Contributions to the ETHNOLOGY of EGYPT

By PROFESSOR OWEN,
C.B., F.R.S., Honorary Member of the Anthropological Institute of London, etc.

[With Plates xviii, xix, xx, xxi.]

[Extracted from Journal of Anthropological Institute, vol. 4 (1875), pp. 223-254.]

To determine the local origin and physical characters of the race which initiated administrative government, ethics, religion, arts, and sciences in Egypt, and the period of such initiation, is an aim of more than ordinary interest in Anthropology. To obtain evidences thereon, acceptable to, or regarded as reliable by, cultivators of the science, has been amongst my pursuits during winter sojourns on the Nile.

Different opinions and beliefs have been mooted at different periods on these questions, from the time of the Von. Archdeacon Squire, who affirms that "Egypt was colonized about 130 years after the flood by emigrant Asiatics, descendants of Ham or Cham the son of Noah;"1 to the issue of the volume for 1871 of the "Journal of the Ethnological Society of London," in which a biologically eminent fellow member, who has himself visited Egypt, affirms the aborigines of the ancient civilised people of the country to have been of the physical type or pattern of the natives of Australia. "For," writes Professor Huxley, "although the Egyptian has been much modified by civilization, and probably by admixture, he still retains the dark skin, the black, silky, wavy hair, the long skull, the fleshy lips, and broadish alæ of the nose, which we know distinguished his remote ancestors, and which cause both him and them to approach the Australian and the 'Dashyu' more nearly than they do any other form of mankind."2

Facts supporting the above asserted knowledge of the distinguishing characters of the remote ancestors of the Egyptians will be acceptable.

The latest observations recorded on the race-characters of the ancient Egyptians are by Pruner-Bey, in 1861,3 mainly based on those of skulls. Since that date, other evidences of value in anthropology, and, as I deem, of a more instructive kind, have been discovered, chiefly by Mariette-Bey, Director of the Service of Conservation of the Antiquities of Egypt. The results of a study of these evidences, for the most part in the Khedival Museum at Cairo, I propose to submit, with some remarks, to the Anthropological institute.

They consist of "Portrait Sculptures," in the form of statues, [p.224] heads of sphinxes, and bas-relievos; chiefly of statues discovered in tombs, accompanied by hieroglyphic inscriptions revealing the name, condition, and usually the date of life-period in the individual; the latter being inferred from the name of the Phra or king in whose reign the individual had lived. In some instances, two or three successive Phras are recorded in relation to a deceased servant. Such royal "name-shields," when reading names of kings given in the Manethonian lists, become valuable testimonies to the truth of those lists, and give the dynasty in which the individual represented by the statue had lived and died.

In ascending the Nile from Cairo, one comes, about midway between that city and Beni-souef, upon one of the very old extant pyramids, or rather its nucleus; it is called the "false pyramid," or pyramid of "Meydoum." In the ancient graveyard, of which this royal cairn is time centre, a contiguous and humbler tomb was discovered. it contained two seated statues one of a prince, called Ra-Hotep, the other of a princess, or "relation of the king," called Nefer-t. They lived, as the hieroglyphic inscription yielding their names tells, in the reign of Pharaoh or Phra Snefrou, the last king of the third dynasty, and the predecessor of Cheops, the first of the fourth (according to Manetho), also the builder of the Great pyramid at Ghizeh. The photographs under exhibit (subject of plate iii), may enable the Institute to test, in some measure, the accuracy of the anthropological notes taken from the originals. I can vouch, from personal observations, for the opportunity of which I am indebted to Mariette-Bey, for the authenticity of these evidences, now in the "Musée d'Antiquités" at Boulak, in their bearings upon our science.

These statues, of hard calcareous rock, are sculptured in a bolder, more natural, style then the art was subsequently reduced to in relation to religious or sepulchral subjects.

The princess sits with her arms crossed beneath the bosom, the left hidden under the garment which clothes her from the neck to near the ankles; the right hand protrudes at the bosom-slit, and rests on the left arm.

The prince has the right arm similarly bent and plated, but the hand is closed; the left arm rests upon the left thigh, and holds what seems to be a roll, probably representing the papyrus, containing, perhaps, more or less of the Egyptian "burial service" or "ritual of the dead."

These statues are coloured; that of the male with a reddish ochre, of the tint, which indicates in all later representations the chocolate brown complexion of the Egyptian as contrasted with the yellow, representing the lighter complexion of the Syro- [p.225] Aramæan races—Assyrian, Philistine or Palestine people, nomad Arabsand still more contrasted with the black of the Berbers, Nubia, and Soudan Negroes; these strongly differentiated groups of mankind being so represented together in ancient Egyptian frescoes, of the time of Thothmosis III, which may be seen in the British Museum. As early as the Sixth Dynasty, certain soldiers serving in the Egyptian army were designated by the term always applied to the "negro", in to that of their lighter complexioned masters.

The statue of the female is coloured of a lighter tint than that of the male, indicating the effects of better clothing and less exposure to the sun. And here it may be remarked that the racial character or complexion is significantly manifested by such evidences of the degree of that some to individual exposure, the most favoured female of the harem of an Ashantee king, or a princess nearest in blond, in whatever degree protected from the outer influences on skin-colour, shows as deep and glossy a black as the king himself or his meanest slave. The primitive race—that of the ancient Egyptians is, perhaps, more truly indicated by the colour of the princess in these painted portrait-statues of a pair who lived more than 6,322 years ago,4 than by that of her scantily clad husband or male relative.

The brain-case of the male conforms to the type of the skull of the individual of the fourth dynasty, subsequently to be described (Plate xxi.). Horizontally, it is a full oval, the parietal bosses fully indicated; in vertical contour the front parietal part is little elevated, rather flattened than convex; the frontal sinuses are slightly indicated; the forehead is fairly developed, hut not prominent. The hair is close clipped, gives an appearance, probably deceptive, of it having naturally short, and crisp; but, as it afforded the material for the protective and ornamental wig, it must have been longer and more flowing than in the Negro race, to furnish the tiers of seemingly artificial curls in the wig of the male, sculptured with that head-gear in the photograph of No. 497, which I shall presently show. This character of length of hair is still more marked in the wig in which the princess (Plate xviii, fig. 2) has been sculptured, the nature of which is demonstrated in the well-preserved specimen of one of those protective coverings in the British Museum.5 The sexual character of difference of length of hair [p.226] in the primitive Egyptian race is significantly indicated in the statues of Nos. 497 and :367 in the museum at Cairo.

The face of Prince Ra-hotep (pl. xviii, fig. 1) shows a feeble depression between the forehead and the root of the nose; this feature is prominent, with a slight convex curve, of good medium proportions; the alæ not broad, but delicately modelled. The lips are fuller than in the majority of Europeans, but the mouth is not "prognathic." On the upper lip the moustache is indicated by a delicate line of black colour. This is not seen in portrait sculptures or pictures of a later period. The cheeks are not unduly prominent. The chin is well formed, but small or delicate. The ear is represented in a more natural position than at a later period, in the sculptures of which it is raised, conventionally as it seems, to an unnatural height above the auditory foramen. No skull of Egyptians at any period of their history has justified this singular departure from nature, the only one, it must be admitted, which we can charge against the sculptors of the middle and later Empires, and one to which the ancient artist of the third dynasty was not compelled. The body of the prince shows the characteristic squareness of the shoulders, still to be noted in the Fellaheen. The legs, especially the ancles, are relatively thick, with muscular "calves." He wears a simple necklace to which some small ornament is appended.

The features of the male (Plate xviii, fig. 2) conform in the main, or as to type, with those of the male, but show more delicacy and finish. The nose, in perfect proportions, is also slightly arched, the lips rather full, the chin is well turned but small. The eyebrows are more definitely marked than in the male.6 Above these her own hair is parted Madonna-wise, beneath the manifold long, slender ringlets of the voluminous wig, which is encircled above the brow in a jewelled tiara, the gems, coloured green and red, being set in a silver or white coloured band. She wears three necklaces, dark bordered with white, the third and lower one broader, and having suspended to it the series of (gold?) appendages, which is the type of the higher-class Egyptian necklace at the present day.

Woven tissues would seem to have been rare and costly at this period of Egyptian history. Instead of the turban-stuffs, the material of hair was economised for the wig. Princess Nefer-t is clad in a single light, sleeveless garment, suspended by shoulder-straps, and reaching to near the ankles. A narrow slit, continued from the neck to a point between the breasts, is the only bare part of the bosom. The Prince wears the simple kilt, the common clothing of all men of the ancient empire from the Phra downward.

[p.227]

Clothe Ra-hotep in ordinary modern morning costume, and he would pass "On Change" as less differentiated from the busy Europeans there than any descendant of the Hebrew race.

The princess, in full costume, would be an admired member of a fashionable "at home," and as little suggestive of distinction, much less inferiority, of race, from any of the fairest present, save in so far as her natural complexion might tell of a more southern birthplace.

And these are the people whom we are bidden, as Ethnologists, to regard as "Australiolds" by race; and, as children, were taught to believe were "descendants of Ham,"—degraded blacks!

I next exhibit two photographs of a statue in wood, about half the natural size (3 ft. 10 ins, high), erect, the right arm pendant, grasping the usual mortuary papyrus; the left arm bent, and holding the staff of authority of a priest or high official of the fourth dynasty. The kilt or petticoat reaches below the knees, the upper girting part is brought out and hangs as a free fold in front (Plate xx, figs. 1, 2, 3). The perfect modelling, easy natural pose, of this statue attracts the admiration of every beholder with the faculty of appreciating the true and beautiful in art. Of it Mariette writes: "Rien de plus frappant que cette image en quelque sorte vivante d'un personnage mort il y a six mille ans. La tête surtout est saisissante de vérité. Le son côté la corps tout entier a ete traite avec un sentiment profond de la nature. Nous no possedons certes pas do portrait plus authentique et plus parlant."7

It is impossible to resist the impression that you see the likeness of the very man himself—nothing conventional affects the features; they are those of a well-fed man of business, firm, but just. He is without his wig; the hair, as usual, closed-cropped or shaved. The brain-case shows the same type as that of the preceding statue; it is a little broader, and more convex lengthwise, above; containing a rather better developed organ. The nose is less aristocratic; the concave predominating over the convex terminal part of the outline, but the alæ are not broader than in the Caucasian type; the lips are rather less prominent or fleshy than in Ra-Hotep; they are firmly closed; the chin is more developed, and somewhat deeper. There is no trace or indication of moustache or beard; all seems close-shaved. The ears, again, are in their true position. He wears no necklace or other ornament. The general character of the face recalls that of the northern German; he might be the countryman of Bismarck. Without corpulence, the [p.228] well-nourished frame and breadth of chest make the square shoulders his race less distinct or less marked than in most of the statues. The legs are stout, with well-marked gastrocnemii (Plate xx, fig. 1).

In the same mausoleum at Sakkara, Mariette found a statue, in wood, of a female, of half the natural size, seemingly from its style, by the same artist or one of equal merit. The arms, which, as in the male, were separately carved and artificially attached to the trunk, are here wanting, and only the head and torso are preserved. In this statue the nose is straighter and the lips less prominent than in Nefer-t; the eyes are larger or more open than in the male wooden statue. The "alæ nasi," narrowish rather than broadish. The countenance combines sweetness of expression with a certain sadness or care-worn character. She is represented with the usual large and complex wig of ringlets. (The photograph of this statue was shown.)

Both these wooden statues were originally coated with a thin stucco to receive the colours of the living model, which have faded or crumbled away.

I next exhibit a photograph of a half-size statue in grey granite of an individual seated, the forearms resting on the thighs, the right with the hand grasping the papyrus, the left with the palm prone and fingers outstretched. Of this statue it may be said that at no period did the head receive greater breadth of treatment: there is no conventionality, but perfect nature. The eyes well opened; the nose slightly turned up, with "broadish" alæ, the mouth large, but with lips not too thick; the cheeks full, and the general expression shrewd, but benevolent. With English costume and complexion, this Egyptian of the ancient empire would pass for a well-to-do sensible British citizen and rate-payer. He wears his wig, in a character recalling that of a puisne judge; the curls of which are, however, not confined to the side lappels and margin, but conveniently range in tiers over the whole surface. On the somewhat thick neck a broad necklace is indicated. The knees are modelled with great care and anatomical accuracy; we have again the thick type of leg and ancle. Notwithstanding the rarity and value of the material, which must have been brought from a distance of some hundreds of miles, the granite has been painted like the statues in limestone and wood, and Mariette remarks. "Malgré les cinquante ou soixante siecles qui la separent de nous, elle a conserve une fraicheur de couleur vraiment etonnante.”

The last sculptural evidence (which by means of photography I now submit) of the physical characters of the Egyptians of the [p.229] ancient empire is that of Phrah Cephren himself, the builder of the second pyramid of Ghizeh.

In 1852, Mariette, subsidised by the Duke de Luynes, proceeded to excavate round the great Sphinx at Ghizeh, and discovered the Temple, in relation to the great Cairn or Pyramid-tomb of Cephren, with indications of ceremonial worship of the Sphinx, under the name Hor-em-Khu (Armachis of the Greeks). The temple is chiefly constructed of enormous blocks of alabaster and granite. It is the sole (visible) example of the religious architecture of Egypt, of the period of the Pyramids; it is, at present, as I explored it, known only by part of the roof, and the massive walls exposed by the excavations sunk into some of its chambers.

In the middle of the grand chamber was a well, and in it has been cast, during some revolutionary tumult or invasion, perhaps by the Hyksos, the royal statues. They were seven in number, all of Cephren, two of them perfect. Of these I exhibit a photograph of the best, of the life-size (Plate xx, fig. 4). The mutilations are confined to the forepart of one leg and forearm. The head and features are perfect. The material is "diorite", the most intractable of the rarer minerals of Egypt, harder than granite or serpentine.

The king is seated in the hieratic attitude, which afterwards seldom varied. Nude to the waist; thence extends the kilt, of finely plicate tissue, which terminates in a point between the knees. On the head is the "claft" or royal head-dress, backed by the hawk with outstretched wings. The throne is a cube, or seat, with a flat back, and the side-supports or arms are formed of standing lions. Between the fore and hind paws of the lion rise, in high relief, the graceful stems of the ancient papyrus. The king extends one hand, resting on the thigh; the other holds the usual roll. The royal legend, cartouche, and banner is engraved upon the plinth of the statue on each side of the feet. The legend, in hieroglyphics of antique simplicity, is repeated on the back part of the monument.

The extreme antiquity of these sculptures is now recognised by the best Egyptologists, and testifies, unequivocally, to the perfection of this Egyptian art, at the epoch of the Pyramids. They have not the severe elegance of the later statues, are more robust, or massive, manifest a bolder or more vigorous chisel, which has been nowise checked by the hardness of the material.

The head is plainly a portrait; the trunk, or torso, is soberly modelled, but in anatomical truth equal to any work by Michael Angelo. The arms and legs, above all, exemplify the capacity of the artist to discern and reproduce the truth in Nature. If [p.230] these statues of the third and fourth dynasties fail, in idealised beauty transcending the structural conditions of the human frame, such as is seen in the works of Phidias and Praxiteles, they indicate, nevertheless, the progressive rise in the most difficult of arts, through antecedent series of generations. If the attitude be simple, almost to stiffness, the small amount injury sustained by the brutal overthrow, shows how well such attitude lent itself to lasting preservation of its subject. It is the same in all the statues recovered from this temple. They supply the philosophy of history with a new character, demonstrating that at the period when Kephren or Shafra adorned his temple with sculptured images, although the artist had risen, as a portrait sculptor, to a stage which has not since been surpassed, Egypt already bore the mark of that slow sacerdotal blight, or chilling influence, which petrifies everything belonging to it—the formulas of art, as well as the formulas of creeds.

But this did not extend to the individual lineaments of the king; and such show the same high human type common to all the sculptural evidences, near a hundred in number, each with well marked individuality, which demonstrates the race-characters of the ancient Empire of Egypt. An air of calm, self-satisfied superiority pervades the physiognomy of Phra Kephren: a broad, square brow surmounts the greatly-arched brows, free from frown. The nose is straight, of due proportions; the nostrils and "thinnish" alæ delicately moulded, the lips are less prominent than in the earlier sculptural examples of the ancient race; the malar bones squarely but not too prominently developed; the mouth and apparently the chin are as in the advanced European races; but from the chin depends the conventionally trimmed beard of royalty.

In assigning the period of 6109 years, from the present date, to the second monarch of the fourth dynasty, I adapt the conclusions of the distinguished and devoted explorer in evidences, who has already added the most inclusive ones, in support and vindication of the chronology of Manetho.

The happy discovery, in the present century, of the art of deciphering and translating the hieroglyphic inscriptions, whereby the ancient Egyptians surpassed all peoples in their care to secure imperishable records of their annals, has afforded sure grounds for an expansion of our ideas of the antiquity of Man in his advanced social status, in harmony with the ever-accruing evidences of his ruder pre-historic conditions of existence.

Of such primeval race, in relation to the ancestry of the ancient Egyptians, there is a curious concordance between the [p.231] earliest and latest hypotheses, quoted at the commencement of the present contribution to the problem. Both ascribe the origin of its subjects to the lowest forms of humanity now known. At least, I find the "descendants of Ham" to be held by the adopters of the Archdeacon's view to have been Negroes, such as are now spread over Africa, and they came to Egypt from Asia.8 In Professor Huxley's hypothesis, the "remote ancestors" may be inferred to be autochthons, and the "probable admixture" to be due to immigration of, perhaps, a higher race from another locality, or other localities.

In the present century, an accomplished ambassador from this country to the "Sublime Porte," after some just and striking remarks on the ruins and remains of Ancient Egypt, which he had visited and illustrated, writes:—

"The ancient inhabitants of Egypt, by whom such works were performed and from whom Greece received instruction, bore the same crisped and curled hair which now distinguishes the negro, whom they likewise resembled in stature and complexion." "How is it, then," the author asks, "that the present race of negroes, dwelling in the same continent, are deemed by many Europeans as little superior to the brutes, when we have such proofs of the ability and cultivation of their elder brethren?" Sir Robert also finds an answer to his question, in the hypothesis of admixture. "Unfortunately the present inhabitants of Egypt, a mixed breed descended from various ravagers of the country, in whom little or none of the original blood remains, have been vulgarly considered as the legitimate descendants of the Egyptians of old; and thus, from want of a proper discrimination, the Negro has been robbed of the fame so justly his due."9

With the physiognomy of the African negro we are familiar. That of the "Australian type" is less known. I, therefore, avail myself of the permission of the brave explorer of New Guinea, Signor Luigi M. D'Albertis, to submit, in plate xix, copies of [p.232] photographs, which he took whilst in Australia, of a male native of the Swan-creek tribe on that continent.

The Anthropologist adopting, by faith, the Australian dictum, as the Theologist the negro dogma, may exercise, comparing plate xviii with plate xix, the speculative faculty in trying to account for the obliteration, in the subjects of the first, of the simial characters of depressed bridge and broadened alæ of the nose exemplified in plate xix. How the beetled brow became reduced, and the depression it overhangs in the Australian (xix. fig. 1) became filled up, in the Egyptian (plate xviii) is another problem. The vertical line dropped from the nose-tip in the Australian touches the lower lip; the alveolar "prognathism" to which this is due has to be reduced, in the ascensive course, to Egyptian "orthognathism," which is as decided as in average Europeans in the subjects I have selected from the Fourth Dynasty in plate xx.

Materials for comparison of the hair in Australians and ancient Egyptians are scanty. The "wig" in the British Museum negatives the negro "crisped and curled" character, as it does the Australian "raven-blackness". It is glossy, of a brown or dark auburn colour. I should hardly call it "silky," as that term is applied to certain varieties of hair in our own race. The wavy or largely curled hair of the Australian is rather coarse or stiff than silky. But whence did the ancient Egyptians derive their habit of shaving or close-cropping the hair? If we are to seek for a remote ancestral source, we must go to the Andaman Isles instead of Australia for shaving bipeds. Neither race of savages practise circumcision. Common sense repudiates the notion of the necessity of inheritance in relation to such operations.

Head-shaving, like circumcision, was practised by the ancient Egyptians in order to remove or diminish inconveniences due to climate. The cause of climate being unknown, and the effects, or climatal influences, such as to suggest ideas of omnipotence in the Causer, the secondary effects upon the thinker might be held to be the mode of command to which he paid obedience by the practices of removing unessential troublesome parts of his body. There is no evidence or indication that the ancient Egyptians practised circumcision or shaving by direct, supernatural injunction, or that they adopted the practice from a more ancient race so miraculously favoured. There is evidence, good and acceptable, that the Egyptians did practice both circumcision and abstinence from pork, centuries before slave-labour was availed of by a Thotmes and a Rameses.

Chert chipped to an edge, or flint-flakes struck off by percussion, being the ordained material for excision of the prepuce, as for the abdominal cut in mummifying, [p.233] the finding of flint knives in Egypt requires collateral evidence of the reign or dynasty in which they were made and used, or proof of previous manufacture, before they can apply to the question of race anterior to historical life in that country. The use of flint and stone tools ranged there over Thirty Dynasties—a period of from 8,000 to 4,000 years. The best collection of this Egyptian manufacture is at Turin; but the authorities of the museum refrain from rushing to conclusions on such ground as to the remote ancestry of the subjects of the present. Before quitting the comparison of the physical characters of such subjects with those of people alleged to represent the ancestral type, I would ask attention to the limbs of the ancient statues.

Slender legs, with feebly developed gastrocnemial muscles, characterise the Australian race. Mitchell exemplifies this feature in the subjects, afforded by natives of the Bogan tribes, of plate 21 of his instructive work.10

The headless statue of a functionary, from a tomb of the Fourth Dynasty, No. 35, in the British Museum, serves to show the contrast of crucial development between the ancient Egyptian and the Australian. This contrast is repeated in all the statues of the Museum at Boulak. It is not exaggerated in the famous wooden figure (plate xx, fig. 1). The truthful modelling of every part of that chef-d'ouvre of primeval sculpture, guarantees the exactitude of the proportions of the both relatively and absolutely, muscular legs. Mariette, without any reference to questions of race, especially notes it.11

Once has only to glance at the Fellaheen working the "shadoof," or the primitive swing bucket, along the banks of the Nile, to see the retention of this "nervous" type of limb, through well-developed and well-worked muscle and tendon, bequeathed to them by their remote ancestors.

With these remarks, suggested by a comparison of the physical characters, other than osseous, of the ancient Egyptians, and of bipeds of the australioid type, I proceed to note those of the skull in the same people, so far as they bear upon the questions of affinity of descent.

It may sound strange, the opinion or belief that Anthropology [p.234] has, hitherto, possessed no undoubted evidence of the osteological character of the ancient empire. Even the evidence I am about to adduce is open to the attack of a sceptic. I did not myself extract the skulls from previously un-meddled with tombs of the time of the Fourth and Fifth Dynasties. But my faith in the donor, Mariette-Bey, the most persevering and successful of explorers of the oldest tombs of Sakkarah, encourages me to expect, from fellow-anthropologists, the same confidence in the age of the two skulls about to be described, respectively marked "IV Dynastie" and "V Dynastie," by the hands of their discoverer and donor. The skulls I intend to present, in his name, to the British Museum. The one from a middle class individual, who died in the reign of a Pharaoh of the Fourth Dynasty, is the subject chosen for the profile-view, life-size, by the gifted artist, Ford, in plate xxi.

Perhaps the most extensive series of skills of inhabitants of the land of Egypt is that preserved in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia. This series is entered in Meig's "Catalogue of Human Crania" in that Museum, under the head, "XI. Nilotic Race", which follows "X. Berber Race." The first sub-series is of "Ancient Theban Egyptians". The skulls are thirty-four in number, and are stated to have been derived from the Theban catacombs, "the Catacombs of El-Gourna, near Thebes," etc. El Gourna, and other parts of the environs of Tabe, were seats of interments of mummified bodies of dwellers of the vast city during a period of three thousand years.

The oldest may be referable to the twelfth dynasty, but there is no evidence of the precise period in which lived any of the individuals affording the skulls of Egyptians in the Museum of Philadelphia. Another series of Morton's cranial evidences are stated to be "from the ancient tombs of Ghizeh," but without any data of the age or period of such places of interment.

Ghizeh and Sakkara were huge graveyards, north and south of Memphis, receiving the mummified remains of the inhabitants of that city from the date of the Pyramids to that of the Ptolemaic dynasty. The sarcophagus No. 8, for example, in the Musée d'Antiquités at Boulak, is of a priest, named Ankh-Hapi, who lived, according to Mariette-Bey, "probablement sous l'un des premiers Ptolemées." ("Notice," etc., p. 63.) So, likewise, at Sakkara, the graveyard to the south of Memphis, skulls may be obtained from mummies and tombs belonging to periods ranging from 4000 to 300 years B.C. The mummies of two generations, named Ja'ho (in the Greek, Taachos), who held commands in the [p.235] Egyptian army under the earlier Ptolemys, were obtained, with their sarcophagi,12 from the burial-well of the family tomb at Sakkara.

Not any of the tombs or sepulchres at Thebes are, demonstrably, of any antiquity higher than that of the eleventh dynasty, about 3000 B.C. Those which afforded all the mummies and skulls of determined date are subsequent to the expulsion of the Syro-Aramæans from Lower Egypt, and range from 1700 B.C. to the Ptolemaic period. No skull from Thebes, or its environment, El Gourna, Medinet Abou, Karnak, etc., could be depended upon, or throw any light upon the cranial characteristics of the founders of the Egyptian civilization. The oldest skulls are to be looked for at "Harabat-el-Madfouneh,"the most probable locality of the ancient Thinis, the seat of government vi the first and second dynasties (5000 B.C.)—to the ruins, near which village, of the Temple and oracle of Butos,13 the Greeks gave the name of Abydos, and where probably the remains or tombs of Osiris himself may be found.

Pruner Bey's "Observations", made on M. Prisse's collection, which, with the exceptions of two skulls from Memphis, were from Thebes, are inadequate to support, a sure conclusion on cranial characters, as to the original race of the Egyptians, or of any prior to the intercourse of the XIV-XVII Dynasties with the neighbouring Nubians after their expulsion by the Hyksos in "Lower Egypt."

Of the two skulls, certified by Mariette-Bey to be, one from a family-tomb of the Fourth Dynasty, the other from one of the Fifth Dynasty, I subjoin the following table of admeasurements (see next page):

The figures of the natural size, by Ford, of the skull of the male of the fifth dynasty, will preclude the need of verbal description.

It is intermediate in character between the two skulls of which Pruner-Bey gives reduced views, as illustrating respectively his "type fin" and "type grossier."

Plate xxi may in some degree aid in following and appreciating the contrasts presented by the skulls of ancient Egyptians and Australians.

Upwards of 160 osteological specimens of aborigines of Australia and Tasmania in the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, Nos. 5,184-5,345 inclusive, are described in the catalogue of that part of the collections, 4to, pp. 805-830. With these I have compared the skulls of the same people in the British Museum. The cranial characteristics may be summed up as follows—cranium narrow, with contracted and retreating

[p.236]

"Admeasurements of skulls of ancient Egyptians, from tombs at Sakara, and of an Australoid."

* Separated from the lambdoidal suture by a "wormian bone," 8mm in diameter.

[p.237] forehead; thick and prominent superorbital ridge, continued across the glabella and overhanging the deep set, small and slightly prominent nasals. The sides of the calvarium slope away from the sagittal elevation; sutures less dentated than in higher races; the alisphenoid narrow, and the squamosal usually closely approximated to the frontals, if it does not direct particulate therewith; frontal sinuses seldom developed; malar bones small, but tumid or prominent, and often rugged. Cranial index 70 to 75, more commonly nearer the lower figure. A well-marked characteristic is the large proportional size of the molars, premolars, and canines, but more especially of the molars, and the almost constant distinction of the two external fangs of those teeth in both upper and lower jaws.

The obtuse thick conical form of the crown of the canine, with a long and strong fang, and the minor loss of size in m 3 as compared with m 2 and m 1, are pretty constant characteristics of the Australian-Tasmanian skulls.14 (See Pl. xxi, fig. 3.)

Considerations of cost forbid the addition of a plate of a type-skull of an Australian to compare, or rather contrast, with that of the ancient Egyptian (Plate xxi, figs. 1. and 2.) But the following comparison may be tested or appreciated in reference to the figures of such typical Australian skull in my "Anatomy of Vertebrates," vol. ii, figs. 368, 369, 370, and 396, giving side, base, and front views, with a vertical section showing the proportionally thick cranial walls, in which, however, skulls of African negroes resemble those of Australians. This skull, No. 3,304, is of a male Australian of the "Western Port tribe", and "presents, irrespective of any artificial distortion, the lowest character of any Roman skull in the Museum."15 The third series of admeasurements in the "Table," p. 236, exemplify the greater proportional capacity of the brain-case of the ancient Egyptians; it has expanded in height and breadth in a greater degree than in length; and the chief expanse is in the fore part of the frontals, giving a more vertical and less receding contour from the glabella to the vertex. In both crania the length exceeds the breadth, but to term the skulls on that account "dolicocephalic," and to use that term of art in order to predicate of community of race of the ancient Egyptians and Australians, is to make it a weapon in the service of error. The length of the [p.238] Australian cranium equals that of some Scandinavian skulls of Retzius' "brachycephalic" type, but this latter term mainly signifies that the cerebral hemispheres are relatively broader than in the Australian; the difference of breadth is less in the Egyptian. The vertex in profile is less convex in the ancient Egyptian than in the Australian skulls. The calvarium is flatter; but this is due to the greater vertical development of the anterior and posterior cerebra lobes; uplifting corresponding parts of their bony covering. When the middle lobes, also, gain in vertical extent, as in the brains of a Shakespeare and Walter Scott, the contour regains the curve shown in the Australian. If a term of art were devised to signify such arched form, it might be predicated, like "dolicocephalic" of extremes of cranial development. The alisphenoid in the ancient Egyptians has the same extent of union with the parietal as in most European skulls. There is no approach to, or indication of, the Australian, quasi simial, peculiarity in the low development and changed connexions of the alisphenoid. As little does the ancient Egyptian skull show the glabellar protuberance, with the abrupt and deep indent at the root of the nose, associated with a like physiognomical feature in the Australian. The upper border of the orbit, in this low race, is thick and rounded, in the Egyptian it is neat and sharply defined, as usual in the higher races. The Egyptian malar bone is quadrate without special protuberance on its surface, its vertical breadth is also greater than in the Australian.

Unknown and scarce conceivable as are the conditions which could bring about a conversion of the Australian into the ancient Egyptian type of skull, the influences of civilization and admixture would be still more impotent in blotting out the dental characteristics of the lower race. The size of crown and multiplication of fangs are reduced in the ancient Egyptian to the standard of  Indo-European or so-called actual highly civilised races. The last molar has the same relative inferiority of size (Pl. xxi, fig. 2.) The crowns of the teeth are found much and evenly worn in mainly ancient Egyptian skulls, and the incisors seem to have more fore-and-aft breadth in such; but it is not greater than the incisors of Europeans would present in sections of the crown at a corresponding part. It is not, as has been supposed, an Egyptian peculiarity. The characters of the skulls of the individuals of the Fourth, and Fifth Dynasties are repeated in many Egyptian ones of undetermined age, with minor modifications occasionally exceeding those exemplifying in the reduced views given by Pruner-Bey, of his "type-tin" and "type-grossier."16 In no [p.239] instance is the norma occipitalis "sharply pentagonal." The series of Australian skulls which I have studied in reference to the present comparison offer no corresponding variations from their type.17

Food, mode of obtaining it, bodily actions, muscular exertions, mental efforts stimulating and governing such acts, vary comparatively little in Australian tribes. The low social status, concomitant sameness, and contracted range of ideas, the comparatively limited variety in the whole series of living phenomena, from childhood to premature age, of human communities of the grade of native Australians and Tasmanians, have governed the conformity of their low cranial organization.

A nation, governed administratively, with priestly and military castes, functionaries, hydrostatic engineers, land-surveyors, mummifiers, architects, artists, scribes, jewellers, weavers, and other handicraftsmen, agriculturists, fishers, fowlers, etc., may be expected to leave cranial evidences of the varieties in force and kind of their brain-actions and developments, such as skulls from cemeteries of similarly advanced people, invariably present.

Taking the sum of the correspondence notable in collections of skulls from Egyptian grave-yards as a probable indication of the hypothetical primitive race originating the civilised conditions in cranial departure from the skull-character of such race, that race was certainly not of the Australioid type, is more suggestive of a northern Nubian or Berber basis. But such suggestive characters may be due to intercourse or "admixture" at periods later than Thirteenth Dynasty; they are not present, or in much less degree, in the skulls, features, and physio- [p.240] gnomies of individuals of from the Third to the Twelfth Dynasties.

Failing to get physical evidence in support of the hypothetical "negro" or "Australioid" origin of the ancient Egyptians, it may be asked if there be any psychical clue to guide us through the dark labyrinth of their pre-historic past.

In the British Museum is a fresco painting of an ancient Egyptian fowler, who has glided in his light boat through the tall papyrus reeds and lotus stems to a swampy locality, the haunt of wild-fowl. There he kills by a stick, which he is in the act of throwing at the startled flock. The instrument calls to mind the "boomerang" in its use, but is unlike it in shape; it seems to be a heavy, longish, rounded tree-branch or club, slightly bent in opposite directions; it may have been less effective than the flatter weapon, bent at the angle which insured its curved and retrograde course through the flight of scared birds, as deftly flung by the Australian native. But, if the resemblance had been perfect and the old Egyptian convicted of the "boomerang"—is the hasty picking up a stick, accidentally so shaped, to fling at a flock of birds unexpectedly flushed, followed by observation of its unlooked-for course, suggesting repetition of the experiment, so profound and complex an operation as must needs be acquired by inheritance—by derivation from the race that, once upon a time, was blessed by an individual with a brain equal to availing himself of such accident! I have elsewhere remarked:—"We know not the size of brain in the Melanian inventor of the throwing-stick or that of the deductive observer of the properties of the broken branch bent at the curve or angle of the boomerang. Such benefactors of their race were, perhaps, as superior to ordinary Australians in cerebral development as the analogous rare exceptions in intellectual power have been found to be among Europeans."18 But I cannot use the fact of an ancient Egyptian throwing a stick to kill wild-fowl as a satisfactory or sufficient proof of his descent from a "remote ancestor" of Australian type.

I once showed to Samuel Johnson, fulminating: "Savages are the same everywhere, sir!" and to the dictum: "all civilised peoples were antecedently savages," the "Institute" need not trouble itself as to the locality where the primitive condition of humanity still prevails whence Egypt derived its first advance. Any member might arbitrarily make his choice.

There is a dark-skinned race with black wavy hair, skull longer than broad, having the mammalian character of "fleshy lips" and one, common to many bipeds, of broadish nasal alæ,[p.241] who, by the discoverers of their islands and the early settlers, were called "savages," and who now elect and return representatives of their own race to the Parliament of New Zealand. The Australioids have not yet advanced in New South Wales to that privilege. Admixture and contact with civilisation, instead of modifying, seems to be extirpating such alleged forefathers of the ancient Egyptians. When knowledge is predicated of the distinguishing characteristics of these "remote ancestors," and we ask on what that knowledge is founded, the authoritative reply, to the effect that "they were an Australioid race," and "we know" that characters of such race, is not satisfactory. What signs of thought, of mind, underlying advance, and comparable to all little step in the rise to civilisation can be discovered in Australioids may be more acceptable to those who are free to exercise judgment. After diligent quest, I find only the following worthy of submitting to the "Institute" in relation to the present subject.

The "Board" for "Protection of the Aborigines of Australia" has collected the most reliable evidence extant on any advance, or steps in civilisation, made by that race prior to colonisation or admixture. They were and are grouped in "tribes" or primary divisions, commonly related to a favourite locality; and certain tribes are again divided, such secondary groups of individuals being indicated by a visible symbol or "totem,” commonly of some animal. The "Mount Gambier tribe," e.g., is divided into the "Kumite" and the "Krokee" family. Every man is either the one or the other; and by one added syllable, "gor," for female, every woman of the tribe is either a "Kumitegor" or a "Krokeegor." Now, the step in advance which I note as such, is one that appears to rest upon observation by the natives of the evils of breeding "in and in." A Kumite must marry a Krokeegor; a Krokee must marry a Kumitegor. Marriage within the sub-tribe is prohibited.

In some tribes the two primary divisions are further divided, resulting in four classes, distinguished by class-names, on which the laws of marriage and descent are founded. There are also tribes in which such classes are again subdivided, and these again are distinguished by "totems," such as "emu," "opossum," "blacksnake," etc., also mainly in relation to restriction of inter-sexual selection.

The able secretaries of the "Board of Protection" etc., to whom ethnology is indebted for the above facts, have drawn up and distributed "tables" and "questions" for facilitating the acquisition and record of "class-names," customs or marriage and descent," etc., and for determining the ethnology of any [p.242] native word expressive of kinship, "totem," or class-name.19 It is admitted that some migratory tribes use neither the one nor the other—seem not to have advanced to the "Mount Gambier" stage of progress.

But small as this contribution may be, it does bear on the relation of Egyptian civilisation to an alleged Australioid source. The inscription on the plinth of Nefer-t's statue, e.g., calls her "sister" of Ah-hotep: just as Isis, the mother of Horus, was "sister" of his father Osiris. The marriage within this "incestuous" degree was characteristic of the Egyptians, at least of the higher and royal families, down to the dynasty of the Ptolemies, and contributed doubtless to their degeneration. In this respect the Australians have the superiority.

Passing to later periods of Egyptian History, ethnology is next concerned in obtaining evidences bearing upon the question of the race of the nomad invaders and conquerors of Lower Egypt, known as the Hyksos or Shepherd Kings. Their capital, or chief residence, was in a good strategical position in the Delta20 commanding the entry into the fertile valley, by the isthmus, along which they themselves had penetrated to Egypt. This city, Tanis, San, Zoan of the Old Testament, now indicated by shapeless mounds, has yielded much valuable additional evidence of the condition of Lower Egypt during the 500 years in which it was governed by shepherd-kings. It seems that they adopted the architecture, the arts, the writing, and much else, of the more advanced race whom they had partially subdued or expelled. They enlarged and embellished, by means of native Egyptian artists, the "Great Temple" founded in the Sixth and finished in the Twelfth Dynasty. They added the "dromos", or avenue leading to the pylon of this temple, after the characteristic Egyptian fashion, viz., by a series of sphinxes, of colossal bulk. The photographs of two of these sphinxes which I now exhibit, show, as do many such of later dynasties, the likeness of the individual king of the period, in the human head of the sphinx, which here is of a Hyksos king, whose name or cartouche is carved upon the granite body of the lion, the head being grandly and artistically set off by the name of the associated king of beasts.

No ethnologist cognizant of the similarly sculptured representations of the Assyrian monarchs, borne by the body of the bull, or of the lion, can fail to recognise the earlier answerable bust of the shepherd-king as being a modification, coarser or [p.243] ruder, of the same race. The beetling brows, prominent cheek-bones, broad arched nose, thick-lipped, sensual mouth, more abundantly developed beard and whiskers, an expression of severity, sinking, in these older, earlier evidences of the Aramæan race, to a brutal strength of expression—all betray the origin of the nomad wanderers, wealthy by only in flocks and herds, who, following in the wake of such of their predecessors as Famine had driven, from time to time, to seek sustenance in the settled cultivated land of Egypt, after troubling the rightful monarchs of the thirteenth and fourteenth dynasties, at length succeeded in expelling the fifteenth dynasty from the Delta, and in settling themselves upon so much of the fertile Lower Egypt as included the ancient city of Memphis. Prior to this invasion, Egypt had tamed and bred the wild ass of the desert, but knew not the horse or the dromedary. The possession of these quadrupeds by the Asiatic nomads may have assisted in their conquest. Both horse and dromedary rapidly multiplied in the fertile land. The expelled kings of the old race, meanwhile, maintained themselves in Upper Egypt, and developed Tape or "Taba," their chosen capital, afterwards Hellenised by the Greeks into Thebes. They contracted alliances and intermarriages with the chiefs of Nubia; and, after continuous border warfare on land, and on the river, finally succeeded, under Amosis, first king of the eighteenth dynasty, in expelling the "vile brood of shepherds", as Manetho calls them.

A significantly instructive account of the victorious conclusion of the last campaign is recorded in the mausoleum of the chief commander under Amosis. We are indebted to Chabas for its translation. The last act of the campaign was the capture of Avaris, near the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, whence the fugitive Hyksos were pursued to the confines of Palestine. But the centuries of their sovereignty had been attended by immigrations, and the settlers, who had multiplied on fertile tracts of the Delta, did not wholly quit their cultivations. They remained and submitted to the new, or rather the returned old, masters.

Exploring, on my first visit to Egypt, the sections of the desert exposed by the cuttings of the Suez Canal, then in progress towards completion, I was struck with the marked difference in complexion, features, and hirsute development, of certain more robust, stronger-framed navvies or labourers, as contrasted with the more numerous bands of the ordinary Fellaheen or Egyptian type. I was informed that the stronger race, some with reddish hair and fresh tint, were from the vicinity of the Lakes Menzaleh, and from villages extending to the fertile tract supposed to have been the "land of Goshen." The features of the [p.244] shepherd-king were, in the main, those of several of the evident descendants of that Syro-Aramæan race. The type is best preserved in the actual dwellers of the villages near the margins of the Menzaleh lakes; they are skilful fishermen.

Reverting to the course of history, the land of Egypt, restored through its length and northern breadth to its legitimate rulers, rose under the Phrahs of the renowned names of Thotmes, Amenophis, Rameses, to its climax of grandeur. But what concerns us, as anthropologists, is to observe in the sculptured likenesses of these conquerors unequivocal traces of the Ethiopian blood introduced, during the five hundred years of their exile from the lower provinces, with intermarriage with the families of warlike chiefs of tribes bordering the southern or Theban kingdoms, and extending from Nubia to the Soudan. The photographs which I show are less necessary, since the British Museum possesses, through the enterprise of Belzoni, and noble acquisitions from other sources, the evidences of the Nubian lips, and elongate, almond-shaped, eye-apertures,21 modifying the more European physiognomies of the people and kings of the older Empire. It might have been better for her had Egypt contented herself with her natural boundaries. But, in relation to history, the campaign of Sesak or Sheshonk, of the twenty-second dynasty, B.C. 980—among the spoils of which were the "golden shields" and other portable valuables of the Temple of Solomon—gives us the first or earliest certain correspondence or parallelism between the chronicles of the Hebrew and of the Egyptian priests. The sculptures at Karnak illustrate both the Manethonian record and the history of Rehoboam. Egypt, then, became overrun from the south. The Ethiopian connections pressed their claims, and in Sabacon we have a Pharaoh of Conschite or Nubian race. Meanwhile, the old tributary of Egypt, Assyria, had gained her independence, and, profiting by the teaching and arts of her conquerors, rose to importance. Nineveh falls to Babylon, and Assyria bows to Persia. Cambyses extends his conquests to Egypt, and, after a brief and troubled recovery, Persia prevails, until Darius, of the thirty-first dynasty, yields [p.245] Egypt, with the rest of its dominions, to Alexander the Great. I, finally, show you the sculptured evidences of the Macedonian or Greek dynasties in a noble statue of Ptolemy Philadelphus, and in a beautifully executed bas-relief of Cleopatra, discovered in the sanctuary of the Temple of Denderah, and doubtless a true likeness of that unhappy queen.

At present, Egypt has returned to the rule of the Mussulman descendants of Amrou and his followers, of the same essential race as the Hyksos of old. But the actual reigning dynasty claims Albanian descent.

And now, I may be asked,—Is there, then, no ground for a conclusion as to the part of the earth dwelt in by the progenitors of the civilized subjects of Menes occupying Egypt seven thousand years ago?

The hypothesis of the rise of Egyptian civilisation and of the improvement of their aboriginal "Australioid type," "probably by admixture," implies immigration from another locality; so far there is agreement between the averments of Squire and of Huxley. The latter does not offer an opinion of the local source or sources of the hypothetical admixture. The Archdeacon's view, probably the most widely accepted by "men of culture," positively affirms the locality whence the Hamitics migrated to Egypt. Their route, by land, must have been across the Isthmus of Suez. There is evidence that Asiatic immigrants did take that route to Egypt, and, subduing the northern Autochthones—for the "Institute" may assume them to be such till evidence to the contrary has been adduced—established themselves in the Delta, and founded, eastward of the Bubastic branch of the Nile, their capital city of "Tanis" (San=Zoan); the site being strategically chosen, as against succeeding immigrants and invaders; and, to the ethnologist, affording ground for inference as to the local origin or starting-point of the founders of such city. Is there any analogous evidence pointing, in like manner, to the source of "the admixture," or other causal conditions of the race, whose physical and psychical characters have already been discussed?

The proved immigrants were of the Syro-Aramæan, or a more northern allied, type, indicated, perhaps, by "Ur of the Chaldees;"22 more direct evidence points to their being migratory shepherd-sheiks, typified by Lot and Abram, with their fighting followers. These "shepherds" displaced from the Delta the Pharaohs of the fifteenth, perhaps of fourteenth dynasty, about 2,500 years after Menes. Here, then, is suggested a test, or condition, bearing perhaps more directly than the modicum of linguistic evidence thereto applicable on the question of the [p.246] foreign source, if any, of the civilisation exemplified in Egypt during the reigns of the kings of the first to the fourteenth dynasties. Where were the capitals of the ancient Pharaohs? Above all, in what part of the land of Egypt was the metropolis of its earliest administrative government? We may be permitted to surmise that it might not be far distant from the mother country of the mythical pre-historic race, referred to by Manetho, which produced the civilisers and advancers subsequently deified as Osiris, Horus, Phtah,23 Thoth,24 etc. The site of such capital should indicate, as in the case of the Tanis of the Hyksos, the nearest point of contact with the source of civilising "admixture." Do the proved remains of such capital lie in the Delta? No.25 Neither are they in Nubia. They are about midway between the northern and southern extremities of the oldest empire, at the locality to which the Greeks gave the name of "Abydos." The present mounds, near the village Harabat-el-Madfouneh, in the Nome or province of Girgeh, indicate the site of ancient Thinis, the capital of the Pharaohs of the first and second dynasties. We may expect from the operations of clearance and disinterment, promoted by the Khedive, at Abydos, under the superintendence of his able director of the "Service of Conservation of the Antiquities of Egypt," more light, and that of the most acceptable and valuable kind to be thrown upon the most ancient and therefore most interesting chapter in the Manethonian history of the kingdom of Egypt.

Subsequently, and, as it seems, in connection with hydrostatic operations regulating the bed of the Nile and recovering swamp-land at that time nearer to the Mediterranean than now, a prior to the present intrusion of that sea by the Delta, the capital is now northward, to within ten miles of the present Cairo, but on the Libyan bank of the Nile. It becomes the far-famed city of Memphis with its great grave-yards at Ghizeh and Sakkara and their everlasting pyramids. After three dynasties have reigned there, the sixth goes further south than the primitive capital and chooses the isle of Elephantine. There I have explored its site. We might surmise, from the analogy of "lake dwellings," that troubles from encroachers or invaders [p.247] had to do with this choice; and it is certain that from the sixth to the eleventh dynasty, a period of 436 years, monumental evidences of the prosperity or greatness of Egypt are wanting. But with the Pharaohs Entef and Mentou-hotep, of the eleventh dynasty, Egypt seems to rouse herself from her state of torpor. Her rulers again move northward, and found the capital in the modern province of Keneh, which became developed into the mighty Thebes. The Osortasens and Amenhemhas of the twelfth dynasty extend their rule from the Mediterranean to the Soudan. The grand irrigation works in the Fayoum, the "Labyrinth" there, or House of Delegates, the obelisk of On (Heliopolis), the fortresses of Kumneh and Sernneh, in the far south, bespeak the culminating point in the glory and prosperity of the middle empire, soon to wane and set under the dark clouds of Hyksos invaders.

The large, patent, indisputable facts of the successive sites of capitals of kings of the ancient race, from the first to the fourteenth dynasties, do not support any hypothesis of immigration: they are adverse to the Asiatic one by the Isthmus. They indicate rather, that Egypt herself, through her exceptionally favourable conditions for an easy and abundant sustenance of her inhabitants, had been the locality of the rise and progress of the earliest civilisation known in the world. At least, in reference to a possible antecedent immigration, they leave the equal searcher after truth in an expectant attitude, and beget in him a determination to persevere in the researches indispensable for the fulfilment of his quest.

If the facial or physiognomical, as well as the cranial characters, were even less distinct than they are from the Hindoo race, in which, in India, a somewhat parallel course of civilisation and rise of mind to that in Egypt are exemplified, I am not aware of grounds which would justify a decision between concomitancy and causal connection in reference to such analogy. Ethnologists who are guided by linguistic evidence admit that the instances of such as might be attributed to a hypothetical extinct mother tongue are so much fewer in the ancient or hieroglyphical language of Egypt, than may be traceable in the Sanscrit language, as to indicate, on the hypothesis of migration, that the primitive colonists of the Nile valley branched off from the supposed Aryan or Asiatic cradle at a much earlier period than the southern offshoot; which, quitting the same source, climbed the Himalayas and descended upon the plains of Hindustan. But with such guesses my habits of thought and mental work have no congeniality. Adequate grounds for conclusions on such points seem to me to be still wanting.

But if the Asiatic source were neither Semitic nor Hamitic, may it not have been Japhetic?


FOOTNOTES

1 Preface to his "Translation of Plutarch, 'De Iside et Osiride,'" p. 5, 8vo, 1744.

2 Tom. cit. p. 405.

3 "Recherches sur l'origine de l'Ancienne Race Egvptienne;" "Memoires de la Societe d'Anthropologie," 8vo, Paris, tome i, plates xii, xiii., xiv.

4 I accept the results of the manifold evidences which, since hieroglyphics could be read, have accumulated, with concurrent force, to dissipate the denials, doubts, and glosses of believers in the fact and date of the pentateuchal deluge.

5 The conditions of the climate of Egypt led to the fashion involving the refreshing comfort of sitting in-doors without the wig, and protecting the head out of doors with it, as the present inhabitants do with the turban or fez.

6 Perhaps due to the sexual use of pigment.

7 "Notice de Principaux Monuments, etc.," 8vo. 1872. p. 189.

8 "It is not to be doubted that, from the earliest ages, the black complexion of some of the descendants of Noah was known. Ham, it would seem, was of a complexion darker than that of his brothers. The root of the name Ham, in Hebrew, by the Rev. Prof. Blyden, 8vo, 1869, conveys the idea of hot and swarthy."—"The Negro in Ancient History," p. 164. "The word Kem, the Egyptian name for Egypt, probably the same word as Ham, signifies blackness." "The descendants of Ham appear to have colonised Babylonia, Southern Arabia, Egypt, Ethiopia, and other portions of Africa."—Bishop Browne, Commentary on Genesis, "Speaker’s Bible," vol. i., 1871, p. 86.

9 AINSLIE (Sir Robert, K.C.B.), "Views in Egypt., with Historical Observations." p. 3, fol. 1801. The original drawings, in the possession of Sir Robert Ainslie, by Luigi Meyer. The above quotation expresses the ethnological faith of "gentlemen of education and culture" at that date, and probably that of those for whom the "commentary" above cited was penned in 1871.

10 "Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia," 8vo, 1838, vol. ii.

11 "On reconnoit facilement dans le personnage a la figure ronde, aux pectoraux accusees," etc. "Descr. de Planche 25." "Album de Musee de Boulak, avec un texte Explicatif, par Mariette-Bey, fol. 1872." In the description of this statue, in the "Catalogue," p. 177, No. 458, he writes: "Si petite qu'elle soit, l'harmonie de ses formes lui donne l'aspect d'un colosse. La poitrine et les jambes sont traitees avec la superiorite qui caracterisec cette epoque."

12 No. 12 ib.

13 Herodotus, "Euterpe" cxi.

14 The dental characters of this race were, I believe, first noted in my "Odontography,’’ 4to, 1840-45, p. 454, plates 118, 119. They support the common evidence from cranial characters of the essential unity of the aboriginal races of Australia and Tasmania, or those found in those islands by their discoverers. In the skull of the Tasmanian child, No. 5,315, Mus. Coll. Chir. "The characteristic large size of the crown of the first true molar is well shown, etc."—Catal. p. 829.

15 Catalogue p. 823.

16 "Recherches sur l'origine de l'ancienne race égyptienne," 8vo, Paris, tome i, p. 399, plates xii. and xiii.

17 The "scaphacephalic" skull of an Egyptian mummy in the Museum of National History, Edinburgh, figured by Professor Andrew Fife in his "Illustrations of Human Anatomy," Edin. 1814. as the characteristic form of skull of that ancient race, merely exemplifies the course of ossification of the neural spine of the second cranial vertebra from one median centre, resulting in a single bone, normal in relation to the Vertebrate Archetype, but exceptional in the human species. The date of the mummy is undeterminate. The radiate course of ossification of the connate or early confluent parietals is indicated in this skull. The anomaly is attended with absence of the bosses, indicating the two parial centres from which the parietal hones are normally ossified in man, with absence of the sagittal suture, and convergence of the supero-lateral cranial walls to a narrow ridge-like summit, arching from the occiput to the frontal region, the calvarium resembling an upturned boat sufficiently to have suggested the term now applied by craniologists to this long and narrow-headed variety which has been met with, from the time of Blumenbach—Decas craniorum, 1760, tab. iii.—in most varieties of mankind, and, occasionally, with traces of the bosses and suture, indicative of later confluence of the parietals. Skulls of Insular Papuans have shown the subcarinate, elongate, narrow shape, with large parietal bosses; but, if conclusions of common origin or affinity were hazarded on this ground, such Australioids might with more reason be said to be of the same race with the Eskimaux and Greenlanders, than with the originators of the civilisation of Egypt.

18 "Anatomy of Vertebrates," 8vo, 1868, viii. iii, p. 145.

19 "Report," 1874.

20 A map of the Delta, to the exploration of which the author devoted part of the time in his last (fourth) sojourn in Egypt, showing the sites of the ancient classical and biblical cities was suspended in the meeting-room.

21 The fixed point of attachment of the winker-muscle ("orbicularis palpebrarum") is to the inner side of the rim of the orbit, a little below its equator. Strong action of this muscle draws the line of the shut eye-lids obliquely downwards and inwards. The strong continuous solar glare, sand-shower winds (Kahmpseens), and siroccos, of Egypt, begot an unusual frequency and force of contraction of the orbicularis, which ultimately establishes that obliquity of the long almond-shaped, deeply-fringed, eye-opening, which makes the characteristic of the Egyptian eye, after their centuries of sojourn in the latitudes where those influences are strongest and most prevail; a peculiarity seized by the painters and sculptors of the middle empire, with perhaps a slight exaggeration of the rim of the outer canthus, and dip of the inner one.

22 Gen. xi. 28.

23  Metallurgist; direct operator, under the Creative Will, in framing the universe.

24 Inventor of Letters; scribe of the Gods, coadjutor with Phtah, as the co-ordinating "Wisdom" in the art of creation.

25  In reference to the Delta, the learned author of the "Handy-Book of the British Museum," 8vo, 1870, writes "Hither, it is said, came the tribe of Mizraim, or Menes, son of Ham, shortly after the Noachian deluge. Travelling westward from Central Asia, they passed the isthmus that unites the continents, and found in the valley of the Nile a good and pleasant place to dwell in," p. 14. The dictum is that of Squire, and rests on the same basis.