or Eden is just the same as the circle-making already described. In the solar creation the circle is zodiacal; the latest of all the series. In the Avesta, Mithra is the preparer of a circle or congregation (as in the [p.21] Egyptian creation of Ra) and this is rendered by Windischmann (Mihr Yasht) he 'who directs the furrows,'[61] whilst in the Babylonian astronomy the ecliptic is the 'furrow of heaven.' The first furrow in heaven, however, was made by the constellation afterwards known as the 'Plough,' and the old lost paradise of many lands has to be identified in the circle of the seven stars, the birthplace of all beginning in time. Ketem in Hebrew signifies the beginning of time, and the beginning in Eden, Heten, Keten or Kedam was in heaven because the beginning depended on the formation of a circle of time which was figured by the seven stars revolving in the north about the pole of heaven. In various mythologies and forms of the mythos the birthplace of creation is in the north. It was so in India as in Egypt. There stood the Mount of Meru as the typical centre of the starry revolution. In an Akkadian hymn to Ishtar the goddess is addressed as the 'queen of the mountain of the world' and 'queen of the land of four rivers of Erech,'[62] that is as the goddess of the mythical mount of the pole and the four rivers of the four quarters which arose in paradise. The mountain of the world was the mount of the north in its primary phase and of the east in the solar mythos.

Language in inner Africa will tell us where the birthplace in heaven, as well as Adam and Eve, was first named. Kep for the front of, the face, and khept for the hinder-part of heaven, in Egyptian, are names of heaven as gopa in Mano, and gbate in Sarar, keput in Balu. Tameri or Tamara is a name of Egypt and in Udso tamara is heaven. The name of Zulu signifies heaven. The Khonds of Orissa (India) derive from this primal birthplace, and in the inner African, Ihewe, Oloma, etc., orisa is heaven. Eden or Keten is heaven itself as kodan in Padsade and gudana in Biafada. Here too, we shall also find the famous Airyana-vaejo of the Avesta which has caused so much vain search, in common with the Hebrew paradise. In the Vendidad, fargard 1, it is taught that Ahura-Mazda created the home; an Eden of delight, a paradise of pleasantness where there was no habitable place before. This was at one time considered by the 'best authorities' to have been the starting-point of successive and most ancient migrations of the muchly-overlauded (especially by the Germans) Aryan race[63]. But mythology and its naming preceded general geography. The place of beginning was in heaven, which still preserves its memorial of the time that is immemorial on earth. Ariyanna is the Soso name of heaven. Arianna is the Timne name of heaven. Also the name of the famous seat of the Aryans in Aran or Iran appears as

Eran, in Papiah. Ren, in Palo. Alen, in Pati.
Aran, in Mornenya. Ilen, in Bayon. Alen, in N'goala.

[p.22] In these languages it means the seat, as something to sit on, which preceded the agricultural settlements of the Aryans; as did the seat or chair called 'Cader Idris' in Wales. Am is also an inner African type-name of heaven, as

Yilu, in Kabunda. Yulu, in Baburna. Oru, in Idsesa.
Yolo, in Mbsmha. Aru, in Oworo. Hoelo, in Mampa.

Aaru or aalu is the Egyptian name for Elysium; the heaven mapped out as the fields of the Aaru, the astro-nomes, Para-tesh or Paradise.

So far from the Aryan name having begun with the so-called Aryan race of Central Asia it is as old as the naming of the gods of the earliest orbit, the brotherhood of the seven stars. The ari in Egyptian are the companions, the watchers who became the seven Kab-ari, as the ari of kheb (Egypt), or from kab (Eg.) to revolve together. The ari of kheb or heb would account for the name of the Iberri in Africa and Ireland, and for the Kam-ari, or Cymry of Wales. The ari were Kamite blacks before they were the Median Arioi or the Aryas of India. Apuleius mentions the Arii as an African race together with the Ethiopians or Kushites of the Persian Gulf, and Egyptians[64]. The ari are also found as the Zingari, the European Attu-arri, Boio-arri, Chattu-arri, Petu-arri, Ingu-arri, Bav-ari, Bulg-ari and others of this type-name, which was not derived from the Saxon ware, for men. The Ar or Arya brotherhood had gone out over the world in the earliest times and was carried forth by and as the black people. The Kai-ari are found among the aborigines of Brazil as wild men, or monkey-men. The 'Areoi' are a brotherhood of blacks in New Caledonia. The Arii in Tahiti are a class of nobles.

It is noticeable in this connection that the Mangaian plural pa also means the enclosure and doorway. Another plural is vaka, which denotes a 'canoe-full-of.' And such were the Ari (Cabiri), Hohgates, Rishis or Ariyas of the seven stars. The Kamite origin of the name for those who associate or kab together is shown by an earlier form of the Ari as Rari or Reri, the companions, the children whose mother was Rerit, the goddess of the seven stars. The Cabiri are the seven companions considered to be a brotherhood of sailors through the celestial ocean, and the Aryan Aryanatha does not denote the chariot of the Aryans in any other primary sense than the chariot of the seven stars, the seven Rishis, often called Aryas in the Vedas, seven princes of the chariot, seven Hohgates of the boat, seven companions (of Arthur) in the ark. Now in the original and commentary of the Pahlavi Vendidad[65] we learn that Hapta-Hendu was the place of those who are the seven Hindus (Hindukan) and that their seven Hinduism consists in the fact that the chief rulers are seven. Yet, says the commentator, 'I do not say there [p.23] are not seven;' but he intimates that there is an Avesta text which mentions only two, the eastern and the western Hindu[66]. Some reckon by the two (divisions) and others by the seven rulers. Egyptian alone will explain this. Khebta-Khentu are the two halves or Egypts into which the celestial heptanomis was divided. The seven rulers were the seven stars or constellations in Khebti. In the Zend or commentary it is said that there are ten months of winter, and two of summer in Airyana Vajo. Literally interpreted, this must have been a paradise of cold. Another commentary says 'Seven months of summer are there, five months of winter.' Enough for the present purpose that the division is into summer and winter; the length of each does not signify. Summer and winter answer to south and north, upper and lower heaven. These two correspond to Khepta-Khentu, as north and south, or the later (i.e., solar) east and west. We learn from the Bundahish that the Persian year was divided into two seasons, seven months summer, and five months winter. 'From the auspicious day Ahura-Mazda of the month Fravardin, to the auspicious day Aniran of the month Mitro is the summer of seven months; so from the auspicious day Ahura-Mazda of the month Avan to the auspicious month Spendarmad on to the end of the five supplementary days is the winter five months.'[67] This then is the division of the circle of Airyana Vajo into two halves, like the year, and the two halves are hapta-hendu as the north and south in the circle of the seven stars. In Airyana Vajo we find the first formation or circle by means of which time was born, and the earth and heaven were divided and discreted into Khepta-Khentu (Eg.) or Hapta-Hendu, described as the twofold region of the seven stars above and below, or north and south. The Vajo of the Avesta is the Sanskrit vik, to divide, separate, and the Egyptian puka or pekh, for the division, answering by name to pekh, the divided lioness. The first division was into upper and lower, south and north, and afterwards by east and west. The explanation given for this division is that it was not possible to go so far as from one region to the other except by means of the yazadan or angels. This statement is repeated in the Bundahish and Minokhird. The yazadan is a term applied to the angels and to the gods, like the Elohim in the Hebrew books. The first means of passing from one division to the other were the seven stars or seven constellations; and seven appears to have been the primary number of the yazads. In the Ijashne ceremony the number of recitations depends on the nature of the Ijashne. 'If it be celebrated for Rapithwin, twelve are necessary; if for Hormazd, ten; if for the Frohars eight; if for Sarosh, five; and if for the Yazads, seven.' Four times these seven (which we have to return to in a later section) [p.24] make the twenty-eight yazads of the moon in the blending of the stellar with the lunar reckonings[68].

The Egyptian asat is a type of time. Egypt itself began with the heptanomis, a first formation of seven provinces with the ten upper and ten lower extending on either hand. This reflects the heptarchy stelled in the earliest heavens, and the ten divisions which led to the mapping of them out into seventy degrees and nations[69]. Egyptian alone shows us why hapta in Pahlavi, and saptan in Sanskrit came to signify no. 7. Hepti, Greek hepta, is seven because kep is the hand, as a figure of five; and ti is number two. Egypt itself contains that duality and sevenfoldness which are obscurely referred to in the Avesta commentary. Egypt was dual, as north and south in Khebta-Khentu; and khebti, kepti, sebti or hepti was also the heptanomis.

The beginning, whether applied geographically or to the tribal divisions, is with the number seven among some of the oldest races on earth. Scotland begins with the heptanomis, ruled by the seven brothers who were the seven sons of Alban; and seachd in Scotch is number seven. The seven provinces of Dyfed form the first starting-point in Wales.

Sevekh, another Egyptian name for seven, is found in savaiki (avaiki) the Mangaian name for the seven islands of the Hervey group. The Quiches say they migrated from Tulan-Zuiva, the seven caves, and again zuiva echoes sevekh (Eg.) for no. 7. These and other beginnings with the seven are here identified with the first formation of a circle of time that was made in heaven by the revolving sept of seven constellations considered as a companionship, a brotherhood personified as the seven sons of the genetrix who was goddess of Ursa Major. To the polar centre of this celestial circle of the seven, the heptanomis above, we have to look for the Eden of Genesis, the paradise lost of ancient legend, the Airyana Vajo of the Avesta. It is not necessary to deny that Hapta-Hendu or Sapta-Sindhu may have also denoted a land of the seven streams. The two waters, four rivers, seven streams, were divisions just as the burn and bourne are one in the water boundary. 'When Tishtar produced the rain, and the seas (or deluge) arose therefrom, the whole place was converted into seven portions half taken up by water,'[70] and these were reckoned either as the seven streams, or the seven lands divided by the seven streams. The Kabbalists say: 'The source of the water and the water-streams proceeding therefrom to spread itself are two. A reservoir is then formed and is the third. Then the unfathomable deep divides into seven streams resembling seven long vessels. The source, the water-stream, the reservoir and the seven streams together snake ten. In this way the cause of causes gave rise to the ten sephiroth.'[71] In the same way [p.25] the Hindus represented the origin of the river Ganges. It is depicted as issuing from the source itself, out of Vishnu's foot, the god having assumed his female form. The water issuing from the goddess falls on the head of a figure seated on a rock below, where it divides as in the Egyptian picture of the one water becoming two. It then dashes itself into seven streams by means of the seven Rishis who receive it as if about to drink of it[72]. Both descriptions of the water dividing in twain and becoming seven are in accordance with the physical facts in Egypt where the one water of Hapi-Mu divided into the Blue and Red river, the water above and the water below, and then into the seven streams and outlets of the river Nile, which were elevated to the planisphere. In the Odyssey[73] Homer calls the river Nile Diipetes, the sky-fallen. The spring which surrounds the sublime mountain is represented by the Akkadian 'Khi-tim-kur-ku'; and this is a personification of the celestial water; that is the heaven called water, which was divided into twin pools, then into four waters, or into seven streams or oceans, identified with seven constellations, as a primitive mode of mapping out the vague vast of infinitude. These water-divisions are alluded to in the statement: 'Like the streams in the circle of heaven I besprinkle the seed of men.'[74]

The 'abyss' itself which preceded the first act of creation is Kamite by name in the primary form of the word. This was the place of the waters in the lower heaven or the earth, from whence the water-cow ascended periodically to denote the division of upper and lower, and make the circle on which was founded the first creation of time. In Africa, beyond Egypt, so far south that Khepsh (Kush) or Habesh was then the north localized by name as the region of the Bear (Khepsh), the constellation dipped below the horizon, and demonstrated the lower and upper of two; where it descended was the abyss or khepsh (Eg.) which means both the cow and the waters (sh, ) of the cow. Hence the north (abyss) and the Great Bear have the same name. The khepsh was the place of the waters of darkness, the mythical abyss of darkness. This was actual in Africa. When farther inland, Kush (Ethiopia) was the abyss in the north, then Habesh (Abyssinia); next Nubia called Kep-Kep; then Coptus, and lastly lower Egypt or Khept; the abyss or khepsh being the lower Egypt of the two heavens. In the African Baga language the dense dark forest is called the bys or pus. In Dsuku the lower world or hell is the bsiu. In the Assyrian legend the place of beginning is the abzu. Damascius says 'the Babylonians like the rest of the barbarians pass over in silence the one principle of the universe, and they constitute two.'[75] These are represented by the Tavthe and Apason who appear on the tablets as Tiamat and Abzu.

The Tepht and Khepsh are one in locality (Eg.) one also as the [p.26] water-cow, but the oneness divides in the two heavens, two hands, two bears, (or cows) as the primal act of creation. Thus we are told that in the beginning Belus cut the woman Omoroka in two; from one half of her he made the sky above, from the other, the earth beneath. As Yomuroka, this would be the elephant a fellow-type with the hippopotamus or bear; and the divided bear would be the two bears; so the division of the negro Eve is described by the cutting out of her kneecaps, to form the first pair of beings. The water-cow, or Khepsh the hippopotamus, likewise furnished the name for the land-cow as a type of earth and of space which was divided into upper and lower. In the Bundahish the cow is cut in two. This cow in the Avesta is the gesh[76] Sanskrit gas and Greek gaea applied to both the cow and the earth. According to the Gatha Ushtavaiti the creator as maker of the earth is literally the 'Cutter of the Cow.' The cow or rather the ox, as that represents either sex, was the primeval Gesh and Gayomard, from the division of which in two halves as male and female sprang the whole creation. This can be explained by the beginning with the mother who was divided to form the heaven above and the mother earth below, and who was also represented as masculine in the forepart or south and feminine in the hinder part north. The opening of creation by the one becoming twain is variously typified as an act of cutting in two. Several of these illustrations have been adduced. Here is another. The opening act of creation is the passage out of chaos and vague space into the world of time. The Great Bear is personified as the mother of time. Her first son was Sevekh-Kronus of the Dragon or Lesser Bear who represented the child of the genetrix in time. Now, the vague heaven being the water above, this in creation was separated from the water below. Uranus is the Egyptian Urnas the celestial water, and the cutting of Uranus by Cronus, or time, is another mode of dividing equivalent to separating the heaven from the earth, the light from the darkness, or of cutting any other type in two as the figure of division. In the Polynesian story told by Williams, for example, the heaven and earth are said to have been bound closely together with cords and the severance of these cords was effected by myriads of dragonflies who cut them asunder with their wings[77]. The celestial dragon was Sevekh-Kronus the son of Khepsh, the true cutter of Ouranus, who in the Greek version of the myth was instigated to do it by the mother Gaea, who is Khep(sh) the ancient Typhon.

The Kamite origin of Ouranus as the Urnas or Uranus is shown by the signification of the name which is that of the celestial water out of (nas) which all came at first. In the book of that which is in the lower hemisphere (the Tuaut), the Urnas or Uranus is a river that runs through the fields of the Aahlu (Elysium) cultivated by the osirified deceased. These were divided into twelve parts with gates [p.27] like the New Heaven in Revelation[78]. The original feminine nature of the Urnas or celestial water was continued in the personification of the Assyrian and Cyprian goddess Ourani. According to Pausanias Ourani was first adored by the Assyrians and afterwards by the people of Cyprus, the Phoenicians of Ascalon in Palestine and by the Cythereans[79]. There was also a shrine of Aphrodite Ourani at Athens. But the Egyptian Urnas as the water of heaven preceded personification.

The 'heaven' of mythology is no mere undiscreted space or blue sky but a definite creation, a first formation which could be followed by a second and a third according to the length of cycle and size of circle. In one of the cuneiform texts there is a variant reading of the name of Tavthe or Tiamat in which she is called 'The Divine Mother who has borne the heaven.'[80] Just as the Egyptian Tepht (Typhon) is mother of the Aahlu or divided heaven, called the fields of Elysium. The 'heaven' was something that could be borne by the mother; be distinguished by the two sisters; be divided into north and south by the twin brothers, facing both ways; be lifted up by Shu and brought by Anhar; be carried on the backs of the seven giant brothers; be founded on the four quarters by the lunar god and established finally on the twelve signs, thirty-six crossing stars and seventy-two duo-decans of the solar zodiac. 'I beheld the secrets of the heavens and Paradise (κὰτ' έξοχήν) according to its divisions,'[81] says Enoch; and these divisions extended from the first severance of earth and heaven into lower and upper, the earliest division of the firmamental waters, to the final seventy-two duodecans of the zodiac. And here a couple of hieroglyphics will determine the nature and origin of the sword which turned every way in the region of the Bear or Khepsh[82]. As before said the crooked sword or sickle of the Egyptians is called the khepsh and bears the name of the region and the goddess of the bear. The leg of the hippopotamus was its model. The seven great stars in Ursa Major, called the khepsh or thigh, form a figure not unlike the thigh, leg, and bended knee of the hippopotamus. The leg or 'thigh of the Northern Heaven,' is identified with the Great Bear, in the Ritual. The 'Leg of Gorg' or Typhon, was also a model for Greek vases[83], with which may be compared the thigh of Typhon, goddess of the Great Bear. The vase was a type of the womb, and her constellation of the 'Thigh,' was the Meskhen, the birthplace in heaven. The Khepsh then is both the Great Bear (hinder-thigh) constellation and an Egyptian sickle-sword and it has been amply shown how the types will interchange in representing the same thing. Thus the constellation may be the bear, hippopotamus, tortoise, elephant, hinder thigh, a wain, a pig, a plough [p.28] or the sword fashioned after the shape of the other Khepsh, so that instead of the animal, the plough, or the leg turning round, the word khepsh warrants us in substituting the khepsh sickle for the khepsh thigh and we recover an image of a sword that turned round in the circumpolar heaven, corresponding to the flaming sword that turned every way, the sword of the four quarters; and if the word charbu be rendered sword in the difficult passage[84] instead of kherpu a sufficiency as suggested[85], the sword is there likewise identified with Behemoth (or Khepsh) the chief of the ways of the creator, the typhonian goddess of the Great Bear. Moreover the khepsh thigh of the female is called the ur-hekau, or great magic power; and it is the type of the birthplace above because it was the birthplace below; hence when we are told that Gan Eden means the Garden of Pleasure, we have to read the imagery as physiological according to the sign of the hinder thigh and the gnosis of the Two Truths, or the double truth. The pleasure-place of reproduction is also called hedenesh, delightful, as the birthplace of Zaratusht in the Bundahish. Thus the circle of Eden is further identified by the types of the khepsh, the uterus and crooked sword which have one name in the hieroglyphics (L), and finally, the crooked sickle (scythe of time) formed by Gaea, mother of the seven Titans, with which Kronus mutilated Uranus, is none other than the crooked khepsh sabre, modelled after the leg of the hippopotamus, the khepsh that turned every way, and by its revolution formed the circle of Eden, or, as it was represented, kept the way of the tree of life, the pole, where the happy garden was planted as the primary creation, which was the home of the primeval pair.

The Arab paradise, or Eden, is called the Garden of Irem or Arem. 'Hast thou not considered how the Lord dealt with Ad, the people of Irem.'[86] The city of Irem they say is yet standing in the deserts of Aden, although invisible. Aden is one with Eden, and the Arab tradition identifies another type-name in Irem. This again corresponds with the Arem of Mesopotamia, the land of the two streams and the two waters, which is called Rum in the Huzvaresh. The Egyptians called Arem (or Rum) the Nile-Land, Naharina; and another name of the Nile, or its inundation, is urm, urem, or rem. Also Rome, named from Ruma, the river Tiber, is another form of the earthly paradise under this namean inner African type-name for water, out of which life issued and creation came.

erem, is rain in Anan. ng-olem, is water in Tiwi.
yiramo, is wet in Mano. almi,             "          Wadai.
lem, is water in Kiamba. yolma, is rainy-season in Legba.
lem,       "          Kaure. yolma,        "         "          Kiamha.
lam,       "          Legba. yolem,        "          "         Kaure.

The Garden of Eden being founded in a circle, this was figured around the summit of a vast mountain rising up from earth to heaven [p.29] in the north. The earliest geocentric mount would be a figure of station, in the midst of the stellar revolution, which became a type of the pole; and this natural genesis would lead up to the symbolical mountain of Meru, Alborz, or Eden. The gardens and paradise of Indra were placed by the Hindus around the celestial north pole, whilst Yama held his court in the opposite and Antarctic Circle, the station of the Asuras, who warred with the Suras, or gods of the firmament. The pole, or polar region, is Meru. Su-meru is the superior hemisphere; Ku-meru, the hades, in parts intensely hot, and in parts cold[87]. Mount Meru is said to be 84,000 yojanas in height, having the shape of an inverted cone, and being 32,000 yojanas in diameter at the top, and only 16,000 at the base. It is considered to form the central point of Jambu-Dvipa, the island of the Rose-Apple Tree, and to be 'like the Seed-Cup of the Lotus of Earth.' the leaves of which are formed by the various dvipas. For the mount is also described as a lotus rising up out of the waters, the lotus being an early type of emergence from the liquid element. Meru is the garden of the Tree of Life that takes two characters in Eden, and becomes fourfold in the vision of Zaratusht when he prayed for immortality[88]. Mount Meru is also the fount of the one water here fabled to be the celestial Ganga, that falls from the moon, which now becomes the type of the genetrix, and the source of the water that divided to become fourfold and sevenfold in the seven streams. The mount is circular, and yet it has four corners like the quadrangular kaers of the British Druids. The Vaya compares its summit to a saucer. The Matsya also says the measurement is that of a circular form, but it is considered quadrangular[89]. One of the creations in the Avesta is called Varen, the four-cornered. 'Its quadrangularity is this, that it stands upon four roads; some say that its city has four gates.' The circle of Yima is also the lofty, the four-cornered, and four-coloured golden mount, like Meru the golden, which is four-coloured on its four faceswhite to the east, yellow to the south, black to the west, and red to the north. The four corners are also identified with four cities and four climes; Yamakoti, in the clime of Bhadrasva; Romaka (compare Rome), in Ketumala; Lanka, Bharata, and the city called that of the perfected in the clime of Kuru. The Puranas, however, say nothing of the four cities in the four climes, or quarters. The four quarters are further indicated by the one water that becomes fourfold as in the Book of Genesis, and in the Assyrian version. The four rivers of Paradise appear in a hymn to the goddess Ishtar, who is addressed as the 'Queen of the land of the four rivers of Erech.'[90]

Water, in Egypt, was the first 'way.' The water-way was the typical road of the gods. This element, as distinct from air, was [p.30] made the sign of the way, and the four ways in the Celestial Chart. In the Avesta the four waters, as sources of life, are also spoken of as the separating of ways, or guides of ways, 'who with long arms lead the body of the world without creating, without speaking.'[91] In one system the waters issue from the cow, or from four cows, which represent the Kamite water-cow Apt, of the four corners.

The Tibetan mythologists tell us there are four vast rocks from which flow the four sacred streams; close to these there grows the Tree of Immortality. It is where these four rivers run that the Flood is fabled to have burst forth and submerged the garden of the beginning. In the Persian myth of Eden, four great rivers come from Mount Alborz, two north and two south. And the one fountain is the river Aredvivsur, that nourishes the Homa tree of immortality. There is a Chinese myth of the waters in the Garden of Paradise, which issue from one Fountain of Immortality and divide into four streams. In the circle of yin and yang when the golden-coloured heavenly messenger disappeared, four genii flew to the spot from different quarters. The first from the north, is son of the essence of water; the second, from the south, is son of the essence of red earth; the third, from the east, is superintendent of wood (sap); the fourth is the golden mother, from a paradisiacal mountain in the west, His 'Imperial Reverence' and the four then produce from an immense crucible, by chemical process, a male and a female, from whom came, through the essential influence of sun and moon, the race of beings whose descendants gradually filled the earth[92]. These four cardinal sources correspond to the river of Eden which had four heads, Pison, Havilah, Gihon and Euphrates. These correlate likewise with the four waters of the AvestaAzi, Agenayo, Dregudaya, and Mataras[93]. Mataras ('the Mother,') agrees with the 'Golden Mother' of the Chinese four and betokens the seed of men. Dregudaya is the juice of fruit, one with the superintendent of wood, or sap; Agenayo is the blood (in the veins) answering to the 'Son of Red Earth.' Azi is said to be unintelligible[94]. It is something vile; and asi (Eg.) means vile. It may represent the hes (Eg.) as menstrual excrement, the red earth itself of the mythos which acquired a vile character, more particularly with the Persians. These four elementals belong to the primordial circle; they are treated as personified principles (or the four waters), and placed at the four corners of the garden on the mount. The golden land of Havilah agrees with the Chinese Golden Mother. Also, the Golden Mother as the 'Golden Hathor' dwelt in a paradisiacal mountain of the west! The four mythical waters are not solely geographical; the physiological and celestial interpretation is required; as, for example, in the Vendidad, where it is said of the water of the west (or of [p.31] Sataves, a constellation of Venus, and therefore of the Golden Hathor), 'in purification the impurities flow.'[95]

The Navaho version of the beginning includes the division of the heaven and earth; the mount of the four corners and four rivers, and the type of the worm taking wings like the dragonflies in the Polynesian myth. They say that at one time all men dwelt underground in the heart of a mountain near the river San Juan, from which they literally wormed their way upward to the light. The moth-worm was the first to make the passage and emerge from the cave of the underworld. When he got outside on the mountain-top he found himself surrounded with water; all the world was under water. Then four great arroyos (waterworn ditches or wadis), were found to the north, south, east, and west by which all the water flowed away, leaving only mud; and so the earth, was formed. The human beings followed. While they lived below they were of one family and spake one tongue. But now they began to speak in many languages[96]. This change of language accompanies the going forth from the original home and birthplace in various lands. The myths belong to the mapping out of the four quarters in the first circle of time. The name of the celestial mount Meru is said by Burnouf and others to signify that 'which has a lake.'[97] Now the Egyptian lake, the primordial lake of the abyss in the north, is the Meh, the water-girth. Meh is likewise the name of the north, as the place of fulfilment and rebirth. The ru is the mouth, gate, place of emanation. Meh-ru is the outlet from the Abyss, the outrance, figured as a mount, an ascent of seven steps, a navel-mound, rising out of the lake, an especial African type of the waters.

The abyss is thus spoken of: 'I make the waters and the Me-hura comes into being. I am the maker of heaven and the mysteries of the twofold horizon,' which included certain illustrations of the Two Truths[98]. This Meh was the lake before the waters in it were designated a sea, and as the lake it was continued in the name of Meru in India. The celestial Ganga of the north discharges itself into Mnasa-Srovara, the 'excellent lake of the spirit,' in agreement with the Egyptian Meh-ura or Meh-ru, the lake of the outlet and of primordial matter in the north, and with the lake of spiritual essences or principles in the south[99]. Meru (Eg.) also signifies an island, which rises from the water as does the island mount. Both the islands and lake were extant in Ethiopia and in the district of Meroe. The island was formed by the Nile and the rivers of Astapus and Astaboras at their two mouthsast (Eg.) being a word meaning the periodic. Its capital was likewise called Meroe, and tradition will have it that this was the birthplace of the Egyptian priesthood and religion which were derived from India; that is from khenti (Eg.) or still farther south, the earliest India being inner African. [p.32] Meh-ru, the birthplace and outlet from the abyss, was imaged by the Mount Meru, by the island, the lotus, and the tree, which are its co-types of emanation from the water. The mythical mount represents the pole; and wherever a great mountain or a group of seven hills is found toward the north of any land into which the mythos spread, there the mount of the seven stars and the lady of heaven, called Khepshi (Kush), Reri-t, Ri, Parvati, Kd, Anahita, Urt, Art, will also be found, as the mountain of Eden or the Ark; or of both united in one. The seven stars revolved around this figurative mount to make the first circle of time and earliest enclosure in heaven, called Eden, Paradise, Meru, or Airyana in that quarter from whence came the revivifying breath of life to the burning lands of Africa.

The four corners were duplicated in the celestial octagon, or heaven of eight corners, which is a prominent figure in the typology of the celestials, as the Chinese call themselves on this ground of beginning above. These eight points of the compass had each its animal, bird or reptile as symbols of the elements and seasons. So in the Chaldean creation it is said of the Maker, 'He constructed dwellings for the great gods. He fixed up constellations whose figures were like animals.'[100] In the Chinese arrangement we find that water is located north; the mountains, north-east; thunder, east; wind, south-east; fire, south; earth, south-west; ocean, west and heaven, north-west. This is supposed to be a later arrangement resulting from a readjustment of the system of Fu-hsi[101]. It is, however, in general agreement with the Egyptian arrangement in which the north is the quarter of the water (hippopotamus = Typhon); the east of wind (ape = Hapi), the south of fire (phoenix = Har), and the west of earth (crocodile = Sevekh). The subdivisions might also be filled in; for example, across the water of the west or north-west, arose the mount Manu as the place of spirits perfected, corresponding to heaven as the eighth and the paradise of the siddhas; the paradise that the Buddhists of Northern India still locate in the west, which was an earlier point of beginning than the east.

The Chinese octagonal heaven of the eight points of the compass and eight seasons is also figured by eight different kinds of animals. Thus the eight points are said to represent: (1) the strength of a horse; (2) the docility of an ox; (3) the pleasurableness of a pheasant; (4) the degradation of a swine; (5) the penetration of a fowl; (6) the influence of a dragon; (7) is said to be pleasing like a lamb; (8) is faithful as a dog[102]. These eight are also portrayed as seven animals and a bird surrounding Orpheus who sits beneath a tree and plays upon his harp or lyre. This representation is given as Egyptian by Count Caylus[103]; and although the art is Greco-Egyptian the animals, such as the monkey, lion, elephant, and oryx are not Greek but African.


In another example the ibis, the kaf-ape, and the hippopotamus appear, and these tend to show that the eight types were a survival from the time of the elementaries, which preceded personification in the human likeness. Caylus identifies Orpheus sitting thus amidst the eight with Harpocrates, who is portrayed on an Egyptian or Greek intaglio of black agate, with the various animals around him[104]. Orpheus encircled by the eight figures was reproduced in the Roman catacombs. One of the oldest frescoes in the cemetery of Callixtus exhibits Orpheus with his lyre at the centre of an octagon, within an outer circle containing eight scenes, four of which denote the four seasons. Orpheus is shown to be a continuation of the child Horus (Harpocrates) in Roman art by his being portrayed in the attitude of pointing with the index finger like the Egyptian Har-pi-Khart[105]. Consequently his origin is Kamite, and the Egyptian language will account for his name which is not directly derived from that of Har, but from the word uarp. Orpheus is always the harper, the charmer with his harp or lyre who enchants the wild beasts and overcomes the powers of Hades. Neither in Greek nor Roman art does he appear without his magical harp or lyre; and uarp (Eg.), which is identical with 'harp,' signifies delight, rejoicing, to charm, or be charmed. Orpheus is a developed form of the Horus who charms the lion, crocodile, scorpion, oryx, serpent, etc., in another mode of magic, i.e., a power of transformation, represented by the presence of Bes, who is a god of music and dancing and a player on the harp.

The octagonal heaven was earlier than the hexagonal one which included the nadir and zenith together with the four quarters. The Chinese book of the Yi-King is based on the change from the octagonal heaven in the system of Fu-hsi, founded on the duplicated four quarters, to the hexagonal heaven of King Wan that included the height and depth, which has yet to be described as the creation of Ptah in Egypt.


The Genesis has been rewritten by Jews and translated by Englishmen and others, who had no true idea of the subject-matter which is amongst the oldest in the world; this can only be recovered by the comparative process and understood in accordance with first principles. The creation of man or of men in the primordial mythos has no relation whatever to human beings, but to the earliest representations of celestial phenomena. It is so common a mode of expression that anthropologists even speak of the 'First Man,' as if he were a reality. We are frequently informed that such an one was the 'first man,' the 'Adam,' of this or the other people; as if that explained anything. There is no more a first man in mythology, as a human being, than [p.34] there is a primal individual parent known to evolution. There never was a first man. That is there never was a time when there was not a whole species of the animal at whatsoever stage of development; and the earliest myth-makers did not pretend to know anything about a first man, as a human being. Celsus, as one of those who were versed in mythology, naturally enough ridiculed the story of an Adam who was literally shaped by the hands of God and then inflated like a bladder by having his breath blown into him through his nose[106]. The story of the Australian blacks is far nearer to nature; their God having breathed the breath of life into man through his navel. The Hebrew Adam has been called the man without a navel. The Melbourne blacks also say that Pund-jel made of clay two males. This was in long, long ages past; and these two first breathed in a country toward the north-west. He made them in the following manner: With his big knife he cut three large sheets of bark. On one of these he placed a quantity of clay, and worked it into a proper consistence with his knife. When the clay was sort he carried a portion to one of the other pieces of bark, and he commenced to form the clay into a man, beginning at the feet; then he made the legs, then he formed the trunk and the arms and the head. He made a man on each of the two pieces of bark. He was well-pleased with his work, and he looked at the men a long time, and he danced round them. He next took stringy bark from a tree (Eucalyptus obliqua) made hair of it and placed it on their heads; on one straight hair, on the other curled hair. Pund-jel again looked at his work much pleased, and once more he danced round about them. To each he gave a name, the man with the straight hair he called Ber-rook-bourn, the curly-haired, Koo-kin-Ber-rook. After again smoothing with his hands their bodies, from the feet upwards to their heads, he lay upon each of them and blew his breath into their mouth, into their noses, and into their navels, and breathing very hard they stirred. He danced round them a third time, he then made them speak, and caused them to get up, and they rose up, and appeared as full-grown young mennot like children.[106a]

Mohammedan tradition affirms that the body of Adam was at first a figure of clay that was forty years in drying, and then the Creator endowed it with the breath of life[107].

In a legend of creation the Kumis of Chittagong say that a certain deity created the world, the trees, and creeping things, and lastly he set to work to make one man and one woman by forming their bodies of clay, but that each night, on the completion of the model, there came a great snake, while the god was sleeping, which devoured the two images[108]. At last the divinity created a dog and this animal drove away the snake, and thus the creation of man was completed. This [p.35] myth faithfully represents the chaos preceding the time and the creation founded on the cycle of the seven stars of the mother and her dog. A North American tradition affirms that the deity Kamautowit made the first men of a stone; these he disliked and broke up again. Then he made another man and woman of a tree, and these became the parents of all mankind[109]. This legend contains two identifiable types of creation. The human pair formed from one tree are identical with Mashya and Mashyoi in the Bundahish and elsewhere. The stone is one with that of Pundjel and Sut-Anup, the openers. The stone, or knife of flint, that fell or was flung from heaven, is the opener in many of the Aztec, Mexican, and other myths.

The Mexican traditions say there was a god in heaven named Citlalatonac, and a goddess called Citlalicue. This goddess gave birth to a flint knife Tecpatl. Her sons, who were living with her in heaven, on witnessing this extraordinary delivery were alarmed, and flung the flint down to the earth. It fell in a place designated Chicomoztoc, that is to say, the seven caves; and there immediately sprang up from it 1,600 gods. The flint knife here corresponds to the nuter sign of creation by dividing, the type of Sut-Anup, son of the genetrix. And in this act the genetrix brings forth and bifurcates just as Omoroka was cut in two to form the heaven and the earth, as the first act of creation in the Babylonian myth. The place of the seven caves is the celestial Khebta, or Egypt, which, when divided in two, becomes the Kebta-Khentu, north and south, in the circle of the Bears. This reading is fully corroborated by what follows, for this, the first act of creation, preceded the existence of the sun, or the establishment of solar time.

'There had been no sun in existence for many years, so the gods being assembled in a place called Teotihuacan, six leagues from Mexico, and gathered at the time round a great fire, told their devotees that he of them who should first cast himself into that fire should have the honour of being transformed into a sun. So one of them called Nanahuatzineither, as most say, out of pure bravery, or as Sahagun relates, because his life had become a burden to him through a syphilitic diseaseflung himself into the fire. Then the gods began to peer through the gloom in all directions for the expected light, and to make bets as to what part of heaven he should first appear in. And some said Here, and some said There; but when the sun rose they were all proved wrong for not one had fixed upon the east.'[110]

The Quiche gods took counsel together and determined to make man. They created one of clay, but they saw the work was not good. The creation was without cohesion or consistence; watery, wersh, unvivified; the face could only look one way, the eyes in one direction, and the head would not wag. He was endowed with speech [p.36] but had no mind, so he (or it) was run back again to the water[111]. This is the first man, the red, imperfect creation of other myths.

A legend of the Californian Neeshenams says, the first of all created things was the moon. This was a secondary type of the genetrix, in whom Ta-urt of the earlier creation becomes Hes-taurt, or Ashtaroth Karnaim. The moon then created a man, as some say, in the shape of a stone, others in the form of a simple, straight, hairless, limbless mass of flesh, like an enormous earth-worm, and from that he was developed into his present shape[112]. This version unites the stone and the worm types of the beginning. The worm was a lowly image of the first formation. The root of all existence in the beginning, at the bottom of the hollow cocoanut shell of the Mangaian universe, is a worm-like being, without human shape, named Te-aka-ia-Roe. Roe is a small slender worm, the thread-worm; aka is the root; ia means it. This primary being, the root of all, is represented by the tiniest of worms. The worm was a type of the earth and the first of the Two Truths in formation, the source of all flesh. 'The worm my mother and my sister,' Job calls the reptile[112a]. The worm Prif is the first link in the chain of the British Abred at the primordial point of emanation. The worm, grub, or pupa, in taking wings, was a type of the soul of breath. There are few sights more curious (for example) than to watch the dragonfly crawl up the flag-stalk in the water, burst from the grub condition, and float up and away as a winged glory of green and blue! In the first gnostic creation, the man who is formed by 'a certain company of seven Angels,' is a mere wriggling worm[113]. In the second phase the worm is winged and becomes a living spirit. Plutarch says; 'Matter being convinced by nature that she was imperfect alone, brought forth her first production: for which reason they say that Cripple-deity (Har-pi-Khart) was begotten in the dark, and they call him the Elder Horus. For he was not the world, but a kind of picture, a phantom of the world to be. Whereas this (the second) Horus, the afterbirth, is terminate and complete in himself.'[114]

The Hawaiians tell us that the first man was made from a red earth lopo-nla-e-ala-ea, and wai-nao the spittle of the gods; his head being formed of whitish claypalolobrought from the four ends of the earth by Lono. When this image of earth, the red man with a white head, was finished, the triad flew into his nose and bade him rise a living human being. Afterwards the first woman was made from one of his ribs, lalo puhaka, whilst he was asleep, and these were the parents of all flesh[115]. Such statements convey the fact that in the first stage the blood-source of flesh was alone recognised, and in the later the seminal essence was included. In the first, man was created the child of the woman; in the second, the woman was [p.37] derived from the male begetter. The Tahitians said their first human pair were made by Taaroa, who created man out of araea, or red earth that is, out of the mother substance, the food of Mena, the wet-nurse of the foetus. Out of this the child was embodied. And on this araea, they said the 'first men lived until bread as made.'[116] Blood was the type of one of the Two Truths, the mystical water of life, and bread, corn, i.e., seed, the other. Both, as so often repeated, were at first represented by the genetrix, who gave drink and food, water and breath to the being, as Ceres and who was the wet-nurse and the dry-nurse in one, the one alone that was worshipped in the cult of the Yonias; the male principle was acknowledged later, and finally became supreme.

'Dost thou not believe in him who created thee of dust and afterwards of seed, and then fashioned thee into a perfect man? But as for me, Allah is my Lord.'[117] That was the order of the Two Truths the feminine fleshmaker being the first she supplied the dust of the earth, the mud of primordial matter, the beginning figured by means of the worm. Simplicius says the Egyptians called matter (symbolically denominated water) the dregs or sediment of the first lifebeing, as it were, a certain mire or mud[118].This, when interpreted, is the mother-matter of the Hebrew Genesis. Sanskrit shows an identity of the menstrual excretion with the dust of the earth. Vi-rajas means free from dust, and the same word designates the woman who has ceased to menstruate. She is free from that dust of the earth of which not only the first man, but all flesh was and is formed; the dust that is looked upon as soil in a double sense. This was the natural genesis of the serpent of dust that is symbolically moralised in the Hebrew Genesis.

Adam, says Josephus, was so-named because he was formed out of red earth, the true virgin earth being of that colour[119]. The dust that man was made of is called Aphar (רפע) or Ghaphar. Af (Eg.) denotes flesh with the blood-drop, and signifies born of. Hence, the Afar, or Dankali, and the Africans. The Hottentots, who call themselves the Red Men, Ava-Khoin, derive from the red source. Adam, or Dam in Hebrew, and Adamatu in Assyrian, is blood simply the female source of life. The rabbis identify Adam as the 'Blood of the World,' i.e., the feminine source. The type-name is inner African.

damu, is blood, in Swahili. didem, is blood, in N'godsin. isim, is blood, in Guresa.
damu,       "           Adirar. dedam,      "           Doai. soma,      "          Gurma.
dam,         "           Loran. azema,      "            Xiamha. zem,        "          Mose.
dam,         "           Arabic. zeam,        "            Dselana. zomos, is bloodshed, in Greek.
domi,        "           Pika.    


The first man (homo) was made of red earth, the kind of red earth, however, that will also make black flesh or white, red flesh or yellow. It never was supposed that he was made from the actual clay of the earth. The myth-makers were not talking about external clay when they spoke of the primal matter. The material facts of creation were as obvious then as now, that of one blood-substance all men are made, and the soul of breath was first manifested when the gestator quickened, the mother being the earliest creator that inspired the breath of life through the navel. The legend of the woman who was created from the rib or bone of the man is the result of assigning the human creation to the male. Bone is the type of foundation, substance, and virility; it was a primitive image of Soul. The flesh-maker from the blood was seen to depend on bone for the power of building, and a soul of bone, so to say, was assigned to the masculine source, the horned one. Thus we find a creation in which the woman is typically formed from the bone of the male, when the idea of causation had been associated with the seminal source.

In his description of the Tahitian myth of creation, the missionary Ellis says 'In connection with this some relate that Ta-aroa one day called for the man by name. When he came he caused him to fall asleep and while the man slept he took out one of his ivi, or bones, and with it made a woman, whom he gave to the man as his wife, and they became the progenitors of mankind. This,' says Ellis, 'always appeared to me to be a mere recital of the Mosaic account of creation which they had heard from some European; and I never placed any reliance on it, although they repeatedly told me it was a tradition among them before any foreigners arrived.'[120]

Some also stated that the woman's name was Ivi which would be pronounced by them as if written Eve. 'I am disposed to think that Ivi or Eve is the only aboriginal part of the story so far as it respects the mother of the human race.'*[121]

* The good missionary was once the neighbour and friend of the present writer, who can personally vouch for that devout man's profound perplexity in this and other matters of the Polynesian mythology.

Ivi, the Maori Iwi, is identical with the inner African Ife, and Uve, Bini; Uvoa, Oloma; Aye, Momenya, etc., for bone or rib, and for the mother. They certainly had more than ivi the bone, for ivi is a native name, as he himself notes, for the widow, who is a survival of the genetrix Eve or Kefa, as she existed before the time of the fatherhood. Ivi, the bone or essential support, represents the Egyptian kefa for strength, force, potency, of which bone was one type, and kefa the hippopotamus another.

The Polynesians also knew the mystery of the woman being made from the man. In the first creation man was made of the red earth; in the second the substance was derived from the male.

The mixing of the blood and bone is shown in the Mexican [p.39] creation of the primal pair. The Great Mother of the gods gives them instructions. 'Go beg of Mictlanteuctli, Lord of Hades, that he may give you a bone or some ashes of the dead that are with him; which having received you shall sacrifice over it, sprinkling blood from your own bodies.' Having consulted together, they sent one of their number, called Xolotl, down to Hades as their mother had advised. He succeeded in getting a bone six feet long from Mictlanteuctli; and started off with it at full speed. Wroth at this, the infernal chief gave chase; causing Xolotl a hasty fall in which the bone was broken in pieces. The messenger gathered up what he could in all haste, and despite his stumble made his escape. Reaching the earth, he put the fragments of bone into a basin, and all the gods drew blood from their bodies and sprinkled it into the vessel. On the fourth day there was a movement among the wetted bones, and a boy lay there before all; and in four days more, the blood-letting and sprinkling being still kept up, a girl came to life[122]. In this version the bone is identified with the soul or enduring substance of the dead.

In the Targum of Palestine we read: 'The Lord God created man in two formations, and took dust from the place of the House of the Sanctuary on Mount Moriah.'[123] Rabbi Moses Gerundensis alleges that the creator in addressing the earth, and calling upon her to furnish her portion for the bodying forth of man, said he would furnish his part, which is spiritual[124]. Here the spiritual takes the place of the bone, the white clay, and the spittle of the earlier myths, as the principle of the male-maker.

According to the gnostic doctrines of Saturninus and Basilides the world and all things therein were made by a certain company of seven angels[125] who said, 'Let us make man in our image and likeness.' These seven are the Elohim of Genesis, the Egyptian seven spirits of the Bear, identified by the seven Jewish names. The seven are also found with the Great Mother constituting the hebdomad of the Sethites and Ophites in which the motherso says Irenaeustakes the eighth place[126] (compare the eight-rayed star of Ishtar).

In the first account man was formed, but remained unable to stand erect. He writhed and wriggled on the ground like a worm, the seven workmen being unable to inspire him with a soul. Then the 'power above' took pity on him, seeing the creature was formed in his likeness, and shot forth a spark of life which enabled him to rise erect and made him live.

In the other, the seven, headed by Ialdabaoth, say: 'Come, let us make man after our image,' and the mother having furnished them with the idea of a man, just as did the goddess Citlalicue, they formed a being of immense size, but he too could only crawl along the ground until the father had breathed into him the breath of life. [p.40] In the Divine Pymander[127] it is said: 'This is the mystery that to this day is hidden and kept secret; for Nature being mingled with man brought forth a wonder most wonderful; for he having the nature of the harmony of the seven (the seven governors, also called the seven workmen, those who became the seven pigmy assistants of Ptah in a solar myth, and who were the seven Cabiri and seven Rishis) front him of whom I told thee the fire and the spirit, Nature continued not, but forthwith brought forth seven men, all male and female, and sublime or on hath according to the natures of the seven governors.' The first creators were those of the inferior hebdomad; the next are the seven timekeepers of the superior hebdomad, who culminated as the seven planetary gods.

The doctrine of an imperfect creation preceding the more perfect one was continued by the Jewish Kabbalists into the creation of worlds. They assert that an abortive creation preceding the present order of things is indicated by the Kings of Edom, or the old kings who are said to have reigned before the monarchs of Israel[128]. 'Before the Aged of the Aged, the Concealed of the Concealed expanded into the form of King, the Crown of Crowns, he hewed and incised forms and figures into it (the Crown) he spread before him a cover and carved thereon kings (or worlds) and marked out their limits and forms; but they could not preserve themselves.'[128a] These were imperfect; he therefore removed them, and let them vanish.

It is asked why these primordial worlds were destroyed or dissolved. And the answer is 'because the man represented by the Ten Sephiroth, was not yet created. The human form contains every thing and as it did not then exist, the worlds were destroyed. Still, when it is said they perished it is only meant that they lacked the true form. Hence though the scripture ascribes death to the kings of Edom, it only denotes a sinking down from their dignity.' That is, the worlds or creations up to that time did not answer to the divine idea, since they had not as yet the perfect form of which they were capable. The doctrine simply relates to the earliest attempts at reckoning time, especially the time of the Seven which preceded the division by ten and seventy; and the failure of the first formations. The supposed destruction of worlds, like the Destruction of Mankind preceding the new creation by Ra, is but a false inference of those who were not in possession of the gnosis[129].


The circle out of which all came is variously represented by other figures, such as the calabash, coconut, and the egg. An Hawaiian legend relates the beginning in this wise. 'Papa, the wife of Wakea, begat a calabash (ipu) including bowl and cover. Wakea threw the cover upward, and it became heaven. From the seeds inside Wakea made [p.41] the sun, moon, stars, and sky; from the juice he made the rain; from the bowl the land and sea.'[130] The calabash is another form of the circle and egg which were divided in the beginning.

In the Mangaian myth the circle of the earliest creation is imaged by the cocoanut instead of a calabash. The egg was another type of the beginning. In the British mythology, Kreirwy, the lady of the underworld, and daughter of Kd, was called the token of the egg. This was represented as the Ovum anguinum of the Druids, which according to Pliny who did not understand the typology, had the power of 'swimming against the stream,'[130a] that being the test of a real serpent's egg.

It is reported on good evidence that the natives of Hawaii have the tradition of the primeval egg. They say an egg of vast size was laid on the waters; this soon divided, and from it was produced the island of Hawaii. Shortly after the egg burst, there came a woman and a man with a hog and a dog and a pair of fowls in a canoe[131].

The missionaries did not include a knowledge of the hog Rerit, a type of the Great Bear constellation, and the dog is not to be derived from the Hebrew Bible. The two fowls answer for the Sut-Horus with two birds' heads on one body. Hog and dog are the Great Bear and Dragon, or the Two Bears; the two birds reproduce the twin-son of the typhonian genetrix; altogether this is one of the most perfect forms of the Kamite myth recoverable.

The Hindus tell us that 'In the egg the Great Power sat inactive a whole year, at the close of which by his thought alone he caused the egg to divide itself; and from the two divisions he framed the heaven and the earth, in the midst the subtle ether, the eight regions and the permanent receptacle of the waters.'[132] 'This vast egg, O Sage, compounded of the elements and resting on the waters, was the excellent, natural abode of Vishnu, and there Vishnu, the lord of the universe, whose essence is inscrutable, assumed a perceptible form. Its womb was vast as the mountain Meru.' And this egg was externally invested by seven natural envelopes[133]. The seven are called 'Water, air, fire, ether, ahankra, intelligence, and the indiscrete principle.' The egg is termed the golden, and it was the golden egg laid by the goose or duck of the beginning.

Sanchoniathon[134] describes the beginning with a chaos of black mud, turbid as Erebus, and a dark, condensed, windy air, a breeze of dark air. These are just the primordial matter of the lake and the breath; mystically the blood and breath of the primitive biology, the Egyptian sen-sen; but when the physiological beginning is swamped in an unscientific cosmology we are apt to lose the clue altogether. The [p.42] mud of the Phoenician creation is also called ilus, which agrees with the Egyptian aaru for faeces; the Tahitian aarea; the first faeces being the matter of the motherhood, whence the oneness of mater and matter. The external illustration of this doctrine so peculiar to Egypt as the alluvial land, has given the look of world-making to the mythos. The Egyptian word for chaos is hat, which means the essential beginning and the determinative is the sign of marshland or land recovered from the waters; the same that is worn by Kahi, the land of Egypt personified as chaos, or the land created from the inundation. Therefore it is unnecessary to repeat much of the Phoenician 'cosmologies;' they are too late and too vague in their report.

It is said that from the embrace of Chaos (primordial matter) with the Wind was generated Mt (or Mokh as some read) which takes the shape of the egg of the beginning. The egg here applied to the heavens, or the heaven and earth is identical with the calabash of other mythologies. Chaos or Darkness was said to produce the egg, which afterwards divided into two parts[135]. As the Phoenician mythology and cosmogonies are admittedly derived from the 'Cosmogony of Taautus,' who was the Egyptian divinity of the writings prior to his becoming a man in Phoenicia, the true interpretation of these things is thereby handed over to Egypt.

The duality of the egg-type is shown in the hieroglyphics where it is the sign of the genetrix and reads su for the son. The Two Truths were contained in the egg. Time or Seb is the egg of the goose which he carries on his head and the goose is Apt, the most ancient genetrix of time, and producer of the primal egg or circle which divided. The 'Tzophi ha-shamayim' or zophasemim of Sanchoniathon's[136] account are said to have been egg-shaped. They also were types of time or Seb. Mut or mat is an Egyptian name of time and for the mother, who first laid the egg. The egg of Mut preserves its name as

muttei, in Tamil. motte, in Kurumba. muttei, in Malabar.
motte, in Kota. mutta, in Malayalma. motte, in Toda.
motte, in Karnataka. matte, in Badaga. mutta, in Yerukala.
mutte, in Tuluva. motte, in Irula. mitta, in Gadaba.

And in Africa the egg is moke in Isuwu; meikoi in Kandin. In a Chinese myth, reported by Kidd[137], a celestial visitant to the 'Imperial Reverence' (the majesty and glory, the soul or nous in other myths) of the primal pair tells how the whole universe was produced from the egg in, or discreted from, the water, and how the heaven was divided from the earth, the light from the darkness; how from the principles of yin and yang, [, the moisture and heat, the being was formed that was afterwards sexualised as the male and female, and [p.43] how the twofold one was followed by four other beings who were created at the four cardinal points.

The 'beginning' with the Barddas[138] is in Abred; the primal circle which contains all corporeal, earthy, dead existences. It is the circle of commencement from below. In the circle of Abred is the least of all animation and thence a beginning; the material of all things and thence increase, which cannot take place in any other state; and the formation of all things out of the dead things, hence the diversity of existence. In Abred all things by nature are derived from death; death that is in the sense of Mut (mute) the name of the mother, which also signifies death in Egyptian and various other languages. When a wicked man dies, his soul is described as re-entering the circles of being as a worm in Abred. The worm Prif is the first link in the chain of Abred, a type of the earth earthy, and of the red source or primordial matter. But the worm or grub transforms into the winged and soaring being of breath and air; the water changes into vapour, the darkness turns into light. So the red circle of Abred passes into the white circle of Gwynvid; the two corresponding perfectly to the red and white circles of the double-crown in Egypt, which typify the virgin Neith and the genetrix Seti; also the double-Horus. In Gwynvid the breathing-place of the second principle, 'The living is stronger than the dead; and every principle of existence is derived from the living and the life.'[139] The indefiniteness in stating some of these early doctrines arises from the dual beginning with the female nature, before the soul was attributed to the male.

The literal account of the dividing of heaven and earth in the Maori form of the mythos is, that Tane-Mahuta, the fourth of those who made the attempt (the four of the four corners), 'Propped up the heaven; the great heaven. Stood apart the watery heaven, stood apart the earth, the winds whistled between the two; the sky was made bright; the world was made light; the night was made definite; the day distinct, and Tane was the separator of the dark from the day, the creator of the clear space, the day, the great day, the long day, the day driving away night, making everything distinct, making everything bright.'[140] The fragment of a Polynesian myth was recovered by De Bovis[141], which tells us that in the beginning there was nought but the god Iho-Iho. Afterwards an expanse of waters covered the abyss and the god Tino-Taata floated on the surface. M. de Bovis renders Iho-Iho as the void, empty space. Tino-Taata, he translates the 'divine type or source of mankind.' Iho in Maori and Mangaian is not only the divinity, the heart of all; it means to cut and divide. It also signifies above and below. Iho-Iho is literally the vault above and void below, a figure akin to that of the divided egg, coconut, or calabash of other myths: and thus Iho-Iho denotes heaven that was divided and duplicated. [p.44] Tino-Taata floats on the surface of the waters like the creative spirit in the Hebrew genesis, and represents the quickening of creation.

'In the Quiche myth of the beginning the heaven was formed, and all the signs thereof set in their angle and alignment, and its boundaries fixed towards the four winds by the Creator and Former, the Mother and Father of Life and existence. Behold the first word and the first discourse. There was as yet no man, nor any animal, nor bird, nor fish, nor crawfish, nor any pit, nor ravine, nor green herb, nor any tree; nothing was but the firmament. The face of the earth had not yet appeared,only the peaceful sea and all the space of heaven. There was nothing yet joined together, nothing that clung to anything else; nothing that balanced itself, that made the least rustling, that made a sound in the heaven. There was nothing that stood up; nothing but the quiet water, but the sea, calm and alone in its boundaries; nothing existed; nothing but immobility and silence, in the darkness, in the night. Alone also the Creator, the Former, the Dominator, the Feathered Serpentthose that engender, those that give being, they are upon the water, like a growing light. They are enveloped in green and blue; and therefore their name is Gucumatz. Lo, now how the heavens exist, how exists also the Heart of Heaven. And they spake they consulted together and meditated they mingled their words and their opinion. And the creation was verily after this wise; Earth, they said, and on the instant it was formed; like a cloud or a fog was its beginning. Then the mountains rose over the water like great lobsters; in an instant the mountains and the plains were visible, and the cypress and the pine appeared. Then was the Gucumatz filled with joy, crying out Blessed be thy coming, O Heart of Heaven, Hurakan, Thunderbolt. Our work and our labour has accomplished its end.'[142]

The beginning is thus described in a Carpathian song:

'Once there was neither heaven nor earth,
Heaven nor earth, but only blue sea,
And in the midst of the sea two oaks.
There sat there two pigeons,
Two pigeons on the two oaks,
And began to take counsel among themselves,
To take counsel and to say,
"How can we create the world?
Let us go to the bottom of the sea,
Let us bring thence fine sand,
Fine sand and blue stone,
We will sow the fine sand,
We will breathe on the blue stone
From the fine sand, the black earth,
The cool waters, the green grass.
From the blue stone, the blue heavens,
The blue heavens, the bright sun,
The bright sun, the clear moon,
The clear moon and all the stars."'[143]

We have identified the tree of the two truths in the pool of Persea (in An) the locality of all beginning; the two trees in the sycamores of the north and of the south. The two birds answer to the Sut-Horus with the two birds-heads, one black, the bird of darkness; one golden, the bird of light, the dual manifestor of the genetrix. Also the Egyptian heaven was blue stone, the lapis lazuli.

Our missionaries who report these simplicities of the earliest time and denounce them as inadequate conceptions of creation, when compared with the Hebrew Genesis do not recognise that they are all [p.45] one, and that the more primitive are the most important for a study of the beginnings. The Hebrew 'Genesis' as it stands is not a creation from Chaos but the creation of Chaos. The same may be said of the cuneiform versions which render the myths in the language of history and romance, according to the literary mode of reproducing the ancient myths. The matter was scientific in its way because matter-of-fact, but when it has been poetized, theosophized, spiritualized, Semitized, and euhemerized, it is neither poetry, nor history; science, nor mythology. This is how the Hindu poet has subtilized the subject.

A hymn in the Rig Veda begins:

'There was neither non-entity nor entity, no atmosphere nor sky above that enveloped. Where? In the receptacle of what? Was it water, the profound abyss? Death was not then, nor immortality. There was no distinction of day or night. That One breathed calmly, self-supported; there was nothing different from or above it. In the beginning darkness existed enveloped in darkness. All this was undistinguished water, that One which lay void and wrapped in nothingness, was developed by the power of fervour. Desire first arose in it, which was the primal germ of Mind; (and which) Sages searching with their intellect have discovered in their heart to be the bond which connects entity with nonentity. The ray (or chord), which stretches across thence, was it below or was it above? There were there impregnating powers and mighty forces, a self-supporting principle beneath, and energy aloft. Who knows, who here can declare whence has sprung, whence this creation? The gods are subsequent to the development of this. Who then knows whence it arose and whether (any one) made it or not? He who is in the highest heaven is its ruler, he verily knows, or (even) he does not know.'[144]

The ancient Egyptian would agree with the modern positivist in considering that description smudge.

In the Berosian account:

'There was a time in which there was nothing but darkness, and an abyss of waters, wherein resided most hideous beings, which were produced of a twofold principle. Men appeared with two wings, some with four wings and two faces. They had one body but two heads, the one of a man the other of a female. They were likewise, in their several organs, both male and female. Other human figures were to be seen with the legs and horns of goats. Some had horses-feet; others had the limbs of a horse behind but before were fashioned like men, resembling hippocentaurs. Bulls, likewise, bred there with the heads of men; and dogs with four-fold bodies, and the tails of fishes. Also horses with the heads of dogs; men too, and other animals, with the heads and bodies of horses and the tails of fishes. In short, there were creatures with the limbs of every species of animals. Add to these fishes, reptiles, serpents, with other wonderful animals, which assumed each other's shape and countenance. Of all these were preserved delineations in the temple of Belus at Babylon. The person who was supposed to have presided over them was a woman named Omoroka; which in the Chaldee language is Thalatth; which in Greek is interpreted Thalassa, the sea; but according to the most true computation it is equivalent to Selene, the moon. All things being in this situation, Belus came, and cut the woman asunder; and, out of one half of her he formed the earth, and of the other half the heavens; and at the same time he destroyed the animals in the abyss. All this he (Berosus) says was an allegorical description of nature. For the whole universe consisting of moisture, and animals being continually generated therein, the deity (Belus) above-mentioned, cut off his own head; upon which the other gods mixed the blood, as it gushed out, with the earth; and from thence men were formed. On this account it is that men are rational and partake of divine knowledge. This Belus, whom men call Dis (or Pluto), divided the darkness, and separated the heavens from the earth, and reduced [p.46] the universe to order. But the animals so recently created, not being able to bear the prevalence of light, died. Belus upon this, seeing a vast space quite uninhabited, though by nature very fruitful, ordered one of the gods to take off his head; and when it was taken off, they were to mix the blood with the soil of the earth, and from thence to form other men and animals which should be capable of bearing the light; Belus also formed the stars, and the sun, and the moon, together with the five planets.'[145]

The value of this consists in its being a general representation of the pictographs and ideographs that were figured on the temple walls in Babylon. Also the first beginning is with Omoroka the woman of the celestial water, not the external sea merely, as the reference to Selene shows. She is a form of the old water-horse (Typhon), and Belus, who is divided or becomes twain, is identical with her son Bar, who duplicates in Sut-Horus. The transformation of Belus, who afterwards became a solar god, is identical with the suicide of Nanahuatzin who re-arose as the sun.

The following is M. Oppert's rendering of the creation tablets:

'1. Formerly, that which was up above was not called heaven.
2. And that which is on earth below had no name.
3. An infinite abyss was their generator.
4. A chaos, the sea, was the mother who gave birth to this universe.
5. The waters which they contained flowed together.
6. There was darkness without a ray of light; a hurricane without a calm.
7. Formerly the gods had no existence.
8. A name was not named, no fate was fixed.
9. The gods Lahmu and Lahamu were created first.

1. He distributed the mansions, seven in number, for the great gods,
2. And designated the stars which should be the abode of the seven lumasi (spheres?)
3. He created the revolution of the year and divided it into decades (misrat).
4. And for each of the twelve months he appointed three stars,
5. From the day when the year begins until the end.
6. He assigned a mansion to the god Niber in order that the days should renew within their limits.
7. In order that they should not be shortened nor interrupted.
8. He placed by the side of the latter the mansion of Bel and of Hea.'[146]

The Brobdignagian Norse creation is almost unfeatured and dislimned by the vastness of its size. But it contains the division into north and south, the two regions of heat and water, or fire and vapour. The heat and water (although frozen) are mingled in producing Ymir the giant-man, who is also called the 'Wet-clay-mass' of primordial matter. Ymir was fed by the cow Audhumbla the 'Treasure of Moisture,' and a form of the old suckler, the water-cow. 'Four streams of milk ran from her teats,'[147] which shows that she was the cow of the four corners, represented in the Hindu mythos by the cow from which issued the fourfold stream also by the Arg Roud or red cow that rests on the summit of Mount Alborz, and the African cow associated with the Rock Tabora on the Gold Coast. The original of all being Apt (Eg.), the water-cow of the four corners who was the earlier Kheb [p.47] or Khepsh of the north, in Egypt. Thus the cow which had been cut in twain as a symbol of the first division was turned into a figure of four, and from her four teats the four streams or waters issued forth. The Hindu cow is called Chatur-bila, because the udder has four outlets. The four teats furnish another reason for the figure of four being quadrupedal.

The cow Audhumbla bore a child, Buri whose name denotes the origin, source, forth-bringer[148], and who has a son Bor, the born one. These two are perfect representatives of Sut-Horus, one of whose names is Bar. Also, one only of the twoas with the two Horuseswas the born one[149]. The physical foundation of this duality lies in the child who precedes, and the boy or man who follows the period of pubescence; the first produced was always the child, the Sut; the second was born on the horizon of the resurrection as the pubescent Sut-Horus, or later solar Horus.


The myths of the earliest creation have now been collected and correlated. Speaking generally the creations are stellar, lunar and solar; the series corresponds to that of the heavenly bodies which in the Avesta, for instance, is invariably given in the order of stars, moon, and sun, where we should say sun, moon, and stars. That which was latest with the earlier men becomes first with the later, and thus we have been grounded in non-evolution as a mode of education; consequently, much of our current explanation of the backward past in history, religion, mythology, and theology, is akin to that which accounted for the fossils found on mountain-tops, by supposing that pilgrims in passing from land to land had dropped their cockle-shells. Of the mythical Mount Alborz it is said, that it grew up to completion in eight hundred years. Two hundred years up to the star-station; two hundred years to the moon-station; two hundred years to the sun-station, and two hundred years to the endless light[150]. Such was the order of development in the Kronian creations, which began with the stars and ended physically with the sun; these being preceded by the elementaries of Chaos and followed finally by the recognition of the cause beyond visible phenomena. In the solar stage when the sun-god had become supreme, it is said in the texts, that it was he who had established the eight elementaries (the children of inertness) upon the summit of Am-Smen, when there was as yet no solar firmament uplifted[151]. Am-Smen is the place of the eight gods and as the Am is also the paradise in Egyptian, Am-Smen is verily the paradise of the eight, who were at first the genetrix and her progeny of the seven elementary powers. In the second stage the constellations were assigned to these seven (eight with the mother), and they became the Kronidae or timekeepers in the earliest year; the Ili who are called [p.48] 'Auxiliaries of Kronus' by Sanchoniathon[152]; the Elohim of the Hebrew Genesis who are identified by the Kabbalah with the seven sons of Sophia, or Jehovah-genetrix. These are the Ogdoad that ruled in space over Chaos and then in the primary sphere of Time, where they first became intelligent instead of mere blind forces. In the lunar stage we learn that Taht the moon-god had superseded Sut-Typhon and been appointed lord of the eight in Hermopolis (or Smen); the octonary of the Divine Pymander[153]. Hathor the lunar genetrix is likewise the goddess of the eighth region or region of the eight, represented on the mount of the seven stars, constellations, steps or stairs now described as reaching to the moon, according to the method of ascending heavenward. In the Persian account of the creation or building up of the Mazdayasnian heaven, it is declared of Mount Alborz as a solar type, that 'around the world and Mount Terak, which is in the middle of the world the revolution of the sun is like a moat around the world; it turns back in a circuit owing to the enclosure (var) of Mount Alborz around Terak. And it is said that it is the Terak of Alborz from behind which, my sun, and moon and stars, return again. For there are a hundred and eighty apertures in the east, and a hundred and eighty in the west, through Alborz; and the sun every day comes in through the aperture, and the whole connection and motion of the moon, and constellations, and planets is with it every day it always illumines (or warms) three regions (Keshzvars) and a half, as is evident to the eyesight. And twice in every year the day and night are equal, for on the original attack (of the evil one) when it (the sun) went forth from its first degree, the day and night were equal, it was the season of spring.'[154] The mount had here become a type of solar time, with 360 apertures representing 360 days of the year.

This series of stellar, lunar, and solar myths may be found in the Chinese divine dynasties. It should be premised, as it will yet be proved, that the nature of a deluge in mythology depends on the celestial waters, the blue heaven having been first described as the water above. The establishing of certain cycles of time was portrayed as putting a limit and boundary to the waters; and when time was not correctly kept this was described as letting in the flood, because it was a return to the state of chaos which preceded that of limit and law. The heads of the first three Chinese dynasties in the annals of the Bamboo Books[155] are each designated a lord and regulator of the Deluge, or the celestial waters called the 'Ho.' Of Hwang-ti, the first, it is said that by means of the heavenly lady Pa, he put a stop to the extraordinary rains caused by the enemy, and thus settled the Empire on a stable foundation. The second was Yaou. He likewise assuaged the flood of the waters, and then attributed the merits of the performance to Shun, in whose favour he wished to resign. He thereupon purified himself and fasted, built [p.49] altars near the Ho and the Lŏ, chose a good day, and conducted Shun and others up Mount Show. Among the islets of the Ho, there were five old men, walking about, who were the spirits of the five planets. They said to one another, 'The river scheme will come and tell the Emperor of the time;He who knows us is the double-pupilled yellow Yaou.' The five old men on this flew away like flowing stars, and ascended into the constellation Maou. In the second month, on the Sin-chow day, between the dark and light, the ceremonies were all prepared; and when the day began to decline, a glorious light came forth from the Ho, and beautiful vapours filled all the horizon; white clouds rose up, and returning winds blew all about. Then a dragon-horse appeared, bearing in his mouth a scaly cuirass, with red lines on a green ground, ascended the altar, laid down the scheme, and went away. The cuirass was like a tortoise-shell, nine cubits broad. The scheme contained a tally of white gem, in a casket of red gem, covered with yellow gold, and bound with a green string. On the tally were the words, 'With pleased countenance given to the Emperor Shun.' It said also that Yu and Ha should receive the appointment of heaven. Yu, the head of the third dynasty, is the great hero who lives in legend as the Chinese Noah. But, in the Bamboo Books he is, like his predecessor, only 'the Regulator of the Ho,' called the waters, or a more correct, because later, keeper of the chronology. As the time came for Yu to take up the tallies and become ruler, he was one day looking at the Ho, when a tall man with a white face and a fish's body came up out of the deep and said 'I am the spirit of the Ho.' He thereupon called Yu and said he was to regulate the waters. Having thus spoken he gave Yu a chart of the Ho, which contained all instructions necessary for regulating the waters, and then returned into the deep[156]. These three correspond to the stellar, lunar, and solar dynasties of the timekeepers in mythology. We are told that a kind of grass grew on each side of the palace stairs of the Emperor Yaou. On the first day of the month it produced one pod, and so on, every day a pod, to the fifteenth; while on the sixteenth one pod fell off, and so on, every day a pod, to the last day of the month; and if the month was a short one (of twenty-nine days,) one pod shrivelled up, without falling. It was called the felicitous bean, and the calendar bean. Which shows the regulation of Yaou related to the luni-solar month of thirty days.


But, we must return to the mount of the seven stars on the summit of which was placed the paradise of the Eight Great Gods when it hardly reached to the moon. This mount, as the Hindu Meru, was continued upward and conjoined with a mount of the seven planets. As expounded in the Srya Siddhnta, and the Puranas, there are [p.50] two systems of the mount interfused and blended in one total figure. The twofold erection of the mount is proved by the two different places of the perfected, one of these being located beneath the moon, and another on the summit of the planetary seven; showing that an earlier form of the sevenfold mount had ended when that of the seven planetary circles began. We read in the Srya Siddhnta[157] that Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon, revolve above; and below, in succession, the Siddha, the possessors of knowledge. These belong to Meru the lower, or within. At this stage of the ascent the prayer of the aspirant that his soul might rise to heaven in the disk of the moon[158] was measurably applicable, as the moon had now become the typical abode of departed souls, the locality of a visible renewal. In the House of Osiris there are seven halls corresponding to the seven regions, Keshvars, Dvipas, and other forms of the celestial heptanomis. There are also seven chief staircases, as if these were the seven planetary pathways. The Osirian in the Ritual exclaims: 'Hail, Keepers of the Seven Chief Staircases made the staircases of Osiris, guarding their halls. The Osiris knows you, he knows your names; Born-in-Rusta, when the Gods passed, making adorations to the Lord of the horizon,'[158a] etc. The rusta is the place of passage, and the first passage was made by the seven revolvers round the heaven, not the seven planets of the seven stairways. These seven staircases agree with the seven steps of Meru founded on the seven spheres or hollow crystalline globes of the ancient astronomy that arched dome-like overhead and formed seven corresponding staircases below the horizon, thus

We may be sure the double Mount Meru was not reared up merely to become a subject of ghastly derision for the ignorance of European missionaries; the men of one book. It is the type of the celestial creations from the beginning, containing the Mount of the seven stars; the garden with the tree of the Two Truths; the pool of the [p.51] two waters, four rivers, or seven streams; the four half-moon-shaped quarters of the tetrapolis above; the mountain of the world that was described as reaching to the moon where the 'Meru Within' was continued by 'Meru Without' in the planetary series of the seven orbit lines. The god of Amos is 'he that buildeth his stories (ascensions or spheres) in the heaven.'[159] These ended with the seventh, the stairway of Saturn, as the steps of his throne. They constituted the creation completed by the superior hebdomad of the Gnostics, called the Holy Hebdomad of the seven planets[160]. The inferior hebdomad, with their mother, were then superseded by the superior hebdomad, as it is said by Asoka in the Rupnath Inscription (BC 221), those gods who were considered to have been true of old in Jambudvipa have now been discarded and abjured. Jambudvipa was the tree and mount in one and the place of the lost paradise of earth[161].

Some of the Christian Fathers entertained the idea that paradise was some inaccessible mountain of the world which formed the summit of transition to the upper world. And this is identical with the towering tree of Paradise up which the Guaranis were to climb in reaching the higher life; the mount, the tree, the pyramid or pillar that represented the pole which pointed to the place of peace at the centre of all the starry motion; the circle of Eden at the summit of the world. The lower Elysium of two was the El-Lizzat (Alizuth) of the Arabs, which was under the moon, but constituted the highest heaven for the vulgar, whereas the superior spirits soared to a heaven beyond the planetary seven. Champollion thought there were eight regions between the earth and moon where the soul tarried after death[162]. But the series is that of the seven-stepped mount which led up to the moon and the region of the eight where the planetary series commenced. The Chinese also have a 'former heaven' (Sien Thien) represented by the octagon, the figure of which was suggested to Fu-hsi by the dragon-horse that issued from the river Mang[163]. A plural paradise, which is also of a sevenfold nature, is known to the Kabbalists. Menasseh Ben Israel says those who are experienced in the Kabbalah affirm that there are two paradisesthe earthly and the heavenlyand they speak truly. They say there is an upper and a lower paradise, and the upper is known by seven names[164]. In like manner there is a paradise below that also has seven names. This is the earthly paradise, the Garden of Eden and of delight, the top of attainment, which corresponds to the sevenfold mount of the seven stars. In each of these two paradises there are seven divisions intended as abodes of the Blessed for the reward of the righteous. The two are united by a fixed pillar called the strength of the hill Zion, somewhat like the colossal pillar Irminsul which bears up the [p.52] heaven. The souls that enter the dwellings of the lower paradise are permitted to ascend by this pillar every seventh day to spend their Sabbath in glancing at the divine majesty and sunning themselves in the double glory preparatory to bearing it every day[165]. These heavens are undoubtedly built on the same foundations as the two systems of Meru, including the mount of the seven divisions and the seven circles of the planets. Of the two paradises it is said that the lower one was formed 1,365 years before the world was created, whereas the upper was formed on the second day of creation, which is in accordance with the two systems figured by the twofold Meru. So in the Hindu system, the place of the Siddhas, called the possessors of knowledge and the magnificent perfected, is immediately beneath the moon. The mount of seven steps and the seven stars was also represented by seven bills and seven pyramids. The ancient Great Mother is described in Revelation as sitting on the seven hills[166]. These are found in various localities, in Mexico, Britain, China and inner Africa, as well as at Rome. Wherever identified they represent the seven hills of heaven, the seven forms of the celestial mount corresponding to the seven branches of the typical tree. In the Bamboo Books the four quarters are four mountains as figures of station and seven mountains or hills on earth stand for seven constellations in heaven. The seven wicked spirits that revolted and fell are portrayed in the Book of Enoch as seven mountains, whilst, in Revelation the seven mountains are identified with the seven heads of the dragon[167]. A constellation having been assigned to each of the seven elementary powers in their second but pre-planetary phase, the mother of these is described as sitting on their seven mountains or eminences for her throne. This was as Typhon, the goddess of the seven stars and seven clusters of stars, figured as the seven mountains. It is said in the Bundahish: 'Seven chieftains of the Planets have come unto the seven chieftains of the constellations.'[168] These constitute the two hebdomads of the Gnostics; the inferior first being the seven rulers of constellations, the superior and later seven being planetary. Now the seven mountains or the seven pyramids which interchange with the symbolical seven hills are also represented by the mount with seven steps as they were in Mount Meru; a sevenfold formation that preceded the tower of seven stages of the planetary heavens. The seven hills were associated with the name of the British goddess Kd at Great Grimsby; and it has now to be suggested that Silbury Hill was a form of the mount of the seven stars or constellations, the British Meru. For this reason. The first form of the sevenfold ascent terminated below the moon, it was pre-solar, pre-lunar, and pre-planetary; and Silbury Hill is [p.53] undoubtedly older by far than Stonehenge. Also, according to Stukeley's measurements, the top of the cone of earth was 165 feet in diameter, or the exact diameter of the temple at Stonehenge[169]. So that the size of the soli-lunar or planetary erection commences just where the mount of the pole and the seven stars comes to an end! This would be in perfect keeping with the mode of building the seven planetary heavens above the mount or cone of earth belonging to the primary formation. First, then, we have to figure an imaginary mount of the pole round which the seven stars and seven constellations revolved, with the earth for a dial-plate. This reached to the moon, where it became a mount of the four quarters. Over the tor of this vast cone the seven planets cross in their courses or staircases ranging from that of the moon to that of Saturn. The order of these as given downwards in the Srya-Siddhnta is Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, the Sun, Venus, Mercury, and the Moon; this depends on their actual distance from the earth[170]. These seven circles widening in their upward range will form a figure answering somewhat to that of Meru the upper, which is described as being an inverted cone, on the top of the upright cone, or the inner Meru of the diagram.

It is not improbable that some astronomer in the future who masters the mythological astronomy of the past, will discover that one form of the imaginary Meru, the inverted cone or sugarloaf, the 'Lotus of Immensity' as it was called, is finally a figure of the circle of precession; the reversed cone or sugarloaf shape which is described in space by the axis or pole of the earth in the course of 25,868 years.*[171]

* The figure of this movement, one aspect of precession, may be realized by taking an orange for the earth, and sticking a long knitting-needle through it as an axis, which will project a long way. Let the axis leanas it does in relation to the plane of the ecliptic. Take a solid sugarloaf and rest the point of it on the orange close to the needle (it should be at the centre, but this will do). Keep the sugarloaf steady, and move the orange so that the needle grazes the sugarloaf all the way round. Thus the top of the needle will make a complete circlethe circle of precession made by the earth's axis or pole.

Meru is also described as being intersected by six parallel ranges running east and west. In the Puranas, Meru or Jambu-Dvipa is encompassed about by six other Dvipas and seven oceans. In like manner the Chinese 'posterior heaven' assigned to King Wan was represented by the hexagonal figure the Hebrew תווצק שׁשׁ or space in six directions. The Yi King (Book of Changes), consisting of sixty-four hexagrams, is related to this change. Such figures may have become mere arithmetical puzzles where their primary significance has been lost, but they did not originate as intentional enigmas. These six parallel ranges across Meru the present writer takes to represent the six divisions through which the planets were considered to file, seven as six (compare the seven-headed dragon that became six-headed). In the language of astrology, which was the ancient [p.54] astronomy, each of the seven had one house on either side of the zodiac, excepting the sun and moon; these were the male and female of light, now reckoned as two aspects of the biune one. Thus

Aquarius Capricorn Sagittarius Scorpio Libra Virgo
[Saturn] [Jupiter] [Mars] [Venus] [Mercury] [Sun]
[Saturn] [Jupiter] [Mars] [Venus] [Mercury] [Moon]
Pisces Aries Taurus Gemini Cancer Leo

Among the Egyptian coins of Antoninus Pius there is a series of twelve belonging to the eighth year of his reign (AD 146), which shows that the house of the sun was then in the sign of the Lion and that of the moon in the Crab; Mercury's double-house was in the Twins and Virgin; that of Venus in the Bull and Scales; Mars in the Ram and Scorpion; Jupiter in the Fishes and Archer; Saturn in the Sea-goat and Aquarius, thus

Seagoat Archer Scorpion Scales Virgin Lion
[Saturn] [Jupiter] [Mars] [Venus] [Mercury] [Sun]
[Saturn] [Jupiter] [Mars] [Venus] [Mercury] [Moon]
Waterman Fishes Ram Bull Twins Crab

The sign of the solstice had changed. For these coins were struck at the end of a Sothiac cycle when the reckonings of the vague year were once more readjusted to the fixed year[172].

In this combination the seven planets are thrown into six double-houses. Six also is the number of the luni-solar month of thirty days, with its six divisions of five days each, in the year of 360 days, founded long before the establishment of perfect solar time, when the sun-god was made supreme as the first one or representative of the seven.

Proclus[173], speaking in the later phase of thought, says: 'The Framer made the heavens six in number, and for the seventh he cast into the midst the fire of the sun.'

The combination of the seven with the six may be variously illustrated. There are seven manifestations of light and only six days of creation, seven circles to Meru, and six parallel ridges across it. It may be that this reading will supply a clue to the building with six compartments. In the grand temple at Abydos there are six vaulted chambers, and the pictures relate to ceremonies which the king, who personifies the sun, ought to perform. The same number of compartments are found in the Temple of the Sphinx, dedicated to Har-Makhu, god of the mystery of the double horizon, and probably of the system of the dual houses of the heavens. The Mangaian coconut is likewise divided into six compartments which merge into the seven of Savaiki (sevekh, no. 7, Eg.), as the seven [p.55] Hervey Isles. These six divisions correspond to the six of Meru and the six seasons completed in the luni-solar division of time by the month of thirty (6 5) days. The Hawaiians have the six days of creation in relation to a month; the first and last of seven days were held to be the sacred days. These two days also answer to the luni-solar combination of the seven planets in the six double-houses in which the sun and moon are paired together as one.

The Aztecs have left it on record that they migrated from Tulan Zuiva, the land of the seven (whether caves or a canoe), before the sun had arisen or was created, and they were witnesses to the solar creation. In the Mexican picture-drawings we are shown the migration in the act of setting forth from Aztlan, or Tulan. The starting-point is represented by an island-enclosure with a temple in it, and in the temple there are the six compartments as in the Mangaian coconut and the ridges of Meru. In the ideographic house there are two human figures, one of whom wears the long garment in which the Wisdom of Solomon declares is the 'whole world.' The other figure carries a looking-glass, a feminine emblem of reproduction. From the sacred enclosure an individual paddles forth over the waters. This represents the migration[174]. Here the two figures in the sixfold temple correspond to the sun and moon in the sixfold double-house of the heavens.

The blending of the seven with the six now to be identified as the passage of the seven planets through the six double-houses of the zodiac was celebrated by the British in the mysteries of Kaer-Sidi (Stonehenge). The passage of the seven through the six kaers is again and again the subject of the Barddas, and Kaer-Sidi represents the zodiacal circle as the enclosure of the seven. In this enclosure, which is also called a prison, the six double-houses take the shape of six kaers. The guides are Pwyll and Pryderi (previously identified with the two characters of Kepheus, the lawgiver of the solstices). The six kaers of the circle of Sidi, or the seven planets, are enumerated in Taliesins' Spoils of the Deep (Preiddeu Annwn) which celebrates the escape of the seven with Arthur from the mythical deluge of the astronomical allegory. 'Thrice the number that would have filled Prydwen (Arthur's shield or ship), we entered into the deep. Excepting seven, none have returned from Kaer-Sidi.'

The six enclosures are:

Kaer-Bediwyd (Ark of the World. Compare House of Sun and Moon).
Kaer-Mediwyd (the Perfect Ones. Compare House of Mercury).
Kaer-Rigor (Royal Assembly. Compare House of Venus).
Kaer-Golur (gloomy enclosure. Compare House of Mars).
Kaer-Vaudwy (resting on the height. Compare House of Jupiter).
Kaer-Ochren (whose side produced life. Compare House of Saturn)[175].


There were three primary heavens in the Babylonian astronomy, the heaven of fire, of ether, and the planetary heaven. These answer to the star-station, the lunar station, and the solar station of the Persians. And after the lapse of three cycles Ahura-Mazda created the world in six periods. The Egyptian series and sequence will enable us to fill in, rectify, and complete these imperfect versions. For these creations and periods were matters of fact in the science of mythology, which was treasured up and taught in the mysteries, the Kabbalah, and gnosis, of various races; and the science, although more limited in range, was as really founded in observed and classified phenomena as is that of the moderns.

The astronomical typology of the ancients and all the mysteries of their hidden 'wisdom,' are commonly looked upon by the moderns as history written falsely, or very foolishly. But that which they have registered in sacred books has now to be interpreted by what the earliest traditions have to say of the beginnings. Various myths, the Chinese, Polynesian, Mexican, Persian, Hebrew, and Greek, agree in stating that man (Adam) was created on the sixth day, or that he was the sixth in the order and series of creation. Orpheus says, 'In the sixth creation closes the order of song.'[176] This is identical with the sixth and last day of creation, in Genesis[177]. Of Ahura-Mazda's creatures of the world, the first was the sky; the second, water; the third, earth; the fourth plants; the fifth, animals; the sixth, mankind[178]. 'It says in Revelation, thus: "The creatures of the world were created by me in three hundred and sixty-five days," that is the six periods of the Gahanbars which are completed in a year.'[179] In this account of creation the year of 365 days is completed in six seasons, periods, or creations, that were finally perfected in the year of 365 days. They held a belief that their god rested during five days after each of the six seasons of creation; and they celebrated a great six days' feast, beginning on the 1st of March (Favardin), or Ormuzd's day, and ending on the sixth day, as the greatest holy day, because, in this the sixth season, Ahura-Mazda had created the most superior things[180].

These six festivals distinctly mark the six creations. According to an ancient Hawaiian legend the creation commenced on the 26th of the month, on the day of Kane, and was continued during the days named Lono, Manli, Maku, Hilo, and Hoaka. In six days the creation was completed. The seventh day, the day of Ku, became the first kapu-day. The first and the last of these seven days in each month have been kept kapu ever since by all generations of Hawaiians. In this we have the six days of creation with the day of rest on the seventh, and the first and seventh days held sacred. Yet the Polynesians generally did not observe a weekly Sabbath, and had no week [p.57] of seven days. This makes the account of the seven days all the more valuable[181].

The Irish Druids possessed some great secret veiled under the name of Mor-Seisior, the Great Six, which was the number that was not to be spoken this agrees with the Assyrian Sesr, applied to Anu, who was the one-six; and the six-sided ses, cube, and cylinder, of the Egyptians. But there was also a more mystical secret connected with the number six and the typology of time. The common traditions of mythology can be related once again to the phenomenal origins by means of the divine dynasties of Egypt; not always in accordance with later or local reports, but in strict keeping with the fundamental facts.

The earliest creation of the primordial Creator in whom alone can be found the initial point of unity and the line of descent is that of the genetrix of gods and men, who was personified in heaven as the goddess of the polar centre of motion, and called the mother of the revolutions, the mistress of the birthplace, the bringer-forth of the child. The Great Mother as the tower-crowned Ephesia, for example, comprises a building of the heavens in her own image.

The first heaven was that of dark and light, or silence and the word, one type of which was the Sut-Horus, the child of the mother in his two phases. The second heaven was that of the celestial water, divided into water and breath, one type of which was the male and female twins, Tefnut and Shu. On the third day of the creation, according to Esdras, there is a sevenfold division, and this answers to the seven elementaries (eight with the genetrix), who were represented by zootypes before the firmament of Ra, the sun, was uplifted by Shu as a star-god. The zootypes passed into the kronotypes, the timekeepers of seven constellations, the 'inferior hebdomad,' of what we may look upon as the third heaven (the stellar heaven, the star-station) in the total series.

Fourthly, Taht built the temple or ark of lunar-time, founded on the four corners symbolised by the tat pillar-cross. Plutarch observes that 'amongst all the numbers the fourth is peculiarly sacred to Mercury[182], because as some say, the god was born on the fourth day of the month.'[183] Mercury, as the context shows, is the ibis-headed Taht, the lunar messenger, who followed or superseded Sut-Anup, of the Dog-star, and the moon, as the chief time-reckoner. The duplicated four quarters formed the octonary.

Seb, whose name signifies no. 5, was lord of the fifth creation. He is a star-god and yet is expressly called the god of earth, but the reason is unknown to Egyptologists. Seb is frequently figured lying down on the ground, all his limbs being covered with leaves. He is designated 'lord of nutriment,' who symbolises the fecundity of the [p.58] soil, and is an ithyphallic form of vegetation. Here we may get help from the Chinese, who, like the British Druids, recognise 'the five' planets, with which they associate five elements. Mercury (Chui-Sing), is the planet of water, he dwells in the north; Mars (Ho-Sing), is the planet of fire, he dwells in the south; Venus (Kin-Sing), is the planet of metal, and she dwells in the west Saturn (Tu-Sing), is the planet of earth, who rules at midsummer; and Jupiter (Mu-Sing), is the planet of wood, who reigns in the east and rules in the vernal season[184]. Jupiter is Seb in his planetary character. Wood was the fifth element and Jupiter is the fifth of the planets in the series of seven. Seb, covered with foliage corresponds to Jupiter represented by wood. The relation of the fifth element, wood, to Zeus, the Greek Jupiter, is shown by the oak and its edible fruit together with the cornucopia of plenty being sacred to him.

Now the Egyptian Saturn was Sevekh-Kronus, who was an earlier form of Seb; and Sevekh, the crocodile, was a type of earth. Thus if Sevekh had kept his place Seb would have been lord of wood and vegetation rather than of earth, the earlier element. In the fifth creation there are four quarters, four islands or insular climes and a middle earth. The first elements (following the four) are said to be the elements of the world. Plato at one time asserts that 'the heavens consist of the four elements bound together by analogy and that the whole world is constituted from these; but shortly after he fashions the five figures and calls them five worlds.'[185] 'Theologists terminate the progressions of the highest gods in that place; and the Pythagoreans call the middle the tower of Jupiter.'[186] This mid-region or middle-earth, the fifth, with the element of wood, leaves, and fruit, was the mid-earth assigned to Seb, the earth that was vegetative, food-producing, central. Every degree of advance was registered in mythology. The name of Seb also signifies soul, but this has two characters. In one Seb is the vivifying soul of the earth, expressed seminally by the phallic type. Thus Proclus says 'Plato places soul in the middle, but not the soul.'[187] This was the soul of Seb in his mundane phase; mere sap of wood, and soul of leafy life. Seb acquired his starry soul as Jupiter, god of the mid-region, a morning and evening star. In the Neo-Platonist stage of evaporizing the mythical into the metaphysical we find Proclus expatiating thus: 'With respect to the middle position of the soul, different interpreters explain it differently. Some say that time middle is the centre of the earth, others, that the moon is in the middle; others that it is the equinoctial, as bounding the breadth of the world. Against all these, however, Porphyry and Iamblichus write, blaming them for (so) understanding the middle locality. Of these divine men likewise, Porphyry indeed assuming this to be the soul of the universe, [p.59] interprets the middle according to the psychical essence;'[188] the kronotypes having now become psychotheistic.

Ptah built the temple of luni-solar time, founded on the four quarters, together with the zenith and nadir, which we may therefore term the sixfold heaven, or the sixth in the series of celestial creations. This is represented in China by the hexagram of King Wan, the 'posterior heaven' that followed the celestial octagon of Fu-hsi. Ptah is a solar god who precedes the sun in his first sovereignty as Atum-Ra; and this creator of the egg or cycle of the sun and moon is characterised as the founder of hell, the mythical abyss, first established when it became known that the earth was a rotating globe. It is asked in the Rig-Veda, 'Who has seen the primordial at the time of his being born? What is that endowed with substance which the unsubstantial sustains: from the earth are the breath and blood, but where is the soul? What is that one alone who has upheld these six spheres in the shape of the unborn?'[189] or, more literally, the boneless one sustaining that which is bone. This was the god under his solar type who was at last made the base and support of the six spheres, because when the solar image of virile power, the fire that vivifies, was adopted in place of Seb and Sut, it supplied a new type of soul as Sal. This, in the Egyptian system was impersonated as Ptah, the solar opener of the earth the unborn one in the shape of an embryo who transformed to reproduce himself. The unborn one then is the solar god in the Ament, the Af-Ra of the deep, sometimes called the Demiurgus. Both Ptah and Num-Ra were represented as the unborn god by the embryo, in the image of which the begotten performed the act of couvade[190]. The sun in the Ament typifies the hidden god who manifests in the sun on the horizon, and who was made as it were to undermine all the rest in the endeavour to delve beyond visible phenomena. Thus the hidden and unborn god became the foundation and support of the whole creation, including that of the seven stars and those of the six spheres, or six divisions of time and space.

The Egyptian statements are entirely true and trustworthy when we can read the typology in which they are expressed. As, for example, when the moon-god Taht says, 'I am the Great Workman who made the ark of Sekar (Ptah) on the stocks;'[191] or, in other words he laid down the lunar zodiac which preceded the solar, to become the ark or the circle of the sun. Thus when Ptah is called the creator of the egg of the sun and moon and we know the egg to be an image of the cycle, this type at once identifies the god with the luni-solar cycle of six periods which constituted the sixth creation. The beetle Khepra assigned chiefly to the solar god, was also a lunar type of transformation. It represented the luni-solar creation. Horapollo says the [p.60] lunar scarabaeus digs a hole and deposits its ball of seed in the earth 'for the space of twenty-eight days (for in so many days the moon passes through the twelve signs of the zodiac). Upon the nine and twentieth day, after having opened the ball, it casts it into the water, for it is aware that upon this day the conjunction of the moon and sun takes place, as well as the creation (or generation) of the world.'[192] The world here signified, then, is the luni-solar circle or month in which the time of the moon (twenty-nine and a half days) was combined with that of the sun in establishing the month of thirty days, and the division into six parts which coincides with the six days, six Rita and the sixth creation of mythology. In the time of the 'fifth creation that of Seb, there were but two heavens, or heaven and earth, the upper and lower of two; and Seb is the god of the lower of these two, which is the earth. The abyss was not yet formed as the third of three divisions. In the sixth creation, that of Ptah, the abyss is first opened by a solar god; the zenith and nadir are added to the four quarters and the total of six is the number of this new creation, or the hexagonal heaven. Ptah, as previously explained, is a solar god, but not the sun-god as a timekeeper. The first form of a solar deity was one of the elementaries, the god of solar fire; the Har, who preceded the Ra. Ptah represented the element later as the shaper by means of fire; the potter, brick-maker, and metallurgist. Ptah is also one of the measurers of space; he maps out a new heaven in conjunction with the goddess Ma, the true measurer, his co-worker in building the temple of solar time. When Nigidius, the Roman philosopher, returned from Greece (BC 60) he taught that the world rotated like a potter's wheel and was in consequence nicknamed Figulus[193]; so Ptah shaping his egg or vase in the character of Figulus the potter shows us that at the time of the sixth creation they had discovered that the world turned round and was a rotating globe. There is monumental evidence, found in the papyri at Berlin, to show that the Egyptians were acquainted with the earth's movement in space. The fact is familiar in the time of Neb-Ka-Ra, or Ka-Neb-Ra, of the fourth dynasty[194], when a common peasant calls the pharaoh the helm (or pilot) of the earth which he navigates in space as the second brother of Taht, who was the navigator of the lunar bark. This was some six thousand years ago, and nobody knows how many centuries earlier the knowledge was extant. Ptah is identified with the number six by the cube-stone, on which he is placed, for a pedestal, that has six ascending steps. The cube is a solid figure of 6, corresponding to the Chinese hexagram of the 'posterior heaven,' which followed that of the four quarters and eight corners.

The nadir and zenith were added to the four quarters when it was known that the sun got clear round (so to speak) and there was open space, or, as the Egyptians figured it, the firmamental water below as [p.61] well as above. This water was really divided into upper and lower for the first time in Ptah's creation, when they had made out their north-west passage for the sun. It is stated in the Great Harris Papyrus[195] that Ptah the opener formed the abyss of the underworld so that the sun could pass through as the revivifier of the dead; that he also encircled the earth with the firmamental sea, on which the sun as sovereign ruler might ride all round, or as M. Lieblein renders the passage, he is the founder of 'the earth circulating in the great ocean of Heaven.'[196]

The 'day of establishing the earth and completing the earth' was kept as the 'burial of Osiris,' the sun in the underworld, who is celebrated at the festival as the 'traverser of the eternal path' and the road-maker of the resurrection for the dead; he who first made the passage and carried the souls of the dead on board the solar bark[197]. In the 'Chapter of vivifying the soul for ever'[198] the boat of the sun goes along 'sounding the heaven at the great place,' i.e., in the northern quarter, the abyss, and we read 'The Heaven is open, the Earth opens, the South opens, the North opens, the West opens, the East opens, the Southern Zenith opens, the Northern Nadir opens.' This describes the sixfold heaven which followed that of the four quarters, and the new figure was registered and represented in manifold ways. For instance, Sekhet, the consort of Ptah and mother of Atum-Ra, she who, as the genetrix of the gods, is designated the 'Only One,' and who was divided into the 'Two Sisters,' is now called 'the Mother in the horizon of heaven,' and 'Regent of the upper and lower world' of the three regions[199]. Also, the Two Halls of Heaven (that of Nut) and Earth (that of Seb) are united in the Twofold Hall of Ma, goddess of the Double Truth (and co-worker with Ptah), that was now established in the netherworld this being the 'Hall of Justice' in which the hidden sun-god became the judge of quick and dead. The third region is also the place of the third and lowermost root of the Norse tree Yggdrasil. 'The third root of the Ash is in heaven under the holy Urdar-fountain.' It is here the gods assemble and sit in judgment. To this court of council they ride every day over the Aesir bridge, Bi-frost; but Thor has to wade through the waters, there being no bridge for him, as he fares to the Doomstead under Yggdrasil, in the region of the abyss. This judgment-seat, the fount, the tree, are identical with the Judgment-hall of M, the tree and the pool of Persea, or the ash (Eg.), only instead of the Hall of the Double Justice, or twin dooms of the Good and the Evil, the Fates have become three, in keeping with the triple division. 'Near the fountain which is beneath the Ash stands a very beautiful dwelling out of which go three maidens named Urd, Vurdandi, and Skuld,' or was, is, and shall be. Urd is one with urt (Eg.), the oldest, [p.62] the ancient mother[200]. The Norse typology is later, and dependent on the making out of the three regions of space, represented by the tree of three roots which reaches up through the nine worlds.

The change of type from the dual to the triple form might be illustrated in various ways. Thus the earlier dog or jackal was double-headed as watcher over the two ways and two worlds, but three-headed as Cerberus, the keeper of the entrance to the third, the added netherworld. Egypt, Upper and Lower, was based on the two heavens or heaven and earth, but Tyre and Tripolis were founded on the three worlds. The earliest division, according to the Two Truths of light and shade, may be found figured on the chessboard; playing-cards are based on the four quarters, and dice upon the cube of Ptah. Again, there were six mystical words said to be written in an unknown tongue on the waist and the feet of the great statue of Diana of Ephesus, Ephesia-Polymastos. The inscription was probably hieroglyphical and bilingual. The six words were employed as spells, repeated for incantations at the funeral pyre, and worn on the heels of wrestlers. It is reported that when Milesius and Ephesus wrestled together the latter could not be overthrown while the six magical words were fastened to his foot. This is symbolical of the sixfold foundation, which followed that of the four corners. The words as given by Hesychius are Askion, Kataskion, Lix, Tetrax, Damnameneus, and Aision[201]. According to Androcydes, the Pythagorean, the total was a symbol denoting that divine things had been arranged in harmonious order, such as the sun to the year, and he interprets Askion by darkness, Kataskion, light; Lix, earth; Tetrax, the year; Damnameneus, the sun, and Ta-aisia, the true voice[202]. The true voice was an amulet or charm put on by Isis when she found herself enceinte[203]. Also true voice is the literal rendering of Ma-kheru, a title of the solar god of completed time. Damnameneus appears on a gnostic amulet[204], a mummy enfolded by a serpent, the type of renewal. This serves to identify the sun of the Abraxas stones, the Sesr who, as Anu, is the founder, the god based on the sixfold foundation, the true voice, or one god.

Plutarch calls the first cube Neptune, the Egyptian Khnef, lord of the inundationthe Chnubis of the cube-stoneand says it refers to the statues set up in the temples, and to things therein acted, ay, and pictured too, by Jove![205]

Ptah is personified and named the opener, from put, to open and divide. Put also signifies the number 9. Now there were but eight elementaries, mother and children, in the typhonian pleroma of powers. In the lunar phase there were only eight, because Taht, the [p.63] moon-god, was held by the orthodox (or the innovators?) to have superseded Set. But with Putah, the opener of the put-circle, there are nine gods in the pleroma instead of the earlier eight and the put-circle of gods are called the 'Holy Vine, dwelling on the waters.'[206] In the Inscription of Shabaka it is said of the Maker, 'A blessing was pronounced upon all things in the day when he bade them exist, and before he had yet caused gods to be made for Ptah.'[207] In a later form of the mythos, after Ptah had been locally exalted to supremacy the primordial eight arc called his children. In an inscription at Edfu they are referred to as 'The eight gods, the very great who have been from the beginning, Children of Ptah, created before the gods, begotten by him; arising through him to have possession of the north and south, to create in the Thebaid and fashion in the land of Memphis. When they arose the steam flowed out of the young waters; the child of the lotus-flower rose up in his boat, beautiful, making earth bright with his rays.'[208] But the eight had existed in Am-Smen before the firmament of Ra was lifted by Shu. The sons of Ptah also appear as the seven pigmy builders, the Cabiri, who were the seven spirits of the Great Bear. Such displacement and readjustment of relationships naturally cause great conflict and confusion, and increase the necessity of our holding on hard and fast to the fundamental facts. Ptah was not one of the eight either in Am-Smen or Sessenu, and when he is created the eight are called his children[209].

This sixth creation must be incalculably ancient, although late in the total series. Various figures of the put-circle of the nine gods, or the heaven of nine divisions over-arching the abyss that was hollowed out below by Ptah can be distinguished. The put are the nine that sat upon the waters of the quarter at present occupied by the three water-signs. The image of the put circle and sign of the number 9, 0, is a circle three-fourths filled in and one fourth hollow. Now, Diodorus Siculus tells us that the Chaldees figured the earth as a round boat turned upside down, with the hollow underneath[210]. The boat or kufa still in use on the rivers Euphrates and Tigris is somewhat like a beehive with considerable bulge in the middle. This figure of the earth corresponds to the Egyptian put-sign with its hollow underneath. The hollow, however, was the abyss that was founded or opened by Ptah for the sun to pass through the celestial waters and circumnavigate the globe. Various types of this formation of 'the world' are extant, in addition to the put-circle and the inverted boat or beehive. The horseshoe figure is one. Hence its mystical value as a symbol of superstition. The headdress of Hathor has the shape of the horseshoe. The letter omega Ω is another form of the same sign. Nine stones arranged horseshoe shape on the edge of the water, as at the 'Nine [p.64] Stone Rig,' where stood the 'headless cross,' formed another. The 'Headless Cross,' or tau, is also an image of the three quarters, the fourth being the crossing, the abyss. A Chinese ideographic symbol of a tau or letter t is the sign of 'above,' or that which is over. Also tee in Burmese is a name of the sacred umbrella, a mystical sign of over.

One type of this new creation was the pool or well with a tree standing in it, instead of the headless cross beside the burn. This tree of the four quarters is sometimes depicted with three great branches above and the root below the waters, as the Hindu tree of life and knowledge[211]. At others the three branches (quarters) are subdivided into nine. The Ash-Tree Yggdrasil stands in the well of the Urtlar fountain and its branches tower up through the nine worlds to the summit where ranges the highest or heaven itself[212]. Here the nine worlds are identical with the nine branches (and the three quarters) rising out of the water.

The tree of nine branches is pictured on the Scottish stones with two human figures under it, supported by two serpents, head to tail[213]. A cross found on a monument at Singanfu, Kenjanfu, or as it was anciently called, Changgan, is a rare form of the tree with nine branches above[214]. An Irish legend relates that in very early times there was a certain mystical fountain called 'Counla's Well' supposed to be localised in Lower Ormond. It was regarded by the Irish poets as another Helicon, the seat of the nine!

'Over this well there grew, according to the legend, nine beautiful mystical hazel trees, which annually sent forth their blossoms and fruits simultaneously. The nuts were of the richest crimson colour, and teemed with the knowledge of all that was refined in literature, poetry, and art. No sooner, however, were the beautiful nuts produced on the trees, than they always dropped into the well, raising by their fall a succession of shining red bubbles. During this time the water was always full of salmon; and no sooner did the bubbles appear than these salmon darted to the surface and ate the nuts, after which they made their way to the river. The eating of the nuts produced crimson spots on their bellies, and to catch and eat these salmon became an object of more than mere gastronomic interest among those who were anxious to become distinguished in the arts and in literature, without being at the pains and delay of long study; for the fish were supposed to have become filled with the knowledge which was contained in the nuts, and this, it was believed, would be transferred in full to those who had the good fortune to catch and eat them. Such a salmon was on that account called "Eo Feasa," or "Salmon of Knowledge;" and it is to such a salmon that we sometimes meet a reference among our old poets, where, when speaking of objects which they pretend to be above description, they say, "unless they had eaten of the salmon of knowledge they could not do it justice."

Now, according to legendary tradition there were seven secret streams of knowledge flowing from Counla's sacred fountain. It was forbidden to women to come within the precincts of Counla wonderful well; but the beautiful lady Sinaun, who possessed above every maiden of her time all the accomplishments of her sex, longed to have also those more solid and masculine acquirements which were accessible at Counla's well to the other sex only. To possess herself of these she went secretly to the mystical fountain; but as soon as she approached its brink [p.65] the waters rose up violently, burst forth over its banks, and rushed towards the great river now called the Shannon, overwhelming the lady Sinaun in their course, whose dead body was carried down by the torrent and at last cast up on the land at the confluence of the two streams. After this the well became dry for ever.'[215]

The value of this legend, which represents the end of that creation typified by the well (the abyss of the three water-signs) and the tree of nine branches, will become more apparent in connection with the deluge mythos. The legend contains the Lady of Beginnings in person, the Tree of Knowledge with its nine branches, the well of the abyss, the seven streams, the pool of the two waters and Two Truths, all in one. The nine Muses, daughters of Memory, that danced around the violet-hued fountain of Parnassus, and the nine damsels who warmed the cauldron of Kd with their breath, and caused it to boil once a year, were representatives of the nine branches on this Tree of Knowledge. The well was the fount of knowledge and wisdom. Helicon was learning's well. Mimir's was the well possessing Knowledge. Hea, the god of wisdom, was the fish of knowledge, and lord of the well or deep. According to the Hebrew fragment of the mythos, the well was first dug by the princes, the seven of the Hebrew chariot, hence it was called the well of the seven, because the seven stars had first dipped down to dig it. But Ptah turned it into a passage for the sun below the horizon. Lajard copied from an antique baked cylinder a Mithraic figure of a tree with nine branches. This he calls the Persian mystic ladder and considers that it represents the eighth degree in the mysteries of Mithras. But he knew nothing of the typology of the tree, or the heaven of nine signs completed by the abyss at the root of the tree in the hollow of the earth[216]. In various North American Indian traditions the natives of some foreworld now passed away are said to have climbed up from it by means of the root of a tree, or a grapevine. Some ascended into the upper world while the rest remained beneath[217]. In one instance the Indians represented the locality of those who were left on the earth below by nine villages[218].

These foolish-looking myths are full of facts concerning the prehistoric past. Here, too, we find the tree of the nine divisions that preceded the twelve the nine villages stand for the nine branches, nine hazels, nine islands, nine stones, in other versions of one original. In the Algic Researches we read of Mudjekewis and his nine brothers who conquered the mammoth bear and won the belt of wampum[219]. The number of the same brothers in an Ojibwa legend is twelve. Getube is the parent of twelve children of whom Mudjekewis is the eldest[220], which is a parallel to the tree of nine branches growing into the tree [p.66] of twelve, where we can identify it as zodiacal. Kircher[221] has reproduced a remarkable Chinese image called Manipe, which was worshipped in the kingdom of Tangut. This comprises two representations. When looked at one way it exhibits nine heads; the lowest three of which have crowns upon them. Looked at the other way the image shows a naked woman in a sitting posturei. The heaven of nine divisions is also Chinese. It was established by Yu after a deluge. The nine divisions take the place of the previous three quarters, here indicated by the three crowned heads which, with the woman that sits upon the waters, make up the four who kept the four quarters of an earlier creation as the genetrix and the three males. The woman was the primordial Great Mother out of which all issued at first, and the three quarters subdivide into nine, as did the hazel into nine trees and the three quarters into nine non-water signs. In the Avesta[222] there is a creation by Airyama (the Aryaman of the Vedas, who is commonly invoked along with Varuna and Mithra) who brought to the mount nine withies, or the means of forming and founding nine circles in which nine kinds of cattle were enclosed and protected. Such was the symbolical mode of tying up time.

Modern students of Buddhism, who are also Masons have found the most striking likenesses between the rites of Buddhism and Masonry; not because Freemasonry is a direct survival of Indian Buddhism, but on account of their common Kamite origin. 'Who knows not Adi-Buddha' knows nothing of the beginning of Buddhism in India. Possibly the first Buddha, called Hermias, may be traced back as far as Sut-Anup, the Egyptian Mercury, or Hermanubis, but the Buddha is especially like the Putha (Ptah) by name and number. The consort of Ptah is Ma (the earlier Maka or Menka, the measurer with the vase) and the consort or mother of Buddha is Maya. Putha (Ptah) is the opener, and Buddha was worshipped expressly as the opener the open flower, the lotus of his eyesi, being one of his types[223]. In Buddhism this opening has passed into later and less material phases of phenomena. Nevertheless the opening is at the root of all the awakening, expanding, unfolding of the mind. Our English word bud, applied to the blossom and flowering; the Zend bud, to awake; Lithuanic, budeti, Russian, bdju, depend on the opening, whether of the flower, the eyes, or the put-circle. The train of thought runs into a region of more abstract meanings, where the Buddha, whose mind and inner sense have been opened and expanded into full flower, becomes the Enlightened, the wise, sage or saint. In the peculiar system of Buddhism existing in Tibet it is said, 'He who does not know the first Buddha knows not the circle of time.' This identifies the Buddha with the circle; Buddha also wears the nine-headed naga serpent, and one of his types is the tree with nine branches [p.67] rising out of the water. A gilt bronze Buddha in the possession of the author of Monumental Christianity, obtained from a British officer who captured it from a Burmese temple, represents the Buddha beneath a tree, which has three branches, and these three divisions are subdivided so that the tree has nine branches in all[224]. The Buddha is seated on a bell, the pattern upon which is the yoni. Thus the bell is feminine and identical with the well or abyss of waters in which the tree of the three quarters and the nine branches stands.

Buddha was also portrayed standing within the horseshoe figure that is thus shown to be a type equivalent to the tree of nine branches under which he sits. The horseshoe symbol of good luck is thus connected with the nine months' period of gestation[225].

The Hindu Golden City of the Gods, also called the 8-leaved Lotus, has eight circles and nine gates, in agreement with the eightfold Am-smen and Sesennu (Eg.) which passed into, or were followed by the put-circle of the nine. It is said the initiates know that living being which resides in the lotus with nine gates with three spokes and triple supports[226]. Thus the lotus of nine gates rests on a threefold rootage in the waters, which is equivalent to the three water-signs. Also in a Hindu representation of paradise previously described there is a silver bell with nine precious stones surrounding the square of the four quarters. It comes to this at last. The four quarters represented by the put-circle, the tree and well or tree and bell are identical with the ankh-cross in a reversed position , with the feminine ru below () and masculine tau above (); and from this form of the figure was derived the well-known cross and circle or Imperial Globe as a symbol of worldwide supremacy. The legends relate that Gautama Buddha was reborn under the tree in the ninth incarnation of Vishnu, and that it was by means of the tree that he attained Nirvana, or passed into the divine circle of the gods, called the put pleroma in the Kamite mythos. Here also the number identifies the name of Buddha with the Egyptian put, for number 9, the circle of the nine, and with Putah, the founder of this circle of the nine gods. Buddha in China is Yu, Fo, Fot, or Boud, whose great work was the dividing of the land into nine parts after the deluge, which is identical with the work of Ptah, who founded the put-circle of nine gods upon the waters that were thus limited to one quarter of the four[227].

The put pleroma of nine gods was likewise extant in China. In the third of the divine dynasties there was a company of nine brothers, who were the ruling powers, and during their reign, as in the time of Yu, the earth, the mountains, and the waters were separated into 9 divisions. Pure customs then prevailed, good government was established, human beings occupied one territory, [p.68] and males and females originated food and drink[228]. The Chinese have a sacred cap, exclusively consecrated to the emperor, styled 'the orbicular Cloudy Court Cap of Nine Seams;' whereas the empress wears one called Seven Gems, or the White Water Lily[229].

According to Lawson the Congaree Indians of South Carolina buried their embalmed dead beneath a pyramid of earth which had a kind of umbrella on the top supported by nine small posts or stakes[230]. Here, also, the number is significant of rebirth, as were the nine bubu-beads and the horseshoe shaped headdress worn by the genetrix.

The put-circle, then, established by Ptah, we have to look upon as a sort of zodiac of nine signs, imaged by the nine stones, nine branches, nine bridges, or other forms of the nine, and representing the nine months which, together with an inundation, made up the earliest solar year, the fourth quarter being typified by the abyss (our three water signs) that the sun navigated in the passage fabled to have been created by Ptah.

The 'Creation by Ra' which has been called the Destruction of Mankind[231] shows conclusively how the sun-god, the divinity of the latest creation, was elevated to the primacy by his worshippers as 'God by himself.' The destruction is but the ending or superseding of an earlier creation, which is also represented by the deluge or overthrow of a tower in other myths. The god being by himself after he has been established as king of men and the gods together he summons the old gods Shu, Taht, Seb, Nun, and others. He speaks 'in the presence of his Father, of the Elder Gods, of the Creators of Men and wise beings.'[232] Through the discovery of correct solar time it has been found out that the men of an earlier creation are false and rebellious against the sun, and have to be destroyed. Precisely the same meaning is intended to be conveyed when the Targum of Palestine relates that the moon was once equal to the sun in glory, but the moon published a false report concerning the sun and thenceforth she diminished and the sun became the greater light. Ra resolved to be 'lifted up' and raised to supremacy in the new tabernacle of time in the heavens in which Shu becomes his son, and Taht his lunar light is to be under his dominion, and Seb with his serpents, types of the time-cycles, are made subservient to the solar deity. These serpents or timekeepers are to be told by Seb that 'for a long time' it was the sun-god himself who has 'been giving them light.' This is the new revelation communicated by Ra, who is now established as the god by himself, in the completed creation in which star-time, planetary time, lunar, luni-solar, and solar time are perfected, [p.69] and God the Father, as a sun-god, is enthroned in heaven in the person of Atum-Ra who was the solar god 'in his first sovereignty.' Yet so ancient was this creation that it was pre-monumental; the sun-god Tum, who was the Egyptian Father in heaven, may be recognised as the god Tamoi of the Guaranis of Paraguay, the lord of paradise, the ancient of heaven, the divine father and the ancestor of mankind[233]; and as the patron deity of the Caribs named Tamu or Itamoulou, whom they called great father, grandfather and old man of the sky, and who was of a red complexion; the god Tum being the red sun, the red man of the celestial creations. Tum also reappears by name in Tomaoteot (the god Toma) who was adored by the Nicaraguans as the great god, whose son, Teothilche,* was sent down to save mankind. Tamoi is the sun in Daurai (Carib group); Tamet, in Kij: Temet, Netela; Tamit, Cahuilla; thus we find the sun and the sun-god, who was the father in heaven under the same name as in Egypt.

* Compare bilge, who was invoked as the saviour in the Akkadian Magical Hymns[234].

We are now able to see why Atum-Ra who was the son of Ptah, and is denominated 'Ra in his first sovereignty,' should be termed the 'Lord of Peten,' the heaven that is related to the number nine the heaven or zodiac of nine dry signs and the wet quarter. Peten or puten is from pet or (earlier) put. Yet the heaven of the put-circle is so ancient that it reappears by name in the sacred lake Peten in Central America. In this there was an island, and its chief temple formed a kind of pyramid having nine steps or tiers. It was on this island, in lake Peten, that the Spanish conquerors found twenty-one stone temples with stone roofs belonging to the Itzas. The images were so numerous there, that it took over a hundred men a whole day to destroy them[235]. Pyramid Lake in Nevada also contains nine islands. Nine islands standing out of the water would offer another figure of the Egyptian nine dry months, or the put-circle of the nine gods: and if the astronomical mythology of Kam was carried into Nevada, we shall be sure to hear of the great serpent lurking in the waters of Lake Pyramid; one with the Apophis of the north and dragon of the deep. Accordingly we find the Piutes believing that the Apophis, their devil-snake, lies in wait under the lake just as the lurking devourer does in the Egyptian Ritual[236].

Dr. de Plongeon the Mexican savant and explorer of the ruins of Uxmal asserts that he has exhumed antiquities which bear the most striking resemblance to those found at Heliopolis in Egypt. This was the place of the great temple of Atum the 'Lord of Peten.' Peten, the heaven of the nine divisions and of Atum the father-god, is also the possible original of the Assyrian Pitan, a name of Telassar mentioned as a city inhabited by the children of Eden[237].


These different creations and starting-points which are verifiable in phenomena, will account naturally for the moon being in existence before the sun, and light before either, which impossible postulates have called forth the naivest reflections on the ignorance of the early men. It is said of Taht the lunar god, in a Turin papyrus, 'He hath made all that the world contains, and hath given it light when all was darkness and there was as yet no sun;'[237a] that is, no sun as a representative of time. In the Babylonian account of the creation the moon is produced before the sun, as one writer points out: 'in reverse order to that in Genesis, and evidently the Babylonians considered the moon the principal body, while the Book of Genesis makes the sun the greater light. Here it becomes evident that Genesis is truer to nature than the Chaldean Text!'[238] The uninspired Babylonians did not know the sun was the larger light! The Babylonians were not talking about creation in the modern sense at all, but about the mythical beginnings. And in these the observations and mapping out of the lunar course came first. So the Mexicans held the star Venus to have been created before the sun. It was earlier than the moon, and properly the first light that appeared in the world[239]. 'Truer to nature' can have no meaning for an account which makes the creation of light prior to that of the heavenly bodies. The seven revolving stars and Sothis were extant as time-tellers before men could reckon by moon and sun.


When the ruling powers of nature or gods of the elements were represented by the beast, bird, fish, and reptile, it followed that if they were accredited with a creation of man, the human race would appear in their likeness or under their names, a sin the totemic system. Hence the ape-men, the dogs, bears, wolves, jackals, snakes, crocodiles, hawks, and others. The ape-men are described as a first creation, and a failure. Mythology being the mirror of sociology, we see in this that the first men were created in the likeness of the mother alone; and as she was represented by the beast the earliest children were created in the image of the beast, as the men with tails. The various phases of the mythos are reflected all through in the traditions of the human creations, from that of the mother alone in the beginning, to that of the fatherhood of Atum, the Hebrew Adam, in the end. The blacks being the primordial race, they preserve the oldest human traditions. It is the blacks whether in Africa or Australia who were the No-people, the A-Mānusha, as the black Dasyus of India are still called; or they were the people sometimes described as having no kneecaps, and at others as going upon one leg; these being two modes of describing the mass who were as yet undivided into the first two castes. It is the blacks who [p.71] first divided in the likeness of the Sut-Horus as the people of dark and light; they who have continued the two primary castes of the twin-brotherhood, as well as the dual motherhood of the two sisters to this day; they who still name themselves from the earliest elements which were the prehuman children of the ancient mother; and who are, therefore, born in the likeness of the zootypes of mythology.

The ape was one of the primary types as the ben (or bun, Eg.) and the kaf. Now the wild, hairy, monkey men of India are still known as the Bun-mantis, i.e., Bun-men who are identified with or as the apes[240]. The Brazilians designate a certain savage tribe by the name of the Kaiari. Also, there is a species of ape, the big black Simia paniscus called the Kuata or Koala. This name has been applied in contempt to Aborigines. Here the Kah or Kuta agrees by name with the black kaf (or ka) of Africa. The Gbe people of Africa bear the name of the dog (Gbe) in their own language. The dog would, therefore, be their type, ideograph, or, if it came to heraldry and drawings, their totemic sign. The earliest human creation was afterwards recognised as the monkey-men, long-tails, goat-noses, black bastards, sons of the bitch, born without souls because they descended from the mother alone, before the individual fatherhood was known. It was not that primitive man recognized himself in the mirror of the monkey or reconstructed his past on the evolutionary theory. The very earliest operation of the human consciousness depended upon man's distinguishing himself from the ape, amongst other surroundings; and at every step of the ascent he would look down more and more on his poor relation.

When the Greek tradition relates that birds were the first of created beings, we can read the statement by the bird-type of Sut-Horus, a dual image of the men who were first divided to be distinguished the human race who are described in the Babylonian legend as warriors with the bodies of birds of the desert (birds of prey) and men with the faces of ravens; the people of the west and east, or the two horizons of darkness and light which Sut and Horus represented, who were earlier than the foundations and the races of the four quarters. In the description of the four races, the solar god Atum-Ra repudiates the creation of the Nahsi or negroes! The others, the 'superior men' were wept by him from his eye, but the blacks came into being some other way; because they were pre-solar[241]. The ruti had become almost red in the image of Atum, the Hebrew Adam and they turned round on the Nahsi, scorned them and wrote their name with the foul black bird (the Nah) of Sut-Typhon. They of the later race and lighter complexion in all lands, despised the earlier as the Dasyus, the 'people that grew in darkness,' the black skins, the 'enemies of the gods' of light, the nagas, typhonians, dogs and monkey-men. Esdras, in his account of the six creations called the [p.72] six days of creation, says, 'After these Adam also (was created), whom Thou madest lord of all the creatures; of him come we all, and the people also whom Thou hast chosen. All this have l spoken before Thee O Lord, because Thou madest the world for our sakes. As for the other people, which also come of Adam, thou hast said they are nothing, but be like spittle.' 'And now, O Lord, behold these heathen, which have even been reputed as nothing have begun to be lords over us, and to devour us. But we Thy people whom Thou hast called Thy firstborn, Thy only begotten, and Thy fervent love, are given into their hands. If the world now made be made for our sakes, why do we not possess an inheritance with the world.'[242] The writer was doing exactly the same that is done in the Hindu writings, i.e., he was making an ethnological application of the celestial allegory. It is declared in the Mahabharata, that the colour of the Brahmans is white. They are the children of light and the sons of the solar god, in opposition to the children of darkness who were begotten of the Asuras, or rather spawned by them when there was no fatherhood yet made personal. The 'coarse ancestral spirits and beings without intelligence,' that are worshipped by the Chinese amongst other civilised races, are faithful reflectors of a status once natural. In these the primates are sacredly preserved, and by these the ancestral spirits may be traced back to the elementaries or the prehuman and totemic types.

The fatherhood was not distinctly individualized in Egyptian mythology until the creation of Seb, who is then proclaimed to be the 'Father of the gods' and who at the same time is the 'youngest of the gods.' He is hailed as the 'Lord of the gods' in consequence of this new character. The egg previously assigned to the genetrix is now said to be 'prepared for the earth' by Seb[243]. There is what seems to be a touching reference to this new found fatherhood in a certain passage of the Ritual where Seb is spoken of as the god who reveals, makes known to the children in the next life their fathers who in they may not have known in this world. It is said that 'Seb rejoices, letting the children know their fathers. They pray to see them.'[244] Seb, however, was of the earth, earthy, the father-god of earth, a priapic representation of the seminal source, the masculine tree of life. He was not altogether a monogamist either. Ptah was also a creator, but his creation was chiefly one of clay or red earthhence he was figured as the potteralthough he was a worker in fire as well.

The true father of individual souls was first recognized in Atum his son, who succeeded the sixth creation and the institution of a higher law. As the father of souls he is called the eye of the gods. This had previously been the emblem of the motherhood, and the reproducer earliest acknowledged. At this stage of development the deceased can boast that he is the lord over time, a lord of the limitless age, an eternal substance he is Atum, created for ever; he has shared in the [p.73] soul of the fatherhood[245]. He says, 'Written are the words of my father Tum in my mouth. He throws down the wife and the concubine of Seb.' The children of Seb now give up their crowns to those who belong to the solar birthplace in Annu[246], and the deceased rejoices in being united to Atum-Ra. Atum who followed the sixth creation then is the product of Ptah, and is called his son. Now in the second account of the creation or formation of Adam, the word used is jatzar (רצי) which shows the creator in the character of the potter, the Phoenician רצי, and this in the monuments is the creator personated by Ptah, in the form of the potter sitting at his wheel and shaping an egg or a vasetwo types of the circlethe 'egg of the sun and moon.' (or luni-solar circle) as it is designated. Adam is formed by the potter, and Atum who is designated the 'Sun (Ra) in his first sovereignty,' i.e., of the solar fatherhood, is the son of Ptah the potter. It is here we find the unity of Adam the red man with Atum the red sun. Adam was created on the sixth day, or sprang from the sixth in the order and series of the creations; and Atum the first father as the solar god belongs to the sixth creation, and is its product as the son of Ptah.

The creation of Adam follows the six days or six creations just as the creation of Atum, the first form of the solar father in heaven followed the luni-solar creation of Ptah, which was the sixth of the series, and this explains their identity. It is also in keeping that Tum (Eg.) should be the name of mankind as the race of created persons. The completed year of 365 days is shown in the Bundahish to include the six periods of creation. When it says 'the creatures of the world were created by me in 365 days'[247] it does not mean during a period of 365 days, any more than it meant the six days of the Hebrew misrendering of the matter, but that the sixth and concluding creation culminated in a year of 365 days. When Ptah had made the passage of the waters below, his son Atum (or other representative of Ra) became the sun in the third region, the Amenti, known as the Af-Ra and just as the 12 signs followed the nine divisions, so the sun-god now appears in his bark with the serpent twined round him in twelve loops, i.e., a figure of 12, equivalent to the twelve signs of the final zodiac[248].

The Kabbalists are right in affirming that there were various pre-Adamic creations, of which they possess some scattered remains, but have published no true explanations. Also the father Atum in Egypt was preceded by the female Atum, who is the mother-goddess of time, the genetrix alone being the giver of birth to the beginnings. Jehovah-Elohim represents the earliest gods who were the elementaries as the mother and her sevenfold progeny. Chavvach and Seth are identical with Kefa (Kep) and Sut (or Anup). [p.74] Seth follows the seven patriarchs of one version, and is the first son of Adam in the list of the ten patriarchs. In this list Adam is both male and female under one name which resolves at last into the red or female source, the mother of all flesh.

In the rabbinical legends Cain is held to be son of the tempter Samael; and other children were attributed to Eve which were not of Adam's paternity; they were born before Adam begot his own likeness. Eve's pre-Adamite children were held to be prehuman. They are the offspring of the Great Mother, extant before the establishment of the fatherhood in mythology, who was represented in one character as Lilith (Rerit, Eg.) and in the other as Eve (Kep, Eg.). The total matter has been mixed up in the rchauffe of the writings following the captivity in Babylon, and the consequent acquaintanceship with the Persian 'revelation.'

The heavens are a vast reflector to the earth of prehistoric times. We see in them the beginning with the mother, the African's Mama, and the line of descent on the mother's side; the two mothers of the Kamilaroi (i.e., the mother in her two phases of mother and sister). The male twins follow the Great Mother as the dual Sut-Horus or Gayomard and the brilliant youth. Next Shu and his sister are the twins of two sexes that were placed in the zodiac as the Gemini, who became the first human pair.

In the Bundahish, the first created being is typified by the ox Gayomard which divided in twain. At the advent of Soshyans, the promised saviour, the resurrection or general rising is to occur in the order of the creations, and first the bones of Gayomard are roused up, then those of Mashya and Mashyoi, then the rest of mankind[249]. This will show that Gayomard of the first creation preceded Mashya and Mashyoi who belong to the second creation in the Persian system; the third according to the present reckoning of the total series, the first of which was omitted by the Babylonians as recorded by Damascius[250]. On getting the fragments adjusted we shall see that from the first creation which was that of Geshuran and Gayomard (the ox being a dual type of both sexes) there sprang seven races of men answering to the seven of the Book of Genesis, and from the Mashya and Mashyoi of a following creation there sprang ten races of men corresponding to the ten patriarchs of the second list, and the ten kings that preceded the deluge in Berosus[251]. Seven varieties of men are described in the Bundahish; (1) those of the earth (2) those of the water (3) the breast-eared (4) the breast-eyed (5) the one-legged (6) those who have wings like a bat (7) those of the forest with tails, and who have hair on the body[252]. These are they who were created in the likeness of the seven elementaries, and amongst them are the tailed and hairy men, the one-legged men, the bird-men, earth-men and the rest that sprang from Gayomard, the cow (or ox) who corresponds to the earlier water [p.75] cow, the typhonian genetrix. In a Parsee MS. the seven are extended into the ten, just as they are in the second list of the patriarchs. According to totemic phraseology the 'names of the ten species of men are the breast-eyed, the three-eyed, the breast-eared, the elephant-eared, the one-legged, the web-footed, the leopard-headed, the lion-headed, the camel-headed, and the clog-headed.' These as explained in the earlier volumes are to be found in the chart of the heavens ranging from the first divisions of day and dark to the celestial heptanomis of the seven brothers which being followed with the subdivision by ten led to the heaven of 70 divisions. The seven survived in the Cabiri, the Rishis, Hohgates, Sons of Alban, sons of Mitarairn, and the seven patriarchs. The ten are in the second list of patriarchs, the ten kings of Babylonia, the ten tribes which preceded the twelve in Israel.

In the physiological phase the primary creation was also reckoned from the mother alone, the mother source, which was common to the ape. The twins, Mashya and Mashyoi, have merely the masculine and feminine forms of the same name[253]. Mashya, the 'mortal' is a later meaning. These things have to be determined by phenomena. When identified, they belong to the celestial creations, and relate to the gods, not to human beings, or mortals, who never did and never could spring from a plant or a tree, a fish, bear, or water-cow.

The second (or third) creation, that of Ma-Shu, is also extant among the Canadian Indians, who relate that a new earth was formed by the second creator, named Messou[254], who is identical by name and by position with Ma-Shu (in Egypt), who followed Sut-Horus, and was a determiner of the two solstices in the circle of the year.

In the Tezeucari account of creation the beginning or opening was made with the flint-stone; then man, consisting only of head and arms, ascended from a hole in the earth. This was evidently the male, imaged as the forepart. Afterwards the woman came up out of the hole, obviously figured as the feminine hinder-part, as Mendieta considered the details too indelicate to describe. The first man was called Aculmaitl, or Hand and Shoulder[255], i.e., forepart, just as he might be called The Horn or Bahu. So the Hebrew primal pair are described organically; 'Zakar and N'qebah created he them.'

In a Miztec myth the being that divides or is divided appears under the type of a deer. 'In the year and in the day of obscurity and darkness, yea, even before the days or the years were, when the world was in a great darkness and chaos, when the earth was covered with water and there was nothing but mud and slime on all the face of it, behold, a god became visible; and his name was the Deer, his surname the Lion-Snake. There appeared also a very beautiful goddess called the Deer, surnamed the Tiger-Snake.'[256] These have the look of the [p.76] double lion of Shu and his sister, or Ma-Shu, but the point here is the double deer. An Ephesian coin shows the stag cut asunder for the sign of the division (equinox) the place of renewal, proved by the palm-tree springing beside the severed stag[257]. The stag was an Egyptian emblem of renewal, because of the animal shooting its horns.

We divide the heaven by the equinox or solstice, whereas the early man cut the type in two; thus Omoroka was cut in two; the cow, the lioness, the deer, or the dragon, was cut in two to mark the place of division. Horapollo says for a part of the world the Egyptians depict half a serpent[258].

Before what may be termed the Persian 'Fall' and the coining of the evil one, Aharman, the shadow of whose presence brought eclipse upon the whole good creation, it is said that Ahura-Mazda 'brought forth a sweat upon Gayomard, the sole created bull so long that one might recite a prayer of one stanza, and formed that sweat into the youthful body of a man (or being) of fifteen years, radiant and tall. When Gayomard issued from that sweat he saw the world dark as night' in the overcoming shadow of the Evil Mind[259].

The sweat of Gayomard, and the formation of the human being from it, is paralleled by the swoon into which Adam was cast. Whether we take this being, or the genetrix-soul Gosurvan, it does not matter; there is a second distinct being formed from the ox corresponding to the formation of Eve out of one side of Adam. The formation or creation of the woman from the man was an Egyptian mystery. It is alluded to in some versions of the Ritual[260].

Atum-Ra says 'When the circumference of the darkness was opened I was as one among you. I know how the woman was made from the man.' This is said by the sun-god, the father of souls, and it proves that the derivation of the woman from the man can be explained by that founding of the fatherhood which it follows.

Now we may see where the Persian influence is recognizable in the Book of Genesis, and how it mingles with the Egyptian or keeps its own current in the double stream. The story of Adam and Eve in the second chapter is told according to the Bundahish history of Mashya and Mashyoi, who became the typical human pair. As gods they belonged to the second Persian creation, the third Egyptian, but as human beings, in Genesis, they are a product of the six days, six seasons, or the sixth creation.


With the completion of solar time the cycles of the seven planets were established, and we have the seven heavens following the sixth creation. When planetary time had been made out, a planet was assigned to each of the older gods of constellations. We read in the [p.77] Bundahish how the five were distributed among the keepers of the four quarters, and a great constellation of the middle sky, the name of which has been read Gurg-Kihar or 'progeny of the wolf.'[261]

'Seven chieftains of the planets have come unto the seven chieftains of the constellations as the planet Mercury (Tir) unto Tishtar (Dog-star); the planet Mars (Vahram) unto Haptoringa (Great Bear); the planet Jupiter (Ahura-Mazda) unto Vanand (Fomalhaut); the planet Venus (Anahid) unto Sataves (Antares?); the planet Saturn (Kevan) unto the Great One of the middle of the sky, Gkihar.'[262] This version at least identifies Mercury as the planet of Sothis, Mars (i.e., Shu) as the planet of the Great Bear, and Jupiter with the Persian Father God, and therefore with Seb in the Egyptian system. It follows that Saturn, who was the 'Dragon of life' was combined with an ancient constellation of Sevekh-Kronusbut this must be reserved for the following section.

Seb, as before said, was the earlier Sevekh, the first god in the Kronian mythos; the crocodile-headed or dragon-god, a pre-planetary form of Saturn-Kronus. Sevekh, as god of the no. 7, is identical with Sut or Sebti. In the Kabbalist work, Yetzirah, Saturn is called Sabtai, that is the Egyptian Sebti or Suti by name. According to the Kabbalah the angel of the planet Saturn is Zaphkiel, and the spirit of it is Sabathiel[263]. Both names are derived from Sevekh and Sebti, which denote the seventh in Egyptian. A chasm opened in Egypt between the cult of Seb, the stellar Father-God, and Sevekh, the son of the genetrix. Sevekh was continued into the solar mythos as a form of Ra, but was still considered to be the son of the mother who became her consort, as did Sutekh, Adar, Duzi, and others. At Ombos Sevekh was worshipped as the son of Typhon; her boy.

A story told by Diodorus Siculus contains a blotted page of Egyptian history. He relates how Rhea, the primordial genetrix (who her husband Ammon, and returned to her brethren the Titans, taking Typhon as consort of Sevekh, and Nupe as wife of Seb) forsook one of them named Saturn to husband, whom she persuaded to make war upon Ammon, when, by the assistance of the Titans, Saturn was victor, so that Ammon was constrained through famine to fly into Crete[264]. This is the other side of the same religious warfare represented in the conflict between Jupiter and the Titans, and the overthrow of Saturn. This re-conquest by Sut-Typhon was historical in Egypt at the end of the twelfth dynasty when Typhon took Sevekh for her husband, he who was the chief one of the seven elementaries, here called the Titans, to whom the seventh planet was at last assigned as Saturn.

The mother of the beginning and her two-faced son, her opener and shutter, Sut-Horus or Sut-Nub, were continued to the end by the [p.78] Typhonians. The Sut-Horus who had represented dark and light, water and fire, impubescence and pubescence, the dual lunation, the star or constellation of the double horizon, still served as the type of the Black Saturn and the Golden Sun in Sut-Nubti and the Iao-Chnuphis of the Gnostics, the Egyptian Sebek-Ra.

Fuerst and other Hebraists render the name of יתבשׁ (from היתבשׁ, or Jah is Saturn), by 'he who is worshipped as Saturn;'[265] and according to Cedrenus the deity worshipped by the Chaldeans and Gnostics (those of the stones) known as the ΙΑΩ, the divinity whose name was ineffable, and whose secret was never to be uttered, was a divinity compounded of the sun, moon, and Saturn[266]. The moon here represents the genetrix who was the earlier goddess of the seven stars. The compound deity is the god of the Seven Rays, the Heptaktis, and the triliteral secret is that the divinity includes the Great Mother of the seven, whose own especial son in a soli-stellar character was the Sun and Saturn or Sebek-Ra united with the genetrix as a form of the compound deity Iao. The unity of Chnubis-Iao is expressed by the Egyptian nub, which means the lady, the lord, the all. These were combined in the god Sut-Nub, and the gnostic solar dragon of life.

According to Eustathius[267] Iao was identified with Baal, (that is, Bar-Typhon in Egypt), whose image was worshipped by Manasseh, one form of whom was Baal of the seventh heaven, or Saturn. This was the son of the woman always opposed to the son of the father in bringing on the origins. If the fatherhood had been introduced these three would have made a trinity of father, mother, and son, but the peculiarity of the cult was the absence of the fatherhood, the son sustaining two characters all along as the suckling child and the pubescent lad who produced himself, as the son of the eternally virgin mother.

The sun and Saturn both became the lord of the seventh day, the Sabbath, the day of rest or peace, which is hept (Eg.) the name for number seven, whence Heptaktis. But, in this particular cult of Sebek, who was the original of that solar Sabazius, the son of the genetrix Kubeb or Kubel, the sun and Saturn were combined as Sabat, Sabaoth, or Sapt, which read as sebtz (Eg.) shows the dual form of Seb, for the sun and Saturn; the solar Sebek, son of Typhon, being compounded with his planet, and both, according to the statement of Cedrenus[268], with the planet, (the moon) of her who had been goddess of the seven stars. Sabazios was reported to have been torn into seven parts by the Titans, corresponding to the seven days of the week and the seven planets to which they were dedicated. It is particularly noticeable that in Montfaucon's collection of the Abraxas stones the seven stars also appear as well as the seven-rayed sun and the moon[269].


An ass-headed form of the Iao-Abraxas shows his relationship to the cult of Sut-Typhon[270]. Epiphanius says: 'According to some the Gnostic Sabaoth has the face of an ass.'[271] And Iu (Eg.) is a name of the ass.

This god, who was founded on the sonship and virgin motherhood, was the deity of the Saboi, who, in their religious frenzy, emasculated themselves to assume the likeness of the god Iao, who was neither male nor female; and became sebau (Eg.) or eunuchs, those who unsexed themselves to save their souls, on grounds to be hereafter specified. In Egyptian, seba, to worship, is the name of the eunuch. Such worshippers were especial and favourite servants of the God of Isaiah. 'For thus saith the Lord unto the eunuchs that keep my Sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenants, even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls a place and a name better than that of sons and daughters' (they who were the sexless for heaven's sake). 'I will give them an everlasting name that shall not be cut off;' as their virility had been[272]. This kind of circumcision is upheld in the gospel according to Matthew. 'There are eunuchs, which made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake, he that is able to receive it (the doctrine) let him receive it.' This is followed by the passage concerning the little children and the statement that 'of such is the kingdom of heaven.'[273] By castration the Saboi were converted and became as little children.

What a history of religion is that which no one will ever dare to write! It was by the aid of the woman, the great mother of mythology, that the sexual instinct was trained into the right way in the mysteries. Through her, Nature was made a lure to a cleanly life, when humanity was but just emerging from the promiscuous condition of the beasts. Standing in presence of the door of life the initiates were sworn in as reproducers and taught how to keep the covenant of cleanliness. Only the evolutionist or a Peguan queen can apprehend the need and the value of such primitive teaching. When the daughters of Babylon devoted themselves to the procreant goddess, it was in token of their willingness to be 'bowsome' reproducers.

At a very late period in the mysteries Apuleius presents a portrait of the supreme goddess as she was unveiled to the initiates. The mother-earth flower-crowned with her bounteous-bosomed body, full of fruit. The mother-heaven in her black mantle lustrous with moon and stars; a radiant reality of the divinest dreaming unveiled in human form; a visible revelation of the bringer-forth as 'women wish to be who love their lords;' the most worshipful shape presented by woman according to a certain sense both natural and masculine[274].*

* The primitive type of female beauty was the deep-bosomed woman, or full-wombed cow; the beauty of pregnancy and plenty. Hence the belle is still the beauty. To bellify is to beautify. To belle is to swell, or to belly out, and the belle and swell met in one image as the great Mother. Primitive men did not admire wasp-waisted women. The Greek Venus retains traces of this early type and taste, like the Akkadian Dammal, who was broad and bowerly.

[p.80] And then, when the strangest rites had been made religious and the early simplicity was lost, and human nature ran riot, and the reaction came, it looked as if the true religion must be non-sexual, and so in the cult of Sabazius men were to be neither male nor female in conforming to the image of the biune being, the Iao-Sabazius, the Iao-Sabaoth of the Jews, the Sut-Nub, the Sebek-Ra of Egypt, or the child-Christ of Rome.

Sebek, then, was a god of the seventh creation, as the sun combined with Saturn; the lord, therefore, of the seventh day and the seventh planet, in conjunction with the genetrix.

The Kabbalah enables us to identify and distinguish the Hebrew Jehovah-Elohim from Iao-Sabaoth. It shows that the eighth of the sephira represented the former, whereas it associates the seventh with Iao-Sabaoth[275]. We have now the means of absolutely demonstrating the phenomenal origin and relationship of both. Jehovah-Elohim was the genetrix of the seven elementary gods who became kronian as representatives of the seven constellations. Iao-Sabaoth was the supreme divinity of the seven planetary heavens, who is especially connected with the no. 7, as was Sevekh (or Sebti), whose name is that of the number seven. Both types are apparently alluded to in the following passages. 'Give a portion to Seven and also to Eight, for thou knowest not what evil shall be upon the earth.'[276] 'And this shall he the Peace when the Assyrian shall come into our land, and when he shall tread in our palaces, then shall we raise against him seven shepherds and eight principal men.' Peace, in Egyptian is hept, another name of no. 7.

Also, when the Fijians send a present to a chief, it is accompanied by a herald, whose salutation is 'O! Aa!' When this messenger has delivered his long set speech, and is ready to hand over the gifts, the Mata who receives them says 'Seven,' and the messenger responds with 'Eight.' This inexplicable formula is entirely independent of the number of things offered[277]. May it be explained by the fact that seven (hepti, Eg.) is synonymous with peace, plenty, welcome, good luck, and that the messenger was manifestor of the seven as it was in mythology?

In Assyria the great gods are reckoned as seven in number, but there is a symbolical eight-rayed star which is the sign of the genetrix Ishtar, and also of the son as Assur. In the one case the star is the figure of her who produced the primary hebdomad of powers, the mother of the Pleroma; and in the latter it typifies the manifestor [p.81] of the later planetary seven, the eight-rayed star of the Pleroma, as was the gnostic Christ.


The various heavens of the different creations were represented on earth as the house, tabernacle, or temple of the gods, ranging from that of the typical mount to that of the astronomical dome, or heaven indoors. The tabernacle of the wilderness was made according to the pattern seen in the mount with its cherubim (the two Bears), its tree of seven branches, and other celestial symbols. The Kaaba of Mecca (makha (Eg.) denotes the equipoise or equinox) is the quadrangle of the four quarters. With the addition of the height and depth (the well) this would be identical with the hexagram or cube of Ptah. The Kaaba was fabled to have been first let down from Heaven to Adam, and to have been remodelled by Seth, Abraham, and others. A knowledge of these things, celestial and chronological, including the seven of the Chariot (the Cabiri), the keb (Eg.) of the mount and the four corners, i.e., the Kaaba, etc., constituted the true, the primary Kabbalah, not the mongrel so-called nowadays, just as they are the mysteries in the Egyptian Ritual.

It is affirmed that our Freemasons conceal, among other secret arts, what they term the 'faculty of Abrac,' which is obviously a reduced form of the word Abraxas[278], the six-sided stone (sas or kas, Eg.) of the Ab-ra or Af-ra (Eg.) the Chnubis sun. The Abraxas stone with six sides is the foundation stone of the Masonic degree of R.A.M. [Royal Arch Mason]. This stone was fabled to have been brought by Adam out of the lost Paradise of a foreworld, and was passed on until Solomon used it as the foundation stone for his temple.

The seal of Solomon is a double triangle, Y, looking like a six-pointed star. It is sometimes called the shield of David. The Hindu sri yantra contains the same figure, which is also found in ancient English churches, where the builders have made a Masonic mark.

This figure is a symbolic part of the Royal Masonic Arch; and the seal of Solomon or shield of David is an extant illustration of the lunar character of David (the Egyptian Taht), and of the soli-lunar origin of Solomon the son. The double triangle of the sixfold one was also continued in a form of the divine nimbus worn by God the Father, which is represented in a fresco at Mount Athos, and upon an 'Epigonation' worn by a great image of St. Nicholas in the chief convent of Meteora in Thessaly, near Triccala[279]. Building the temple of the heavens is the great mystery of Masonry, and they retain the chief figures accordingly. The number 5, for example, in which the first planetary heaven was completed, is one of the sacreds. This five runs into the six in the 'Five Orders,' of what are termed the 'Six Periods, the Grand Architects;' which expression is used [p.82] to designate the six days of the creation. Their mysteries reveal the same system as mythology. The building of the temple is one of the Masonic mysteries. Masons who know nothing of the mythical, that is astronomical, origin of these mysteries think this was the temple of an historical Solomon. But the mystic sen (Eg.) or brotherhood of M is indefinitely older than the times of the supposed Solomon. Universal symbols found in all forms of the mysteries did not originate with the Jews a few centuries before the present era. Besides which, the 'Venerable Mah' of the Masons is one with the Hebrew Chokmah (המכח), the personification of wisdom, or Sophia, who acts the part of the builder in creation that M does in the creation with Taht and Ptah. Chokmah was the 'founder of the earth.'[280] When the heavens were prepared and a circle was set on the face of the deep, and the decree was given that the waters should not pass their appointed limit, Chokmah was there[281]. She was the builder from the beginning, who first built the house of the seven pillars, and, therefore, like Ma, can be traced back to the goddess of the seven stars, the first measurer and maker of a circle in heaven. Chokmah denotes the skill of an artificer, but, personified, she is the feminine artificer. One mode of creating is described as checking the waters. This, in Egyptian, is khekh, to expel, turn back, or check. In the cuneiform description of creation, as part of the process, the waters were gathered into one place, where they are yet, in the three water-signs of the zodiac, and in the meh of the north. The words on the Babylonian tablet are mi, istinish, ikkique. Mi, is waters; istinish, one place; and ikhique answers to the Hebrew chaq (קח), a defined and appointed limit. Chit, in Phoenician, means encompassing. Kiki, Maori, is confined. Kuku, Fiji, to hold. Ciko, Zulu, is the woman's word for a stopper; as we have it in stopcock. To cag, English, is to bind, limit, imprison. Kakhya, in Sanskrit, denotes enclosure; kachcha, shores; ciug, Irish, the circle; kac, Breton, enclosure, whence the kay. One khekh (Eg.) sign was a collar with nine beads which, as the collar of Isis, signified the nine months of gestation and breath (or the put-circle of the nine gods). The nine dry months of the khekh, and the inundation, represented by the three water-signs, made a year, in the figure of which the waters were checked, limited, and confined to the meh, the abyss and water-girth of the northern quarter. On this the earth described by the Hebrew writers and Diodorus was founded in the nine dry signs, the antithesis of the waters[282]. On this abyss of the waters was established the put-circle of the nine gods, the creation of Ptah who wrought in conjunction with M, the Hebrew Chokmah, the Masonic 'Venerable Mah.' It is the mythical origin alone that affords any solution in such a case as this where the historical becomes fraudulent. Solomon, the Prince of Peace, was but a form of the solar or luni-solar [p.83] manifestor. The demiurgic Ptah, the architect who built the temple of the heavens in conjunction with M, according to one of the particular patterns, of which there were several, stellar, lunar, and solar, has a son who takes the name of Iu-em-hept, the bringer of peace. This was the Egyptian Solomon, the Ecclesiasticus or Iu-su, the coming son of the Apocrypha that was brought out of Egypt. He who comes with peace or fulfilment is the Solomon by name. The Egyptian Solomon was the typical builder and designer, the original, i.e., divine, modeller of the celestial temple. It is said in an inscription that the Temple of Edfu was 'restored as it is in the book of the model of the temple composed by Prince Iu-em-hept, eldest son of Ptahi.'[283] Prince Iu-em-hept is the prince who comes with peace, and is the Solomon who became the typical architect and healer in Israel.

This establishes the link with the god Ptah, the solar architect whose assistants, the seven khnemu, are the fraternity of the seven builders of mythology. The sovereignty of Sebek (or Atum-Ra) as the seventh was founded on the six previous creations typified by the Ab-ra-xas stone; and the fact of the year having been established on those six creations and the luni-solar six divisions and then completed in 365 days, was conveyed by the 'faculty of Abraxas' in the numbers of the name, after the mode of the mysteries. This name is Abraxas in Latin and Αβρασάξ in Greek,

A b r a x a s = 365
1 2 100 1 60 1 200

Such being the numeral value of the letters in Greek and Coptic, and therefore, still earlier, in Egyptian. Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, affirmed that Orpheus composed a poem of 365 gods one for every day of the year[284]. Justin Martyr puts the number at 360[285]. Both are numbers of the year, and both show the phenomenal foundations in the time reckonings. The Gnostics, says Irenaeus, make out the local positions of 365 heavens. They hold that their chief is Abraxas, and on this account the word contains in itself the numbers amounting to 365[286]. Lastly, the legends show that man was created in the likeness of the types belonging to the mythos at various stages of its evolution; and as, according to the Targum of Palestine, the Adamic man was created in the image of the Lord, with 365 nerves[287], the divine image was the solar god of the complete year of 365 days or divisions described as nerves. That is, Adam was formed in the likeness of Atum-Ra and of the Af-Ra, the sun of the three realms, the sixfold division of heaven and of the perfected year of solar time. This was not a primary but almost the final creation.

Here is another link with the Masonic six, the great seisor of the Irish Druids. Acacian is a title signifying a Mason, but not because άκακία [p.84] means innocence. The acacia (Mimosa nilotica of Linnaeus[288]) is the Masonic typical tree, the Nile name of which is sas (ses, or sesso wood), the same as the number 6 and the division of time by six. The cube sas or was was squared in acacia wood, as well as stone, on account of its hardness, as a figure of the sixfold foundation. In 'passing the veils' in the Masonic mysteries the candidate proceeds from the figure of six, the double triangle, and at the figure of ninethe triple trianglethe word is communicated by the companions. The Masonic north is the Void or Abyss. It appears to me that their temple of the heavens ranges from the heaven of the seven stars to that of the seven planets.

The sanctum sanctorum is a place of the seven, which are typified by a candlestick with seven branches. Here the initiate is shown the Ark of the Seven and of the Covenant; 'the Ark to build, the Covenant to Keep.' It is the same ark of the seven as that of the seven Rishis, the seven Hohgates, the seven companions of Arthur, the seven stars of the earliest circle and covenant made in heaven. Synesius observes that the Egyptian hierophants had κωμαστήια, which are arks concealing, as they say, the spheres[289]. The later planetary seven are illustrated by the seven steps and seven degrees of ascent. There are seven steps in the Scottish ritual of the degree called the 'Knight of Kadosh,' the names of which are chiefly Hebrew. Also, the ladder of seven rounds ascends from the Red Room, red being the colour of the goddess Ma, and of the nocturnal sun. Ne plus ultra is written at the foot of the ladder. This is considered the highest mystery. It was the top of attainment in relation to the later and superior ogdoad of gods consisting of the seven planetary gods and their manifestor, the 'Star (eight-rayed) of the Pleroma.' Both systems are combined in the account given by Celsus, preserved by Origen, who says:

'After this, Celsus desiring to exhibit his Learning in his treatise against us, quotes also certain Persian mysteries, where he observes:"These things are obscurely hinted at in the accounts of the Persians, and especially in the mysteries of Mithras, which are celebrated amongst them. For in the latter there is a representation of the two heavenly revolutions of this movement, viz., of the fixed stars, and of that which takes place among the planets, and of the passage of the soul through these." The representation is of the following nature:There is a ladder with lofty gates, and on the top of it an eighth gate. The first gate consists of lead, the second of tin, the third of copper, the fourth of iron, the fifth of a mixture of metals, the sixth of silver and the seventh of gold. The first gate they assign to Saturn, indicating, by the lead, the slowness of this star; the second to Venus, comparing her to the splendour and softness of tin; the third to Jupiter, being firm and solid; the fourth to Mercury, for both mercury and iron are fit to enclose all things, and [p.85] are money-making and laborious; the fifth to Mars, because, being composed of a mixture of metals, it is varied and unequal; the sixth of silver, to the Moon; the seventh of gold, to the Sun; thus imitating the different colours of the two latter." He next proceeds to examine the reasons of the stars being arranged in this order, which is symbolised by the names of the rest of matter. Musical reasons, moreover, are added and quoted by the Persian theology; and to these, again, he strives to add a second explanation connected also with musical considerations.'[290]

There are data, then, in all the different creations and points of departure which range from the motherhood of the seven elementaries to the final fatherhood established on earth and in heaven, as it was under Atum-Ra or in the second gnostic 'Hebdomad which surrounds the Father,'[291] the planetary seven represented by Iao-Sabaoth. The development, changes, and readjustments can all be traced according to the data yet extant. This was preserved by the Gnostics, amongst others of those who knew, the men who were supposed, by the Christian Idiotes, to be mere plagiarists and heretics that sprang up in the second century of the present era.

The Gnostics and Neo-Platonists brought on the whole matter with the connecting links. They have the primary ogdoad consisting of the Mother Sophia and the 'Inferior Hebdomad' of the seven elementaries who dwelt upon the mount of Am-Smen. 'This Mother they (the Gnostics) also call Ogdoad, Sophia, Terra, Jerusalem, Holy Spirit, and, with a masculine reference, Lord.'[292] Proclus also says: 'The Goddess Rhea is a Monad, Duad, and Heptad, comprehending in herself all the Titannidae.'[293] Valentinus maintained that the power of the seven who gave life to this world after the likeness of the first hebdomad was represented by Arrhetos, whose name is composed of seven letters (with one duplicate) to indicate the sevenfold nature of the one[294]. Arrhetos, the sevenfold, answers to Sebti (or Sut) and Sevekh, both of which names contain the number seven. There was a certain dyad, or twofold being, he said, who is inexpressible by any name, of whom one part should be called Arrhetos (that is ineffable), and the other Sige (Silence); this was the source of the Ogdoad.

Irenaeus, in his account of the theory of creation held by the Marcosians, says that 'Creation itself was formed through the mother by the Demiurge (as it were without his knowledge).' Next, 'They maintain that first of all the four elements, fire, water, earth, and air were produced after the image of the primary tetrad above, and that then if we add their operations, namely, heat, cold, dryness, and humidity, an exact likeness of the ogdoad is presented.'[295] The Gnostics also had the 'Superior Hebdomad' identified as the seven planetary [p.86] gods of the seven heavens of the god Iao, who, 'on this account they termed Hebdomas,' and his mother 'Ogdoas,' because she 'preserved the number of the first begotten and primary Ogdoad of the Pleroma.'[296] 'They affirm, moreover, that these seven heavens are intelligent, and speak of them as being angels;' and therefore they are superior to the non-intelligences of Space and Chaos, or the seven superseded gods of constellations. They taught that Ialdabaoth, the chief of the first hebdomad, who held his mother in contempt, became puffed up and boasted 'I am Father and God, and there is no one above me.' His mother, hearing him speak thus, cried out to him, 'Do not lie, Ialdabaoth, for the Father of all, the first Anthropos (Man), is above thee, and so is Anthropos, the Son of Anthropos.'[297] That is, the deity who was imaged in heaven as the masculine father, had superseded those gods who were born as children of the mother only, like Ialdabaoth and his fellows of the first hebdomad. The Son of Man, even on earth, was higher than the child of the divine genetrix. The Gnostics identified Jesus with the Horus of the hexagonal heaven, and said his name of six letters was arithmetically symbolical, and of a nature that was known to those who belonged to the Called[298]. Christus being a name of eight letters indicated the ogdoad, the elements of which were all contained in him.

For they had an eighth creation both divine and human. Irenaeus says, 'They affirm that man was formed on the eighth day. Sometimes they assert that he was made on the sixth day, and at others on the eighth; unless perchance they mean that his earthly part was fanned on the sixth day and his fleshly part on the eighth day; these two being distinguished by them.'[299] Plutarch, writing on the civil wars between Marius and Sulla, tells us that the Tuscan sages reckoned eight several kinds of men whose total time or lives was limited by the circuit of the Great Year[300]. These eight kinds of men correspond to the eight creations, and each had its animal or human type that culminated in the highest, called the Christ of the superior (planetary) hebdomad, and the crown of all. This was the gnostic Jesus of the eighth creation, the 8-rayed star of all the rest, who gathered together all things in himself; he who was the new Adam of the eighth day of creation, or of the eighth creation. There is evidence of this octave being attained in Egypt when the Seventy show it was in eight days that God created the world! This reckoning was continued by the Gnostics, whose divine man is the eighth in the series. 'The Eighth day,' says Barnabas, 'is the beginning of the other world. For which cause we observe the Eighth day with gladness, in which Jesus rose from the dead.'[301] This was the New Man of the eighth day, eighth creation, eight letters in his name, and eight rays to his star, [p.87] who, as the Gnostics show, was the outcome and fulfilment of the superior seven; the 'full-grown Man' of Paul, who had the 'measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ.'[302] The eight-rayed star that was the symbol of Assur in Assyria and Buddha in India is likewise the sign of Christ in the catacombs[303]. This was the sign of the youthful manifestor, the 'Star of the Pleroma' as the Gnostics called their mythical Christ. They explain the numeral value of the eight-rayed star which is the figure of the Christ because he was the manifestor of the seven spirits who each contributed to produce the perfect star of the godhead; the Horus, whose name in Egyptian means to go forth as a spirit, to emanate and manifest. Hence the Christ was designated the All, the Totum. The Christ of the Gnostics was what the Horus had become in Egypt ages on ages earlier; a manifestor in the realm of mind, the medium of a spiritual communication to men, the Christ of a power conceived to be intellectual beyond a mortal type. This conception followed the earlier observation of more palpable phenomena and the more primitive perception of power.

Further, Irenaeus says of the Gnostics:

'They next reckon up ten powers in the following manner. There are seven globular bodies which they call heavens, then that globular body which contains these, and which they name the eighth heaven, and in addition to these the sun and moon.' (Here there is an error apparently, as the spheres of the sun and moon were two of the seven.) 'These being ten in number they declare to be types of the invisible Decad which proceeded from Logos and Zoe. As to the duo-decad, it is indicated by the zodiacal circle, as it is called; for they affirm that the twelve signs do most manifestly shadow forth the duo-decad, the daughter of Anthropos and Ecclesia; and since the highest heaven, bearing upon the very sphere (of the seventh heaven), has been linked with the most rapid precession of the whole system as a check, and balancing that system with its own gravity, so that it completes the cycle from sign to sign in thirty years, they say that this is an image of Horus encircling their thirty-named mother. And then again, as the moon travels through her allotted space of heaven in thirty days, they hold that by these days she expresses the number of the thirty aeons. The sun also who runs through his orbit in twelve months and then returns to the same point in the circle, makes the duo-decad manifest by these twelve months; and the days as being measured by twelve hours are a type of the invisible duo-decad. Moreover, they declare that the hour, which is the twelfth part of the day, is adorned with thirty parts in order to set forth the image of the Triacontad. Also the circumference of the zodiacal circle itself contains 360 degrees (for each of its signs comprises thirty); and thus also they affirm that by means of this circle an image is preserved of that connection which exists between the twelve and the thirty.'[304]

They maintained that the Apostles were nothing more than a type of their own twelve aeons produced by Anthropos in conjunction with Ecclesia[305]. This statement is corroborated by Revelation, in which the Son of Man establishes the new temple of the heavens in conjunction with the twelve Apostles of the lamb (or ram); or the new heaven that is seen descending as 'the Bride, the Lamb's Wife'[306]: which twelve Apostles were founded some 2,400 years before the time supposed.


The two systems were combined in the double Meru of the Hindus, the first form of which is immediately beneath the moon. This in the early pre-planetary time was the region of the Siddhas or the Perfected. Sidh in Sanskrit means to be accomplished, fulfilled, effected, perfected, sata (Eg.) denotes the perfect. But the moon was the first step in the ladder above the mount this became the Siddhi-Sopana of the Buddhists the ladder of completion and success, at the summit of which is to be found the upper paradise attainable by those who are in possession of the eight Siddhas or potencies of the adept. In the Divine Pymander there are seven zones of the souls ascent, and then 'being naked of all the operations of harmony, it cometh to the eighth nature, having its proper power; and singing praises to the Father with the things that are. It heareth, also the powers that are above the eighth nature, singing praise to god in a certain voice that is peculiar to them.'[307] This is the summit of attainment for those who know how to be deified. 'Then in order they return unto the father and themselves deliver themselves to the powers, and becoming powers they are in god.' This heaven of the eight (and the height) is also spoken of when Tat says he would fain hear the Hymn of the Powers, that was uttered when he was 'in the Octonary.' The reply is that, 'as Pymander said by way of oracle to the Octonary, thou dost well, O son, to desire the solution of the Tabernacle, for thou art purified.' Tat was the lunar divinity in Egypt and Lord of Sesennu, the eighth region, or region of the eight, here called the Octonary. In this reduced phase Tat is addressed as if he were one of the initiated in the later mysteries, one of the perfected (the Siddhas), to whom the celestial allegory was made known in the eighth region at the top of attainment[308]. The Tower of Babel (i.e., the Babilu) was a form of the planetary ladder erected on a lofty base or pedestal which stood for the lower mount, and thus the dual Meru was represented by one erection. This mode of climbing the heavens was enacted in the Mithraic and other mysteries.

According to the present interpretation the cone of Silbury Hill was a form of the mount of earth, the lower Meru, and where it terminated was the beginning of Stonehenge as the planetarium. Hence the combination of the sun, moon, and Saturn found in the temple of Sidi (or Suti), as shown by the nineteen stones of the lunisolar cycle and the thirty stones of Saturn's cycle. The Arab astrologers make the eighth sphere to be that of the fixed stars. Over all they locate the seven seas of light, which are only another form of the seven divisions of the Nun (Eg.) or primordial water. In the Ptolemaic system the earth was central in the universe, it took the place of the mount; the planets ranged round at their respective heights in the same order as that of the Hindus. The stars were fixed in a 'sphere;' so was each planet; they were sphere within [p.89] sphere like the coats of an onion you could see right through to the outer one because they were 'crystalline'; each was moved by the friction of those beyond it; the ninth was said to cause the precession of the equinoxes; its axis being that of the ecliptic. A tenth was then added called the Primum Mobile; its axis being the equator and its extremities the poles of the heavens. The Chinese have a system of ten heavens, the ninth being the primum mobile, which carries with it the eight inferior strata; these are again surrounded by the tenth, called, by Choo-foo-tze, the hard-shell heaven[309]; and they also say the gods are ten, eternally tranquil and unmoved. The followers of Ptolemy ran the spheres up to the eleventh, called the imperial sphere, of which Caliope sings:

'Only to this Imperial sphere belong
The gods of Truth; for Saturn, Janus, I,
Jove and his Juno, are a fabled throng,
A mortal figment, mythic phantasy
Only to deck the poet's sprightly song
We served; and thus if more humanity
We gained of man, 'twas that his wit had given
Our names and natures to the stars of heaven.'[310]

The Mount Meru, with its seven steps, the Babel Tower of seven tiers, the pyramid of Saqqara, with its seven stages of ascent, was each in its way a form of the 'great World's Altar-Stairs,' by which men climbed heavenward; and the natural origin of the Buddhist Nirvana has to be sought by means of this series of ascents and succeeding steps in the physical heavens. Nirvana was not the conception of Buddha or anybody else; it is not identifiable as any one's idea or doctrine, but belongs to the mythical origins about which the modern student of religious dogmas and ideas literally knows nothing, who begins with this or the other 'Buddhist conception,' unwitting that it is an ultimate deposit, the last result in an extended series of prehistoric developments of primitive thought. All other methods of explaining the past in the present will soon be superseded by the evolutionary one, and those who cannot show us how the extant results of the past were led up to, must now retire as teachers who have had their day. Everything has been led up to, Nirvana included. When described as a locality this top of attainment is said to soar beyond the heaven of the Tushitas and others that were built on the physical foothold; which sufficiently identifies the nature of the ascent with the stairways and ranges of the various creations already traced. It was not, as some have asserted, the mere orbits of bodies in space that gave rise to the doctrine of the transmigration of souls, but this process of building up the heavens step by step according to the succeeding cycles of time; hence the highest heaven as the seventh was that of Saturn; hence also the various stages of [p.90] progression and attainment, and the series of migratory existences leading to the final place of rest, for the spiritually perfected, to be found in Nirvana. The eight stages leading up to Buddhahood and the eight stages of progress which conducted the Essenes up to their state of Elijahhood were likewise an outcome of this physical foundation, still determinable according to the gnosis of numbers. Migration and ceaseless revolution are the constant conditions of existence short of Nirvana, because the ascent was made from one stage or phase to a higher in a universe that is for ever turning round to form the various cycles of time and circles of being; and Nirvana is the antithesis of the migratory existences and rotatory turnings, as the region and the reign of rest upon the anti-cyclic summit. In the Egyptian Ritual the osirified deceased expresses the supreme felicity of his condition beyond death with the exclamation 'I exist!' 'I revolve!' It is said of Brahma, that being established within the Egg, 'he himself then revolves, causing existence,' as a visible manifestation[311]. The Buddhist Nirvana is a condition of rest without revolution; non-cyclic because it is above the region of visible change, the orbits and limitations, the births and deaths, and continual renewals of time. This top of attainment is the condition of being eternal; and, in relation to the visible spheres of ever-moving, never-resting life, its point of culmination is akin to the motion of the top that is perfected in an appearance of standing still. But the physical mould of Nirvana can be recovered; and only by the natural genesis can we interpret either the type or the doctrine. In a Mangaian chant it is said:

'Ina has reached No-land-at-all;
A sacred spot attained by few!'[312]

That was a primitive mode of expressing Nirvana which was modified but continued in India. In the legendary life of Gautama, Buddha is described as having to pass over the celestial water to reach Nirvana, which is the land of the bodhi-tree of life and knowledge. He was unable to cross from one bank to the other, but the spirit of the bodhi-tree stretched out its arms to him and helped him over in safety. By aid of this tree he attained the summit of wisdom and immortal life. It is the same tree of the pole and of paradise, all mythology through. The tree of the Guarani garden, the Hebrew Eden, the Hindu Jambudvipa is likewise the tree of Nirvana. This final application of the imagery proves its origin. The realm of rest was first seen at the polar centre of the revolving stars. It was in that region the Chinese placed the thirty-six Thtien-Kong-Sin or celestial spirits, who are the messengers of the supreme being the region round which the seven stars revolve as the Egyptian Ark of Souls, the Hepti-Hepti also signifying peace and the no. 7. By [p.91] aid of the mount, the tree, the ark, the early thought made its first ascent toward the heavenly country; and step by step the climbing was continued as the planetary heavens were established on the different cycles of time. Then, just as the celestial dome was taken indoors to become the astronomical ceiling of the ancient temple, so the imagery of heaven was made a part of the mental furniture, and Nirvana became subjective, abstract and indefinite. We can best restore the lost link between things sensible and the later thought, if instead of contemplating the Buddhist recluse sitting on the summit of his adeptship at the top of this life's attainment yearning for the vague Nirvana, the 'extinction of desire' or 'annihilation,' we think of him as turning to the one fixed centre and visible place of repose amid all the revolutions of time and change, and longing for the light and life prefigured by that spot of calm 'dim-pinnacled in the intense inane,' as type of the Eternal, where the weary spirit shall be no more bound or broken on the wheel of birth, of time and material existence, having attained that which is unchanging, untransitory, non-cyclical, therefore eternal; where, being prepared by its sheddings of the old human, elementary, egoistic, or other forms of selfhood, it passes through the opened gates of Nom, of exit, of no return, to be finally absorbed in the not-self of a nature that is perfect in purity and permanent in peace

'Where, at the centre of the Wheel, the Blest
Dwell in the place of everlasting rest.'*[313]

* 'Motionless Heart is thy name!' is said in a hymn to the god Horus[314].

Such are the unsubtilised matters of fact, the sum and substance of the kronian mythology; whilst astrology, theosophy, theology, eschatology, metaphysics, all originated in the astronomical allegory, not in any vague concept of the Infinite. The most consummate flower of their doctrinal developments can be traced back either to this rootage in physical phenomena or to the join where a new idea was grafted on the old stock, to grow an offshoot at a fresh point of departure. The various gods were created or impersonated as the heavens were built and the succeeding cycles of time were measured. In the theosophy of the past we find the 'One God' as the mother who takes a second character in the sister. A twofold god in the male Sut-Horus; also in the male-and-female twins (the latter being the third in series); a fourfold god of the four quarters; a fivefold god, Seb, of the fifth element and planet; a sixfold god in Ptah, in Anu, and Horus of the hexagon; a sevenfold god in Sevekh, or Heptaktis; an eightfold god in the youthful manifestor, the eight-rayed star of the pleroma; a ninefold circle of gods in the put; to these may be added the ten sephiroth of the Jewish Kabbalah. And [p.92] these kronidae were preceded by the primordial eight elementaries of chaos in space. Lastly, the phenomena are one in all the great primal phases. The typology is one in all the principal myths. The same celestial imagery may be seen to overshadow the chief high-places of the earth. The root of the matter is identical in all the mysteries or the scriptures, and therefore the inference of a common origin cannot be attributed to the mere desire of youth which seeks an over-hasty consummation in a premature unity. We find that each of the great types, with others, such as the fish and stone, not traced separately, is an essential part of a total system of mythology. The identity of the subject-matter is indisputable, and the question of origin resolves itself into one of unity from the mould of the beginnings or of unity attained in the end. The non-evolutionist may seek to explain this universality of the mythical types in accordance with his favourite doctrine of coincidence, and try to derive their final unity from endless diversity of origin, by means of the supposed psychical identity of the human race, and the sameness of external phenomena; but the laws of evolution teach us that an embryonic unity alone can account for universality of likeness. Moreover, evolution keeps its own record and shows the original unity in the different stages of development from the beginning to the end.





This page last updated: 24/04/2014