Notes to Book I of the Panarion
of
Epiphanius of Salamis


ABBREVIATIONS

Adam. Rect. Fid. Adamantius, De Recta Fide
Allog. Allogenes
Apoc. Adam Apocalypse of Adam
1 Apoc. Jas. First Apocalypse of James
2 Apoc. Jas. Second Apocalypse of James
Apoc. Paul Apocalypse of Paul
Apoc. Pet. Apocalypse of Peter
Apocry. Jas. Apocryphon of James
Apocry. Jn. Apocryphon of John
Asc. Asclepius
Aug. Augustine
Auth. Teach. Authoritative Teaching
BG Codex Berlinensis 8502
CC Corpus Christianorum
CG Cairo Gnostic documents
CD Covenant of Damascus
1 Clem First Epistle of Clement
Clem. Alex. Strom. Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis
Exc. Theod. Excerpta ex Theodoto
Clem. Hom. Pseudo-Clementine Homilies
Recog. Recognitions
Cod. Tch. Codex Tchacos
Const. Ap. Apostolic Constitutions
Corp. Herm. Corpus Hermeticum
Did. Didache
DHGE Dictionaire de Géographie et Histoire Ecclésiastique
Dia. Sav. Dialogue of the Saviour
Ep. Epistle
Epist. Apost. Epistula Apostolorum
Ep. Pet. ad Jac. Pseudo-Clementine Epistula Petri ad Jacobum
Eug. Eugnostos
Eus. Eusebius
    Chron. Chronicon
    H. E. Historia Ecclesiastica
    In Isa. Commentarium in Isaiam
    Praep. Ev. Praeparatio Evangelica
Exeg. Soul Exegesis on the Soul
Fil. Filaster of Brescia
GCS Die griechischen-christlichen Schriftsteller der ersten drei Jahrhunderte
GT Gospel of Thomas
Gos. Egyp. Gospel of the Egyptians
Gos. Jud. Codex Tchacos Gospel of Judas
Gos. Phil. Gospel of Philip
Gos. Tr. Gospel of Truth
Gr. Pow. The Concept of our Great Power
Gr. Seth The Second Treatise of the Great Seth
H-S Hennecke-Schneemelcher, New Testament Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha
Hipp. Hippolytus
    Chron. Chronicle
    Refut. Refutatio Omnium Haeresium
    Synt. Syntagma
Hyps. Hypsiphrone
Inc. De Incarnatione
Iren Irenaeus, Refutatio Omnium Haeresium
Jer. Jerome
    Adv. Jov. Adversus Jovinianum
    Chron. Chronicle
    C. Pelag. Contra Pelagianos
    In Gal. Commentarium in Galatas
    Vir. Ill. De Viris Illustribus
    Vit. Paul. Vita Paulae
Jub. Book of Jubilees
Justin Justin Martyr
    Apol. Apology
    Dial. Dialogus cum Tryphone
Let. Pet. Letter of Peter to Philip
Man. Hom. Manichaean Homilies
Man. Keph. Manichean Kephalaia
Man. Ps. Manichean Psalms
Mars. Marsanes
Melch. Melchizedek
Method. Conviv. Methodius,Convivium
Nat. Arc. The Nature of the Archons
NHC Nag Hammadi codices
Or. Wld. The Origin of the World
Orig. Origen
    Cels. Contra Celsum
    Com. in Matt. Ser. Commentariorum in Matthaeum Series
    Hom. in Sam. Frgt. Homilia in Samuelem Fragmentum
    In Gen. Hom. Commentarium in Genesim Homilia
    In Matt. Commentarium in Matthaeum
    Princ. De Principiis
Pan. Panarion
Para. Shem Paraphrase of Shem
PS Pistis Sophia
PsT 'Pseudo-Tertullian'
PT Patristic Texts
1 Q apGen Genesis Apocryphon, Qumran Cave 1
1 Q Serek Serek scroll, Qumran Cave 1
1 Q W War scroll, Qumran Cave 1
RAC Realenzyklopädie des antiken Christentums
Test. Tr. Testimony of the Truth
Tert. Tertullian
    Adv. Lucif. Adversus Luciferanios
    Adv. Marc. Adversus Marcionem
    Adv. Val. Adversus Valentianos
    Carn. Chr. De Carne Christi
    Praescr. Praecriptio Haereticorum
    Res. Mort. De Resurrectione Mortuorum
Treat. Res. Treatise on the Resurrection
VC Vigiliae Christianae
Val. Exp. Valentinian Exposition
Zost. Zostrianus


Note to Part I.

I.1 376 A.D.


Notes to Part III.

III.1 Jub. 11.1-4
III.2 Jub. 11.16; 12.2
III.3 Jub. 11.16; 12.2
III.4 Cecrops is mentioned at Eus. Praep. Ev. 10.9; Eus. Chron. (Karst p. 159); Jer. Chron. (Helm 21,24).
III.5 ἑλαία
III.6 μεμερισμένη
III.7 θεοσεβεία. Or simply: piety. See 2,7. The author of the Anacephalaeosis is trying to emphasize, more strongly than does Epiph, that there is something distinctively heretical even about the four earliest sects which existed in the world without competition.
III.8 Col 3:11
III.9 Or: the most headstrong.


Notes to Part IV.

IV.1 Epiph considers his account of the four 'mothers' of the sects to be part of this Proem, as he shows by his wording of 2,13. For convenience we title 1,1-3,9 Proem II.
IV.2 At 1,1 below. Epiph’s account begins with Adam.
IV.3 Jas 3:15
IV.4 Cf. Rom 12:6.
IV.5 375 C.E.
IV.6 In addition to the Ancoratus
IV.7 In other words, Epiph intends to write without rhetorical ornamentation, and in the Koine. Cf. what he says about 'languages' at 42,12,1 elenchi 13 and 21.


Notes to Part 1.

1.1 Perhaps cf. Jub. 4.15, which says that the Watchers came to earth in the days of Jared.
1.2 Gen 5:24; Heb 11:5
1.3 Cf. Jer. Ep. (Epiph/John of Jerusalem) 51.6.7.
1.4 Col 3:11; Gal 3:28.


Notes to Part 2.

2.1 Jub. 5.28; 7.1; 17, and 10.15. In this last, Lubar is said to be Noah’s burial place.
2.2 Gen 11:10-17
2.3 Gen 11:1
2.4 Gen 1:26
2.5 μεμερισμένοι


Notes to Part 3.

3.1 'Zoroaster the magus' is ruler of Bactria at Jer. Chron. 20,13 (Helm).
3.2 For Nimrod as a magician, identified with Zoroaster, cf. Clem. Hom. 9.4-5.
3.3 Idolatry begins with Serug at Jub. 11.1-6, but Jub. 11.14-17 and 12.1-8; 12-14 ascribe it to Terah.
3.4 Cf. Clem. Recog. 1.31.3 where, however, the crime for which Terah is punished is incest.
3.5 Gen 11:28
3.6 Cf. Wisd Sol 14:12.
3.7 This chronological information comes from Eus. Chron. 42a,28 (Helm); cf. Jer. Chron. 16,2-17 (Helm).


Notes to Part 4.

4.1 Gal 4:30
4.2 Cf. Exod 15:15.
4.3 Cf. Gen 32:30.
4.4 Gen 32:28
4.5 Gen 32:28
4.6 Clem. Alex. Strom. 1.102.4; Eus. Praep. Ev. 10.10; Jer. Chron. 7,20
4.7 Jer. Chron. 44,1
4.8 Jer. Chron. 42,15
4.9 Jer. Chron. 27,14
4.10 Jer. Chron. 46,23
4.11 Jer. Chron. 32,9


Notes to Part 6.

6.1 Plato Ep. 2, 312E
6.2 Plato Timaeus, 37B
6.3 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 1.19.6.


Note to Part 8.

8.4 Cf. Ascl. 17.


Notes to Part 8 (cont'd).

8.1 At 3,11
8.2 Cf. Wisd Sol 14:12. sects of Hellenism 25
8.3 Col 3:11; Gal 6:15
8.4 Rom 1:14
8.5 John 4:22. Epiph gives these explanations to harmonize his two quotations, since Paul has mentioned only 'Hellenes and Barbarians.'
8.6 Exod 1:7
8.7 The pedagogue was authorized to beat his charges.
8.8 ἡγιασμένοις
8.9 John 2:2
8.10 Deut 18:19; Exod 12:15; 19
8.11 Matt 1:1-17
8.12 Cf. Matt 1:12-17.
8.13 Epiph is about to conclude his Proem. Cf. his wording of 2,13 with that of 9,4.


Notes to Part 9.

9.1 Fil. 7 gives a description of the Samaritans which is not unlike that of Epiph, but is plainly from a different source.
9.2 Fil. 7.1 makes Samoreus the son of Canaan.
9.3 Jub. 10.27-34
9.4 Cf. Fil. 7.1.
9.5 Cf. Fil. 7.2.
9.6 Cf. Deut 11:29-30.
9.7 Cf. 4 Kin 17:32-34.
9.8 Gen 4:10
9.9 I.e., resurrection is bodily.
9.10 Deut 33:6
9.11 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 9.15.3-6.
9.12 A similar attitude toward outsiders sometimes appears in the Qumran documents; see 1Q S 5,14-20 (Wise et al. p. 132); CD 12,6-11 (op. cit. p. 70); 13,12-15 (op. cit. p. 71).
9.13 Cf. Lev 11:24-25.
9.14 I.e., the sentence, 'ou must go into temporary exile.'
9.15 Titus 3:5
9.16 Acts 2:37
9.17 Acts 2:36
9.18 Jerem 9:20
9.19 Cf. Evodius/Aug. Ep. 158.6.
9.20 The problem posed at 4,1
9.21 Num 11:16-17
9.22 Gen 1:26
9.23 Gen 19:24


Note to Part 10.

10.24 The tradition which surprisingly locates the Essenes in Samaria might find some justification in Josephus' remark that they were widely dispersed, see Jos. Bel. 2.8.4. See also Wise’s Introduction in The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation. At Eus. H. E. 4.22.7 Essenes are called a Jewish sect. Fil. 9, which makes the Essenes Jewish rather than Samaritan, gives a description of them which is not dissimilar to that of Josephus.


Notes to Part 12.

12.25 Gorothenes are mentioned at Eus. H. E. 4.22.5 where they are said to have been founded by a Gorothaeus.
12,26 This seems most unlikely, especially given the strictness as to the dates of festivals in the Qumran community. See, e.g., 1Q S 1,14-15 (Wise et al. p. 140) and Qumran’s calendrical texts in general (op. cit. p. 317f.).


Notes to Part 13.

13.27 Dositheans are mentioned or discussed at Eus. H. E. 4.22.5; PsT 1.1; Fil. 4; Orig. In Joh 13.27; Princ. 4.3.2, and Comm Ser. In Matt 33 (Klostermann p. 59) where Dositheus' Sabbath regulations are ridiculed. See also Clem. Rec. 1.54.2-5; Hom 2.24; Const. Ap. 6.8.1; Jer. Vit. Paul. 13.
13.28 Eus. and the Pseudo-Clementines make Dositheus Jewish, while PsT and Fil. say he is Samaritan. Epiph might be attempting to reconcile the two traditions.
13.29 δευτερώσεις
13.30 Or. In Joh. 13.27 notes that the Samaritans believed that Dositheus had not died. The above appears intended to refute this.
13.31 Eus. H. E. 4.22.5, quoting Hegesippus, also counts seven: Essenes, Galileans, Hemerobaptists, Masbotheans, Samaritans, Sadducees, Pharisees.


Notes to Part 14.

14.1 For other lists of Jewish sects see Justin Dial. 80.4; Eus. H. E. 4.22.7; in NHC, Tri. Trac.112,18-22 accuses the Jews of spawning sects.
14.2 Sadducees are traced to Dositheus at Clem. Recog. 1.54.4; PsT 1.1. Hipp. Refut. 9.29 links them with Samaria. Christian sources refer to them as a 'sect' at Eus. H. E. 4.22.7; Justin Dial. 80.4; Const. Ap. 6.6.2.
14.3 Cf. Ezek 40:46; 43:19; 44:15; 48:11; Matt 1:14. Priests at Qumran are regularly 'sons of Zadok.'
14.4 Cf. Matt 22:23 and see PsT 1.1.
14.5 Cf. Acts 23:8.
14.6 Cf. Mark 12:18-27 parr.
14.7 Matt 22:34


Notes to Part 15.

15.8 Mark 7:4
15.9 Cf. Ep. Aristeas 158; Justin Dial. 46.
15.10 This is a folk etymology. Epiph derives φυλακτήριον from ἁλουργοϋφεῖς, 'purple woven,' by a rearrangement of its letters. For κοκκινὸν ῥᾶμμα and φυλακτήρια see Justin Dial. 46.4-5.
15.11 Mark 23:5
15.12 δευτερώσεις. This would render 'mishnahs,' but whether Epiph understood the term in that form is uncertain.
15.13 In the Mishnah, some anonymous regulations are designated halakhah d’Mosheh mi-Sinai.


Notes to Part 16.

16.14 Pharisees are termed a 'sectarians' at PsT 1.1; Hipp. Refut. 9.28; Eus. H. E. 4.22.7; Clem. Rec. 1.54.6; Justin Dial. 80.4; Const. Ap. 6.6.3.
16.15 Cf. Luke 18:12; Matt 23:23. For the 'second' and 'fifth days' see Did.8.1; Const. Ap. 7.23.1.
16.16 Cf. PsT 1.1; Clem Hom. 11.28.4; Orig. In Matt 23:23.
16.17 Cf. Acts 23:8.
16.18 According to Josephus, Pharisees believe that 'some things, but not all, are the work of fate,' Ant. 13.5.9. For Christian references to a Pharisaic belief in fate see Hipp. Refut. 9.28.5; Const. Ap.6.6.3.
16.19 For examples of the zodiac as a synagogue floor decoration with the signs named in Hebrew, see Goodenough vols. 1; 9.
16.20 Isa 1:19-20
16.21 Cf. Matt 23:25.
16.22 Cf. Matt 23:181-22.
16.23 Mark 7:11; 9
16.24 Matt 23:15


Notes to Part 17.

17.25 Hemerobaptists are mentioned at Eus. H. E. 4.22.7; Const. Ap. 6.6.5; Justin Dial. 80.4. Clem. Hom. 11.23.1 uses the term of John the Baptist. Josephus attributes the custom of daily bathing to the Essenes ( Jos. Bel. 2.8.1). The term translates the Hebrew ,טובלי יום which in itself means persons who have incurred uncleanness on a particular day and bathed to remove it, and must 'remain unclean until evening.'
17.26 I.e., the words ἡμέρα and βαπτίζειν.


Notes to Part 18.

18.27 This group has some traits in common with the Mandaeans, whose usual name for themselves is 'Nazoraeans', and who reject the Pentateuch. Lidzbarski explains the term, Nazoraean, as 'Vertreter eines Berufes, besonders eines bestimmtes Lehrtätigkeit', Ginza pp. ix-x. However, the two groups are certainly not the same. Fil. 8 spells the name of the group 'Nazoraeans'; his very uncomplimentary description of it has nothing in common with that of Epiph.
18.28 Jews are said to falsify the Law and the works of Abraham at the Mandaean Ginza 43,21-23.
18.29 Animal sacrifices are, in effect, termed obsolete in the NHC tractate Gos. Phil. 54,34-55,1; they are also deprecated at Gos. Phil. 62,35-63,4 and Melch. 6,28-7,1.
18.30 Lidzbarski translates the term with which Mandeans reject the Torah as a Buch des Frevels, Johannesbuch 192,15-193,2.
18.31 Matt 12:33 and 7:18
18.32 Or: of the series (of instances of meat-eating)
18.33 Hipp. Refut. 10.30.7; Theoph. Ad Autol. 3.19.16-17 (Grant p. 124)
18.34 Gen 9:3 and Acts 10:13


Notes to Part 19.

19.35 This Sect is comparable with Hippolytus' Elchasaites, Hipp. Refut. 9.13.1-17.3, but Epiphanius’ sources are not the same as Hippolytus' and are more ample.
19.36 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 9.13.1.
19.37 For this date see Hipp. Refut. 9.13.4.
19.38 Hipp. Refut. 9.13.1. At Eus. H. E. 6.38 the book is said to have fallen from heaven.
19.39 The second of these two lists is found at Hipp. Refut. 9.15.2;5. A similar but shorter list, found in the Pseudo-Clementines at Ep. Pet. Jas. 4.1, is heaven, earth, water, air.
19.40 ἀποκεκαλυμμένην. The Hebrew כסה means 'hide.' Is the meaning 'a hidden power (which has now been revealed to the elect)'? Amidon, and Klijn and Rinnick, render 'hidden power,' perhaps from context taking the participle to mean 'hidden away'?
19.41 I.e., of giving Elxai a divine title. Since one of his 'divine' descendants has died, he cannot have been divine.
19.42 Rom. 10:10
19.43 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 9.15.1.
19.44 The Jewish document of the sixth century C.E., the Shihur Qomah, gives 'the dimensions of the Creator' (Cohen p. 221 ff.) in parasangs. See also in Swartz, Mahashe Merkavah. While this might be culturally related to the material in Elxai, there is no obvious literary dependence.
19.45 Epiph has misread this as Hebrew, presumably from a Greek transliteration, and given a forced translation. Holl, following M. A. Levy, suggested that the words were an Aramaic formula, אנא מסעד עליכון ביומ דינא רבא , 'I am your help in the day of the great judgment,' written as a palindrome. σελάμ might mean 'finish' or even 'peace.'
19.46 Matt. 12:5.
19.47 Exod 20:3
19.48 Cf. Exod 23:13.
19.49 Jas 5:12 and Matt 5:37


Notes to Part 20.

20.50 Herodians are mentioned at PsT 1.1; Fil. 28; Jer. Adv. Lucif. 23; Eus. H. E. 1.6.2-4. This last is probably Epiph’s source, though he does not have it before him but is working from memory. On the subject of Epiph’s faulty memory of Eusebius, see Pourkier, L'hérésiologie.
20.51 Cf. PsT 1.1; Fil. 28.
20.52 Gen 49:10. For the application of this see Eus. H. E. 1.6.2.
20.53 For the following story see Eus. H. E. 1.6.2-4; 1.7.11.
20.54 Eus. H. E. 1.6.7 mentions Hyrcanus rather than Demetrius, and says that Herod is appointed governor by the Senate and Augustus after Hyrcanus is taken prisoner by the Parthians.
20.55 Gen. 49:10.
20.56 Gen 49:10b
20.57 Gen 49:11
20.58 2 Tim 2:2
20.1 Cf. Jer. Chron. 160,1-5 (Helm).
20.2 Epiph identifies Herod the Younger with Herod Agrippa, and makes him the son of Archelaus.
20.3 1 Pet 4:1
20.4 1 Pet 3:18
20.5 Rom 6:9
20.6 I.e., exhibiting what the resurrection body will be. Having risen himself, he is qualified to do so.
20.7 The sacrament of baptism
20.8 Matt 29:19
20.9 I.e., the one word ὄνομα in the singular is applied to each of the Persons, meaning that the reference is to only one God.
20.10 Because the noun is singular. More than one 'name' would imply alteration.
20.11 υἱός is here treated as the ἐπίκλησις, or surname, of πατήρ.


Notes to Part 21.

21.1 Epiph's main source for this Sect is Hipp. Synt., the content of which is also reflected by PsT 1.2 and Fil. 29.1. He also makes use of Irenaeus. The account of Simon found at Eus. H. E. 2.12.3-15.1 is based on Justin and Irenaeus and some version of the debate between Simon and Peter. Hippol. Refut. 6.7; 19.1-20.2 may come in large part from Irenaeus; Tert. De Anima 34 surely does.
The oldest accounts of Simon are found at Justin Apol. 26.2-3; 56.1-2 and Dial. 120.6. Clem. Recog. 2.5-15 gives a fundamentally different version of his biography; Const. Ap. 6.7-9 draws on some version of this latter account. See also Orig. Cels. 5.62. There may be NHC allusions or references to the Simonians at Apoc. Pet. 74,28-34 and Test. Tr. 58,2-4.
21.2 Justin Apol. 26.2; Hipp. Refut. 6.7.1; Clem. Recog. 2.7.1; Hom. 2.22; Fil. 29.1; Const. Ap. 6.7.
21.3 Acts 8:9; Justin Apol. 26.2; Hipp. Refut. 6.7.1; Iren. 1.23.1; PsT 1.2; Fil.29.1.4.
21.4 Iren. 1.23.3; Hipp. Refut. 6.19.6; Fil. 29.2; Tert. De Anima 34. Hippolytus and Irenaeus both say Simon claims to have appeared to gentiles as the Holy Spirit; Epiph omits this, probably because he believes Simon called Helen the Holy Spirit, see 21,2,3-4.
21.5 Iren 1.23.1; Hipp. Refut. 6.19.6; Fil. 29.3
21.6 Acts 8:12-19; Iren. 1.23.1; PsT 1.2; Tert. De Anima 34
21.7 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.7.1 τὰ μὲν παίξας πoλλoὺς κατὰ τὴν Θρασυμύδoυς τέχνην ... τὰ δὲ διὰ δαιμόνων κακoυργήσας; Iren. 1.23.1; Fil. 29.1; Tert. De Anima 34; Clem. Rec. 2.7.
21.8 Justin Apol. 26.3; Iren. 1.23.2; Hipp. Refut. 6.19.3-4; Tert. De Anima 34.2; Orig. Cels. 5.62
21.9 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.19.4 ἐρασθεὶς τoῦ γυναίoυ ... τoὺς μαθητὰς αἰδoύμενoς τoῦτoν τὸν μῦθoν ἕπλασεν
21.10 Just. Apol. 26.3; Iren. 1.23.3; Hipp. Refut. 6.19.4; Fil. 29.7; Tert. De Anima 34.3; PsT 1.2. At Tri. Prot. 40,8-18 the Protennoia descends for the sake of the conquered Sophia.
21.11 The redeemer changes form or becomes invisible during his descent at Hippol. Refut. 6.19.6; Iren. 1.23.3; 30,12; Epist. Apost. 13; Gos. Phil. 57,28-58,2; Gr. Seth 56,21-32; Zost. 4,29-30; Tri. Prot. 49,15-23; PS 1.7 (MacDermot p. 12). The direct quotes which Epiph gives in this Sect are his own dramatization of his sources.
21.12 In NHC Ennoia is often the fi rst emanation of the invisible God and a synonym for Barbelo. See Apocry. Jn. BG 8502,2 where, among other things, she is 'the power who is before the All ... the perfect πρόνοια of the All ... the image of the invisible One, the perfect power, Barbelo (at II,1 4,36 “the glory of Barbelo) .... the first thought, his image.' Cf. Zost. 82,23-83,24; Norea 27,11. At II,1 30,11-31,4 she descends three times into the prison of the body. Her descent is elaborately worked out in NHC XIII,1, where she is the Trimorphic Protennoia (First Ennoia); see Tri. Prot. 36,4-9; 40,12-18; 40,29-41,1; 41,20-24; 32-25; 42,17-18; 47,11-13; 17-22; 47,12-22 and Turner’s Introduction in Hedrick, Nag Hammadi Codices XI, XII, and XIII. 'Hypsiphrone' descends at Hyps. 70,14-17, the NHC tractate of this name.
21.13 The Holy Spirit is equated with Prunicus at Iren. 1.29.4. Here Epiph has equated both the Holy Spirit and Prunicus with Simon's Ennoia.
21.14 Iren. 1.23.2; Hipp. Refut. 6.19.3; PsT 1.2; Fil. 29.4. At Gos. Phil. 63,30 'Barren Wisdom' is the 'mother of the angels.'
21.15 Iren. 1.23.3; Hipp. Ref. 6.19.2; Tert. De Anima 3.4-5
21.16 The female revealer disguises herself at Apocry. Jn. 30,11-13;3 49,15-23.
21.17 Barbelo appears in seven NHC tractates, mostly Sethian, and in Gos. Jud. She is regularly the first emanation of the highest God and is often called his first Thought as at Apocry. Jn. II,1 4,27; 5,4-6; Allog. 53,27-28; Tri. Prot. 38,8-9. She is an 'aeon' (Zost. 14,27 et al.; Allog. 53,22-28 et al; Gos. Jud. 35,17-18. She is as it were the source of the other aeons, see Apocry. Jn. II,1 5,4-6: This is the first Thought, his image, she became the womb of everything, for she is prior to them all. In this sense, Simon's 'through whom I created the angels' is not inappropriate. However, Barbelo does not descend, suffer or weep; Epiph confuses her role with that of Sophia.
21.18 Hipp. Refut. 6.19.2; cf. Manichaean Keph. 35,15-17; 80,25-29. There may be allusions to the idea at Thunder 18,23-25 or Apoc. Pet. 74,27-34.
21.19 Iren. 1.23.2; Fil. 29.7; Orig. Wld. 116,15-18; PS 1.30 (MacDermot pp. 43-45. At Apocry. Jn. II,1 30,12-21 Pronoia enters the 'prison,' but has to hide 'because of their wickedness.'
21.20 Hipp. Refut. 6.19.2; Orig. Wld. 116,15-20; Exeg. Soul 127,25-128,1
21.21 Iren. 1.23.2; Hippol. Refut. 6.19.2; Tert. De Anima 34.6. At Tri. Prot. 45,21-27 the Protennoia hides herself in everyone and transforms their forms into other forms.
21.22 Cf. Apocry Jn. II,1 19,15-31, 'And when the mother wanted to retrieve the power,' etc. Yaltabaoth is then persuaded to blow the power into Adam.
21.23 This seems to be Epiph's own interpretation of Ennoia's transmigrations.
21.24 Iren. 1.23.2; Hippol. Refut. 6.19.1-3; Fil. 29.5-7; Tert. De Anima 34.5
21.25 Hipp. Refut. 6.19.1. An analogous though considerably different story about 'Luna' is found at Clem. Recog. 2.12.4.
21.26 Hippol. Refut. 6.19.1; Fil. 29.8. For the Trojan horse see Vergil Aeneid 6.515-519.
21.27 Cf. Eph. 6:14-17.
21.28 This may be Epiph's own conjecture, based on the image of Athena which he mentions at 21,3,6.
21.29 Matt 18:12 parr.; Iren. 1.23.2; Hippol. Refut. 6.19.2; Tert. De Anima 34.4. This is the 'allegory' referred to above.
21.30 Iren. 1.23.4.; Hipp. Refut. 6.20.9
21.31 Epiph means the practice he describes at 26,4,5-5,1 in connection with the 'Gnostics.' Since he believes that all heresy stems from Simon and, in any case, Irenaeus and probably Hippolytus accuse Simonians of immorality, Epiph feels justified in making this assumption.
21.32 Tert. Praescr. 33
21.33 ἐν ἑλαττώματι, which seems here to mean no more than 'faultily.' See n. 9 p. 170.
21.34 That is, Simon is the author of Gnosticism. Cf. Iren. 1.23.2 ex quo universae haereses substiterunt; Hippol. Refut. 6.20.4 which makes Simon Valentinus' resource.
21.35 This idea is attributed to Simon at Clem Hom. 3.2.2.
21.36 Iren. 1.23.3 and especially 1.30.11; Hippol. Refut. 6.19.7. At PS 3.135 (MacDermot p. 351) it is the archons of the aeons who speak to the prophets.
21.37 In NHC good and evil, or the realms of spirit and matter, are very commonly characterized as 'right' and 'left': See Gos. Tr. 31,36-32,14; Tri. Trac. 98,12-20; 104, 9-11; 106,2-5; 18-21; Gos. Phil. 53,14-15; Nat. Arc. 95,35-96,3; Test. Tr. 43,10-12; Val Exp. 38,27-33. See also PS 4.139;140 (MacDermot pp. 361-363); U 19 (MacDermot p. 261). At Gos. Phil. 60,26-32 both 'right' and 'left' are said to have their proper places.
21.38 PS 3.135 (MacDermot p. 351) makes it clear that no prophet has yet entered the light, though they will in the future.
21.39 At Fil. 29.9 Simon is said to die at Rome percussus ab angelo. For his fall see Const. Ap. 6.9.3-4; Acts of Peter 32 (H-S II p. 313) At Hippol. Refut. 6.23.3 his disciples are said to have buried him alive at Gittha in the vain expectation of his resurrection.
21.40 Matt 5:17
21.41 John 5:46
21.42 Matt 19:10
21.43 Matt 19:6
21.44 Gen 1:1
21.45 Matt 11:25 par.
21.46 Isa 59:5


Notes to Part 22.

22.1 The probable source of this Sect is Hipp. Synt., assuming that this is echoed by PsT 1.3 and Fil. 30. Epiph also draws on Iren. 1.23.5. For other references see Justin Apol. 26.4; Hipp. Refut. 7.4; Tert De Anima 50. Eus. H. E. 4.7.3-4, which depends upon Justin, mentions Menander as the source of Saturninus' doctrines.
22.2 Iren. 1.23.5; Justin Apol. 26.4
22.3 Iren. 1.23.5; Hippol. Refut. 7.4
22.4 Iren. 1.23.5; Tert. De Anima 50.2
22.5 Iren. 1.23.5: missus sit ... salvatorem pro salute hominum negans habere posse quemquam salutem, nisi in nomine suo bapizatus fuisset; cf. PsT 1.3; Tert. De Anima 50.2.
22.6 I.e., his baptism. See the references in n. 5.


Notes to Part 23.

23.1 The outline of this Sect comes from Hipp. Synt, as a reading of PsT 1.4 suggests. Much material from Iren. 1.24 has been inserted. Hipp. Refut. 7.28.3 might come from Iren. Fil. 31 may be drawn either from Hipp. Synt or from Epiph, or from both. See also Eus. H. E. 4.22.5 (from Hegesippus); Justin Dial. 35.6; Tert. De Anima 23.1; Const. Apost. 6.8.1.
23.2 Basilides and Saturninus, or Satornilus, are also paired at Iren. 1.24.1; Hipp. Refut. 7.28.1; Eus. H. E. 4.7.3.
23.3 The wording to this point is closest to that of Iren. 1.24.1; cf. Hipp. Refut. 7,28.1-2. PsT 1.4. and Fil. 31.1 only imply the idea.
23.4 διεστάναι. That Epiph means 'disagree, be at variance' is suggested by the content of 2,2; 4,1-2. PsT, however, has longe distanter ab hoc (deo). Amidon: The angels parted from the upper power.
23.5 So worded at Iren. 1.24.1. Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.28.2. 'Made the world' without 'and everything in it' is found at PsT 1.4; Fil. 31.1; cf. Acts of Paul 8.1.15 (H-S II p. 254).
23.6 An angelic 'prince' is in charge of every nation at Dan 10:13; 18-20. Cf. Gos. Egyp. III,2 58,3-5: And (Sakla) said to the [great angels] 'Go and let each of you reign over his world.'
23.7 For the withdrawal of the light see Tri. Trac. 79,10-13; Nat. Arc. 94,29-39; Orig. Wld. 103,29-32; Zost. 27,12.
23.8 The desire for the image in the waters is erotic at Nat. Arc. 87,11-14; Corp. Herm. 1.14, and Fil. 31.2, who might be drawing on Epiph for this point.
23.9 Cf. Gen 1:26. This exegesis of Gen 1:26, which makes use of the plural 'Let us make man,' is a common one in Gnostic and similar sources. In NHC see Apocry. Jn. II,1 14,.24-15,6; Nat. Arc. 87,11-88.3; Or. Wld. 100,21-22; 103,29-32; Gr. Pow. 38,5-9. Ginza 174,1-6 has a similar story, and cf. Corp. Herm. 1.14. The word, 'our' is also omitted at Iren. 1.24.1; Hipp. Refut. 7.28.2, PsT 1.4; Gos. Jud. 52,14-17; Let. Pet. 136,7-10; Cod. Tch. Let. Pet. 4,14-17; Irenaeus 1.30.6 (Ophites). Fil. 31.3 inserts it. Apocry. Jn. II,1 15,2-3 reads: 'Come, let us create a man according to the image of God and according to our likeness.'
23.10 Iren. 1.24.1; 1.30.6; Hipp. Refut. 7.28.3; Fil. 31.4. Comparable exegeses of Gen 1:27 appear at Gos. Tr. 30,16-32; Apocry. Jn. II,1 19,10-33; Nat. Arc. 88,3-17; Or. Wld. 115,3-116,8.
23.11 The spark is important at Para. Shem 31,22-23; 46,13-15. Only Epiph explicitly identifies this spark as the soul.
23.12 Iren. 1.24.1. Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.28.4; Fil. 31.5; Auth. Teach 32,16-23.
23.13 Hipp. Refut. 7.28.4; Iren. 1.24.2; PsT l.3; Fil. 31. Teachings which might be termed docetic or quasi-docetic are found at 1 Apoc. Jas. 30,2-6; 31,14-22; 2 Apoc. Jas. 57,10-19; Cod. Tch. James 16,15-21; 18,6-11; Acts of John 87-97 (H-S II pp. 179-185).
23.14 Iren. 1.24.2. cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.28.5; A polemic against the OT God and his teachings is found at Test. Truth 47,14-50,11.
23.15 Iren. 1.24.2; Hipp. Refut. 7.28.6.
23.16 Iren. 1.24.2; cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.28.7.
23.17 Iren. 1.24.2; cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.28.7.
23.18 This argument, which Epiph uses in several connections, is found at Iren. 2.2.3.
23.19 Isa 10:15
23.20 Irenaeus at 2.2.3 uses the illustrations of a battle, a saw and an axe.
23.21 3.4-4,7 are the expansion of an argument which is stated at Iren. 2.5.3-4.
23.22 Gen 1:26
23.23 Ps. 32:6
23.24 John 5:17
23.25 Matt 19:6
23.26 Matt 19:6
23.27 Heb 13:4
23.28 1 Tim 5:11;14
23.29 John 8:56
23.30 John 5:46
23.31 Matt 8:11
23.32 Ps. 109:1
23.33 Matt. 21:42
23.34 Luke 24:26


Notes to Part 24.

24.1 The primary source of this Sect is Hipp. Synt., cf. PsT 1.5. However, Epiph also uses Irenaeus (1.24.3-7) and mentions him by name at 8,1. Fil. 32 may depend either upon Hipp. Synt. or upon Epiph. The very long account of Basilides at Hipp. Refut. 7.23.7 is from a source unrelated to the ones mentioned, and contradicts them at some points. Eus. H. E. 4.7.3-7 describes Basilides from a source he identifies as Agrippa Castor. Clem. Strom. 7.17.106 says that Basilides claimed to have been taught by Paul’s interpreter Glaucias. For a mention of 'Basilideans' see Justin Dial. 35.6. The NHC tractate Test. Tr., as reconstructed by Giverson and Pearson mentions Basilides pejoratively at 57,6-8.
24.2 Iren. 1.24.2: Alexandrii; Fil. 32.2 simply says Aegyptum.
24.3 Cf. Iren. 1.24.3, Basilides, ut altius aliquid et verisimilius invenisse videtur, in immensum extendit sententiam doctrinae suae.
24.4 With the paragraph which follows cf. PsT 1.5; Iren. 1.24.3; Fil. 32.2-3.
24.5 These emanations are roughly paralleled by the archons Ogdoas and Hebomas and their sons, at Hipp. Refut. 7.23.1-24.7. However, no angels follow these, and at Refut. 7.22-23 Basilides is said to deny the idea of emanation as such.
24.6 Forms of this teaching are found in NHC at Apocry. Jn. II,1 11,23-25; Eug. 84,1-85,4; Val. Exp. 30,29-38, and at Gos. Jud. 49,9-50,2. Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.53.5; U 3 (MacDermot p. 230); 6 (p. 236); 9 (p. 240); 10 (p. 245); PS 3.132 (MacDermot p. 342).
24.7 Irenaeus accuses Basilideans of employing magic at 1.24.5.
24.8 Iren. 1.24.5; Fil. 32.4. At PsT 1.5 this angel is called novissimum.
24.9 Cf. Iren. 1.24.4; PsT 1.5.
24.10 PsT 1.5: huic sortito obtigisse semen Abrahae. Cf. Iren. 1.24.4; Fil. 32.4.
24.11 Iren. 1.24.4; PsT 1.5; Fil. 32.5-6. αὐθαδείᾳ is a play on βραχίονι ὑψηλῷ at Exod 6:6. Neither Iren. nor PsT reports the term αὐθάδης, Fil. may have taken it from Epiph. In NHC this term, or αὐθάδεια, appears in connection with the wicked archon at Apocry. Jn. II,1 13,26-28; Let. Pet. 135,16-22; 136,5. Cf. PS 1.29 (MacDermot p. 42); 1.30 (MacDermot p. 44).
24.12 At Tri. Trac. 100,3-4 in NHC, each archon has his own γένος and ἄξια though Israel is not mentioned. The archons and their nations war on Israel at Iren. 1.24.4; PsT 1.5; Fil. 32.
24.13 PsT 1.5; Fil. 32.6. Iren. 1.24.6 says that Christ 'appeared' (apparuisse), and also identifies him with Nous.
24.14 The 'first' μιμόλογος is Satornilus. There is no covert allusion here to CG VII,3, The Second Logos of the Great Seth; on the subject see also Pourkier. When Epiph makes humorous allusions, he typically lays heavy emphasis upon them rather than inserting them in passing.
24.15 Cf. Apoc. Pet. 81,7-21; 82,4-16.
24.16 Iren. 1.24.4; PsT 1.5; Fil. 32.6. In NHC, Gr. Seth 55,15-56,11 has been but should probably not be interpreted as the same story. Various quasi-docetic views of the crucifixion appear in NHC at 1 Apoc. Jas. 31,14-22; perhaps Apoc. Adam 77,9-18; Apoc. Pet. 81,6-83,15; perhaps Let. Pet. 139,15-25 and Cod. Tch. Let. Pet. 8,1-5. See also Acts of John 97-99; 101; 102 (H-S II pp. 184-186). The reality of the crucifixion is insisted on at Melch. 5,7-8. At Hipp. Refut. 7.26.13 Basilides himself is said to teach that it is real.
24.17 Iren. 1.24.4 ... Patrem, videntem perditionem ipsorum ... Irenaeus goes on to say that Christ came to free humanity from the power of those who made the world. At NHC’s Tri. Trac. At 80,4-19 and 83,34-84,24 the creatures of the Demiurge quarrel.
24.18 Epiph deduces this from the universae libidinis of Iren. 1.24.5; cf. Fil. 32.7. Basilideans are accused of immorality at Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.1.
24.19 Rom 1:18
24.20 Iren. 1.24.4; Fil. 32.7-8; Eus. H. E. 4.7.7; Orig. Com. in Matt. 24:7-8 Ser. 38 (Klostermann p. 73). In NHC martyrdom is deprecated at Test. Tr. 33,24-34 and perhaps at Gr. Seth 49,26-27, but is strongly recommended at Apocry. Jas. 5,9-6,20.
24.21 Clem. Strom. 4.1.81.1f quotes Basilides as teaching that the martyr’s death is really a punishment for previous sins.
24.22 Matt. 10:33
24.23 Cf. Gos. Phil. 80,23-81,4. Pourkier suggests that the quotation is in fact an inference drawn by Epiph himself.
24.24 Matt 7:6
24.25 Eph. 5:12
24.26 Iren. 1.24.6. Similar directions appear in NHC at Apocry. Jn. II,1 31,29-37; 1 Apoc. Jas. 36,13-16 and Cod. Tch. James 23,10-16. Cf. Corp. Herm. 13.116; Ascl. 32 (Nock-Festugière p. 341) and, in the Qumran material at 1QS 9,16-18 (Wise et al., p. 139).
24.27 Iren. 1.24.6 unum a mille et due a myriadibus. Versions of this saying are found in NHC at GT 23, and in other literature at PS 3.134 (MacDermot p. 350).
24.28 Iren. 1.24.6
24.29 Contrast Apoc. Peter 77,23-32: Others ... will set up their error and their law against these pure thoughts of mine ... thinking that good and evil are from one (source).
24.30 Prov 11:27
24.31 Gen 1:31
24.32 At Iren. 1.24.7 Abrasax is princeps of the 365 heavens, and at Hipp. Refut. 7.26.6 τὸν μέγαν ἄρχoντα αὐτῶν. PsT 1.5 makes Abrasax simply the Basilidean name for God: hunc esse dicit summum deum. At NHC Gosp. Egyp. III,2 52,26 Abrasax is the minister of the great light Eleleth; he is Eleleth’s eternal life at 53,91 and one of the four lights at 65,1; he is an angelic or aeonic being at Apoc. Adam 75,17-27; 78,9-11; Zost. 47,11. The name is common on Graeco-Roman amulets, see Preisendanz, Papyri Graeci Magici 3, and can be given to Hermes, the creator, See the material in Dietrich, Abraxas.
24.33 Iren. 1.24.7
24.34 Iren. 1.24.3; Hipp. Refut. 8.26.6; Jer. In Amos 3:10 (Adriaen p. 451)
24.35 At NHC’s Apocry. Jn. II,1 19,2-3 it is said that the 365 'angels' who have just been mentioned create, or rule over the members of the body; at PS 3.132 (MacDermot p. 342) 365 'leitourgoi' fulfil this function.
24.36 See n. 9.
24.37 Matt 20:18-19
24.38 Matt 20:22
24.39 1 Pet 3:18
24.40 1 Pet 4:1
24.41 Cf. 1 John 4:2-3.
24.42 Phil 28
24.43 Cf. Deut 28:66
24.44 John 14:6
24.45 Matt 18:7 and 7:23
24.46 Ps 74:11


Notes to Part 25.

25.1 This Sect's points of contact with PsT 1.6 and Fil. 33 suggest that one of its sources is Hipp. Synt. However, Epiph supplies many details from Irenaeus' reports of Gnostic teachings, in the conviction that Nicolaus is the father of the Gnostics (cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.36.3 Γνωστικῶν μὲν δὴ διαφοραὶ αἱ γνῶμαι .. . πολλῆς δὲ αὐτοῖς συστάσεως αἴτιος γεγένηται Νικόλαος ... and cf. Fil. 33.2). Iren. 1.26.3 and Hipp. Refut. 7.26.2-3 are based on Acts and Revelation. Fil. 33 is dependent upon Hipp. Synt. but might also draw on Epiph. This Sect also incorporates Epiph's interpretation of the story of Nicolaus' fall as told at Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.4.25.5-26.3/Eus. H. E. 3.24.2-4. Epiph agrees with the other heresiologists in considering Nicolaus the main source of Gnostic immorality, as Rev 2:14-15 would have suggested to them.
25.2 Acts 6:1-6. The same passage is used at Iren. 1.26.3; PsT l.6; Fil. 33.1.
25.3 At Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.4.25.5-26.3/Eus. H. E. 3.29.2 this story is intended to display Nicolaus' chastity. Epiph has interpreted it in accordance with his convictions about Nicolaus and the Nicolaitans. With 'as though from envy' etc., cf. Clement's πρὸς τῶν ἀποστόλων ὀνειδισθὲν ζηλoτυπίαν.
25.4 Epiph interprets the quotation made at Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.4.26.6/Eus. H. E. 3.29.2 παραχρήσασθαι τῇ σαρκὶ δεῖ, as 'one must misuse the flesh.' Clement, however, meant 'deny, discipline' the flesh, and interprets Nicolaus' act as intended to teach εγ̓κράτεια.
25.5 Clem. Strom. 3.4.26.6/Eus. H. E. 3.29.2: εἰς μέσον ἀγαγὼν τὴν γυναῖκα γῆμαι τῷ βoυλμένῳ ἐπέτρεψεν.
25.6 See Hipp. Refut. 7.36.3; Fil 33.1.
25.7 For Barbelo see Iren. 1.29.1; Fil. 33.2. In the Sethian tractates of NHC, Barbelo is regularly God's first emanation, the aeon of thought, and the source (sometimes the 'mother') of the other aeons. See especially Apocry. Jn. II,1 4,26-5,11; in other tractates, Gos. Egyp. (III,2) 42,11-12; 61.25-62,1; 69,3; Stel. Seth 121,20-25; Zost. 14,3-6; 53,10; 62,21; 119,23; 129,11; Melch. 5,27; 16,25-26; Mars. 4,11-12; 8,28-29; Allog. 51,12-17; 53,21-28; 59;1-9; Tri. Prot. 38,7-10; also, Gos. Judas 35,18.
25.8 For the Mother in the eighth heaven, see Iren. 1.30.4.
25.9 Iren. 1.30.5; Fil 33.3. In NHC the ignorant or wicked creator/ruler of the material universe is often named Ialdabaoth. See Apocry. Jn. 10,19;11,16; 35; 14;15; 19,23; 23,35-37; 24,12; Nat. Arc.95,5-13; 96,3-5; Orig. Wld. 100,1-26; 102,11-23; 103,1; SJC BG,3 119,14-15; Tri. Prot. 39,26-28. Cf. also Gos. Jud. 51,15. Ialdabaoth may originally have been a Jewish euphemism for JHVH Sabaoth; note that in the Hebrew alphabet, ד is one place removed from .ה
25.10 At Iren. 1.30.5 Sabaoth is the son of Iao. In the Sethian documents of NHC he is the son or creature of Ialdabaoth, never of Barbelo. For Sabaoth see Apocry. Jn. 9,25-10,19; Nat. Arc. 95,5-25; Or. Wld. 103,32-104,10;106,19-26; 113,12; 114,15-17; Gos. Egyp. 58,14-15.
25.11 Iren. 1.30.6. This interpretation of Isa 44:6 or 45:5 is common in NHC and Gnostic literature. In NHC see Apocry. Jn. II,1 11,18-22; Nat. Arc. 86,27-32; 94,19-23; Or. World 103,1-13; Gos. Egyp. III,2 58,23-59,1; 2 Apoc. Jas 56,23-57,1; Tri. Prot. 43,31-44,2, and for comparable ideas: Tri. Trac. 79,12-19; 84,3-6; 100,36-101,5; SJC 106,24-107,11; 1 Apoc. Jas. 35,13-17; Para. Shem 2.15-17.
25.12 Sophia weeps at the results of her activity at Apocry. Jn. II,1 13,30-14,1.
25.13 See n. 18.
25.14 Eph 5:12
25.15 Rev. 2:6. Cf. PsT 1.6.
25.16 For Prunicus see Iren. 1.29.4, and also 1.30.3; 7; 9; 11-12, where she plays the role of the fallen Sophia. In 7 and 9 she is the benefactress of Adam and Eve; in 11-12 she assists Elizabeth and Mary and is united with the Christ who descends from heaven. In Origen’s discussion of the Ophites at Cels. 6.34.1 she is 'a virgin and living soul'; at 6.35.2 a 'kind of wisdom.' For Prunicus in NHC, see Apocry. Jn. BG2: 51,4; Thunder 13,18; 19; Gr. Seth 50, 25-28. Macrae at Thunder 13,18 and Bullard and Gibbons at Gr. Seth 50,28 translate Prunicus as 'whore.'
25.17 This is reported of Basilides at Iren. 1.24.5.
25.18 Cf. Fil. 33.3. This is the Basilidean name for Christ at Iren. 1.24.6; at Hipp. Refut. 5.8.4 it is the Ophites’ heavenly Adamas.
25.19 Isa 28:10
25.20 Versions of this paragraph appear at PsT 1.6 and Fil. 33.4-5.
25.21 This is an interpretation of Gen 1:1. Cf. NHC’s Dia. Sav. 127,22-128,1; Para. Shem 1,25-28. With the entire paragraph cf. PsT 1.6.
25.22 Cf. Para. Shem 4,27-30.
25.23 Cf. At Iren. 1.31.2 we find Hysteran fabricatorem caeli et terrae vocant. 3,30-4,26 gives an account of the origin of Womb. In NHC an hypostatized Womb is not common outside of Para. Shem but see perhaps Int. Know. 3,26-32.
25.24 Cf. Para. Shem 5,6-27.
25.25 'Light and darkness, life and death, right and left' Gos. Phil. 53,14-15; 'My remaining garments, those on the right and those on the left' Para. Shem 39,12-14.
25.26 1 Cor 8:5
25.27 1 Cor 8:6
25.28 John 17:2
25.29 John 17:3
25.30 Cf. 1 Cor 7:25-26.
25.31 Cf. 1 Cor 7:32; 34.
25.32 Epiph plays on Γνώστικοι and κατάγνωστοι.


Notes to Part 26.

26.1 The organization of this material is Epiphanius' own. He has certainly drawn on Hipp. Synt. and on Gnostic works (see 17,8). He mentions at least eight of these by name, (see 1,3; 2,5;6; 8,1 and 11,12) though he may not have read all of them. However, he quotes from a Questions of Mary, a Gospel of Philip, and a Birth of Mary and is especially dependent upon the first (see Tardieu, and also Dummer, 'Angaben'). He also reports his own experience in Egypt, with a group which called themselves Gnostics, see 17,4-18,4. His placement of the 'Gnostics' here, in association with the Nicolaitans might be due to his reading of Irenaeus, see n. 2 below.
26.2 Cf. Iren. 1.28.2 Alii autem rursus a Basilide et Carpocrate occasiones accipientes, indifferentes coitus et multas nuptias induxerunt et neglegentiam ipsorum quae sunt idolothyta ad manducandum, non valde haec curare dicentes Deum. Cf. Pourkier p. 103.
26.3 Rom 1:14
26.4 CG IX,2 is entitled The Thought of Norea. Or. Wld. 102,10-22 refers to a first Book of Noraia, and 102,24-25 to a first Account of Oraia.
26.5 Cf. Fil. 33.2. Norea or Orea is Seth's sister and, as it were, represents the ideal Gnostic at Nat. Arc. 91,34-92,3; 92,19-93,13. She is Seth's sister and wife at Iren. 1.30.9. In the Mandaean Ginza she is Noah's wife at 46,4-5, Dinanukht's at 211,36; 39.
26.6 Epiph apparently connects Norea with nura, fire, because of the burning of the ark, see below at 1,8.
26.7 See Jub. 4.28. In the Genesis Apocryphon of the Qumran literature at 1QapGn col. 3 ll. 3; 8;12 (Wise et al. p. 76) Barthenos is Lamech's wife.
26.8 See 21,2,5 p. 65.
26.9 This story is found at Nat. Arc. 92,14-17.
26.10 The building of the ark requires 100 years at Apocalypse of Paul 50 (H-R II p. 740); 300 at Ginza 409,4-5; 120 at Genesis Rabbah 30.7.
26.11 At Apoc. Adam 69,1-75,14 Noah and his sons are represented as the servants of 'god the almighty' = Sakla, rather than of the real God.
26.12 See p. 65 n. 17.
26.13 Cf. Fil. 33.6. At Eus. H. E. 4.7.7 Basilides is said to regard Barkabbas and Bar Koph as prophets.
26.14 See p. 265 n. 4. Cf. Nat. Arc. 89,31-90,11; Or. Wld. 118,24-119,18. On the subject see Pagels.
26.15 Two spirits, a little one and a big one, appear at Dia. Sav. 136,17-23.
26.16 Variations of this formula appear at GT 108; PS 2.96 (MacDermot pp. 231; 232; 233; Acts of John 100 (H-S II p. 185) Corp. Herm. 5:11; Hipp. Refut. 5.9. And see Marcus' speech to his female partner at Iren. 1.13.3.
26.17 For comparable 'gathering' see Tri. Trac. 66,24-25; Thunder 16,18-19; Man. Keph. 228,1-12; Man. Ps. at Allberry I p. 175,19.
26.18 The source of this is unclear. Tardieu suggests Lev 5:1.
26.19 Cf. Ps. 54:24
26.20 Cf. Gos. Judas 38,16-19: (Some 'priests') sacrifice their own children, others their wives, 'in praise and humility with each other.'
26.21 ὡς ἔπος εἰπεῖν τὰς φλέβας τοῦ κόπου ἐμπλήσαντες Or: practically stuffing the boy's (κόρου) veins. Epiph could be recalling some experience of his own.
26.22 So Benko. Tardieu renders simply fais l'amour.
26.23 Rather than to the gnostic god
26.24 The practice is mentioned, and sharply condemned at PS 4.147 (MacDermot p. 381) and 2 Jeu 43 (MacDermot p. 100). Christians are accused of it by Mandaeans at Ginza 229,20-22.
26.25 Cf. Rev 22:1-2. Epiph might have mistaken the source of the quotation, or indeed seen it so worded in some apocryphon.
26.26 See the polemic against procreation at Test. Tr. 30,2-17.
26.27 Mandaeans accuse Christians of this at Ginza 136,12-13.
26.28 Fasting is condemned for other reasons. at GT 14; 104 and at Gos. Judas 40,12-13. The Mandaean Ginza 136,12-13; 34-39 condemns the Christian practice of fasting.
26.29 The 'God of the Law' as such is condemned at Test. Tr. 45,23-48,26.
26.30 Matt 11:7
26.31 Matt 11:11
26.32 Matt 11:8
26.33 Matt 11:11
26.34 Cf. The titles of CG VII,2, The Second Treatise of the Great Seth, and CG VII,5, The Three Steles of Seth.
26.35 Cf. The title of CG V,5, The Apocalypse of Adam.
26.36 Matt 14:31
26.37 Cf. John 3:12.
26.38 John 6:62
26.39 John 6:53
26.40 John 6:60
26.41 Ps. 1:3
26.42 Prov. 5:15
26.43 This idea is fundamental to Manichaean practice: see, e.g., Man. Keph. 191,16-17; 212,10-22; 236,7-27. And see Iren. 1.30.14: consummationem autem futuram, quando tota humectatio spiritus luminis collegatur.
26.44 A comparable idea is found at PS 25 (MacDermot pp. 34-35) Man. Keph. 124,3-6; 210,24-25; Man. Hom. 27,11-16; Corp. Herm. 10.7.
26.45 See n. 78.
26.46 For the powers 'each in its own name' see Clem. Strom. 3.4.29.2, and cf. Iren. 1.31.2.
26.47 Comparable lists are found at Iren. 1.30.5; Orig Cels. 6,31; Apocry. Jn. II,1 11,19-12,33.
26.48 In NHC Saklas ('Fool') is an alternate name for Ialdabaoth at Nat. Arc. 95,5-8. At Gos. Egyp. 56,16-19 he is the 'begetting spirit of the earth'; at Apoc. Ad. 74,7-30 'the god of the aeons'; at Apocry. Jn. 16,32, a demon. At Gos. Judas 51 Yaltabaoth and Saklas are among the twelve angels who rule over the abyss.
26.49 At Or. Wld. 121,28-35 Sophia Zoe lives in the 'first heaven.' At Eug. 89,9 the heavens are made for the glory of Immortal Man and Sophia his consort.
26.50 αὐτογενής. The 'divine Autogenes' or the like is found in five NHC tractates, most often in Apocry. Jn., Gos. Egyp. and Zost. At Apocry. Jn. II,1 7,19-20; 8,23; 9,1-2 the divine Autogenes is 'the Christ' or 'Christ.'
26.51 αὐτολόχευτον. 'The divine Autogenes, Christ,' is found at Apocry. Jn. II.1 9,2 and III,1 13,6; 11,8-9; 'the great Logos, the Autogenes' at Gos. Egyp. III,2 50,18-19; 'the great self-begotten living Word' at Gos. Egyp. IV,2 60,1-2; 65,5-6; 66,17-18. The expression, 'Self-begotten Christ' as such does not occur in NHC but see the preceding note.
26.52 See Or. Wld. 105, 25-29, .... another being, called Jesus Christ, who resembles the saviour above in the eighth heaven and who sits at his right upon a revered throne ....
26.53 An ass-faced archon is mentioned, e.g., at Apocry Jn. 11, 27-28; the fragment of Jeu at MacDermot, Books of Jeu, p. 141; Orig. Cels. 6.30.
26.54 A pig-faced archon is mentioned at 2 Jeu 43 (MacDermot, Books of Jeu, p. 101).
26.55 'Filled' is a term of approbation common in the religious literature of the early Christian centuries. See, among many other examples, 1 Cor 4:8; Eph 3:19; Col 2:10 and in NHC Apocry. Jas. 2,29-35; 3,34-37.
26.56 For the dragon-shaped archon see, e.g., Apocry. Jn. II,1 11,30-32; Man. Keph. 33,33; 77,33; Man. Ps. 57,18 (Allberry II p. 208).
26.57 See PS 3.126 (MacDermot pp. 317-319) and cf. 1.26-27 (MacDermot pp. 36-38); in Mandean literature Ginza 433,36; Johannesbuch 191,4-5; in NHC perhaps Dia. Sav. 122.19.
26.58 Cf. The long-haired temptress archon Paraplex is found at PS 4.139 (MacDermot p. 359).name, but a term of praise for the Godhead. (12) Translated from Hebrew, 'Sabaoth' means 'Lord of hosts.' Wherever 'Sabaoth' occurs in the Old Testament, it suggests a host; hence Aquila everywhere renders 'Adonai Sabaoth' as 'Lord of armies.”
26.59 Eph. 4:28
26.60 Jude 10
26.61 Jude 8-10
26.62 Rom 3:8
26.63 Rom 1:27
26.64 Hipp. Refut. 6.19.5 says, of Simonians, μακαρίζουσιν ἐαυτοὺς ἐπὶ τῇ ξένῃ μίξει, ταύτην εἶναι λέγοντες τὴν τέλειαν ἀγάπην.
26.65 2 Tim 3:6
26.66 Epiph makes the same accusation in Sect 63, against the group he calls 'The first type of Origenist, who are shamefully behaved as well.'
26.67 Cf. Iren. I.30.10-11.
26.68 Cf. Tacitus Historiae 4; Tert. Apol. 16.1-5, and see n. 43 above.
26.69 Cf. Exod 28:33-34.
26.70 Luke 1:17
26.71 The quotation which follows is not found in the NHC Gospel of Philip.
26.72 The soul makes such a speech at Iren. 1.21.5; Orig. Cels. 6.31; and in NHC at Apoc. Paul 23,1-28; 1 Apoc. Jas 33,2-36,1, and see Cod. Tch. James 19,26-22,20. There may be a reference to it at Apocry. Jas. 8,35-36. See also Gos. Mary BG 8502,1 15,1-17,7. At PS 3.112 (MacDermot pp. 286-291) the soul escapes the archons by repeating mysteries to them; a speech for it to make is found on p. 289.
26.73 Gershom Scholem suggested that this is a parody of a Jewish story in which the prophet Elijah vanquishes the demoness Lilith. See Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, pp. 73-74.
26.74 This folk belief is attested at the Mandean Ginza 50,8-11. At Corp. Herm. 9.3 it is used as an image of the mind and its ideas.
26.75 Jude 8
26.76 Isa 56:10
26.77 Cf. Jude 10.
26.78 1 Tim 5:11; 14
26.79 Ps. 1:3; 2
26.80 I.e., their devil-inspired madness is reflected in their inability to interpret scripture correctly.
26.81 2 John 10
26.82 2 John 1:7; 1 John 2:18
26.83 Luke 20:35-36
26.84 See 16,1 below
26.85 John 20:7
26.86 Wisd Sol 3:13-14
26.87 1 Cor 7:32; 34
26.88 Heb 13:4
26.89 Rom 1:27
26.90 2 Tim 3:1;2;4
26.91 1 Tim 4:2-3
26.92 Ps 73:13-14
26.93 Cf. Ps.-Clem Hom. 4.16.2.
26.94 Text: ἐλπίς Holl: σύστασις.
26.95 Exod 15:1
26.96 ἀπατώμενοι persons to be deceived. For 'dupes,' meaning those who are already members of a sect, Epiph normally says ἠπατημένοι.
26.97 Ps 63:8
26.98 Ps. 63:8
26.99 1 Pet 2:21
26.100 ἀπειρώδινος ἔχιδνα.
26.101 Rom 1:27


Notes to Part 27.

27.1 This Sect reads like an expansion of Iren. 1.25.1-6, although the repetitiousness of the sentences in 2,2-7 suggests a combination of this source with Hipp. Synt. Hipp. Refut. 7.32 reads like a condensation of Irenaeus. Justin Dial. 35.6 and Orig. Cels. 5.62 mention Carpocratians/Harpocratians. Eus. H. E. 4.7.9-11 and Tert. De Anima 23.2; 35.1-2 are dependent on Irenaeus. The brief PsT 3.1 and Fil 35 agree more closely with each other than with Irenaeus or Hipp. Refut. and may represent Hipp. Synt.
27.2 Iren. 1.25.1; PsT 3.1; Fil. 35.1.
27.3 Cf. PsT 3.1; Fil. 35.2. However, the material from this point through 3,11 is taken almost word for word from Iren. 1.25.1-2. Cf. also Hipp. Refut. 7.32.1-3.
27.4 See also PsT 3.1; Fil. 35.2. And perhaps cf. Melch. 5,2-3: they will say of him that he is unbegotten though he has been begotten.
27.5 See also PsT 3.1; Fil. 35.3.
27.6 For the carousel see Plato Phaedrus 347B-D, 348.
27.7 Cf. Test. Tr. 29,26-27: the defilement of the Law is manifest.
27.8 Holl: καταργῆσαι; Text: πρᾶξαι.
27.9 Cf. Tert. De Anima 23.
27.10 Cf. Apocry. Jas. 10,34-38; Gos. Tr. 41,3-7; Nat. Arc. 96,19-22; GT 49; 50; Man. Keph. 63,14-15; the Mandean Ginza 176,38-177,2 and passim.
27.11 For equality with or superiority to Jesus, cf. Apocry. Jas. 4,32-5,3; 5,13; 6, 9-21. The Apocry. Jas passages, however, probably refer to martyrdom.
27.12 With the following paragraph cf. Iren. 1.25.3 and Hipp. Refut. 7.32.5.
27.13 Cf. Corp. Herm I.32.
27.14 With the next paragraph cf. Iren. 1.25.2-3.
27.15 See Iren. 1.25.3.
27.16 Rom 3:8
27.17 The distinction between conventional 'good' and 'evil' is deprecated at Gos. Phil. 53,14-20; 66,9,13.
27.18 Epiph may have deduced this from Iren. 1.25.4: ... uti et omnia quecumque sunt irreligiosa et impia in potestate habere et operari si dicant.
27.19 With 5,1-3 cf. Iren. 1.25.4.
27.20 Matt 5:25-26. For Gnostic uses of this verse see Test. Tr. 30,15-17; PS 3.113 (MacDermot, pp. 294-296).
27.21 A NHC example of punishment by reincarnation is found at Apoc. Paul 21,19-21.
27.22 I.e.: accuser
27.23 With 6-7 cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.32.7; Iren. 1.25.4.
27.24 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.32.7.
27.25 Iren. 1.25.5: Jesum dicentes .... illos expostulasse, ut dignis et adsentientibus seorsum haec traderent.
27.26 Cf. Iren. 1.25.6; Hipp. Refut. 7.32.8.
27.27 Iren. 1.25.6
27.28 Cf. Iren. 3.3.3; Eus. H. E. 5.6.1-2.
27.29 1 Clem. 54.1
27.30 6,1 gives a sort of list. Pourkier renders: en tête de la liste.
27.31 Cf. Iren. 1.25.6.
27.32 ἐν ὑστερήματι. Pourkier: ce n'est plus dans l'Avorton qui'il faudra chercher celui qui a fait Joseph et Marie.


Notes to Part 28.

28.1 The source of the information in the opening portions of this Sect is Irenaeus, upon whom Hipp. Synt. seems to be dependent. The very short summary notice at PsT 3.2 might be drawn from Hipp. Synt. Filaster may have used Hipp. Synt., Epiph or both. Either by conjecture or from oral tradition, Epiph makes Cerinthus, who he believes taught the necessity of circumcision, the instigator of the controversies about circumcision which the NT records in Acts, 1 Corinthians and Galatians.
28.2 With 1,2-7 cf. Iren. I.26.1; Hipp Refut. 7.33; PsT 3.2.
28.3 With 28,3 cf. PsT 3.2; Fil. 36.1.
28.4 So at PS 2.63 (MacDermot p. 129). The idea is also found at Apoc. Adam 76,28-77,3; 77,16-18; Gr. Seth 51,20-24; Tri. Prot. 50, 12-15; Test. Tr. 30,18-28. At Tri. Trac. 125,5-9 'the Word' descends upon Jesus.
28.5 Iren. 26.1: et tunc ... virtutes perfecisse. And so at Hipp. Refut. 33.2.
28.6 Cf. Apoc. Adam 77,9-18; Tri. Prot. 50,12-15.
28.7 Cf. 1 Apoc. Jas. 31,17-22, 'I am he who was within me. Never have I suffered in any way, nor have I been distressed, and this people has done me no harm,' and cf. Cod. Tch. James 18,6-11. See also Apoc. Adam 77,9-18; G. Seth 55,14-56,14; Apoc. Pet. 81,7-83,8.
28.8 Cf. Fil. 36.4-5: Hic sub apostolis beatis quaestionem seditionis commovit, dicens debere circumcidi homines, etc.
28.9 Acts 15:24
28.10 Acts 11:4-12
28.11 Or, with Klijn and Rinnick: He did everything to propagate circumcision, ostensibly because the believers among the gentiles offered opposition against it, but in reality because he was circumcised himself.
28.12 Acts 10:47
28.13 Cf. Acts 21:28.
28.14 Gal 2:5
28.15 Gal 5:2
28.16 Gal. 2:3-5
28.17 Acts 15:1
28.18 2Cor ll:13
28.19 I.e., their use of Matthew shows that they are masquerading as apostles.
28.20 Cf. Fil. 36.3. Iren. 1.26.2 says this of the Ebionites; however, Cerinthus is mentioned in the same passage.
28.21 Matt 10:25
28.22 Cf. Fil. 36.2: Docet autem circumcidi et sabbatizari.
28.23 Iren. 1.26.2
28.24 Gal 5:4
28.25 Gal 5:2
28.26 So at Fil. 36.2
28.27 1 Cor 15:16
28.28 1 Cor 15:32
28.29 1 Cor 15:33
28.30 1 Cor 15:14-15
28.31 1 Cor 15:29
28.32 Cf. Acts of Paul 8.1.12 (H-S II p. 254).
28.33 1 Cor 15:33
28.34 1 Cor 15:20
28.35 Isa. 7:14
28.36 Luke 1:34-35
28.37 Matt 1:18
28.38 John 19:26-27
28.39 Ancoratus 60,1; Pan. 78,7f


Notes to Part 29.

29.1 See p. 47 n. 27. This Sect seems to be based on Epiph’s personal knowledge, though he has conjectured its history from passages in scripture and Eusebius.
29.2 Eusebius, at H. E. 2.17.4 says that the first Christians were not everywhere known as such.
29.3 Epiphanius bases this on his memory of the term Ἐσσαῖοι, which Philo uses at Vita Contemplativa 1 for the group Eusebius calls Therapeutae. On the subject see Pourkier p. 113.
29.4 Ps 109:4
29.5 Gen 22:16
29.6 Cf. Heb 6:13.
29.7 Cf. John 6:15; 11:54.
29.8 Gen 49:10
29.9 Cf. Jer. Chron. 160,16-17 (Helm).
29.10 Cf. Eus. Chron. 61,12-14 (Karst); Jer. Chron. 148,6-8 (Helm). Eusebius' Chronicle might be the source of Epiphanius’ explanation.
29.11 Another version of this is found at Jer. Chron. 148,11-14 (Helm).
29.12 This might have come from Orig. Hom. in Sam. Frgt. 4 (Klostermann, SC 3, p. 296) καταγνοὺς οῦν τοῦ Σαοὺλ καὶ βουλόμενος τῷ Δαυὶδ τὰ τῆς ἀρχῆς καὶ τῷ σπέρματι αὐτοῦ φυλᾶξαι τὴν βασιλείαν διὰ τὸν ἐξ αὐτοῦ τεχθησόμενον κατὰ σάρκα βασιλέα τῆς κτίσεως ἁπάσης
29.13 The substance of this argument appears at a Justin Apol. 32.1-3; Dial. 11.4; 52.2-4; 120.3-5; 126.1; Iren. 4.10.2; Eus. H. E. 1.6.1-2; 4; 8; Demonstratio 7.
29.14 πρύτανις
29.15 Eus. H. E. 2.1-2
29.16 I.e., thus confirming the fact that Christ was πρύτανις of high priests
29.17 Cf. Jer. Vir. Ill. 2. Jerome believes he was the son of “Mary, the sister of the Lord’s mother” (Richardson p. 7).
29.18 For example at Ancoratus 60,1 ff
29.19 Eus. H. E. 2.23.5
29.20 Eus. H. E. 2.23
29.21 This is said of John at Eus. H. E. 3.31.3.
29.22 Heb 5:6
29.23 John 18:36
29.24 I.e., Heb 3:5
29.25 'Healer' or 'physician' might be what Epiph, with his knowledge of Hebrew and Aramaic, makes of θεραπευταί. See below and cf. Eus. H. E. 2.17.3 ἤτoι παρὰ τὸ τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν πρoσιόντων αὐτoῖς τῶν ἀπὸ κακίας παθῶν ἰατρῶv δίκηv ... θεραπεύειv.
29.26 5,1-2 is based on Eus. H. E. 2.17.1-24.
29.27 Epiph here conflates Eus. H. E. 2.17.16-17 with 2.17.21-22.
29.28 Eus. H. E. 2.17.8
29.29 See Eus. H. E. 16.1-17.1.
29.30 Acts 2:22
29.31 Luke 1:15
29.32 Acts 24:5
29.33 Acts 24:12-14
29.34 Matt 2:23
29.35 This is said of the Ebionites at Iren. 1.26.2. Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.34.1; PsT 3.
29.36 Cf. Iren. 1.26.2 (of the Ebionites); Eus. H. E. 3,27.3.
29.37 Cf. Jer. Vir. Ill.3 (Richardson p. 9).
29.38 Cf. Eus. H. E. 17.14.
29.39 Cf. Eus. H. E. 3.5.3.
29.40 Gal 3:10
29.41 Cf. Gal 3:22.
29.42 Cf. Justin Apol. I 47.5-6.
29.43 Cf. Gal 3:22.
29.44 Gal 3:10 and Deut 27:26
29.45 Acts 15:28-29
29.46 Gal 5:2-4
29.47 Some variation of the prayer, 'For the apostates let there be no hope, and let the rule of wickedness be uprooted swiftly, in our days, and let the notsrim ( נצרים , Christians) and sectarians (מינים) perish in an instant,' etc. is found in the great majority of the liturgical MSS of the Cairo Genizah See Pourkier, and especially Ehrlich and Langer, 'Earliest Texts,' pp. 63-112. For Christian references to the prayer, see Justin Dial. 16; 47; Jer. In Isa 5:18-19 (Adriaen, CC 73 p. 76); Orig. Cels. 2.29.
29.48 Cf. Eus. H. E. 3.24.6; 39.16; 5.10.3; Theophania 4.12; Jer. Vir. Ill. 3; C. Pelag. 3.2. The Ebionites are said to use the Gospel according to Matthew and none other at Iren. 1.26.2; Eus. H. E. 3.27.4.


Notes to Part 30.

30.1 Epiphanius draws on Hipp. Synt. which is his source for the name, 'Ebion,' probably on Irenaeus, and certainly on some version of the Clementina, which he calls the Travels of Peter and which Strecker (Judenchristentum) suggests was the Grundschrift of the Clementina. Epiphanius mentions, as a separate document, the Ascents of James, (now Clem. Rec. 1.33-70). He appears to know the Letter of Clement to James, and some other 'Epistles of Clement,' which might be the ones called the Epistles Concerning Virginity. At 13,2 Epiphanius quotes an extract from an 'Ebionite' Gospel according to Matthew; some of his other information is from oral sources. PsT 3.3 depends upon Hipp. Synt. Tertullian, who speaks of an 'Ebion,' may also have known this work. Origen, on the other hand, may have had some personal contact with Jewish Christianity. So may Eusebius (H. E. 3.27.4), although he seems to follow Origen.
30.2 For the name, Ebion, see Hipp. Refut. 7.34.1; PsT 3.3; Jer. Adv. Lucif. 23; Doctr. Pat. 41; Tert. Carn. Chr. 14; 18; 24; Virg. Vel. 6; Praescr. 10; 33
30.3 Prov 5:14
30.4 Iren. 3.21.1; Eus. H. E. 3.27.2; Origen Cels. 5.61; in Matt 16:12; Tert. Carn. Chr. 14
30.5 At Jos. Bell. 2.119 Essenes are said to wash after touching foreigners. Cf. the various regulations forbidding contact with gentiles which are found in the Covenant of Damascus, CD 11,14 (Wise et al. p. 69); 12,6-11 (p. 70). At Clem Hom. 13.4.3 it is said that Christians do not eat at a gentile table.
30.6 Cf. Lev 15:18; Clem. Hom. 7.8.2.
30.7 At Hipp. Refut. 9.15.4-6 the Book of Elxai is said to prescribe this procedure for a person bitten by a mad dog.
30.8 Cf. Ep. Clem. Ad Jac. 7.1-2, and see p. 49, 19,7.
30.9 See the First Epistle of the Blessed Clement, the Disciple of Peter the Apostle, 1: 'to the blessed brother virgins .... to the holy sister virgins ...' (Roberts and Donaldson, p. 55).
30.10 Cf. Matt 4:25.
30.11 With 3,3-5 cf. Hipp. Refut. 9.14.1.
30.12 Adam has the Spirit of Christ and is therefore the first appearance in the world of the true prophet: Clem. Hom. 3.20-21; Rec. 1.45.4.
30.13 Clem. Hom. 3.20.2.
30.14 Loc. cit.
30.15 See p. 119 n. 14.
30.16 Cf. Iren. 1.26.2; 3.11.7; Eus. H. E. 3.27.4; Jer. C. Pelag 3.2; Vir. Ill. 3 (Richardson p. 8).
30.17 Cf. Eus. In Isa 18:1-2; Jer. In Gal 1:1 (Raspanti p. 11).
30.18 Cf. Matt 18:18.
30.19 ἀλλὰ τῆς ἰδίας ὡς εἰπεῖν φύσεως ἐκτὸς ἐγένετο
30.20 Cf. Lk 3:23
30.21 Cf. Matt 4:18. What precedes is a combination of the Gospel passages Mark 1:21; 29; Matt 5:2; Matt 4:18.
30.22 Cf. Matt 10:2-4; Luke 6:14-16. The list given here, however, is not identical with either.
30.23 Cf. Matt 9:9.
30.24 Cf. Clem. Rec. 1.40.4; Clem. Alex. Strom. 6.418.2.
30.25 Cf. Matt 3:4-5; Num 11:8.
30.26 Cf. Luke 1:5; Mark 1:4-5.
30.27 This is closest to Luke 3:21-22.
30.28 Heb. 1:5; Ps 2:7; Gospel according to the Hebrews H-S I p. 169 which, however, is a quoted from Epiph. There is no other source for the quotation.
30.29 Cf. Justin Dial. 7.
30.30 Acts 9:5
30.31 Cf. Matt 3:17
30.32 Matt 12:47-50
30.33 The Clementina are at least suspicious of the prophets. Ep. Pet. Ad Jac. 1.4 warns of being confused by their contradictory utterances. Cf. Clem. Hom. 3.53.2. For a Nag Hammadi attack on the prophets see GT 52.
30.34 This seems implied at Clem Hom. 11.1.1-2; Rec. 4.3.1; 8.1.1. See, however, Strecker, Judenchristentum p. 208.
30.35 Cf. Clem. Hom. 8.15.3-4.
30.36 See Clem. Hom. 3.19.2; 20.2.1-2; Rec. 7.3-4. At Clem. Hom. 8.21.1-2 the 'king of the present' (Satan) tempts the 'king of the future' (Christ). In Manichean literature see Man. Hom. 41,18-20.
30.37 Cf. Clem. Hom. 2.44.2; 3.26.3; 3.45.1-2; 56.4, and Rec. 1.37 1.39.12. Mandean literature deprecates the sacrifices, e.g. at Ginza 9,83; 33,2; 43,8-10.
30.38 Cf. Ep. Pet. Ad Jac. 2.5; Clem. Rec. 1.70-71. Ebionite opposition to Paul is mentioned at Iren. 1.26.2; Orig. Cels. 5.65; Hom. 19 in Jer. 18:12 (Klostermann p. 167).
30.39 Cf. Acts 21:39.
30.40 Eusebius gives a comparable explanation at H. E. 3.27.1. He knows nothing of an 'Ebion.'
30.41 Cf. Acts 4:34-35.
30.42 See p. 133 n. 2.
30.43 A shorter version of these 'witnesses' is found at Ep. Pet. Ad Jac. 4.1.
30.44 The Book of Joshua is appended to the Samaritan Pentateuch, perhaps for similar reasons.
30.45 Ebionites are said to repudiate the canonical prophets at Method. Conviv. 8.10.
30.46 This idea recurs many times in the Clementina. A good specimen is found at Rec. 8.59-62.
30.47 Hipp. Refut. 7.34.2: καὶ γὰρ τὸν ’Ιησοῦν λέγουσι δικαιοῦσθαι ποιήσαντα τὸν νόμον, · διὸ καὶ Χριστὸν αὐτὸν καὶ υἱὸν θεοῦ ὠνομᾶσθαι.
30.48 Clem. Hom. 16.l5.2: 'Our Lord neither asserted that there were gods except the Creator of all, not did he proclaim himself to be God.' This, however, is a late passage by an Anomoean author.
30.49 Clem. Hom. 2.38.1; 45-52; 18.19-20. The Clementina regard any anthropopathic material in the Pentateuch as a corruption of the Law God originally gave to Moses.
30.50 Matt. 11:18-19
30.51 Luke 24:42-43; John 21:12
30.52 Isa. 7:11;14
30.53 Isa. 66:6-9
30.54 Jerem 17:9
30.55 Jerem 17:9
30.56 Luke 1:34-35
30.57 John 13:8-10
30.58 Matt. 15:8-9
30.59 Matt. 15:20
30.60 Mark 14:12-15
30.61 Luke 22:15
30.62 I.e., the expression τοῦτο.
30.63 Luke 22:15
30.64 Acts 11:7-9
30.65 The Act of Peter, BG 8502,4, is the legend of Peter’s daughter.
30.66 Cf. Rom. 14:20 and 1 Tim. 4:3.
30.67 John 1:1
30.68 John 1:23
30.69 John 2:16-17
30.70 John 12:41
30.71 Cf. Iren. 3.3.4.
30.72 Phil. 3:5; Gal. 1:14
30.73 2 Cor. 11:22
30.74 Phil.3:5; Acts 22:3
30.75 2 Pet. 3:15-16
30.76 Gal. 2:9
30.77 Isa. 23:12
30.78 1 Macc. 1:1
30.79 I.e., at 25,2
30.80 Exod. 2:18-20
30.81 Cf. Iren. 1.26.2.
30.82 Cf. PsT 3.3.
30.83 There is a lacuna here.
30.84 Job 38:11
30.85 The word might originally have referred to the Gorgon’s head on Athena’s breastplate.
30.86 Cf. Matt. 5:17.
30.87 Cf. Exod. 4:25.
30.88 Cf. Isa. 9:5-6.
30.89 Cf. John 12:20-22.
30.90 Gen. 17:17
30.91 Gen. 15:9
30.92 Gen. 15:13
30.93 Gen. 17:17
30.94 Matt. 2:16
30.95 Luke 2:14
30.96 Luke 2:11
30.97 Luke 2:48
30.98 Luke 4:22
30.99 Luke 2:48-49
30.100 Luke 2:48
30.101 Luke 3:23
30.102 Isa. 7:14
30.103 This quotation is from the Apocryphon of Ezekiel. See Charlesworth I, p. 494, Fragment 3.
30.104 I.e., the Ebionites
30.105 Numb. 19:2
30.106 Deut. 4:24
30.107 Numb. 19:2
30.108 Isa. 8:1
30.109 Cf. Gen. 49:9.
30.110 Isa. 8:1
30.111 Ps. 138:16.
30.112 Ps. 138:16
30.113 Susannah 42
30.114 Isa. 8:1
30.115 Luke 1:35
30.116 Cf. 1 Tim. 2:5.
30.117 Isa. 8:3
30.118 Isa. 7:14
30.119 2 Kms. 18:1-2
30.120 Luke 1:48
30.121 Cf. Gen. 5:29.
30.122 Matt. 12:8
30.123 Matt 10:25
30.124 John 15:21
30.125 John 13:13
30.126 Matt. 10:25
30.127 Matt. 10:24; Luke 6:40
30.128 1 Cor. 1:11
30.129 1 Cor. 15:8-9
30.130 Mark 2:11; John 3:8-16


Notes to Part 31.

31.1 Sect 31 is largely dependent upon Irenaeus; 9,1-32,8 are taken verbatim from Iren. Praef.-1.11.1. However, 5,3-56,1 reproduce an otherwise unknown Valentinian source. The details of Valentinus' biography are drawn from oral information. The earliest mention of Valentinians is found at Justin Dial. 35.6. Tertullian’s tractate Adversus Valentianos is dependent upon Irenaeus. PsT 4.1-6 is very like Irenaeus but differences in detail suggest that it might represent Hipp. Synt. Fil. 38 seems to combine material from Hipp. Refut. with Hipp. Synt. and may show a knowledge of Epiph. Hipp. Refut. 6,29.21-36 and the NHC Tripartite Tractate (I,5) and document XI,2 of NHC are independent of any sources we know. Epiph uses neither, but they have various points of contact with him and Irenaeus.
31.2 See Iren. 1.29.1.
31.3 Hesiod Theogony 116. For the comparison of Valentinus' teaching with Hesiod see Iren. 2.14.1f (though Irenaeus says Antiphanes instead of Hesiod). Hipp. Refut. compares it instead with Pythagoras.
31.4 There are only 29 'names'; either a word has fallen out, or Epiphanius has miscounted. The text of Epiphanius actually gives 33 words, of which Holl eliminated four as duplications. The sense is irrecoverable; Holl suggests that the whole may have been a Hebrew or Aramaic prayer or the like, which has been corrupted into unintelligibility.
31.5 This list is identical with the one found at Hipp. Refut. 6.29-30.
31.6 Iren. 1l.13. See n. 9
31.7 Of the above, only the first eight correspond with the names given at Theogony 116-125.
31.8 For 'Demiurge' in NHC see Tri. Trac. 104,32-106,5; Ascl. 73,24-26; 75,13-15; Silv. 100,3-14; Val. Exp. 37,32; 38,25; 39,16.
31.9 To equate the Demiurge with 'Defect' Epiph may here have combined Iren. 1.5.2 with 1.16.3: factorem caeli et terrae .... ex altera labe facta emissum ... Cf. Tert. Adv. Val. 18.1. ὑστέρημα, 'defect,' may also be translated 'deficiency.' However, Defect is not a person in any known Gnostic document. The noun occurs in 16 NHC tractates and in the Cod. Tch. Let. Pet. and Gos. Jud., usually meaning the lack of something, or incompleteness or faultiness. The filling of it is a key idea in Gos. Tr., see 16,31-17,4; 18,31-19,10; 24,55-26,39; cf. Apocry. Jas. 3,34-4,22. A few times the term stands for the entire realm outside the pleroma, e.g. at NHC VIII,2 Let. Pet. 135,15-20: And when she spoke the Arrogant One laid hold of (a piece of Sophia), and it became a deficiency (= Cod.Tch. 1 3,24-27). For this meaning cf. Tri. Trac. 81,8-10; 84,5; Or. Wld. 103,25-27; 124,5-7. At the non-Gnostic Silv. 101,31-34 it means the created world.
31.10 Cf. Iren. 1.5.2: Et propter hoc Ebdomadum vocant eum, Matrem aut Achamoth Ogodada, servantem numerum primogenitae Pleromatis Ogdoadis. Hebdomad and Ogdoad are also proper names at Hipp. 6.31-37.
31.11 Epiph here erroneously makes Jesus a name for Limit, and combines Limit's restoration of Sophia with Saviour's restoration of Achamoth at Iren. 1.4.5. With the whole, cf. Hipp. 6.31.5-6; Tert. Adv. Val. 10.3; Exc. Theod. 35.1; 42.1-3; Tri. Trac. 75,10-17; 76, 31-34; 82,10-11. For an almost lyrical presentation of Limit see Val. Exp. 25,22-37. Also note Mand PB 256 (Drower p. 213). Limit does not descend to earth in any known Gnostic work.
31.12 Iren. 1.7.2; PsT 4.5; Test Tr. 45,14-16
31.13 Cf. Gr. Seth 57,7-11.
31.14 I.e., Exepaphus is the aeon without a female. Eight names follow, 'the ogdoad.'
31.15 See n. 6 p. 78.
31.16 μέγεθος or its Coptic equivalent occurs in NHC as a name for the Supreme Being at Apocry. Jas. 15,25-26; Gr. Seth 57,8; Para. Shem 1,6 and passim.
31.17 See n. 50 p. 100.
31.18 Cf. Gos. Tr. 22,27-33; Tri. Trac. 60, 1-34; 72,19-24.
31.19 Depth is both male and female at Iren. 1.11.5. Perhaps comparable is Ascl. 20-21 (Festugière pp. 320-323).
31.20 Eug. 73,6-9; SJC 96,1-3
31.21 Iren. 1.1.1; 1.13.2. For an hypostatized Grace in NHC see Apocry. Jas. 1,5; Apocry. Jn. 4,8; 8,2-8; Gos. Egyp. III,2 52,3-16 and possibly Treat. Res. 45,13.
31.22 For Silence in NHC see Apocry. Jn. 40,10-13; Gos. Egyp. III,2 40,18; 41,10 and passim; Eug. 88,5-11; SJC 112,7-10; Tri. Prot. 46,13.
31.23 Almost the same statement is made at Eug. 88,7-11; SJC 112,9-10; Exc. Theod. 7.1-3. Cf. Such Manichaean passages as Man. Keph. 116,13.
31.24 Tri. Trac. 57,26-27: 'Yet (the Son) wanted (his fruit) to be known.'
31.25 For ἐθήλυνε
31.26 Cf. the expression 'man of light' which is common in Gnostic and comparable literature; for example at GT 24 and passim in PS.
31.27 Cf. Exc. Theod. 36.2.
31.28 προυνικίαν.
31.29 Cf. Iren. 1.1.1; Hipp. Refut. 6.29.5-7.
31.30 Cf. Iren. 1.1.1; Hipp. Refut. 6.29.5-7.
31.31 The dodecad is mentioned without naming its members.
31.32 προυνίκων. Amidon renders: procreative powers.
31.33 Cf. Iren. 1.1.2 and Hipp. Refut. 6.30.1-5. At Val. Exp. 30,16-20 the decad and dodecad are προυνίκων.
31.34 For the completion of the thirty see also Val. Exp. 30,16-20.
31.35 Or, with Amidon: and when they reach it, finding no further number go back and count up to it again. For the thought cf. 1 Apoc. Jas 27,1-5: 'If you want to give (the 72 heavens) a number now, you will not be able to do so until you cast away from yourself blind thought, this bond of flesh which encircles you.' Cf. Cod. Tch. James 13,5-23.
31.36 With 6,4 cf. Tri. Trac. 68,26-28: “(the Totalities) were drawn into a mingling and a combination and a unity with one another.”
31.37 Four great lights are elaborately named at Apocry. Jn. II,1 7,30-8,21; there, they are conscious.
31.38 For the common μεσότης see, e.g., Para. Shem 6,13; 13,16-17; PS 2.84 (McDermot p. 188); 2.86 (p. 197). At Gos. Phil. 66,8-16;76,33-36 the 'middle' is an undesirable state between 'this world' and 'the resurrection.'
31.39 Amidon: For whatever one does, unless one understands it completely, one does not do it.
31.40 Cf. Pst 4.5; Fil. 38.6.
31.41 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.36.3-4.
31.42 Iren. 3.4.3; Tert. Praescr. 30; Adv. Val. 4
31.43 Cf. Iren. 1.6.1; 7.5; Tri. Trac. 106,6-18.
31.44 Cf. Gos. Phil. 53,20-21.
31.45 A Manichaean variation on this theme is found at Man. Keph. 269, 17-25.
31.46 This is a slip on Epiph’s part, since at Iren. 1.7.5 this is said of the spiritual.
31.47 9,1-32,1 are quoted directly from Iren. Praef.-1.11.1.
31.48 1 Tim 1:4
31.49 ἀπιθανῶς contrasted with πιθανῶς above.
31.50 Matt 19:11
31.51 Matt 10:26
31.52 Eug. 74,21-23: 'the Lord of the Universe is not rightly called 'Father,' but προπάτωρ.'
31.53 At Hipp. Refut. 6.30.7 the Father is ῥίζα καὶ βάθος καὶ βύθος.
31.54 Hipp. Refut. 6.29.5: ἀναπαυόμενος αὐτὸς ἐν ἑαυτῷ
31.55 'Silence' is found with no alternative name at Hipp. Refut. 6.29.3
31.56 With 10,6-11 cf. Tert. Praescrip. 33. With 10,6-12 cf. PsT 4.1 and Fil. 38.3-4.
31.57 There are 13 occurrences of 'seed' in Tri. Trac. Particularly significant examples are found at 60,29-37; 61,1-8.
31.58 'Mind' appears in this role at Val. Exp. 22,31-36; 23,31-37; 24, 19-22.
31.59 This Tetrad also appears at Val. Exp. 29,26-37.
31.60 For Life in a comparable role see Val. Exp. 24,21-22; for Word and Life, Val. Exp. 29,26-37.
31.61 Cf. Val. Exp. 29,28; 31,36-37.
31.62 With this idea cf. Tri. Trac. 68,3-5.
31.63 Cf. Val. Exp. 30,16-17.
31.64 Cf. Val. Exp. 30,18-19.
31.65 Matt 20:1-16. At Apocry. Jas. 8,8-9 it is implied that only the author’s community knows the true sense of this parable.
31.66 Cf. Apocry. Jn. II,1 4,19-26.
31.67 Cf. Tri. Trac. 60,16-29.
31.68 A comparable role is played by the Father himself at Tri. Trac. 61,1-9.
31.69 The Father himself does this at Tri. Trac. 65,11-17; 71,35-72,10.
31.70 The aeons' search for their origin is also mentioned, e.g., at Gos. Tr. 17,4-13; Tri. Trac. 61,24-28; 71,7-11. At U 2.12 (MacDermot p. 229) the 'outside worlds' desire to 'see' the Father.
31.71 Sophia is found as a name nearly 100 times in NHC. Versions of the story of her fall appear at On Res. 46,35-37; Apocry. Jn. III,1 14,9-15,22; Nat. Arc. 94,1-18; Cod. Tch. James 21,12-15; PS 1.31 (McDermot pp. 45-46) and at Zost. 9,16-10,17 though this latter passage is mutilated. Gr. Seth 50,25-51,20 is related, and cf. Ginza 78,25-28. Often Sophia is absolved of blame. At 1 Apoc. Jas. not she but Achamoth is at fault. At Gos. Egyp. III,2 56,22-57,13 of her. At Or. Wld. 98,11-99,2 the difficulty is caused by her shadow; at Gos. Tr. 16,5-20 by 'the Totalities' ignorance. At Tri. Trac. 74,17-80,11 the protagonist is the Logos, not Sophia, and he is held to be blameless.
31.72 At Hipp. Refut. 6.30.6-9 Sophia’s fault is, not that she desires to attain the Father, but that she desires to emulate him by reproducing without a consort.
31.73 Cf. Gos. Tr. 17,10-11; Tri. Trac. 77,11-36.
31.74 For the Father's 'sweetness' cf. Tri. Trac. 77,11-27.
31.75 See Hipp. Refut. 6.32.5-6; Tri. Trac. 75,10-17; 76,31-34; 82,10-11. For an almost lyrical presentation of Limit see Val. Exp. 25,22-37.
31.76 Cf. PsT 4.2.
31.77 Material related to this is found at Hipp. Refut. 6.30.9; Gos. Tr. 17,10-36; Tri. Trac. 78,8-17; 95,2-6; Apocry. Jn. 9,25-10,19; Orig. Wld. 99,3-100,28; Zost. 9,16-17; Ginza 78,25-28.
31.78 The female parent contributes only its matter to the offspring, while the male contributes its form; cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.30.8.
31.79 In Mandean literature Rucha d’Qudsha, the Mandean equivalent of Sophia, often laments the imperfection of her offspring, e.g. at Ginza 100,31,1-101,5.
31.80 Cf. Val. Exp. 33,35-37; 34,26-28.
31.81 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.31.1-2; Tri. Trac. 81,8-82,9; Apocry. Jn. 14,1-5. Her prayer of repentance is given at Val. Exp. 34,25-31. Gos. Egyp.III,2 hypostatizes a Metanoia which 'fills up' the deficiency (59,10-18), resulting in the repentance of 'the seed of the archon of this aeon' and others (54,21-60,2).
31.82 Cf. Tri. Trac. 86,4-15.
31.83 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.29.3-4. For Limit in NHC see Tri. Trac. 76,31-34; 82,10-13; Val. Exp. 25,22-24; 26,31-34; 27,30-38.
31.84 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.30.5-6 and the list of names for the 'cross of light' at Acts of John 98 (H-S II p. 185).
31.85 Cf. PS 2.74 (MacDermot p. 166); Man. Keph. 72,3-6; Ginza 311,37-312,9; Johannesbuch 36,10-37,4 et al.
31.86 For 'passion' cf. Tri. Trac. 95,2-6.
31.87 The cross plays a comparable role at Test. Tr. 40,25-29.
31.88 Hipp. Refut. 6.31.2-3; Gos. Tr. 24,9-20; Tri. Trac. 73,1-8.
31.89 Something like this is done by Spirit at Tri. Trac. 71,35-72,19; 73,1-8.
31.90 Cf. The 'rest' of the aeons at Tri. Trac. 70,18. More usually in this tractate, 'rest' refers to the salvation of an individual. On the subject see Helderman, Anapausis.
31.91 Cf. Tri. Trac. 86,4-87,17; Corp. Herm. 13.2: ἄλλος ἔσται ὁ γεννώμενος θεοῦ θεὸς παῖς, τὸ πᾶν ἐν πᾶσιν ἐκ πάσων δυνάμεων συνεστώς.
31.92 Hipp. Refut. 6.31.1-2.
31.93 Cf. Silv. 101,22-26; 102,5; GT 77; Acts of Peter 39 (H-S II p. 316); Corp. Herm. 13. 2.
31.94 A more sophisticated version of this is found at Tri. Trac. 87,17-31. Cf. also Apocry. Jn. II,1 8,20-25.
31.95 Eph 3:21
31.96 For the phrase see Tri. Trac. 67,38-68,2.
31.97 Matt 5:19
31.98 Mark 5:30
31.99 That is, πᾶν ἄρρεν
31.100 Luke 2:23
31.101 Luke 2:23
31.102 Cf. Rom 11:36.
31.103 Col 2:9
31.104 Eph 1:10
31.105 See Val. Exp. 25,22-24; 26,31-34, and especially 27,30-37, where Limit is given four powers rather than two.
31.106 Luke 14:27
31.107 Cf. Mark 8:34 parr.
31.108 Matt 10:34
31.109 Matt 10:34
31.110 1 Cor 1:18
31.111 Gal 6:14
31.112 Achamoth transliterates the Aramaic חכימותא , 'Sophia.' She appears in NHC and similar literature at 1 Apoc. Jas. 34,3; 35,5-13; 36,5; Cod. Tch. James 21,4;26; 22,7. Gos. Phil. 60,10-15 distinguishes between 'Echamoth' and 'Echmut.'
31.113 With this 'passion' cf. the 'passions' at Tri. Trac. 95,2-6.
31.114 Cf. The rehabilitation of ἡ ἐξω Σοφία at Hipp. Refut. 6.32.2-5 and Apocry. Jn. II,1 13,32-14,13. See also Val. Exp. 26,22-26.
31.115 At Tri. Trac. 65,1-17 the Father 'sows' in the aeons 'that [they] might seek after him.' Later, at 83,16-27, the Logos 'sows' 'a pre-disposition to seek and pray to the glorious pre-existent one' in his 'defective offspring.'
31.116 Cf. Val. Exp. 33,25-32.
31.117 Cf. PsT 4.2 Jesus cries 'Iao' three times at PS 4.136 (MacDermot p. 353). Or. Wld. 101,9-15 explains the name as baby talk addressed to the child of Yaltabaoth.
31.118 Cf. the conversion of Sophia at Hipp. Refut. 6.32.2-5, at Val. Exp. 34,10-34, and at Tri. Trac. 81,8-82,9. See also the repentance and prayers of Pistis Sophia at PS 1.32 (MacDermot pp. 46-52) and passim in this document.
31.119 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.32.6-8.
31.120 Cf. Tri. Trac. 81,30-82,9.
31.121 Cf. Sophia’s laughter at Val. Exp. 34,34-39.
31.122 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.31.2-6; PsT 4.3.
31.123 The imparting of teachings or mysteries for payment is forbidden at Apocry. Jn. II,1 31,34-37.
31.124 Matt. 10:8
31.125 Col 1:16
31.126 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.32.4; Tri. Trac. 87,17-31.
31.127 Cf. Tri. Trac. 62,1-3.
31.128 From this point through 17,13 cf. Val. Exp. 35,30-37.
31.129 Tri. Trac. 96,35-97,5: 'thus he beautified the Kingdom ... which is filled with the holy spirits and [the] mighty powers which govern them, which the Logos produced and established in power.' PsT 4.4 assigns this role to Limit.
31.130 Cf. Tri. Trac. 95,35-36: 'the coming of the Saviour and of those who are with him.'
31.131 ὁμοούσιον.
31.132 At Tri. Trac. 100, 19-30 the Logos appoints a supreme archon who is 'Father,' 'God,' 'king,' 'demiurge,' etc.
31.133 The Ogdoad.
31.134 At Hipp. Refut. 6.33.1 she creates through the Demiurge, who is unaware of her work; in NHC see Tri. Trac. 100,36-101,5; 105,29-35; Apocry. Jn. II,1 19,15-33. There is something comparable in Mandean literature cf. Ginza 266,18-24.
31.135 For the μεσότης see n. 140.
31.136 Hipp. Refut. 6.33.1, and see n. 11 p. 87.
31.137 Cf. Eph. 6:12.
31.138 Isa 45:21; cf. Hipp. 6.33.1. For the Κοσμοκράτωρ in NHC see Gr. Seth 52,27; 53,28; 55,3; Zost. 1,18.
31.139 Cf. Tri. Trac. 79,12-16.
31.140 Μεσότης. The term appears to be used in this sense at Gos. Phil. 76,36. It is common in Para. Shem, see 6,13; 13,16-17; 14,19;27; 15,21 etc. but in these cases may mean the material world. The μεσότης of Jesus is found at Gr. Seth 66,7-8.
31.141 Gen. 1:26
31.142 τοῦ τελείου Λόγου. For the education of 'the seeds' see Val. Exp. 37,20-31; of the 'members' of the 'perfect man' to prepare them for restoration to the Pleroma, see Tri. Trac. 123,3-22. In Mandean literature cf. Ginza 482,22-483,14; Johannesbuch 120,5-7 et al.
31.143 Comparable are the powers breathed into the mixture that becomes the soul at PS 3.131 (MacDermot pp. 336-337). Cf. also the 'hidden Adam' which is mentioned at Ginza 486,14-35.
31.144 'Seed' in this sense often appears in the Valentinian tractates of NHC, as, e.g., at Gos. Tr. 43,10-14; Tri. Trac. 91,25-32; 95,16-38; 96,19-32; 101,9-14 and Val. Exp. 37,20-35; 40,18-19. Perhaps see also Apocry. Jn. II,1 20,8-24; 30,11-14; Nat. Arc. 96,19-32; 97,5-9;31; Or. Wld. 117,21; Let. Pet. 136,16-18. For the 'seed of Seth' see p. 278 n. 2.
31.145 'Church' in this sense is found at Tri. Trac. 93,30-94,22.
31.146 The pre-existent, heavenly ἐκκλησία is important in Tri. Trac. and Gr. Seth. It is explained at length at Tri. Trac. 93,20-94,23; see also 58,29-33; 97,5-9 et al and Gr. Seth 50,1-10; 51,14-26 (observe the context); 60,23-25; 65,33-36;8,13-16, and also Eug. 86,18-87,4.
31.147 For 'inner man' cf. Let. Pet. 137,18-22; Cod. Tch. Let. Pet. 6,1-3.
31.148 Comparable accounts of the composition of man are found at the non-Gnostic Silv. 92,10-29; Acts of Thomas 165 (H-S II p. 404).
31.149 There are very full accounts of these at Tri. Trac. 103,13-104,3; 106,7-18; 118,14-124,25. At Or. Wld. 117,28-118,2; at 122,7-9 there are three Adams: a material, a soulish and a spiritual.
31.150 At Tri. Trac. 103,19-22 the 'powers of ambition' are said to be 'set in the middle area.'
31.151 Cf. Tri. Trac. 119,20-24.
31.152 The spirit and soul are said to be saved together at Apocry. Jas. 11,39-12,5 and, in Mandean literature, at Ginza 566,18-567,23; 583,2; 587,22 et al.
31.153 Cf. Tri. Trac. 123,3-22.
31.154 Sophia is called salt at Gos. Phil. 59,30-34. Cf. Matt. 5:13.
31.155 Cf. Matt 5:14
31.156 Cf. Test. Tr. 32,22-24.
31.157 So at Hipp. Refut. 6.35.6, which attributes this doctrine to an 'Italian' school of Valentinians. Note also the δημιουργικὴ τέχνη which at 6.35.7 is identified with 'the power of the Highest.'
31.158 PsT 4.5: .... in substantia corporis nostri non fuisse sed spiritale nescio quod corpus de caelo deferentem.
31.159 Cf. the account of the restoration which is given at Tri. Trac. 123,12-124,3.
31.160 Cf. Tri. Trac. 118,37-119,7.
31.161 Cf. Tri. Trac. 118,27-37; 124,34-131,13.
31.162 Cf. Tri. Trac. 122,13-123,3.
31.163 Perhaps cf. Tri. Trac. 130,2-27.
31.164 Cf. the Valentinian Tri. Trac. 119,16-18. What might be called 'salvation by nature' is documented in other types of Gnosticism. See, e.g., Gos. Jud. 43,15-44,4: The souls of every human generation will die. When these people, however, have completed the time of the kingdom and the spirit leaves them their bodies will die, but there souls will be alive and they will be taken up .... It is impossible to sow seed on [rock] and harvest its fruit. This also is the way of the [defiled] raced and corruptible Sophia ... and cf. Gos. Jud. 37,2-8; 453,16-25; Apoc. Pet. 75,12-76,17 and, less obviously, Gr. Seth 52,10-25; Test. Tr. 67,9-68,11. In Pistis Sophia, souls which have received the higher mysteries are certain of salvation, though with certain qualifications: PS 3.112 (MacDermot pp. 286-291); 3.119 (MacDermot pp. 306-6, 308 et al). None of these sources, however, exempt Gnostics from moral requirements.
31.165 See 1 Apoc. Jas. 28,15-20: You have walked in mud, and your garments were not soiled, etc. cf. Cod. Tch. Book of James 15,5-7. The principle is illustrated from a pearl at Gos. Phil. 62,17-26.
31.166 Gal. 5:21
31.167 Cf. 'The names which they received on loan.' Tri. Trac. 134,20. At Gos. Judas 53,18-22 non-Gnostics are given 'spirits ... as a loan.'
31.168 'The soul' seeks the 'place of righteousness' which is 'mixed' at PS 3.111 (MacDermot p. 282).
31.169 With 21,11-12 cf. Val. Exp. 39,28-35.
31.170 Cf. Gr. Seth 57,7-18. At Tri. Trac. 121,15 the elect are the bridal chamber. And see n. 4 p. 232.
31.171 Cf. Tri. Trac. 123,22-23; On Res. 44,13-33.
31.172 Cf. Acts of Thomas 148 (H-S II p. 398).
31.173 Cf. the account of the soul’s final ascent at Corp. Herm. 1.26.
31.174 See n. 38 p. 174.
31.175 Cf. The final conflagration as it is pictured at Gr. Pow. 45,24-47,7. In the Manichaean Homilies see 39,23-24; 41,5.
31.176 The final fire consumes itself at Gr. Pow. 30,15-23; 46,29-32.
31.177 Sabaoth creates a Christ at 105,20-29.
31.178 See n. 4 p. 119.
31.179 See p. 67 n. 36 and contrast Hipp. Refut. 6.35.1, where it is said that all of the Law and the Prophets are from the Demiurge.
31.180 At Hipp. Refut. 6.35.1 he learns from Sophia.
31.181 Matt. 8:9; Luke 7:8. With the enlightenment of the Demiurge here cf. Nat. Arc. 95,13-25; SJC 120,14-121,3; Para. Shem 22,17-23,8. See also PS 2.86 (MacDermot p. 197) 'the archons which have repented'; Ginza 88,21-34; 356,31-38; 360,21-370,19.
31.182 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.31.9 and, in a sense, Corp. Herm.1.19.
31.183 Cf. Dia. Sav. 138,16-20.
31.184 Different sorts of souls are distinguished at Tri. Trac. 105,29-106,5.
31.185 κόσμος = αἴων.
31.186 τέλος.
31.187 Cf. Nat. Arc. 94,14-15; Or. Wld. 99,9-11; 23-26.
31.188 1 Cor. 15 8
31.189 1 Cor. 11:10
31.190 Matt. 27:46; Mark 15:34
31.191 Matt. 26:38
31.192 Matt. 26:39
31.193 John 12:27
31.194 Matt. 8:19-20; Luke 9:57-58
31.195 Luke 9:61-62
31.196 Cf. Matt. 19:16-22.
31.197 Matt. 8:22; Luke 9:60
31.198 Luke 19:5
31.199 Cf. Matt. 13:33.
31.200 1 Cor. 15:48
31.201 1 Cor. 2:14
31.202 1 Cor. 2:15
31.203 1 Cor. 2:14
31.204 Rom. 11:16
31.205 Cod. Tch. James 28,14-16: I receive the first fruits of those who are defiled, so that I may send them up undefiled.
31.206 Cf. Matt. 18:2; Luke 15:4.
31.207 Cf. Apocry. Jn. 8,9-10.
31.208 Luke 2:29
31.209 Cf. Luke 2:36-38.
31.210 Luke 7:35
31.211 1 Cor. 2:6
31.212 Eph. 5:32
31.213 John 1:1-2
31.214 John 1:3
31.215 John 1:4
31.216 John 1:4
31.217 Eph. 5:13
31.218 John 1:14
31.219 John 1:14
31.220 σκηνοπηγία. σκήνη is a flimsy, temporary dwelling.
31.221 Cf. Matt. 10:24.
31.222 Hos. 2:25; Rom. 9:25
31.223 Isa. 54:1
31.224 Rom. 11:33
31.225 Cf. Val. Exp. 27,29-38.
31.226 For 'shadow' in a comparable sense see Or. Wld. 97,29-98,7; 98,23-99,2.
31.227 Cf. Mark 4:11
31.228 1 Tim. 4:1
31.229 Jas. 3:15; 17
31.230 Jas 3:10
31.231 Iren. 2.20.2-5
31.232 Iren. 2.23.1


Notes to Part 32.

32.1 The material concerning Secundus himself, and Epiphanes, is drawn from Iren. 1.11.2-5; at 6,7 Epiph cites Irenaeus by name. To the Irenaean material Epiph adds Clement of Alexandria’s comments on Epiphanes and others, quoting verbatim from Strom. 3.2.5.1-2. The very summary accounts of Secundus at Hipp. 6.38.1-2 and PsT 4.7 represent Hipp. Synt. Tert. Adv. Val. 37-38 depends on Irenaeus. Fil. 40 might be based on Irenaeus, Epiph or both.
32.2 Cf. Iren. 1.11.2; Hipp. Refut. 6.38.1; PsT 4.7; Tert. Adv. Val. 38.
32.3 See above.
32.4 Epiph construes Iren. 1.11.3 as, 'Another one, their teacher Epiphanes, says ...' and identifies this teacher with the Epiphanes mentioned by name at Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.2.1. Irenaeus' Greek, probably represented by Hipp. Refut. 6.38.2, reads 'Αλλος δέ τις ἐπιφανὴς διδάσκαλος αὐτῶν, οὕτως λέγει.' There may in fact be some justification for his identification of Epiphanes; see n. 17 below.
32.5 Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.2.5.2
32.6 Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.2.5.2
32.7 Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.2.5.3
32.8 Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.1.2.3. The Stromata also mention Isidore at 2.20.113.3 and 6.6.58.2f. In NHC see Test. Tr. 57,6-8.
32.9 Matt. 19:12; Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.1.1-2
32.10 4,4-5,3 are quoted directly from Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.1.1.2-3.3.
32.11 Cf. 1 Cor. 7:9.
32.12 Prov 21:19
32.13 Cf. Thom. Cont. 141,25-31; 143,26-30; 144,14; Man. Keph. 26,15-17.
32.14 Holl followed Jülicher's suggested reading, καὶ στῇς εἰς τὸ λοιπὸν, μὴ κατορθώσας, σφαλῆναι, γάμησον.
32.15 Perhaps cf. GT 25: 'Love your brother like your soul, guard him like the pupil of your eye.'
32.16 5,4-7,5 are in part quoted and in part summarized from Iren. 1.11.2-5. See also Hipp. Refut. 6.38.2-4; Tert. Adv. Val. 37.
32.17 For these terms see Unger-Dillon.
32.18 Clem. Alex. Strom. 3.2.5-3 says of Epiphanes, καθηγήσατο ... τῆς μοναδικῆς γνώσεως, perhaps linking Epiphanes with the sort of material which is reported at Iren. 1.11.3 and Hipp. 6.38.2.
32.19 Cf. '(I) stood upon the first aeon which is the fourth' (Zost. 6,19-20) 'I stood upon the second aeon which is the third' (7,6-8) 'I stood upon the third aeon which is the second' (7,14-15) '[I stood upon] the fourth aeon which is the first]' (7,20-21).
32.20 Iren. 1.11.5. Cf. Hipp. 6.38.3-5.


Notes to Part 33.

33.1 Sect 33 is drawn from Iren. 1.12.1-3 and the Epistle of Ptolemy to Flora, which it quotes in its entirety. See also Hipp. Refut. 6.38.5-7. Both PsT 4.7, which mentions Ptolemy together with Secundus, and Fil. 49, are from Hipp. Synt. which was plainly quite summary.
33.2 1,2-3,5 is partially quoted and partially paraphrased from Iren. 1.12.1-3. Cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.38.5-7.
33.3 With Depth's 'two consorts' cf., in a sense, Val. Exp. 24,19-22: He is [one] who appears [in Silence] and [he is] Mind of the All. [He was] dwelling secondarily with Life.
33.4 Matt 12:25
33.5 Cf. John 1:1;3.
33.6 Matt 19:8;6
33.7 Isa 29:13; Matt 15:4-9
33.8 Cf. Lev 24:20.
33.9 Exod 20:15
33.10 Matt 15:4
33.11 1 Cor 5:7
33.12 Matt 5:38
33.13 Matt 5:39
33.14 Cf. Eph. 2:15.
33.15 Rom 7:12
33.16 Cf. Matt. 19:17;
33.17 This is said of the ὑλικὸς θεός, the καλὸς κόσμος at Corp. Herm. 10.10.
33.18 Cf. Cod. Tch. James 18,16-20: But watch out, because the just God is angry, for you have been a servant to him, and that is why you received the name, 'James the Just.'
33.19 Adopting Petavius' conjecture, ἐφθόνησα, for text ἠτόνησα.
33.20 Sir 13:16
33.21 2 Tim 3:6
33.22 δευτερώσεις, in Hebrew, mishnahs.
33.23 Matt 19:6
33.24 Matt 19:8
33.25 Matt 19:6
33.26 Gen 2:18
33.27 Gen 2:23
33.28 Gen 2:24
33.29 Gen 2:24
33.30 Cf. Deut 24:1.
33.31 Matt 23:29; Luke 11:47
33.32 Matt 5:45
33.33 Lev 24:17;20
33.34 Matt 5:39
33.35 John 13:7
33.36 John 2:22
33.37 1 Cor 3:2
33.38 Lev 24:20
33.39 Matt 24:50-51
33.40 1 Cor 10:11


Notes to Part 34.

34.1 Sect 34 is entirely dependent upon Iren. 1.13.1-21.4, which it quotes verbatim. Hipp. Refut. 6.39.1ff also reproduces Irenaeus. PsT 5 which mentions Colorbasus in combination with Marcus, and Fil. 42, are based on Hipp. Synt. but give no details which are significantly different from Irenaeus.
34.2 1.1-3 is paraphrased from Iren. 1.13.1.
34.3 This begins the quotation of Iren. 1.13.1-21.4.
34.4 In Gos. Phil. the bridal chamber may mean baptism, the entire Christian initiation rite, or the kingdom of God. At 69,1-70,3 it might mean the eucharist. For other occurrences of the term see 67,23-26; 74,13-24; 82,23-29. On the subject see Schenke, Philippus-Evangelium. See also Exeg. Soul 132,12-26.
34.5 Cf. Corp. Herm. 9.4, πάντα γὰρ τῷ τοιούτῳ, κἂν τοῖς ἄλλοις τὰ κακά, ἀγαθά ἐστί.
34.6 See n. 72.
34.7 Cf. 'those that had come forth from him in an imaginary way' Tri. Trac. 78,6-7.
34.8 Cf. Gos. Phil. 70,5-9; 76,22-29.
34.9 This may be the source of Epiph's confusion about 'Defect.' See p. 170 n. 9.
34.10 Tri. Prot. 42,17-18: Now I have come the second time in the likeness of a female and have spoken with them; Tri. Trac. 64,32-37: if he had formerly revealed himself suddenly to all the exalted ones among the aeons who had come forth from him, they would have perished.
34.11 With 4,3-9 cf. Hipp. Refut. 6.42.2-45.1.
34.12 Cf. Tri. Trac. 5;7,24-31; 66,13-19; 67,18-19.
34.13 The Son is 'the word of [the] unutterable' at Tri. Trac. 66,15-16. Perhaps cf. Thunder 14,9-15.
34.14 The First Father beholds himself within himself at Eug. 74,21-75,12 = SJC 98,24-99,13.
34.15 With what follows perhaps cf. Thunder 20,32-35: I am the name of the sound, and the sound of the name. I am the sign of the letter and the designation of the division.
34.16 Cf. the ignorance of the aeons at Tri. Trac. 60,16-26; 72,22-29. But unlike the sounds here, the aeons are said not to speak.
34.17 Cf. Matt 18:10.
34.18 διακεκοσμῆσθαι, the Stoic term for the reconstitution of the universe after its destruction by fire, see Hipp. Refut. Also possible is γεγεννῆσθαι.
34.19 Cf. Tri. Trac. 86,4-15: the one who ran on high; Mars. 9,28-10,2: [the] invisible [Spirit] ran up to his place.
34.20 At Gos. Phil. 53,23-54,5 all names for holy things as they are 'heard in the world' are said to be 'deceptive.'
34.21 ἐπίσημον, the name of the digamma, or six. See below, especially at 7,1.
34.22 Cf. Matt 18:10.
34.23 A comparable though unrelated discussion of the letters of the alphabet, including a ranking of their importance, is found at Mars. 25,17-34,19.
34.24 Cf. PsT 5.1-2; Fil. 42.2.
34.25 I.e., 'last man' (= episemon, six) plus 'last,' plus 'first' = ogdoad, eight.
34.26 Six plus 'beginning' plus 'end' = eight.
34.27 This is intended to account for the seven heavens or planets, which do not fit Marcus' scheme of sixes and eights. See immediately below.
34.28 The allusion is to the form of the uncial digamma (episemon).
34.29 δυνάμεων, 'powers.'
34.30 Ἑνθύμησις.
34.31 With the content of 7,7-8 cf. these vowels of the Name of God as given at Herm. Disc. 61,8-15.
34.32 Ps 8:5
34.33 Ps 18:2
34.34 For the second tetrad see Val. Exp. 29,25-28; 35-38.
34.35 There is a comparable, though not identical multiplication at Val. Exp. 30,30-38.
34.36 I.e., the ogdoad's generation of the ninety-nine.
34.37 This interpretation of the Lost Sheep is found at Gos. Tr. 31,35-32,16.
34.38 2 John 11
34.39 Isa 48:22
34.40 The point seems to be that the Mother is 'Ogdoad.'
34.41 With 14,7-8 cf. the treatment of the divisions of time which is found at Tri. Trac. 73,28-74,2; Eug. 83,20-84,11.
34.42 δυνάμεις.
34.43 Fil. 42.2-3: columbam .... quae descendit ... ad dodecim aeonas, id est ad duodecim apostolos.
34.44 Isa 1:3
34.45 Hos 4:1
34.46 Rom 3:11-12
34.47 Exod 33:20
34.48 Dan 12:9-10
34.49 With the story told in 18,8-9 cf. Epistula Apostolorum 4 (James p. 486); Infancy Story of Thomas A 6.3 (H-S I p. 445).
34.50 Luke 2:9
34.51 Mark 10:17-18
34.52 Matt 21:23-27 par.
34.53 Luke 19:42
34.54 Matt 11:28-29
34.55 Matt 11:25-2
34.56 At Tri. Trac. 127,25-128,4 baptism is said to be 'redemption.' See n. 61.
34.57 A comparable distinction seems to be implied at On Bapt. A 41,10-38.
34.58 Cf. Luke 12:50.
34.59 Mark 10:38
34.60 See p. 232 n. 4. At Tri. Trac.128,33-35 baptism is referred to as the bridal chamber, and this is often the meaning in Gos. Phil. At Gos. Phil. 69,1-70,3 it might mean the eucharist. On the subject see Schenke, Das Philippusevangelium.
34.61 Together with baptism, chrismation is important in Gos. Phil. See 57,21-28; 67,2-9; 24-30; 69,9-14; 73,16-19 74,12-18. And cf. Acts of Thomas 27 (H-S II p. 456); 121 (p. 507); 157 (p. 526).
34.62 At Apoc. Ad. 85,19-31 'hidden knowledge' is said to be holy baptism; at Test. Tr. 69,15-31 baptism is renunciation of the world. Baptism appears to be deprecated at Gos. Jud. 55,21-56,1.


Notes to Part 35.

35.1 Epiph draws his account of the teaching he ascribes to Colorbasus from Iren. 1.12.3-4. PsT 5.1-3 gives what was presumably Hipp. Synt.'s account of Marcus and Colorbasus, treated together. Fil. 42 treats Colorbasus separately, and appears to combine Hipp. Synt. with some garbled Irenaean material, perhaps from Pan. 31,14-6-9.
35.2 Knowing from Hipp. Synt. that Colorbasus and Marcus were associates (see PsT 5.1; Hipp. Refut. 6.55.3). Epiph assumes that Colorbasus must be one of the unnamed teachers who, at Iren. 1.12.3, are called qui ... putantur prudentiores illorum, and that Marcus' connection with them is confirmed by Iren. 1.13.1.
35.3 1.3-7 is quoted from Iren. 1.12.3-4. Cf. Tert. Adv. Val. 36; 39.
35.4 With what follows cf. the various names which are given to the Son at Tri. Trac. 87,1-17.
35.5 Cf. 'The Son in whom the Totalities are pleased,' Tri. Trac. 87,1.
35.6 The Father of the All is called both 'man' and 'first man' at Apocry. Jn. CG II,1 14,13-24; at BG 8502,2 47,14-49,9 'the holy perfect Father' is called 'man,' 'first man' and 'perfect man.' At Gr. Seth 52,30-53,5 the Father of Truth is the 'Man of the Greatness.' Jeu is 'the great Man' at 2 Jeu 50 (MacDermot p. 122) and frequently in Pistis Sophia. At Eug. 85,9-13, God's first emanation is 'man': 'The first aeon, then, is that of Immortal Man. The second aeon is that of the Son of Man, who is called 'First Begetter.' ' and see SJC 108,1-10; 103,21-105,2. The first emanation is also 'man' at Pan. 31,5,5, the Valentinian document. For an extensive discussion of this subject see Schenke, Der Gott, 'Mensch.'
35.7 Gos. Egyp. III,2 54,1-4: Then came a voice from the height, 'the Man exists and the Son of Man!' See also Gos. Egyp. 49,9-10 and 49,16-25.
35.8 John 8:40
35.9 Acts 2:22
35.10 Isa. 8:6-7


Notes to Part 36.

36.1 For reasons which are unclear, Epiph takes as his source for Sect 36 the last part of Irenaeus’ account of the Marcosians, Iren. 1.21.3-5, where the sacramental practices of the Marcosians (Valentinians?) are described. Heracleon is mentioned at Iren. 2.4.1 and said to be in agreement with Valentinus as to the aeons. PsT 4.8, presumably following Hipp. Synt. says of Heracleon: Introducit enim in primis illud fuisse quod deum pronuntiat, et deinde ex illa monada duo, ac deinde reliquos Aeonas. Cf. Fil. 41. Hipp. Refut. 6.35.6 places Heracleon with Ptolemy in the 'Italian school' of Valentinians, who maintain that Jesus' body is ψύχικον. Tert. Adv. Val. 4.2, where there may be some independent information about Valentinians, names Heracleon as an innovator.
36.2 2,1-3 might be Epiph’s own conjecture, based on Iren. 2.4.1.
36.3 Iren. 1.21.5. Mandaeans also use water in their rite of extreme unction, see Drower pp. 64-68.
36.4 Iren. 1.21.4
36.5 Irenaeus gives this invocation at l.21.3 in this account of the Marcosians. F. Gaffi n is cited in Rousseau and Doutreleaux, Sources Chrétiennes 263, p.270f, as reconstructing a Syriac or Aramaic original whose translation is, 'I am anointed and redeemed from myself and from every judgment by the name of Yahweh; redeem me, O Jesus of Nazareth.' See Amidon p. 128.
36.6 This is quoted from Iren. 1.21.5.
36.7 For 'inner man' see Let. Pet. 137,21-22; PS passim, Man. Ps. 173,19-20.
36.8 This speech, and the one that follows it, is quoted from Iren. 1.21.5. There are longer versions of it at 1 Apoc. Jas. 33,13-34,18 and Cod. Tch. James 19,24-22,23, and a comparable one at Nat. Arc. 92,21-27.
36.9 Or: the pre-existing Father (Amidon).
36.10 For returning to one's own, or the like, see Apocry. Jas 1,23-24; 14,19-21; Gos. Tr. 21,11-25; 22,18-20; 34,14-16; Tri. Trac. 117,17-25; 123,4-8; GT 49; 50; Or. Wld. 127,14-15; 1 Apoc. Jas. 35,21-23; Cod. Tch. James 21,15-19; Apoc. Paul 23,9-10; PS 3.112 (MacDermot p. 289).
36.11 See p. 104 n. 72.
36.12 For this very common Gnostic motif see Apocry. Jas. 12,20-22; Tri. Trac. 60,23-24; GT 3; 111; Gos. Phil. 76,18-22; Thom. Cont. 138,7-20; Dia. Sav. 132,15-16; 134,19-22; Corp. Herm. 1.19.
36.13 The reference is to Achamoth, see n. 112 p. 186. Cf. Auth. Teach. 23,22-26, 'And yet they are outsiders, without power to inherit from the male, but they will inherit from their mother only.' Gos. Phil. 52,21-24 says that 'Hebrews' have only a mother, while 'Christians' have father and mother.
36.14 See n. 11 p. 87.
36.15 Cf. The 'bondage of the body' at Para. Shem 35,16-17, and see Corp. Herm. I.26.
36.16 4,1-2 is paraphrased from Iren. 1.21.5.
36.17 The performance of the last rites, which they accept in hope of rising to the highest heaven.
36.18 Ps. 68:3


Notes to Part 37.

37.1 The principal source of this Sect is Hipp. Synt., which is represented by PsT 2.1-4. Epiph uses this rather freely in the course of a homily against the Ophite heresy. He has also drawn on Irenaeus' paraphrase of an Ophitic source at 1.30.1-15. The description of the Ophite eucharist is amplified from oral sources. Epiph’s account is not influenced by Hipp. Refut. 5.6.1-11 or by Orig. Cels. 6.24-35, though the latter is related to that of Irenaeus.
37.2 Gen 3:5
37.3 Gen 3:19
37.4 Cf. PsT 2.1. The snake is 'the instructor' at Nat. Arc. 89,31-32; 90,6; Orig. Wld. 118,24-119,18; 119,34-120,6. At Iren. 1.30.15 Sophia herself becomes the snake. For a discussion of this subject see Pagels, Adam, Eve and the Serpent.
37.5 Epiph is referring to what he believes is the Ophite eucharist; see below at 5,6-8.
37.6 PsT 2.2: dicunt enim de illo summo primario Aeoni complures aeones exstitisse inferiores, omnibus tamen istis Aeonem antestare, cuius sit nomen Ialdabaoth.
37.7 At Tri. Trac. 105,10-19 the Logos brings forth the Demiurge '[forgetfully], ignorantly and [defectively], and in all the other weak ways.' For Prunicus as the mother of Ialdabaoth see Iren. 1.30.4-5.
37.8 PsT. 2.2 where, however, this is said of Ialdabaoth. A more elaborate version of all this is found at Iren. 1.30.3.
37.9 Cf. PsT 2.2 and Iren. 1.30.3.
37.10 Cf. PsT 2.2; Iren. 1.30.3; Nat. Arc. 94,34-95,5; Corp. Herm. I.9.
37.11 Cf. Apocry. Jn. II,1 11,4-8.
37.12 PsT. 2.3 and Iren. 1.30.6. Cf. Tri. Trac. 79,12-19; 80,24-30; Nat. Arc. 94,4-95,5.
37.13 With 4,1-2 cf. Pst 2.3 and Iren. 1.30.6.
37.14 PsT 2.3; Iren. 1.30.6.
37.15 For Prunicus see p. 85 n. 9.
37.16 Iren. 1.30.6: et hoc Sophia operante uti et illius (Ialdabaoth) evacuet ab humectatione luminis, etc. See p. 88 n. 16.
37.17 Cf. Apocry. Jn. II,110,19-21; 11,8-9; 13,1-5, and the robbery of Pistis Sophia’s light power at PS 1.31 (MacDermot p. 46).
37.18 I.e., she is the real agent at Gen 2:7.
37.19 Cf. PsT 2.4. For the hypostatized 'spark' as an emanation in the heavens see Apocry. Jn.6,13-18; Para. Shem 31,22-23; 33,30-34; 46,13-15; Ginza 467,30-31. See p. 72 n. 12.
37.20 Cf. Tri. Trac. 105,29-106,5.
37.21 For the superiority of the fi rst man to his makers see Apocry. Jn II,1 19,32-20,9; 20,28-31; Apoc. Ad. 64,14-19, and in Mandean literature, Ginza 107,14-15; 465,24-27.
37.22 Cf. PsT 2.4; Iren. 1.30.5; Acts of Philip 130 ( James p. 449).
37.23 PsT. 2.4: cui Eva quasi filio Dei crediderat. Cf. Iren. 1.30.7; Apocry. Jn. II,1 22,3-9 where Christ, not the serpent, gives the command to eat. And see n. 4 above. For a discussion of Gnostic views of Eve see 'Gnostic Improvisations on Genesis' in Pagels, Adam, Eve, and the Serpent, pp. 57-77.
37.24 Cf. Iren. 1.30.7.
37.25 Their worship of the snake.
37.26 Iren. 1.30.15: Sed et propter positionem intestinorum nostrorum, per quae esca infertur, eo quod talem fi guram habeant, ostendentem absconditam generatricem Serpentis fi gurae substantiam in nobis.
37.27 Cf. Or. Wld. 118,24-119,18; Nat. Arc. 89,31-90,19.
37.28 PsT 2.1: Ipsum (serpentem) introducunt ad benedicenda eucharistia sua.
37.29 2 Cor 11:3
37.30 Cf. PsT 2.11; Hipp. Refut. 5.16.7-8.
37.31 1 John 3:14
37.32 John 3:14
37.33 Matt. 10:16
37.34 Matt. 10:16
37.35 Gen. 3:15
37.36 1 Cor 11:3
37.37 2 Cor 11:3
37.38 Ps 106:23-24


Notes to Part 38.

38.1 The primary sources of Sect 38 are Hipp. Synt. (see PsT 2.5 and Iren. 1.31.1-2).
38.2 Iren. 1.31.1, cf. PsT 2.5.
38.3 The Sodomites are witnesses to the truth at Para. Shem 29,12-29. At Gos. Egyp. III,2 56,4-13; 60,9-18, Sodom and Gomorrah are the source of the heavenly seed of Seth. In the passages Apoc. Adam 71,8-72,14 and 74,26-76,7 they are (75,1-3) 'the great men who have not been defiled.'
38.4 Iren. 1.1.31. See p. 291 n. 24.
38.5 Iren. 1.31.1: Judae Evangelium illud vocantes. It is generally agreed that this is the Gospel of Judas of the Codex Tchacos.
38.6 Iren. 1.31.2: Hysteran autem factorem caeli et terrae vocant. At Apocry. II,1 Jn. 5,4-5 Barbelo is First Thought, or the womb, of everything, cf. Pr. Thank. 64,21-30. For Womb see also Para. Shem 4,30; 6,7 and passim.
38.7 For the whole of this see Iren. 1.31.2.
38.8 The Apocalypse of Paul, NHC V,2, says nothing of the 'unutterable words' although at 22,29-23,5 it gives a speech Paul makes in order to pass above the Ancient of Days.
38.9 Cf. Apocry. Jn. II,1 23,35-24,25 and the archons' attempt to abuse Eve at Nat. Arc. 89,17-30; 116,33; Orig. Wld. 116,12-117,14. At Iren. 1.30.7
38.10 PsT 2.6 also gives two versions of Judas' motive, though they are not the same as those given here. At Gos. Jud. 56,19-20 Jesus says to Judas, 'You will sacrifice the man who bears me,' i.e., apparently, You will free me from my body of flesh. The text of Gos. Jud. 57,1-11 though very defective, seems to suggest that the consummation will result from Jesus' crucifixion. And see Fil. 34.1-2 and Iren 1.31.11.
38.11 Isa. 5:20
38.12 Gen. 4:11-12
38.13 John 8:41
38.14 John 8:44
38.15 John 6:70
38.16 John 17:11-12
38.17 Matt. 26:24
38.18 2 Pet. 2:19
38.19 John 8:44
38.20 Matt 26:48-49
38.21 Matt 25:48
38.22 Gen 4:9
38.23 Job 1:9
38.24 Gen. 3:4;5
38.25 Gen 4:8
38.26 1 John 3:15; 4:18; 3:12
38.27 Matt 23:35
38.28 John 17:12
38.29 Matt 26:24
38.30 Matt. 26:30
38.31 Matt. 26:30
38.32 John 13:18; Ps. 40:10
38.33 Matt 26:24
38.34 Matt 27:4
38.35 Cf. Zech. 11:12
38.36 Zech. 11:12-13; Matt 27:9
38.37 Acts 1:20; Ps. 68:6; 108:8
38.38 Acts 1:18; Matt. 27:5
38.39 Acts 1:25


Notes to Part 39.

39.1 The source of this Sect is primarily literary (cf. what Epiph says at 1,2) and seems to be Hipp. Synt., which is represented by PsT 2,7-9. Some of Epiph's information, however, was obtained at first hand. The 'Sethians' of Hipp. Refut. 5.19-22 are not relevant here. On the subject of the Sethians see Schenke, Turner, Wisse.
39.2 In several NHC tractates Gnostics are represented as the 'seed' (σπέρμα) or 'race' (γένος) of Seth, distinct from other peoples. See Apocry. Jn. II,1 9,14-16; 25,9-16; Gos. Egyp. III,2 59,9-17; 60,2-18; 61,23-62,19; 64,22-24; Apoc. Adam 65,3-9; 66,1-6; 71,8-72,14; 85,19-22; Gr. Seth 63,8-9; Zost. 130,14-17; Stel. Seth 119,2; 120,1-16. At Apocry. Jn. II,1 25,1-2; Gos. Egyp. III,2 56,13-22 this seed or race is said to be pre-existent; it comes to earth later. It is usually called σπορά rather than σπέρμα by Epiph.
39.3 Cf. PsT 2.9 and see Gos. Jud. 52,4-6: The first is [S]eth, who is called 'the Christ.' Van der Vliet, however, considers this a textual error: see his 'Judas and the Stars' pp. 146-151. Seth is clearly identified with Jesus at Gos. Egyp. CG IV,2, 62,24-64,9; 65,16-18 and perhaps at Apoc. Adam 76,8-77,18; Gr. Seth 51,20-52,10, though in this latter tractate the name Seth is found only in the title. See n. 13 below.
39.4 Cf. PsT 4.7.
39.5 PsT 2.7. Val. Exp. 38,24-33: And Cain [killed] Abel his brother, for [the Demiurge] breathed into [them] his spirit. And there [took place] the struggle with the apostasy of the angels and mankind, those of the right with those of the left, and those in heaven with those on earth, the spirits with the carnal, and the Devil against God. See also Tri. Trac. 83,34-84,36.
39.6 The Holy Spirit is Prima Femina et Mater viventium at Iren. 1.30.1-2. PsT 2.7 says only 'Mater.'
39.7 With 2,7 cf. PsT 2.7.
39.8 καθαρὸν ἔδειξεν. Or: showed him to be pure.
39.9 PsT 2.8. At Gos. Egyp. III,2 61,1-5 and Apoc. Adam 69,2-18 the Flood is sent to wipe out the seed of Seth.
39.10 The seed of Ham and Japheth mingle with the seed of Seth at Apoc. Adam 73,13-29.
39.11 'The Mother' is found in a Sethian hymn at Gos. Egyp. III,2 67,4-6.
39.12 PsT 2.9
39.13 At Gos. Egyp. III,2. 51,5-22 the heavenly Seth is the son of Adamas and the father of 'the immoveable race.' At 55,17-56,21 he receives his seed through Plesithea (the equivalent of Eve?) and places it in the 'fourth aeon.' At 59,9-60,18 he comes to earth bringing his seed, which he places in Sodom. At 62,24-64,8 he is 'sent,' as Jesus, 'to save her (the race) that went astray.' See also 65,16-18 and 63,4-8.
In the simpler version of Apocry. Jn. II,1 Seth is the son of Pigera-Adamas and is placed over the 'second aeon' (8,29-9,14). At 24,35-25,2 Adam begets the earthly Seth in the likeness of the (heavenly) 'son of man.' At Gos. Judas 52,4-6, strangely, 'Seth, who is called Christ' is one of the five angels who rule over the underworld. But see n. 3 above.
14 Books of Seth in NHC are VII,2 The Second Treatise of the Great Seth and VII,5 The Three Steles of Seth. Gos. Egyp. III,2 68,10-12 attributes this book to Seth, and the same may be true of Allog. 68,25-28.
39.15 For books termed Allogenes, 'Stranger,' see NHC XI,3 and Tractate 4 of the Codex Tchacos. Porphyry mentions an Apocalypse of Allogenes at Vita Plotini 16.
39.16 Gen 4:1
39.17 Cf. Gen 4:1-2.
39.18 Gen 4:25
39.19 Jub. 4.9; 11
39.20 Jub. 4.9-11
39.21 Jub. 4.10
39.22 Cf. Gen 15:3-5.
39.23 Cf. Gen 7:7; 1 Pet 3:20.
39.24 Hipp. Chron. 60 (Bauer-Helm p. 12,4)
39.25 Hipp. Chron. 63 (op. cit. p. 12,6-7)
39.26 Hipp. Chron. 169 (op. cit. p. 26,9)
39.27 Hipp. Chron. 61 (op. cit. p. 12,5)
39.28 Hipp. Chron. 111 (op. cit. p. 18,13)
39.29 Hipp. Chron. 168 (op. cit. p. 26,8)
39.30 Hipp. Chron. 95 (op. cit. p. 17,2)
39.31 Hipp. Chron. 96 (op cit. 17,8)
39.32 Hipp. Chron. 178 (op. cit. p. 27,17)
39.33 Matt 4:6; Luke 4:11


Notes to Part 40.

40.1 This Sect is based upon Epiph’s experience and upon Gnostic sources, particularly on a work he calls The Harmony.
40.2 See p. 281 n. 14.
40.3 See p. 100 n. 14.
40.4 A comparable accusation might be implied by Gos. Jud. 40,7-16: After him another man will stand up from the [fornicators], and another [will] stand up from the slayers of children, and another from those who sleep with men and those who abstain ... and those who say, 'We are like angels'.
40.5 Cf. Eug. 88,17-89,2.
40.6 Note Treat. Res. 47,1-12: Therefore never doubt concerning resurrection ... For if you were not existing in the flesh, you received flesh when you entered this world. Why will you not receive flesh when you ascend into the Aeon? That which is better than flesh, which is for it the cause of life, that which came into being on your account, is it not yours? Other passages which could be interpreted as teaching a 'resurrection of the soul' are Test. Tr. 34,25-38,27; 44,3-7; Gos. Jud. 43,12-44,7; 53,16-26.
40.7 Baptism is bitterly condemned at Para. Shem 37,19-38,27; Test. Tr. 69,7-22, and probably at Gos. Judas 55,21f though this text is fragmentary. See also the Marcosian objections to baptism which are mentioned at 34,20,9-12, p. 252. At the Mandean Ginza 255,5-10. Christian baptism is called the 'sign of (the fallen) Ruha.'
40.8 Gos. Jud. 34,6-11 states the same kind of objection to the eucharist. See also Gos. Jud. 56,11-13.
40.9 Cf. Dia. Sav. 122,19; PS 1.26 (McDermot pp. 36-37); 1.27 (p. 39) et al.
40.10 Eccles 10:1
40.11 Hos 3:2
40.12 Heb 1:14
40.13 Rom 13:1-4; 2 Cor 13:8
40.14 John 8:44
40.15 Exod 3:14
40.16 Cf. Gos. Egyp. III,2 48,14-15: Adonaios who is called Sabaoth.
40.17 John 6:70
40.18 John 8:44
40.19 John 12:6
40.20 Gen 4:9
40.21 2 Pet 2:19
40.22 John 8:44
40.23 1 John 3:12
40.24 Cf. Irenaeus 1.31.11. Something comparable is said of Sabaoth at Nat. Arc.95,19-22; Orig. Wld. 104,17-22. In the Mandean Ginza this is said of Shitil at 443,9-11, and of John the Baptist at Johannesbuch 116,13-19. Cf. also the disappearance of Judas into a shining cloud at Gos. Jud. 57,16-23.
40.25 Sabaoth recognizes Pistis in this way and worships her at Or. Wld. 103,32-104,6. Adam recognizes the likeness of his own foreknowledge and hence begets Seth at Apocry. Jn. II,1 23,35-25,2.
40.26 See p. 98 n. 34.
40.27 Cf. Three Stel. 120-11-13: they are from other races, they are not similar. And see p. 281 n. 15.
40.28 Cf. U 7 (MacDermot p. 235): The powers of all the great aeons have given homage to the power which is in Marsanes. They said, “Who is this who has been these things before his face, that he has thus revealed concerning him?” NHC X,l is entitled Marsanes. Marsanes is also mentioned at Eus. H. E. 6.12.
40.29 Matt 11:25
40.30 John 2:19
40.31 For NHC examples of at least quasi-docetism, see 2 Apoc. Jas. 57,10-19; Gr. Seth 53,23-26; 55,16-56,19; 27-30; Apoc. Pet. 81,3-83,15; Melch. 5,2-11, however, polemicizes against docetism. See also Man. Ps. 191,4-8; 196,22-26 as well as the Acts of John 87-99 (H-S II pp. 179-180); 101-102 (pp. 185-186); Acts of Paul VII.1.14 (H-S II p. 254).
40.32 1 Tim 3:15
40.33 2 Tim 4:4
40.34 1 Tim 1:7
40.35 2 Tim 1:15
40.36 Cf. 2 Tim 2:17


Notes to Part 41.

41.1 The sources of this Sect are Irenaeus (1.27.1) and Hipp. Synt. (PsT 6.1). Eus. H. E. 4.11.1-2 depends upon Irenaeus, as does Hipp. Refut. 10.19.1-4. Fil. 44 uses Hipp. Synt. Hipp. Refut. 10.19.1-4 treats of Cerdo and Marcion together and appears to have a different source.
41.2 Eus. H. E. 4.11.1 and Fil. 46 mention Cerdo’s Syrian origin.
41.3 This date, and the notice of the succession, are found at Iren. 1.27.1; Eus. H. E. 4.11.1.
41.4 This paragraph comes chiefly from Hipp. Synt.; see PsT 6.1: initia duo, id est duos deos etc. Iren. 1.27.1 furnishes hunc enim cognosci illum autem ignorari. PsT calls the creator saevum; Epiph, probably reflecting the original, πονηρόν; Fil 4.1, malum. Iren. and Hipp. Refut. 7.37.1 say δίκαιον/justum.
41.5 PsT 6.1: Hic prophetias et legem repudiat.
41.6 Cf. PsT. 6.1; Fil. 44.2.
41.7 Luke 1:8


Notes to Part 42.

42.1 This Sect follows the outline of Hipp. Synt., which is represented by PsT 6.2-3 and Fil. 45; it inserts data from Irenaeus. (Fil. may have used Epiph as well.) Epiph has also read Eusebius (H. E. 4.11.1; 5.13.1-4) and his data about Marcion's 'gods' may be based on a faulty memory of this author. Reproduced is Epiph's own treatise on Marcion’s canon, from which he gives a number of quotations. Epiph takes reports of Marcion's and Cerdo's teachings as interchangeable, since he regards the latter as Marcion's master. The earliest mention of Marcion is found at Justin Apol. 1.26.5. Tertulllian’s long treatise Adversus Marcionem utilizes, among its other sources, some of Marcion's own writings. The source of Hipp. Refut. 7.27.1;30 is not obvious.
42.2 Cf. Justin. Apol. 26.5; Iren. 1.27.2; Hipp. Refut. 7.29.1; 10.19.1 Pst 6.2; Fil. 45.1; Eus. H. E. 5.13.4 (where Marcion is called ὁ λύκος Πόντικος); Tert. Adv. Marc. 1.1.4; 3.6.3.
42.3 PsT 6.2
42.4 PsT 6.2. The same sort of thing is said of Apelles at Tert. Praescr. 30.
42.5 Fil. 45.1: Urbem Roman devenit, ibique degens sceleratam heresin seminabat, atque interrogans presbyteros sanctae catholicae ecclesiae.
42.6 Matt. 9:16-17; Luke 5:36. PsT 6.2 makes Marcion cite Matt. 7:17. Fil. 45.2 gives both citations, opening the possibility that this author knew Epiph as well as Hipp. Synt. Matt. 7:17 is referred to at Hipp. Refut. 10.19.3 and at Tert. Adv. Marc. 3.15.5; 4.11.10.
42.7 Fil. 45.3: Deque hoc accipiens interpretationem a sanctis presbyteris non acquiescebat veritati sed magis Cerdonis sui doctoris fi rmabat mendacium. Cf. Eus. H. E. 4.11.2.
42.8 From Eus. H. E. 5.13.4: ἄλλοι ... οὐ μόνον δύο ἀλλὰ καὶ τρεῖς ὑπὀτίθεντα φύσει, ὧν ἔστιν ἀρχηγὸς καὶ προστάτης Σύνερως. Epiph has forgotten the attribution to Syneros. PsT
6.1-2 and Iren 1.27.2 attribute the doctrine of two Gods to Cerdo as does Tert. Adv. Marc. passim. Hipp. Refut. 7.31.1-2 ascribes the doctrine of two Gods to Marcion, and of three to the Marcionite teacher Prepon. See also Adam 1.2.
42.9 At Hipp. Refut. 10.19.1-2 the principles are ἀγαθόν, δίκαιον, ὕλην or ἀγαθόν, δίκαιον, πονηρόν, ὕλην. PsT 6.1, as of Cerdo, says unum bonum, alterum saevum. Fil. 46, also as of Cerdo, gives: unum bonum et unum malum annuntians.
42.10 Cf. Iren. 1.27.2; PsT 6.1; Hipp. Refut. 10.19.1.
42.11 Iren. 1.27.2: quem et Cosmocratorem dicit; Hipp. Refut. 30.3.4: δημιουργόν.
42.12 None of Epiph’s sources speak of the devil as god. Epiph may be extrapolating from the πονηρός/saevus of Hipp. Refut. 10.19.1/PsT 6.1. For a god intermediate (μέσον) between the two others see Hipp. Refut. 7.31.2, where the idea is ascribed to one Prepon, and Ptolemy.s Epistle to Flora at Pan. 42,7,4.
42.13 That is, 'just.' Iren. 1.27.1; Eus. H. E. 4.17.2; Hipp. Refut. 7.31.2, and see Pan. 42.7.4.
42.14 Hipp. Refut. 7.30.3-4; 10.19.4; Clem. Strom. 3.3.12.1-2; 4.25.1-2; Tert. Adv. Marc. 1.29.1. Epiph, however, contradicts this at 43,1,5.
42.15 Tert. Praescr. 41.1-2, although Tertullian does not specify Marcionites.
42.16 Cf. Tertullian's discussion at Adv. Marc. 4.12.
42.17 Iren. 1.27.3; PsT 6.1; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.10.15; Res. Mort. 2; Adam. 7; Gos. Phil. 56,26-57,22; Treat. Res. 47,30-48.2.
42.18 Luke 12:50
42.19 Iren. 1.27.1; Eus. H. E. 4.11.2; PsT 6.1; Tert. Adv. Marc. 1.19.4; 4.34.15.
42.20 Tert. Adv. Marc. 1.19; 4.34
42.21 Iren. 1.27.3
42.22 Tert. Praescr. 41.5
42.23 Matt. 24:28
42.24 John 12:24
42.25 1 Cor 15:35-36
42.26 The argument developed from here through 7,9 is based in part on Iren. 2.1.2-5
42.27 See Iren. 2.1.2-3.
42.28 See Iren. 2.1.5.
42.29 Irenaeus says this of a 'third' at 2.1.3.
42.30 Gal 3:13
42.31 Eph. 5:16
42.32 Iren. 1.27.2; PsT 6.2; Fil. 45.5; Adam. 2.3; 19.
42.33 Iren. promises to do the same at 1.27.4 though his treatise, if he wrote it, does not survive. See also Book 4 of Tert. Adv. Marc.
42.34 Luke 5:14. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.9.9-10.
42.35 Luke 5:24
42.36 Luke 6:5
42.37 Luke 6:16-17
42.38 Luke 6:19-20
42.39 Luke 6:23
42.40 Luke 7:9. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.18.1.
42.41 Luke 7:23
42.42 Luke 7:27. Cf. Adam. 2.18; Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.18.7
42.43 Luke 7:36-38
42.44 Luke 7:44-45
42.45 Luke 8:19-20
42.46 Luke 8:23-24
42.47 Luke 8:42-46. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.20.7-8.
42.48 Luke 9:16
42.49 Luke 9:22. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.21.7.
42.50 Luke 9:30-31. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.22.1;16.
42.51 Luke 9:35. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.22.1.
42.52 Luke 9:40-41. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.23.1.
42.53 Luke 9:44
42.54 Luke 6:3-4. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.12.5.
42.55 Luke 10:21. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.25.1.
42.56 Luke 10:26-28.
42.57 Luke 11:5; 9-13. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.26.28.
42.58 Luke 11:29-32
42.59 Luke 11:42. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.27.4.
42.60 Luke 11:47. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.27.8.
42.61 Luke 11:49-51
42.62 Luke 12:8. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.28.4.
42.63 Luke 12:28.
42.64 Luke 12:30. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.29.3.
42.65 Luke 12:31. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.29.5
42.66 Luke 12:32
42.67 Luke 12:38
42.68 Luke 12:46. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.29.9.
42.69 Luke 12:58. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.29.16
42.70 Luke 13:1-9
42.71 Luke 13:16
42.72 Luke 13:28. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.30.5.
42.73 Luke 13:29-35
42.74 Luke 15:11-32
42.75 Luke 16:16. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.33.7.
42.76 Luke 16:22. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.34.10; cf. Adam. 2.10.
42.77 Luke 16:25. Cf. Adam. 2.10.
42.78 Luke 16:29; 31. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.34.10; cf. Adam. 2.10.
42.79 Luke 17:10
42.80 Luke 17:12; 14; 4:27. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.35.4; 6.
42.81 Luke 17:22
42.82 Luke 18:18-20. Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.31.6; Adam. 2.17; Orig. De Princ. 2.5.1; 5.4; Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.36.4.
42.83 Luke 18:35; 38; 42. Cf. Adam. 4.14; Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.36.9-10.
42.84 Luke 18:31-33
42.85 Luke 19:29-46
42.86 Luke 20:19
42.87 Luke 20:9-17
42.88 Luke 20:37-38
42.89 Luke 20:37-38
42.90 Luke 21:18
42.91 Luke 21:21-22
42.92 Luke 22:4
42.93 Luke 22:8
42.94 Luke 22:14-15. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.40.1.
42.95 Luke 22:16
42.96 Luke 22:35; 37
42.97 Luke 22:41
42.98 Luke 22:47-48
42.99 Luke 22:50
42.100 Luke 22:63-64
42.101 Luke 23:2
42.102 Luke 22:47-48
42.103 Luke 23:33; 34; 44. Cf. Matt 24:29; Mark 13:24; Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.42.4-5
42.104 Luke 23:43
42.105 Luke 23:46. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.42.6.
42.106 Luke 23:50; 53. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.42.7.
42.107 Luke 23:56
42.108 Luke 24:5-7. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.43.5.
42.109 Luke 24:25-26; 30-31. Cf. Adam. 4.12; Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.43.4.
42.110 Luke 24:38-39. Cf. Adam. 5.12; Tert. Adv. Marc. 4.43.6.
42.111 Rom 2:13
42.112 Rom 2:25
42.113 Rom 2:20
42.114 Rom 5:6
42.115 Rom 7:12. Cf. Adam. 2.20; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.13.14.
42.116 Rom 8:4
42.117 Rom 10:4. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.14.6.
42.118 Rom 13:8.
42.119 Eph 2:11-14. Cf. Adam. 2.18; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.17.12; 14.
42.120 Eph 5:14
42.121 Eph 5:31. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.18.9.
42.122 Col. 2:16-17. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.19.9.
42.123 Cf. Eph. 4:5-6; Adam. 2.19.
42.124 Gal 3:11b; 10a; 12b
42.125 Gal. 3:13; 4:23; Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.3.10; 4.8.
42.126 Gal 5:3
42.127 Gal 5:9
42.128 Gal 5:14. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.4.12.
42.129 Gal 5:19-21
42.130 Gal 5:24
42.131 Gal 6:13
42.132 1 Cor 1:19. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.5.5.
42.133 1 Cor 1:31. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.5.10.
42.134 1 Cor 2:6
42.135 1 Cor 3:19-20. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.6.12.
42.136 1 Cor 5:7. Cf. Adam. 2.18; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.7.3.
42.137 1 Cor 6:16
42.138 1 Cor 9:9; 8. 'Of Moses' is also in the 'ecclesiastical text.' Adam. 1.22 witnesses to its presence in Marcion's canon.
42.139 1 Cor 9:9. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.7.10.
42.140 1 Cor 10:1-9; 11. Cf. Adam. 2.18; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.7.12-14.
42.141 1 Cor 10:19
42.142 1 Cor 11:7. Cf. Adam. 5.23; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.8.1.
42.143 1 Cor 12:24
42.144 1 Cor 14:19
42.145 1 Cor 14:21. Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.18.10.
42.146 1 Cor 14:34. Cf. Adam. 2.18; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.8.11.
42.147 1 Cor 15:1
42.148 1 Cor 15:17
42.149 1 Cor 15:11
42.150 1 Cor 15:3-4
42.151 2 Cor 1:20. Cf. Adam. 2.18.
42.152 2 Cor 4:5-6. Cf. Adam 2.19; Tert. Adv. Marc. 5.11.11.
42.153 2 Cor 4:13
42.154 I.e., in what follows the quotations from Marcion with Epiph's occasional comments on the text, were the 'scholia and notes.' These were collected for the benefit of anyone who wanted to write a full dress refutation of Marcion. The elenchi which accompany them are being written by Epiph now, as part of his Panarion.
42.155 Matt 5:17
42.156 Cf. John 18:20.
42.157 John 14:6
42.158 Mark 8:33
42.159 Luke 11:11-13
42.160 οἰκονομία, in this case, his death and resurrection.
42.161 Luke 11:29
42.162 Deut 18:15
42.163 Gen 49:9-10
42.164 Gen 49:10
42.165 Isa 7:14
42.166 Jerem 17:9
42.167 Micah 5:2
42.168 Mal 3:1
42.169 Ps 109:1
42.170 John 5:45
42.171 Cf. Luke 20:19
42.172 I.e., 'as he taught in the Temple.' Marcion omits 'My house shall be called a house of prayer.'
42.173 Matt 21:13
42.174 Luke 13:28
42.175 Luke 16:29
42.176 Luke 22:15
42.177 Cf. Luke 22:20.
42.178 Phil 2:10
42.179 Matt 5:17
42.180 1 Cor 15:50
42.181 Rom 8:33
42.182 Deut 18:15
42.183 1 Cor 15:42
42.184 1 Cor 9:8-9, ἢ καὶ ὁ νόμος ταῦτα οὐ λέγει; ἐν γὰρ τῷ Μωϋσέως νόμῳ γέγραπται· οὐ κημώσεις βοῦν ἀλοώντα.
42.185 Ps 35:7
42.186 Job 38:41
42.187 Job 38:41
42.188 Ps 194:15
42.189 Luke 12:6
42.190 Matt 10:29
42.191 μηκέτι τούτου γενομένου. In the long series of quotations which make up this passage, Epiph loses sight of his main verb.
42.192 Jerem 6:20
42.193 Jerem 7:21-23
42.194 Cf. Lev 22:18-19.
42.195 Cf. Lev 5:17-18 and 4:13-14.
42.196 Ps 49:3
42.197 Amos 5:25
42.198 1 Cor 5:7
42.199 2 Tim 3:15
42.200 1 Cor 14:18
42.201 Acts 17:23
42.202 Tit 1:12
42.203 Gen 19:5
42.204 Ps 94:10-11
42.205 Mark 4:11-12
42.206 Cf. Iren. 3.4.2-3.
42.207 Gal 1:8
42.208 1 Cor 15:53
42.209 Matt 27:52-53
42.210 Matt 11:26
42.211 Cf. Rom 10:4
42.212 Gen 3:4
42.213 Holl suggests emending to Isaiah, see Holl-Dummer, Epiphanius II p. 180.
42.214 John11:39
42.215 Luke 8:49
42.216 Luke 8:52
42.217 John 11:43
42.218 Mark 5:41
42.219 John 11:25
42.220 Epiph here plays on ἀναγνόντες, γνόντες and καταγνῶσιν
42.221 ιη, or 18 = Jesus, plus ἀμήν, or 99. To make 100 texts from the Epistles, the additional text from Laodicaeans must be added to the 99.
42.222 Heb 4:12
42.223 Gal 6:10
42.224 John 14:10
42.225 Cf. John 5:23; 3:36.
42.226 Ps 35:10
42.227 Luke 10:19


Notes to Part 43.

43.1 Epiph has used Hipp. Synt. as his source, but this says no more than that Lucian was Marcion’s disciple and agreed with him. Epiph reconstructs Lucian's teachings on this basis, but adds some information which he has obtained orally (1,3-5).
43.2 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.37.2; PsT 6.3; Fil. 46; Orig. Cels. 2.27.
43.3 Mal 3:14
43.4 Mal 3:15
43.5 Marcion taught celibacy; see n. 14. Epiph might be referring to the reason Lucian gives for his requirements of celibacy.
43.6 See the polemic against matrimony at Test. Tr. 29,26-30.
43.7 John 1:1;3
43.8 Holl ἐκ τῆς ὀπῆς; Text σκόπου.


Notes to Part 44.

44.1 With this Sect cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.38; 10.20; PsT 6.4-6; Fil. 47; Eus. H. E. 5.13.1-8; Tert. De Anima 23.3; 36.3; Carn. Chr. 1.6-8; Adv. Marc. 3.11; 4.17; Praescr. 30; 33; 34; Res. Carn. 2.5. There are noticeable resemblances to Hipp. Refut. 7.38.2-3 and PsT 6.5, see nn. 8 and 13. However the source of this Sect, which omits striking details found in Epiph's usual sources, is not obvious.
44.2 Rom 16:10
44.3 Hipp. Refut. 7.38.1; 10.20.1; PsT 6.4; Fil. 47; Tert. Adv. Marc. 3.11; 4.17.
44.4 PsT 6.4: Hic introducit unum deum in infi nitis superioribus partibus; Fil. 47.2: ego unum principium praedico quem Deum conosco; and cf. Eus. H. E. 5.13.1-2; 5-7.
44.5 PsT 6.4: Hic introducit unum Deum. Hunc ... fecisse ... et alium Virtutem quam dominum dicit sed angelum ponit; Fil. 47.2: Deus ... fecit etiam alteram Virtutem quem Deum scio esse sescundum. Hipp. Refut. 7.38.1-2; 20.1 makes Apelles predicate four Gods, though he calls all but the first .angels..
44.6 Fil. 47.3: Hic autem deus qui fecit mundum non est, inquit, bonus. This might have come from Epiph; contrast PsT 6.4: cui mundo permiscuisse paenitentiam quia non illum tam perfecte fuissset quam ille superior mundus institutus fuisset.
44.7 PsT 6.5: Christum ... in eo, quo de superioribus partibus descenderit, ipso descensu ideream sibi carnem et aëream contexuisse.
44.8 2,1-3 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 7.38.3; 10.2. For Christ's assumption of flesh from the elements see also Tert. Adv. Marc. 3.11. At NHC’s Gr. Seth 51, 4-7 Sophia builds 'houses' from the 'elements below,' though not for himself but for the 'fellow workers' of the 'sons of light.'
44.9 Hipp. Refut. 7.38.3: ἀλλ᾿ ἐκ τῆς τοῦ παντὸς οὐσίας μερῶν σῶμα πεποιηκέναι τουτέστι θερμοῦ καὶ ψυχροῦ, καὶ ὑγροῦ και ξηροῦ.
44.10 Cf. Eus. H. E. 5.13.2. At Orig. Cels. 5.54 Apelles is said to disparage the miracle narratives in the Jewish scriptures. See also Orig. in Gen. Hom. 2.2 (Baehrens 27,17-30,3).
44.11 A version of this saying appears at PS 3.134 (MacDermot, p. 348).
44.12 Hipp. Refut. 7.38.4: Αὐθις δὲ ὑπὸ Ιουδαίων ἀνασκοπολισθέντα θανεῖν, καὶ μετὰ τρεῖς ἡμέρας ἐγερθέντα φανῆναι τοῖς μαθηταῖς.
44.13 Hipp. Refut. 7.38.5: σάρκα ... δείξας ἀπέδωκε γῇ ... ἑκάστοις τὰ ἴδια ἀπέδωκε, λύσας πάλιν τὸν δεσμὸν τοῦ σώματος τουτέστιν θερμῷ τὸ θερμόν, ψυχρῷ τὸ ψυχρόν, ὑγρῷ τὸ ὑγρόν, ξηρῷ τὸ ξηρόν, καὶ οὕτως ἐπορεύθην πρὸς τὸν ἀγαθὸν πατέρα; PsT 7.5: Hunc in resurrectionem singulis quibusdam elementis quae in descensu suo mutuatus fuisset is ascensu reddidisse, et sic dispersus quibusque partibus corporis sui partibus in caelum spiritum tantum reddidisse, and the similar Fil. 47.6.
44.14 Cf. Apocry. Jas. 2.23-25.
44.15 I.e., these things are invisible. The dry and the wet parts, Epiph will go on to say, were visible and seen by the disciples when Jesus was buried, thus disproving Apelles' thesis.
44.16 Cf. Hipp. Refut. 10.20.2; PsT 6.6; Tert. De Anima 32.3; Carn. Chr. 8.
44.17 Gen 1:26
44.18 I.e., like any human body, Christ's was made in the image of God.
44.19 John 1:1-3
44.20 That is, united it with his Godhead after his ascension. See De Inc. 2,8-3,1, p. 57.
44.21 John 10:18
44.22 John 10:18
44.23 Eph 2:6
44.24 Acts 1:11
44.25 Acts 7:56
44.26 Mark 16:19
44.27 1 Cor 15:33
44.28 An unusual locution. Lipsius suggests that Epiph means 'said in my source.'


Notes to Part 45.

45.1 Eusebius at H. E. 4.29.4-5 makes Severus a follower of Tatian, who teaches about 'invisible aeons' and who further uses the Law and the Prophets while rejecting Paul. There is no obvious connection between this and the account Epiph gives here.
45.2 Apocry. Jn. II,1 10,19-21: 'the first archon.'
45.3 See p. 85 n. 9.
45.4 See p. 85 n. 10.
45.5 Cf. Orig. Wld. 109,26-29; Plutarch De Iside et Osiride 6,353B.
45.6 ἐκτυποῦν. Cf. Pan. 65,6,8.
45.7 Cf. Orig. Wld. 109,26-29.
45.8 See the polemics against sexual intercourse found passim in Thom. Cont., and at Test. Tr. 29,22-30,17; 65,1-8.
45.9 Gen 1:28
45.10 Eus. H. E. 4.29.5
45.11 Matt 26:29
45.12 John 15:1
45.13 Didascalia 1.1
45.14 Matt 21:33-35
45.15 Matt 20:1-6


Notes to Part 46.

46.1 The primary source of this Sect may well be Hipp. Synt., which is represented by PsT 7.1 and Fil. 48; see Pourkier pp. 343-361. However, Epiph has filled out this meagre report from other sources. Iren. 1.28.1 gives much the same information as Epiph; he is followed by Hipp. Refut. 8.16.1 and Eus. H. E. 4.29.3. Epiph appears to have used Eusebius' Chronicle, Clement's Stromata, and perhaps the Martyrdom of Justin and Origen's Serial Comments on Matthew. See nn. 4,6.
46.2 Cf. Tatian Oratio 42.
46.3 Pourkier: il fu à son sommet.
46.4 Iren. 1.28.1
46.5 Martyrdom of Justin, sec. 1.
46.6 PsT 7.1; Fil. 48; Iren. 1.2;8.1; Eus. H. E. 4.29.3.
46.7 Clem. Strom. 3.12.81.1
46.8 The source of this information is Eus. p. 206,13. Chron. Epiph has confused Antoninus Pius with Marcus Aurelius, whom Eusebius elsewhere calls Marcus Antoninus qui et Verus. See Pourkier p. 350 n. 33.
46.9 PsT 7.1; Fil. 48; Iren. 1.28.1; Hipp. Refut. 8.16.1; Eus H. E. 4.29.3.
46.10 Iren. 1.28.1 and Eus. H. E. 4.29.1; Chron. 206,13 make Tatian the founder of the Encratites. See Pan. 47.1.7.
46.11 Eusebius attributes the Diatessaron to Tatian at H. E. 4.29.6.
46.12 PsT 7.1; Iren. 1.28.1; 3.23.8; Hipp. Refut. 8.16.1; Eus. H. E. 4.29.3.
46.13 Iren. 1.28.1; Hip. Refut. 8.16.1; Eus. H. E. 4.29.6; Jer. Adv. Jov. 1.3; 2.16; Clem. Strom. 3.12.81.1-3.
46.14 Epiph assumes that this was Tatian's practice because Encratites were reputed to follow it. For Gnostic or encratite parallels see Acts of Peter 1.2 (H-S 2 p. 188); Acts of Thomas 121 (H-S II p. 288); Acts of Paul 7 (H-S II p. 253). For the practice in catholic circles see Cyprian of Carthage Ep. 63.11.1; 14.1.
46.15 Gen 1:26
46.16 Rom 14:9
46.17 1 Tim 2:15
46.18 Matt 15:24
46.19 The earliest mention of this tradition, and the probable source of Epiph's information, is Orig. Com. Ser. in Matt 126 on Matt 27:33 (Klostermann, p. 265). Cf. Tert. Adv. Marc. 46.3.2.
46.20 Eph 5:14
46.21 Matt 27:52-53

 

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