THE ASTRONOMY AND ASTROLOGY
OF THE
BABYLONIANS,
WITH TRANSLATIONS OF THE TABLETS RELATING TO THESE SUBJECTS.

By Rev. A. H. Sayce, MA.

Read February 3rd, 1874.

[Extracted from Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archćology, vol. 3:1 (1874), pp. 145-339.]


The claim of Babylonia to be considered the birthplace of astronomy is so generally admitted that popular works on the science begin with a description of the advantages enjoyed by the ancient Chaldaeans for shaping the heavens, owing to the level nature of their country and the clearness of its atmosphere. Classical writers for the most part confirm the belief. Diodorus, it is true, mentions the pretentions of the Rhodians, when governed by their solar hero, Aktis, "the sun- beam," the son of Helios, to have been the first astronomers (V, 57); and the Phoenicians sometimes asserted as much for themselves (Pliny, N. H. V, 12; VII, 57; Dionys. Perieg. 907-9); while Macrobius (Comm. in Somn. Scip. I, 21, § 9), S. Clemens Alexandrinus (Strom. I, 16, § 74), Lactantius (Div. Inst, n, 13), Diogenes Laertius (Proem. § 11), and Lucian (de Astrolog. 3-9), ascribe the origin of the science to the Egyptians. Diodorus tells us (I, 28, 29) that the latter people declared that they had taught astronomy to the Babylonians, in fact that Belus and his subjects were an Egyptian colony. Similarly, Pliny (N. H. VII, 56), Manilius (1, 40-45), and Akhilles Tatius (Isag. I, p. 73, ed. Petav.), share the [p.146] honour of the discovery between the inhabitants of the Euphrates and the Nile; and Isidorus (Orig. Ill, 24. 1) attributes astronomy to the Egyptians and astrology to the Chaldaeans. The general voice of antiquity, however, makes the Babylonians the earliest observers of the stars; the author of the Epinomis (9, p. 987), Cicero (de Div. 1, 1), and Proklus (in Tim. 277d), all assert this; and Josephus, quoting from Berosus (Ant. Jud. I, 8, 2), declares that Egypt received its astronomy from the Chaldaeans. With this agrees the length of time during which astronomical observations are said to have been carried on; for 720,000 years according to Epigenes (in Plin. N. H. VII, 57), for 490,000 years according to Berosus and Kritodemus (ib.), for 470,000 years according to Cicero (de Div. I, 19), for 270,000 years according to Hipparkhus (ap. Procl. in Tim. 31c), for 473,000 years before Alexander's invasion, according to Diodorus (II, 31). These writers state that the observations had been recorded in writing upon burnt bricks, a statement confirmed by modern discovery; and the decipherment of the inscriptions has so thoroughly vindicated the trustworthiness of Berosus, that we are inclined to credit the accuracy of the number of years given by him, corroborated as it is by other authors, as well as by the assertion of Cicero (de Div. II, 46), that the Babylonian system of astrological divination upon the births of children was verified by an experience of 470,000 years. Simplicius (ad Arist. de Caelo, 475b) indeed reports the portentous number of 1,440,000 years, although he says elsewhere (ib. 503a), on the authority of Porphyry, that Kallisthenes sent Aristotle from Babylon a series of astronomical observations, which reached back for 31,000 years, or, as the Latin translation has it, for 1,903 years before the time of Alexander the Great. On the whole, we may look upon Berosus as accurately relating the belief of his countrymen upon the matter; and though it is impossible to accept the prodigious antiquity which he assigns to their star-gazing, I have yet been much impressed by the great age to which the testimony of the astronomical tablets I have examined would throw back the beginning of a systematised and recorded astrology among the Babylonians. Thus, the event which followed each eclipse [p.147] of the Sun or Moon, such as the death of the king of Elam, or a victory of the king of Accad, was noted down under the supposition that any other eclipse which took place at the same time in the future would be accompanied by a similar occurrence. Now, the great astrological work which was drawn up for the Library of Sargon, of Agane, in the I6th century B.C., contains a list of eclipses for every possible day throughout the year; and as each of these has some event attached to it, thus guaranteeing its reality, we may easily imagine to what an antiquity the records go back. It is probable that the work in question was used by Berosus; we are told by Josephus (cont. Ap. I, 19) that he wrote on Chaldaean astronomy and philosophy; and Seneca (Nat. Quaest. Ill, 29) calls him the translator of Belus, who is named "the inventor of sidereal science" by Pliny (N. H. VI, 26) and Solinus (56, 3). As we may now safely consider Berosus to represent the views of Babylonian astronomy, the fragments of his book that have been preserved become extremely interesting. These are but few, the chief being those about the Moon, which have been quoted from him by Vitruvius (IX, 2) and others. That body was described as a sphere, half of which is igneous, the light not being derived from the Sun; its movements were said to be threefold, though regular, one in longitude, one in latitude, and one in an orbit; and its phases to be produced by the alternate conversion of the luminous and the opaque sides to the Earth, these conversions always coinciding with the Moon's conjunction with the Sun; and a lunar eclipse happening when the dark part is turned towards the Earth. Pliny tells us that Berosus fixed the limit of human life at 116 years, on astrological grounds (N. H. VII, 50), and Seneca informs us (Nat. Quaest. Ill, 29) that he had stated that the world would be submerged by a deluge when all the planets met in the sign of Cancer, and destroyed by a conflagration when they all met m the sign of Capricorn. This implies a belief in a great cosmical year. I think there can be but little doubt that the valuable information given by Diodorus (II, 30) on Babylonian astronomy also came from Berosus. We shall see that it is fully confirmed by the cuneiform tablets. The [p.148] Greek writer states that the five planets, Saturn, Mars, Venus, Mercury and Jupiter, were called by the Chaldaeans "interpreters". "They portend," he says, "certain events by their rising or their setting, and again by their colours; sometimes they foretell the amount of wind or of rain or of heat that is impending. Also the appearance of comets, eclipses of the sun and moon, earthquakes, and in fact every kind of change occasioned by the atmosphere, whether good or bad, both to nations and to kings and private individuals." Thirty stars, called "the counsellor gods," were ranged under the planets, 15 above and 15 below the Earth, one of which went every ten days from the upper to the lower. Besides these there were 12 chiefs of the gods, one for each month and for each sign of the Zodiac.1 Through these pass the Sun and Moon and Planets. With the Zodiac were also associated 24 stars, named "judges," 12 being north and 12 south.

There is little else to be obtained from the classical authors respecting the subject of this paper. Birth portents were a special study of the Babylonians, and each person had a particular star—only not a fixed star, unless it formed one of the Zodiacal signs—assigned to him at his birth. Some of these, Saturn for instance, was sinister. The birthday of the World was supposed to have been when Aries was on the meridian, the creation of the Moon being coincident with Cancer, of the Sun with Leo, of Mercury with Virgo, of Venus with Libra, of Mars with Scorpio, of Jupiter with Sagittarius, and of Saturn with Capricorn (Macrob. in Somn. Scip. I, 21, 24). The planet Saturn was sometimes designated [p.149] the Sun (Simplic. ad Aristot. p. 499); and the names given to the constellations by the Chaldaeans differed from the Greek according to Akhilles Tatius (39), who also says that the substitution of Libra for the Claw of the Scorpion was imported from Egypt. Alexander Polyhistor avers that Pythagoras was instructed at Babylon by Nazaratus; and however much the Samian sage and his travels may belong to the domain of myth, the name of his teacher is correct enough. This is also the case with the Chaldeans, Kidenas, Naburianus, and Sudinas, who, according to Strabo (XVI, 1, 6), were held by the Greeks to have been eminent in science. The sun-dial, Herodotus assures us (II, 109), together with the division of the day into 12 parts,—casbumi, or asli, as we now find them to have been called,—was the invention of the Babylonians; and the dial of Ahaz seems to have been the fruit of intercourse between Judah and Assyria. Geminus (15) ascribes the discovery that eclipses of the Moon recur after 223 lunations, or 18 years, to the dwellers upon the Euphrates; and Ptolemy mentions that a continuous series of observations of lunar eclipses was in existence in his time up to the era of Nabonassar, B.C. 747 (Magn. Synt. Ill, 6), referring elsewhere to the five earliest Babylonian eclipses known to Hipparkhus, of 721, 720, 621 and 523 B.C. The inference drawn from Ptolemy's words by Sir G. C. Lewis (Astron. of Ancients, p. 288), that the series of recorded eclipses did not ascend beyond B.C. 747, is overthrown by the single fact that the official archives of the Assyrians note the solar eclipse of the 15th of June, B.C. 763.

The general result of the statements we have been reviewing is to bring out the belief of Greek and Roman writers in the great antiquity of Babylonian astronomy. Whether it were older than the less developed science of the Egyptians, it is impossible to say. We need not suppose that the one people borrowed it from the other; indeed, wherever a calendar has to be constructed, a native independent astronomy will take its rise.

It is hardly necessary to refer to what the Old Testament has to say upon the subject. In Isaiah xlvii, 13, the prophet says to Babylon, "Thou art wearied with the multitude of [p.150] thy astrological consultations: let now the dividers of the heavens, the star-gazers, the monthly prognosticators stand up": and the Book of Daniel abounds with references to the astrologers and magicians. Perhaps the comparison of the king of Babylon to the morning star in Isaiah xiv was suggested by the same fact.

It is now time to see what light may be thrown upon the matter by the numerous tablets relating to Babylonian astronomy and astrology which have been brought to the British Museum. Their interpretation is for the most part difficult, since not only are the terms obscure and removed from those of ordinary life, but a large portion of the tablets is written ideographically. The astrological information they contain had to be concealed from the uninitiated, and accordingly, while the grammar is Semitic, the words are in great measure Accadian. Sometimes, however, these are Assyrian; and the mixture of the two vocabularies considerably increases the difficulty of decipherment, as it is often uncertain whether the characters are to be read phonetically or not. Moreover, the same ideograph is not unfrequently used in totally different senses; in fact we may say that, whereas an ordinary Assyrian inscription endeavours to make itself intelligible to the reader, these astrological legends are intended to conceal their meaning as much as possible. So far as I know, the only attempt to interpret these tablets is Dr. Oppert's admirable paper on the Astrological and Portent Tablets, an abstract of which, by M. Mold, is published in the Journal Asiatique, 1871, vol. 18, p. 67. Dr. Oppert's acuteness and learning cannot be too highly spoken of; the translations he has given, and the identifications of stars that he has made, have opened the way to other students in this department of research. I shall have frequently to refer to his discoveries in the course of this monograph.

The standard astrological work of the Babylonians and Assyrians was one consisting of 70 tablets, drawn up for the Library of Sargon, king of Agane, in the 16th century B.C. There were many editions of it, which varied in small details, as may be seen from the notes I have attached to my translation of a portion of the work in the Appendix. The whole [p.151] series was called Namar-Bili, or Enu-Bili, the "illumination" or "eye of Bel"; and when we remember that Berosus is called the interpreter of Bel, "the inventor of sidereal science," there can, I think, be little doubt that we have fragments before us of the very work that the Chaldean historian turned into Greek. This work, however, was but one out of many on kindred subjects which were possessed by the royal libraries of Babylonia. A list of these, partly mutilated and partly undecipherable, is given in W.A.I. III, 52, 3, the Colophon of which states that it had "been written and engraved by the hands of Nebo-car-ziltumu, son of Munammih, the man of Lasanan, the great country." So far as I can make them out, the different matters treated of are catalogued thus: "(1) The following [are] the omens of evil, and the contrary signs [of good]; tokens of rejoicing and of sorrow to the heart of men. (2) As follows: the eldest born of silver, the interpreter of rain." I am not sure as to what is meant by "the eldest born" or "chief of silver." It may be a sort of meteorological instrument; but more probably it denotes the Moon. The heaven to which the Assyrians looked forward is described as "the land of the silver sky" in W.A.I. III, 18, 19; and Censorinus (18) says that the Chaldaeans expected the same weather to occur in cycles of 12 solar years, as well as good crops, famines and pestilences, which were thus made to depend upon the Moon (see Pliny, N. H. XVIII, 79). The second work noted in the Catalogue is upon "the observatory of this city." The Observatory, elsewhere called Bit tamarti, "the House of Observation" (W.A.I. III, 61, 6, 15), is here named sig-gar-na [glyphs] enclose." The word might be applied to "a storehouse"; but in the feminine form, sigguratu (zigguratu in Babylonian), it is specially used of the lofty "towers" attached to the temples, on the top of which was the altar of the deity. The Accadai, or "Highlanders," who had founded their creed in the mountams of Elam, believed that the gods only came down to the highest parts of the earth, and therefore raised artificial eminences, like the Tower of Babel, for their worship in the plains of [p.152] Babylonia. The gods were supposed to have their seat on the "Mountain of the East," the "Mountain of the World," like the Greek Olympus, or the Hindu Meru (see Isa. xiv, 13); and in the account of the Deluge, Sisuthrus is made to build his altar, after leaving his ark, on the siggurat sadi, or "peak of the mountain." These towers would have been admirably adapted for observing the heavens, and their sacred character would have harmonised with the astro-theology of Chaldaea. The third work in the Catalogue treated of omens and prophecies derived from "birds of the sky, of the water, and of the earth." Apparently the interpretation was to be taken from the cries, appearance, and flight of the birds, and the soothsayer was to stand on the south. Particular attention was paid to their appearance "in the city and its streams." The next series of tablets also relates to water- and sky-fowl, and to the omens derived from their notes. Something is said about "the reed of a tablet," but I am quite unable to translate the passage. The fourth work describes the omens from burning something in the fire. The title of the fifth may be rendered, "When the appearance of a house grows old for the inhabitant, the appearance is an omen of evil." Then comes, "In the midst of the city clay tablets one sets up." This would seem to allude to the description of a library, and the indication of its position is interesting. The title of the 8th work is, "[In] the good city of the land the hand of the warriors binds together [their] confederates," a title which is extremely obscure; but it was probably the first line of the series of tablets to which it belonged. The 9th work has two headings: "The king of the country in the great strongholds guards silver," and "The king of the country in the great strongholds causes silver to be treasured up" (sar mati ina ma-kha-zi rabi caipa yuts-tsar caspa yic-sar-si). Next we have "The hen, the screaming [consort] of the land-bird, over the city and its canals one saw and heard," where omens, from the appearance and voice of hen-birds, are referred to. The following line is rendered obscure by the mutilation of the tablet; but it speaks of "casting arrows (mitpanat) in the city and its canals away from the earth." What is left of the 12th title relates to dreams. I would [p.153] doubtfully translate: "A dream of bright light [results] in fire; a dream of bright light [presages] a fire in the city." Then follows something about the association of "a great beast" (umamu rahu) "with the bird of heaven"; and after that we have, "14 tablets of the signs of the earth according to their names: their good presage [and] their evil presage: the signs of the heaven along with [the signs] of the earth are [next] registered."

Now begins accordingly a list of the tablets which related to the phaenomena of the sky, in the following order: "(1) The god that is fixed (perhaps the Earth); (2) The Sun grows in size, and the star Gisru (the strong) by name . ...; (3) The planet Dilbat (Venus) in the sereti made (a rising); (4) The planet (Mars), of the 7 names, in .... ; (5) The balancing of the Moon and [the Sun]; (6) The appearance of the Moon and [the Sun]; (7) [The tablets beginning] From the 1st day to the 5th day the Moon .... ; (8) The star which before it has a corona, behind it a tail; (9) The Ah-god produces, and his hand with ... ; (10) The star Icu; (11) The star Dayan-Same (the Pole-star), which in the midst revolves." It is unfortunate that this part of the Catalogue is so mutilated. The same is the case with the following lines, which sum up what has gone before. So far as they can be made out, they run thus: "Tablets [recording] the signs of the heaven, along with the star (comet) which has a corona in front and a tail behind; the appearance of the sky. The signs which come forth from the earth along with the heaven .... sky and earth .... stars ...." The seven next lines are too fragmentary to afford any information. They begin with the words, "The sign which in heaven is seen," mention various omens, and end with a notice of "the star which has a corona before it." This of course, with its tail, must be a comet; and it is much to be desired that the tablets which recorded the appearance of these heavenly bodies may yet be discovered. It will be noticed that there were but eleven works bearing on the omens drawn from celestial phaenomena, whereas the terrestrial had fourteen devoted to them.

The reverse of the Catalogue is somewhat mutilated at [p.154] the commencement, but its contents are worth reproducing in full:—

1. [glyphs]
Istu libitti suati ilammid-ma alu sarri u nisi-su ina kat naciri ibasu pagri u kjusakhkhu
From this omen one learns the following: the city of the king and his men in the hand of the foe are; corpses [and famine]

2. [glyphs]
.... ina dibbi - ca mi - nam ta - gab - bi i -gab- bu - ca - va ci - i
.... on thy tablet the number (which) thou statest he shall state to thee and with

3. [glyphs]
pukhkhur 25 dip - pi i - da sam-u irtsi - tiv sa dunki -su-nu u limutti -su-nu
A collection of 25 tablets of the signs of heaven and earth, according to their good presage and their bad [presage]

4. [glyphs]
libitti ma - la ina same ib - su - u ina i'tsi - tiv izzacaru
The omens as many as in heaven are, and on earth are recorded

5. [glyphs]
An -nu-u siptu
was [is] the record

[p.155]

6. [glyphs]
12 arakhi sa sanat I VI sus yiimi sa mi - na - at izzacaru ina kat bi - ib - li urru - ni ins - e sa ta - mar - ti cacab yaiiu ......
Twelve months to each year, (6x60 = ) 360 days, in order are recorded by the hand during the middle of the day a deficiency of the sight of the non-existent star

8. [glyphs]
mit - kliar - ti ris sanat sa cacab Dil - gau ta - mar - ti D.P. Sin u D.P. Samas sa ina . . .
the appearance at the beginning of the year of the star Icu, the sight of the Moon and the Sun which in . ..

9. [glyphs]
ni - ip -klia u tamirti sa D.P. Sin ar -khi yu - pakad
The rising and appearances of the Moon during the month one observes;

10. [glyphs]
sit - kul - ta sa cacabi u D.P. Sin inatstsar-ma gub - bu - ul
The balancing of the stars and the Moon one watches; and the opposition

[p.156]

11. [glyphs]
sa sanat arklii - sa sa arklii yumi -su sibru-va sal - mu - u te - pu - su
of the year its months, of the months their days the announcement; and of peace the ynakimj

12. [glyphs]
e -nu-va ina taniirti D.P. Sin yu-niu ir - bu ibassi ca - li - ti
Then follows at the appearance of the Moon, during the day rain falls; all

13. [glyphs]
e - nn-va ina bi - ib - li yu-mu ii- bu ibassi ca - li - ti ic - su
Next during the middle of the day oxiin falls; all

14. [glyphs]
ana la - taq bi - ib - li u na - an - mur - ti pulugti matsarti va sa - at - tuv (khi - bi)
for the {section of discernment} of the centre (of the heavens) and the observation [discernment) of the divisions of the watches and of the year [the rest is wanting]

[p.157]

16. [glyphs]
12 arklii ina idat pi e - rib a - na la - taq yumi sib - ci
The 12 months at the time of beginning [and] ending, according to the division of the day generally

17. [glyphs]
sit - kill - ti cacabi u D.P. Sin ina  ida pi e - rib
The balancing of the stars and the Moon according to the tokens of beginning and ending.

18. [glyphs]
as - ri mi - ci issabru - va yumi s'ami lu - u baladha sallim -ma
The places of setting are announced; and the dark days. Life [and] peace

[glyphs]
s - an - na ci - in - va di - ri - sa su - ul - lim
dunng the year establish thou; and its continuance perfect

Then follows a list of the months, with a "memorandum below" as to which of them are lucky or otherwise for military operations:—

[p.158] [p.159]

[p.160]

After this comes the Colophon, which I have translated above. The inscription is at once curious and valuable; not the least so, perhaps, the instruction which is given in line 2 about reference to the Library on the part of the reader or scribe. Lines 12 and 13 give the first words of the series of tablets which they catalogue, and which were arranged next to one another on the shelves. The latter part of line 15 was obliterated on the tablet from which our present one was copied; and accordingly the fact is noted, as is often the case in these inscriptions.

The most important portion of the register is the account which it gives us of the Accadian year. This contained 360 days and 12 months, each of which is noted as being lucky or unlucky for commencing a campaign, attacking a city, and expecting prosperity for a fortified country and city. The names of the months, in Accadian and Assyrian, are to be found on other tablets, together with the intercalary Ve-Adar of the Jews, which was needed with a year of only 360 days. The quotation I have made above from Censorinus would seem to show that the Babylonian Cycle was one of 12 years. Reckoning the solar year at 365 days, 60 intercalary days, or two Ve-Adars, would be required during this cycle. Consequently a Ve-Adar would be inserted in the Calendar every sixth year. But it would be found that a year of 365 days only was too short by nearly a quarter of a day, and that the Calendar at the end of every sixth year would differ from the true year by about a day and 11 hours. In 124 years the deficiency would amount to a whole month of 30 days, so that another intercalary month besides Ve-Adar would be needed. Accordingly we find the Accadians making use of a second Nisan, as well as of a second Elul; but it is difficult to say whether these were full months of 30 days each, or whether they were not intercalated whenever the priestly directors of the Calendar discovered that the disagreement between it and the true year had become a serious matter. A tablet in W.A.I. 56, 5, gives us all the three intercalary months ever known in the Babylonian reckoning of time, together with the events which had happened in each, and might, therefore, be expected to occur again. The ideographs [p.161] by which these are expressed are unfortunately obscure, and I can read with certainty only one or two of them. Thus we are told, "In the month Elul, the god makes the king prosperous," and then follows a notice of what will take place "in the second Elul." After this is added the statement that, "Thus from the 1st day of Nisan to the 30th day of Ve-Adar, head and tail completely, so-and-so lives head and tail to head and tail completely, so-and-so goes to destruction." In this tablet the full name of the Accadian Ve-Adar is given, as Dir-se, se being Adar. It is called ar-khu ma~ak-ru sa Ad-da-ri in Assyrian, which Mr. Norris is doubtless right in rendering, "the incidental month of Adar," comparing the Hebrew מקרה, "chance." Addaru seems to be of Accadian origin. Dir which distinguishes the name of the intercalary month, signifies in Accadian "purple," "dark blue," or "blue." A syllabary (W.A.I. II, 1, 177, 178) renders [glyphs] by di-ri and ia-a in Accadian and ad-ru and ki-a-mu in Assyrian. It is evident that the Assyrian words are borrowed from the old language of Babylonia. Now Sa-a-mu, or si-a-mu as it is also spelled (W.A.I. Ill, 59, 8, 1), is the Heb. שהם, "the dark blue" stone, and is common enough in the inscriptions. In a list of colours in W.A.I. II, 26, 44, et seq., we find besides ki-a-rmi, ianduv and ia-ma-nu; and the ideograph is repeatedly used in the astronomical tablets in combination with [glyphs] "atmosphere," and [glyphs] "water," to signify "cloud" and "mist" ("blue water") respectively. Adru or a-da-ru has the sense of "dark" in Assyrian; thus in W.A.I. II, 48, 30, we have after a-ta-lu-u "an eclipse," a-da-ru sa sin "darkness of the moon," given as equivalent to an-ia-lu, the uncontracted form of a-ta-lu. The month Adar would, therefore, denote "the dark" month of mists; and we thus obtain not only an explanation of the Assyrian name of the last month of the year, but also an indication that the intercalary month belonged to the Accadian Calendar before the latter was borrowed by their Semitic neighbours. Now a slight inspection of the Calendar will show that the Accadian months derived their names from the signs of the Zodiac. The first month, called Ni-sa-an-nu [glyphs] [p.162] Assyrian, was [glyphs] Accadian. The last two characters are added as the explanatory complement of the first, which ordinarily stands by itself as the representative of the month;2 and [glyphs], in Accadian bar, is the Assyrian paraccu and hammu "altar" or "sacrifice" and ''incense." We are taken back to a time when the ram was the chief object of sacrifice, as in Gen. xxii, 13, and so can understand how Aries came to be the first sign of the Zodiac in later western astronomy. The second month, Ai-ru ([glyphs]), or Iyyar, was [glyphs] si-di, "the prosperous bull," or more usually [glyphs], "the bull" alone. This of course answers to Taurus; and it is possible that the Semitic Ai-ru comes from khar, one of the Accadian names of the bull. The third month, Sivan, [glyphs], Si-va-nu or [glyphs] Tsi-i-van in Assyrian, was the month of "bricks," mar [glyphs] or mur-ga glyphs] is also the signification of the Assyrian Siranu. Another name of the month, however, was that of "the Twins" (kas); and in this we discover Gemini. Sargon calls the month "a royal" one, possibly because it was dedicated to Sin, the Moon-god, from whom the kings of Assyria and Babylonia traced their descent according to the same monarch. The fourth month was Du-u-zu [glyphs] in Assyrian, answering to the Hebrew and Aramaic Tammuz. Tammuz, as we know from Ezek. viii, 14, was another name of Adonis, the Sun-god; and Ibn Wahshiya makes him one of the primaeval inhabitants of Chaldea, whose death at the hands of the king was lamented by all the gods in the great Temple of the Sun. Now Tammuz is plainly [p.163] Tam-zi, "'the sun of life," or morning, the hero of the Babylonian flood story whom Berosus calls Sisuthrus. Tam-zi is the husband of Allat or Istar, who had descended into Hades after her first husband, Du-zi, "the son of life." The character of the latter agrees with that of Adonis; and I think, therefore, that both Du-zi and Tam-zi are to be regarded as variant forms of the solar hero. But Du-zi is clearly the prototype of the Assyrian Duzu. The Accadian name of the month means "the seizer of seed" ([glyphs]) would seem to represent Cancer. The fifth month is that "of fire," or "of fire that makes fire" [glyphs], Hud its Semitic title Abu is possibly derived from one of the values of the Accadian ideograph which may have denoted "fire" in a dialect of that language. The traditional sign of the Zodiac does not answer to the Babylonian name of the month, though the ideas of "fire" and "lion" are perhaps not very remote from one another. Elul, the Assyrian Ululu, was the sixth month, the Accadian hi gingir-na, the month of "the errand of Istar or Allat." The Semitic name may possibly have some connection with the name of the goddess, which appears as Alilat in its full form, while the goddess Alala is mentioned in the mythological tablets. The Virgo of the Zodiac is of course Astarte. The seventh month, of the "altar", or more fully of "the holy altar" ([glyphs]) is the Tasritu of the Semitic Calendar. Tasritu or Tisri is a Tiphel form of esritu "a sanctuary," the Heb. אשרה; and the sign of the Zodiac which corresponds with the month is of modern origin according to Akhilles Tatius, who states that Libra was originally denominated the Claw of the Scorpion. The following month was called Arakh-samna, "the eighth month" in Assyrian, which explains the Jewish Marchesvan. Its Accadian name was apin av-'a, the month of "the prosperous (?) foundation." It has clearly nothing to do with the Zodiacal Scorpio; but M. Ernest de Bunsen has shown that Scorpio was taken as the starting-point of the primitive calendar; and it is this fact which seems to be referred to. After Marchesvan comes Chisleu, written Ci-sa-li-vu and Cu-sal-lu in Assyrian. [p.164] In Accadian its appellation was [glyphs] (gan ganna or gag gan-tsu) the month of "many clouds" or "canals." There does not seem to be any connexion between this and the Zodiacal sign Sagittarius. The Aramaic Chisleu, however, appears to be connected with "the giant," the Asiatic Orion; and the month in Arabic is Canun, in which perhaps we may discover the כיו of the Bible, the Caivanu of the Assyrian inscriptions. Caivanu was Bel as the planet Saturn, and represented the Accadian Sakus, or "leader." The tenth month is termed ab-ha uddi or abba uddu, the meaning of which is difficult to determine. Abba signifies "father," also "old" and "hollow" (kabu), and in the latter sense is joined with a, "water," to denote "the sea." Uddu meant to "go out" or "rise," and so "sunrise"; while udda is "light," and ud "day" or "sun." Now in W.A.I. I, IV, 75, Ud (for Uddu) replaces the ordinary name of the tenth month, which seems to imply that abba and uddu have much the same signification. At the same time it is difficult to understand how it can have been called a month of light, as the inscriptions show that it was stormy and wet. The Assyrian Dhabitu (Tebet) is equally obscure, and nothing can be learned from the Zodiacal Capricornus. The next month, "of want and rain" ([glyphs]) Sabadim (Sebat) in Assyrian, answers naturally to Aquarius. Babylonia is still reduced to an impassable marsh by the rains of January, and it is a noticeable fact, to which Sir H. Rawlinson first drew attention, that the Chaldean account of the Deluge discovered by Mr. G. Smith is the eleventh of a series of twelve tablets. Now, M. Lenormant has pointed out that this series is an old Babylonian Epic, pieced together before the 16th century B.C. out of a number of earlier mythological poems or ballads. The adventures of the solar hero Gisdhubar ("the mass of fire") are the connecting bond of the group of poems, like the siege of Troy in the Iliad or the wanderings of Ulysses in the Odyssey. The selection and arrangement of the originally independent legends which make up this early epic have been determined by astronomical reasons. Each story corresponds to a sign of the Zodiac, and consequently to a [p.165] month of the year which agrees with the character of the particular myth. Thus the story of the Flood is grouped under Aquarius and the "rainy" month, while the legend of the descent of Allat or Istar into Hades to seek her lost husband Du-zi "the son of life," the Tammuz or Adonis of Palestine, seems to belong to the sixth month and the sixth Zodiacal sign. Similarly the fourth month appears connected with the tale of the untimely death of this Duzi or Tammuz, cut off by the boar's tusk of winter; and the conquest of the winged bull by Gisdhubar must be referred to the second tablet. Tammuz, it seems to me, is to be identified with Tam-zi "the sun of life" or "morning sun," the hero of the Deluge, who, like Duzi, was a husband of Istar. In fact the two are but different forms of the same legendary character, whose solar Nature is sufficiently determined by the name of Tam-zi's father, Ubara-Tutu or "the glow of sunset." Tutu is but another form of Tu, who is said to be the god of death (in W.A.I. Ill, 67, 21); and Tutu, like Zeus, is called "the progenitor," the father of gods of men. Out of the primaeval chaos of darkness and death, according to the Babylonian view, came life and living things.3 The fact that the ancient Accadian epic was arranged upon an astronomical principle shows how thoroughly the study of the heavens had penetrated the mind of the people; and we are not surprised, therefore, at finding that sacrifices were offered to the stars,4 or that the gods were identified with the more prominent heavenly bodies. So far as I can see, the Chaldaean deities were primarily the powers of nature,—the earth, the sun, or the sky. These developed into distinct personalities, and the numerous epithets which were applied to them originated a vast mythology and an endless array of divinities, each epithet becoming a separate personality. As in the case of other nations, the Sun had been the chief object of [p.166] worship, and the larger portion of the mythology accordingly grouped itself about the Sun-god and the numberless forms which he had assumed. The more I examine the Accadian mythology, the more solar does its character appear. But there was still another stage of transformation through which the Accadian Pantheon had to pass. Its several personages, mostly forms of the Sun, were identified with the planets and the stars, and so a curious artificial system of worship arose, in which the principal deities bore a double character, on the one side mythological, and on the other stellar. Thus Merodach, whose Accadian name Amar-ud or Amar-idu "the Circle of the Sun"4 shows his solar nature, became Mercury as a morning star and Jupiter as an evening planet. A tablet (W.A.I. III, 53, 2) informs us that Merodach is called Sulpa-uddu "the messenger of the rising sun" in Nisan; Ut-ul-tar "the light of the heavenly spark" in Iyyar; Dilgan or Icu of Babylon in Sivan; Dapinu in Tammuz; Makru or Dir in Ab; Sakmisa in Elul; Nibiru in Tisri; Rabhu "the mighty" in Marchesvan; Alam ''the shadow" or "image" in Chisleu; Sarru "the king" in Tebet; Gal "the great" in Sebat; and Kha Hea "the fish of Hea" in Adar. Now the last identification leads us back to the Calendar, and enables us to explain the name of the last month of the year. This is Se or Se kitar in Accadian, the month "of the sowing of seed," and the connexion of the Zodiacal Pisces with it is plainly due to the title which Merodach, as a star, bears during this month. The double month Adar and Ve-Adar would be the origin of the double Pisces, thus suggesting that the signs of the Zodiac were named at a later date than the months. The star Dilgan, which is translated I-cu-u in Assyrian, was peculiarly the star of Babylon, and therefore of its patron god Merodach. The late epoch, however, at which the Accadian Pantheon became astronomical, is shown by the fact that whereas Merodach was the son of Hea and Dav-cina, "the earth" male and female, the star Icu was the son of Anu " the sky." This points to a time when the stars had begun to be worshipped as gods or else had been identified with [p.167] various mythological heroes, but before the elaborate transmutation of the popular religion into a stellar worship. Icu is given first in a list of 12 stars, called the 12 stars of the west; and its rising in the west in March or April is therefore fixed. It was not Mercury, however, but Jupiter; and the identification of Merodach with both these planets is one of the most difficult and intricate parts of Babylonian astro-theology.

It will be necessary before going further to determine the Chaldean names of the 7 planets, among which the Sun and the Moon were always reckoned. This has been the work of M. Oppert, who may claim this part of the subject as peculiarly his own, and I have little to do beyond completing his conclusions. The planets were called by the Accadians the 7 lubat or dibbat, a word which is translated by the bibbu in a list of animals (W.A.I. Il, 6, 4). It stands between the wolf (z'lbu or acilu) and the goat (atadu), and perhaps signified the lynx, from the brilliance of its eyes. בבא in later Hebrew meant "the pupil of the eye" (like in the Old Testament), and this was no doubt the reason why the word was set apart to denote the most prominent of the stars. Jupiter, the brightest and reddest of the planets, is specially called Lubat (W.A. I. II, 49, 44) and bibbu (W.A.I. II, 48, 53; 49,44). The order in which the planets are arranged is always the same; the Moon, the Sun, Mercury, Venus, Saturn, Jupiter, and Mars, the Moon-god taking the lead, as throughout the later Babylonian mythology, in accordance with the feelings of a nation of astronomers to whom the night and its luminary were matters of more consideration than the day. The Moon was called A-cu in Accadian, when spoken of astronomically; and the Sun was designated Biseba, a name which is elsewhere translated tsalamu, "figure" or "mass." M. Oppert would also identify the Moon with "the star of Anunit," which is said to be "the star of the Tigris" (II, 51, 58), in which case the Sun would be sinuntu, "the star of the Euphrates"; but he cannot be right in his ingenious conjecture that the Sun is denoted by the three stars Bav-tabba-g algal "the doubly great," Bar-tabba-dudn "the doubly little," and Bar-tabba sa ina sid cacab [p.168] Sib-zi-anna "the double star which depends on the star Sibzi-anna," since the first-named star is one of those of the west. Moreover, in II, 49, 12, the star Anunit is identified with Istar. In the astronomical tablets the Moon is generally represented by the symbol XXX, derived from the thirty days of the month, just as the two Istars are XV, the half of XXX. The usual name of Mercury was Sulpa-uddu or Sulpa-uddna, "the messenger of the rising sun," as M. Oppert happily renders it. It was more especially the title of the planet during the first month of the year, as we have seen above, and is given as the equivalent of the star Ut-ul-tar in W.A.I. Ill, and of Dapinu m W.A.I. II, 48, 50, Ut-ultar and Dapinu being farther equated in W.A.I. II, 51, 62. M. Oppert translates Dapinu by "ambiens," but considering that the word is used of kings and given as a synonyme of emamu, the translation may be questioned. However, dapanu certainly means "a wheel." During the month Elul the title of the planet was Sakvisa. This is clearly the Greek [Greek], which Hesykhius states was the name of Mercury among the Babylonians. From the colour of the planet was derived its appellation of "the blue star" which is called a lubat or planet in W.A.I. II, 49, 9, and is rendered by macru, the name of Mercury in the month Ab, and mikid isat "the burning of fire," in II, 49, 31. In W.A.I. Ill, 67, 28, Sulpa-uddu is called "the prince of the men of Kharran," a very remarkable reference to a city which was closely connected with Accad in race and history from very early times, and whose laws are conjoined by Sargon with those of Assur the ancient pre-Semitic capital of Assyria. The astronomical lore of the Kharranians is thus taken back to a remote period. Sulpa-uddu is also called "the king of light" and "the king of gusurra" or "woodwork," and he is connected with the gods Sulpa-cisal (?) and Pa-uddu, who, along with Tu or "death," are given as synonymous with Cubba-e-makh "the support of the mighty house." It is interesting to see how the Morning-star is associated with the god of death, just as Hermes the Vedic Stirameyas or Dogs of the Dawn is the conductor of souls to Hades. A further title of Mercury is ris risati "chief of the beginning," and like [p.169] Venus he is called Nabu or "proclaimer," as being the precursor of the Sun. Venus is ordinarily entitled Dilbat, the Assyrian signification of which is stated to be nabu, and the word is found in Hesykhius, who says that [Greek] was the Babylonian Venus. The planet was of course identified with Istar, and the name of the goddess "as a star" was Nin-si-anna "Lady of the defences of heaven" (W.A.I. II, 59, 20). Istar and Bilat were much confused together, indeed they were originally but two forms of the same goddess; and we are not surprised, therefore, at being told (W.A.I. Ill, 53, 36, 37), "Venus, at sunrise is Istar among the gods; Venus at sunset is Bilat among the gods." As Finzi (Antichita Assira, p. 516) points out, "the Lord of the star" and "the Lady of the star" are each given as a museda or "spirit" of Anu in W.A.I. Ill, 68, 31, 32. According to II, 49, 12, the star of Anunit is Istar, as well as Dilbat and Arituv. A tablet, which I have translated in the Appendix, describes the phases of the planet during the year. Another name of Venus was mustelil "the brilliant." The full name of Saturn was Lubat-sakus, which is given as a synonyme of Lulim in W.A.I. II, 48, 52. Now lulim signified both "king" and "stag" (W.A.I. II, 6, 8, 31, 41); and sakus we are told in W.A.I. II, 32, 25, was the Assyrian Caivanu. Sakus is composed of two characters, which mean respectively "head" and "man," and accordingly we are informed that it denoted "top of the head" (saku sa risi), and "chief" or "first-born" (asaridu). It is in the latter sense that Caivanu is used, from the root כון. Caivanu is of course the Heb. כיון (Amos V, 26), the Arabic Keiwan or Saturn. The planet was also designated Sakus Utu "the eldest born of the Sun-god," as well as Gigi, explained as "righteousness and justice" (cittu u misar), and Mi ("the black") or Cus "darkness" (tsalmu in Assyrian). The dull feeble light of the orb when seen by the naked eye sufficiently accounts for this epithet. A further appellation of Saturn was Zibanna, in Assyrian Zibanitu; and in W.A.I. II, 67, 49, the star mi Zibanitu is erroneously given as the equivalent of Jupiter (Lubat-guttav). "The Black Spark" is said to be Pap-sukul (W.A.I. II, 49, 8). [p.170] Papsukul was " the attendant of Anu and Istar," to whom the month Tebet was sacred. His titles were "the lord of bliss," "the lord of the earth,'' and "the strong," and his wife was "the queen of copper." Perhaps he is but another form of Du-zi, the son and husband of Istar, of whom I have already spoken; at all events "the Yellow-green Spark" which is identified with Du-zi, is said to be the same as "the Black Spark" (W.A.I. II, 49, 10, V2).6 Next to Saturn came Jupiter in the Chaldaean system. Jupiter was properly termed Lubat-Guttav; but its size and brilliancy caused it to be singled out as pre-eminently the Lubat or Bibbu or "planet" (so in W.A.I. Ill, I, and above). Guttav is explained by the Assyrian pidnu sa same (W.A.I. II, 47, 21); and M. Oppert acutely interprets this "the furrow of heaven," i.e. the ecliptic, to which Jupiter is near. The planet is also called Mustarilu (in W.A.I. II, 47, 21), in which we may recognise the Moshtari of the Arabs. A passage I have already referred to (II, 67,44, sqq.) makes this star identical with six others, Gan-gusur "the light7 of the hero," "the star of Merodach," Dilgan, Kak-sidi "creator of prosperity"; Entenamaslum, and Mi-Zibanituv, but this is certainly a mistake. The last star, as we have already seen, was Saturn; the preceding star is translated by the Assyrian khabatsiranu, and explained to be [glyphs] (sir etsen-tsiri, "the Tip of the Tail")8 (W.A.I. II, 49, 47); [p.171] and Kak-sidi is rendered sucunu, and is said to be "a star of the west," along with Dilgan or Icu (W.A.I. II, 49, 48, 3), which is a name of Mercury in the third month. Dilgan was the patron star of Babylon according to W.A.I. II, 48, 57, and III, 53, 2, just as Marbuda was of Nipur, and this fixes its identity with "the star of Merodach," which is elsewhere (II, 51, 61) called [glyphs] "desert." The scribe, therefore, who wrote the passage in question, must have misunderstood his copy, and have identified with Jupiter a group of stars which were coupled with it in consequence of their proximity to the ecliptic. When the scribe went on to identify this lubat with the god Adar, he was doubtless right, and we may also accept the statement that the planet was further entitled "the star of the god Nin-asu," the star Ra-di-tar-ta-khu, and "the star of the Eagle of Zamama," another name of Adar (II, 67, 53). The fiery colour of Jupiter accords with the character of a deity who was armed with the thunderbolt, and whose name was a synonyme of iron. The Phoenician title of Jupiter, we are told, was Gad "good fortune,"9 to which a reference is made in Isa. lxv, 11, and possibly this is derived from ruttav, with a change of the dental to assimilate the word to the Semitic gad, "luck."

The last planet was Mars, whose names were manifold. Ordinarily it was termed Nibat-anu, the meaning of which is obscure. Nibat-Bel was the outer wall of Babylon, as distinguished from Imgur-Bel, the inner wall; and lubat seems to be the equivalent of the river Datilla, "the lord of the house of death." Perhaps Nibat-anu is "the sanctuary of Ann," though the form Ann is Assyrian, not Accadian. However, the star is sometimes called Nibat simply. In W.A.I. II, 48, 54, it is rendered by imut, which M. Oppert translates "hostile," and elsewhere (II, 49, 7) it is identified with "the White Star" (id ud or id pitsu). Another name by which it was known was Nu-mia, the Assyrian baluv, "the star which is not" or "is wanting," referring to the fact that Mars recedes [p.172] from the Earth until it is almost invisible. The Library of Sargon possessed a special treatise on its phases. It was also entitled "the star of the seven names." These are given as follows:10 (1) Ul manma cacah akhu ("the luminary reigning over the star of the hyajna"), id nacaru ("the hostile"), ul tsarru ("the enemy"), ul khumkhun ("the sultry"), ulkvru ("of the king"), ul zlhu ("of the wolf"), Nibat-anu. Elsewhere (II, 49, 35) we are told that Lul-la ([glyphs]) or Lid-a ([glyphs]) is to be rendered sai-ru "king" in this case, and is not to be identified with another star which was one of the constellations of the west, and though written in the same way in Accadian denoted some kind of animal. Similarly khul is translated (II, 49, 32) by the Assyrian khumlhum ([glyphs]) and [glyphs] nacaru and sanumma ("hostile") (II, 49, 36, 37), showing that nacaini does not here mean "changeable," while the animal [glyphs] is represented by the Assyrian akhu (II, 49, 38) the אהים of Isa. xiii, 21. Other names of Mars were [glyphs], Jchahbatu or "the plunderer" in Assyrian (II, 49, 34), and [glyphs] Assyrian misallim mutani "agent of deaths" (II, 49, 40). A fragmentary planisphere places the star Lid ([glyphs]) in the lower half of one of the eight segments into which it is divided, immediately above seven dots, under which is written, "Bel who goes before the star" ([glyphs]). Now Lul was included among "the stars of Martu" or "the west," and since Tammuz (June) was "the month of Nartu,"11 it would seem that the seven dots represented Ursa Major, and the four dots arranged in a triangle between these and the Ecliptic Pole would probably be Ursa Minor. The words underneath would fix the day of the month to which the planisphere belonged, since the revolution of the Moon was called Bel from the tenth to the fifteenth day.

Diodorus states that the planets were called "Interpreters"; and this is probably the meaning of the word [p.173] [glyphs], which might be read ticsi ticliv, or ticpi. Seven stars go by this name (II, 49, 10-13; III, 50-52): Pap-nu ([glyphs]) "the hero of setting," i.e., Saturn according to Oppert; Sar ([glyphs]) "of the king," i.e., Jupiter; Khusin or Khusibain [glyphs] or [glyphs] the star "of the chariot," i.e., Mars: Camus-ninahe ([glyphs]) "mouth of the dog drinks," i.e. the Sun; Gisle ([glyphs]) "the exalted (?)," i.e. Venus; Mas ([glyphs]) "of the dog," i.e., Mercury; and Issi ([glyphs]) i.e., Moon.12 The seven names of Mars, answering to its seven phases, were supposed to correspond with, these seven interpreting planets; and there was a further group of seven stars, called the seven lumasi or dih-masi ([glyphs]) which Oppert is probably right in translating "chiefs of the week." They were reckoned as follows (III, 57, 53-6): Sugi ([glyphs]), "of the helm";13 Utxt-ca-gaha, "the light of the white face"; Sib-zi-anna ([glyphs]) "shepherd of the heavenly flock"—the Assyrian name of the star was sa ina kacci niakhtsu "he who fights with arrows"; Kak-sidi [glyphs] "creator of prosperity," in Assyrian Sucunu; Entemasniur ([glyphs] "the Tip of the Tail"); Idkhu ([glyphs]) "the Eagle"; and Papilsak ([glyphs]) which is given as a synonyme of the goddess [glyphs] Bahu (i.e., Gula).14 M. Oppert wishes to identify Utu-ca-gaba with Rigel, [p.174] Sib-zi-anna with Regiilus, Entemasniur with Aldebaran, and Idkhu with the Southern Balance (Zuban-Edgenubi). The king of the Broken Obelisk says of himself (W.A.I. I, 28, 14), "In the days of variable storms (and) heat, in the days of the rising of Kak-sidi, which (is) like bronze, he hunted"; and as this was in the northern part of Nairi, more probably nearer the Euxine than the Caspian, we have a slight basis upon which to attempt an identification of the star.

There was yet another set of seven stars, called masu ([glyphs]) "of the week" (III, 57, 57-61). M. Oppert has given the following ingenious explanation of them. The Sun had three names, mul Bartabba-galgal [glyphs]) "the star doubly great"; mul Bartabba-dadil ([glyphs]) "the star doubly little"; and mul Bartabba sa ina sid mul sibzi-anna nazuzu [glyphs] "double star which depends on Regulus"; then come mid Nin-Sar [glyphs] "the star of Istar,"15 or the Moon; mul an Ner-ra-gal ([glyphs]) "the star of Nergal" or Mars; mul an Pa ([glyphs]) "the star of Nebo" or Mercury; mul Sar ([glyphs]) "the star of the king" or Jupiter; mul Mustilil ([glyphs]) "the star of brilliance" or Venus; and mul Zibanna or Saturn. There are difficulties, however, in the way of part of this explanation. Though the Sun might be called ''the star doubly great" it is hard to see how it could be called "the star doubly little." Moreover, the "star doubly great" is one of the "constellations of the west," and "the double star" is mentioned along with Kak-udi and Utu-ultai' as being in the ascendant in Tammuz (June), while it cannot be said of the Sun that "it is fixed in the proximity of Sibzi-anna.''' There is no reason for supposing that the first day of the Chaldaean week was dedicated to the Sun; Dio Cassius asserts that our week-days came from Egypt, and the Babylonian Sunday might easily have been con- [p.175] secrated to some other god.16 Nergal was Mars, as we learn from W.A.I. III, 57, 7, where Nibatanu is identified with the god Gallamta-uddua ([glyphs]) "he who goes forth in strength." Now Gallamta-uddua is a title of Allamu or Nergal, "the king of Cutha," and Allamu or Almu is like Sarrahu, another name of Sar-nerva ([glyphs]) remarkable instance of the way in which Babylonian mythology went on developing new deities out of epithets applied to old ones and then forgetting their original identity, that the same passage which tells us that Gallamta-uddua is Nibatanu, also states that Sar-nerra is Guttav or Jupiter. The astral Sar-nerra has thus become confounded with Merodach. The whole of the tablet in question is worth quoting, although the ends of the lines are unfortunately lost (III, 57, 47-52). "Venus in the month Tammuz, the Moon and Sar-nerra ....Gallamta-uddua close to the horn of the star. The star of the double ship ([glyphs]) also was seen; and the third day they disappeared.17 Want of corn and barley in the country will result. Sar-nerra and Gallamta-uddua are Jupiter and Mars."

I may perhaps be allowed to turn aside here and point out that the identification of the stars and the divinities was a gradual process. The ideograph for "god" is an eight-rayed star, showing that star-worship had already been introduced among the Accadians at the time of the invention of writing, and that the most natural symbol of a deity was thought to be a star. The stars themselves were represented as constellations by a group of three stars, and this would imply that not only individual stars, but groups of stars also, had already been named. The names, however, were not those of gods; in most cases they were derived from the appearance of the heavenly bodies themselves, or from different [p.176] objects of nature, so that the stars could hardly as yet have been invested with a divine character. This must have been a later work; and when we find the planets called after the name of an animal up to the most modern times, we may infer how late the work was. Indeed, in instances like that above, where two separate stars are designated by the titles of the same god, which must have become divided into independent deities before such a fact was possible, although their original identity was still remembered in the days of Assur-bani-pal, it is plain that the full development of astro-theology cannot have been much earlier than 2000 B.C.

From the planets we pass on to the fixed stars, all of which, so far as they were visible to the naked eye, were named and grouped. According to Diodorus 24 stars were associated with the Zodiac, 12 being north and 12 south. Now the points of the compass in this statement are, I think, given incorrectly. They ought to be east and west. At all events, we find two classes of 12 stars in the tablets, one set of 12 being called "the Stars of Accad" and the other set "Stars of the West." One of the stars of Accad was Nibiru, the name of Merodach in the seventh month. The 12 stars of Martu or the West, to which reference has so often been made, were the following: Dilgan or Icu (Jupiter); Mus (Mercury); Bartahha-galgal; Nin-makh "the mighty lady"; Nlhatanu (Mars); Khuse-mahh; Sugi; Kak-sidi; Bir ("vermilion"); Sar; Allul; and Lula (11, 49, 3-9). Allul, like Lula, occurs in a fragmentary list of certain stars which describes the occurrences to be expected after the appearance of each, and is a good example of the astrological use to which the observation of the heavens was put. A copy will be found in W.A.I. II, 49, 4, and the following is a translation of this curious document:—

"If the star Khuzaba return, in ...
If the star of the Lion, ....
If the star of the Hyaena, nasbavti ....
If the star of the Stag (Lula), rullati are in the land.
If the star of the Dog, forces are in the country.
If the star of the Bear, misfortune is in the land.

[p.177]

"If the star Biazi, abundance of rain.
If the star of the Fish, justice is in the land.
If the star Allul, peace is in the land.
If the star Tartakhi, they decree evilly in the land.
If the star of Concealment destruction is in the land.
If the star Cu-khia, the house is purified.
If the star of Destiny, pestilences are in the country.
If the star Irbie, blessing is in the land.
If the star of the Bright Body, strength is in the land.
If the star of the Rising Day, misfortunes are in the land.
If the star Dilme, happiness in the land they measure out.
If the star of the stone Ahsia, prodigies are in the country.
If the star of the Stone of the Bronze Fish, possession (?) of a good heart: there is peace (?).
If the star of Alabaster, blessing is in the land.
If the star of Silver, regular provisions are in the land.
If the star of Gold, obedience is in the land.
If the star of Bronze, forces are in the land.
If the star of the Prophet (?), peace is in the land.
If the star of the Lion of the Sun, forces are in the land.
If the star Sasi, inundation during the month ....
If the star Cahnati, inundation.
If the star Uttedummari, inundation.
If the star of the Flocks, the house... "

Less astrological and more astronomical is the following document, which supplies us with the names of several more of the fixed stars (from W.A.I. Ill, 53. No. 1.):—

1. [glyphs]
cacab Mar-bu-da a-na atala

The star Mar-buda (passed) into an eclipse.

2. [glyphs]
cacab A pina - na sii'i sur - ri - i
the star of the Foundation portends a gate to he begun

[p.178]

3. [glyphs]
rab -tis sur- rn -u sa la -pa- ti siri il - lap - pat-va
fully; the foundation of the hinges of a gate is begun.

4. [glyphs]
cacab il - rakh - ga -khii a - na makhu'a cina
And the star Urakh-gahhu portends a fixed tariff

5. [glyphs]
Lu -bat- sak - ur i - ba - an -va
Saturn intervenes, and

6. [glyphs]
cacab Sib - zi - an - na na - du lea - mil ibassi ....
The star of the Shepherd of the Heavenly Flock (was) clear ....

7. [glyphs]
cacab Tir - an - na a - na zunnu izannm
The star of the Life of Heaven for rain rains.

[p.179]

8. [glyphs]
na - sa - pi sa zunni izanninu D.P. Tir - an - na ... zunni la izannin

Increase of rain rains: the star Tir-anna ... the dropping of rain falls not.

9. [glyphs]
cacab En - te - na -mas-lnv a - na im sak (i) - sak kha - ru -up -tav
The star of the Tip of the Tail a great cloud brings on ; locusts (?)

10. [glyphs]
cacab sa ina garni - su nazu - zu cacab En-te- na -mas-luv D.P. Maruduc i - sak kha - ra - pi

The star which in its horn is fixed, the star of the Tail- tip, Merodach brings on or locusts (?)

11. [glyphs]
makliira zikhii-- ra cu-me sak ...
a small tariff ....

12. [glyphs]
cacab An- ta -sur- ra ana ruklia elita
The star of the Upper Sphere portends a violent wind

[p.180]

13. [glyphs]
D.P. Ln - bat - gnit - tav i - ba - an - va
Jupiter intervenes, and

14. [glyphs]
va D.P. Lu - bat - gut - tav ina lib cacab Pa- pil - sak nazuz-va

also Jupiter in the place of the star Pajnlsak is fixed; and

15. [glyphs]
cacab an - ta - sur - ra ma ana sama melav yuts - tsa- pa
The star of the Upper Sphere aforesaid fog (and) rain causes.

16. [glyphs]
cacab Dil - gan Bab - ili erib-va ana ama urpati yutstsapa
The star Icu of Babylon sets, and fog (and) mist causes.

17. [glyphs]
cacab Lul - la ana tib - ut rdvhi cacab Lul - la cacab Al - lab
The star Bulla foretells a blast of wind. The star Bulla (and) the star Allab

[p.181]

18. [glyphs]
cacabi iniiamiru sa cacab Al-lab khalabu-va D.P. Gut-taviiia lib nazuz - va
were the stars been. though the star Allab was misty. and by itself (?) Jupiter in the midst was fixed, and,

19. [glyphs]
cacab Lul-a ana urpati pu - ul - lu - liv
The star Lula portends extended mists.

20. [glyphs]
cacab Ni -bat-a-nu ana cacab Gir -tab dikliu na ecali rub-u-su ibas - si
Mars the star of the Double Sword faces; in the palace its master is.

21. [glyphs]
cacab Ni -bat-a-nu ana cacab Gir -tab dikhu .... ina saplit - si itsab - bat
Mars the star of the Double Sword faces. The Zodiacal sign by its lower part it seizes.

22. [glyphs]
cacab nis akhu ana ab - zi
The star of the Foreigner portends flowing waters.

[p.182]

23. [glyphs]
cacab Sak - vi - sa ana cacab dikhu sibir mat Accadi

Mercury to the star ...(is) opposite. The crops of Accad

24. [glyphs]
cacab Im -su-gil - na ana mu-rak ....
The star Im-sugil-na portends ....

25. [glyphs]
cacab Ci - ib - bu - bu icassid u sallim - mu
The star Cih-huhu is in the ascendant: and peace

26. [glyphs]
cacab Zibi ana cacab Zibi cacab Ni -bat- a -nu cacab Rimmon - icabbid
The star of the Wolf portends tempest. The star of the Wolf, Mars, the star ''Rimmon-is-terrible."

27. [glyphs]
cacab Rimmon - icabbid cacab sii-va ana sama urpati (?) ibassi
The star "Rimmon-is-terrible" that star for mist (and) tempest is

[p.183]

28. [glyphs]
cacab Zibi baladlia tim-mu ilu Is - si cacab Gir - tab ka - bi ilu Ni - bat - a - nu ina libbi izzaz - va
The star of the Wolf life Ursi the star of the Double Sword addresses. Mars in (its) place is fixed; and

29. [glyphs]
cacab pal - dar - a sukhal D.P. Tiskhu ana cacab Gir -tab dikhu ina libbi anni ibassi sama u rukhu khu- su ala mata itsab-bat
The star Pal-dara the messenger of Adar faces the star of the Double Sword. In the midst of a cloud a storm rages(?) There is mist; and wind the city (and) land seizes.

30. [glyphs]
cacab Bar-tab- ba ana sam -suv- ti D.P. Nergal
The Double Star portends the despoiling of the War-god.

31. [glyphs]
cacab Man -ma ana cacab Bar -tab- ba dildiu nunu imat
The star of Mars to the Double Star (is) opposite: the prince dies.

[p.184]

32. [glyphs]
cacab Nin - si ana pal gamra
The star of Venus (?) portends a complete life.

33. [glyphs]
illi Nin -ui ilu Ni -bat-a-nu
Venus, (and) Mars

34. [glyphs]
cacab man -ma ana iki Sak - vi - sa dikhi ^ar Accadi yulabbas-va sibri mati esiru
(as) the star Manma to Mercury (are) opposite: the king of Accad lives long, and the crops of the land flourish.

35. [glyphs]
cacabi (ina) Samsi - atsi ana rukha melav melav cacabi (ina) Samsi - atsi iz - mu - ru ina
The stars at Sun-rise (are) for windy rain (and) rain. The stars at Sun-rise rise; during

36. [glyphs]
sanat-suati zunni u melav ibass'ii
that year rain and flood are.

37. [glyphs]
cacab Bibbii lu 13 lu 14 arci akhai itsu - ni -va
The planets, either 13 or 14 (times), after one another had risen. As before.

[p.185]

38. [glyphs]
cacabi siptu a - na rukha ....
The stars, a memorandum. For wind self-sent.

39. [glyphs]
cacabi izarra -khii a- na tib rukhi cacab bibbi i - ba - an - u - va
The stars rise: for the blowing of wind. The planets intervene, and

Reverse.

1. ............... [glyphs]
............ rukha abaca
........... a destructive wind,

2. ..........  [glyphs]
............... rukha abaca
............... a destructive wind.

3. ..........  [glyphs]
............. yudannatu-va
........... it will linger, and

4. [glyphs]
cacab .............. su di - nu ic - car * zakhir * palig
The star ........... judgment is estranged; the same is small; the same is divided.

5. [glyphs]
ilu bibbi u cacabi sami zarakhi - su - nu itsabbitu-va kha - an -dis la innammaru
The planets and the fitted stars their risings take, and duly are not seen.

[p.186]

6. [glyphs]
cacab An - ta - ru - I'u - ba rukliu abaeu

The star Anta-ruruba a destructive icitid.

7. [glyphs]
cacabi sami ma-rab izarrikhu - va
The fixed stars in numbers rise, and

8. [glyphs]
yii - lu D.P. bibbi nuri iua si - ua la kbalibi va kha - an - clis innamaru
rise the planets; the lights (of the planets) among them (are) unclouded, and duly (the planets) are seen.

9. [glyphs]
Napkharis caeab E - tur nabu ar - cu napiaru ar - cu E - tui
After all (the rest) the star of the House of Best (as) messenger follows, or the dawn follows the House of Rest.

10. [glyphs]
Napldiaris cacab E - tur - ra ikhkliarrats - va
After the rest the star of the House of Rest is produced, same and the

11. [glyphs]
a - na nap - khar isanii ikhkliarrats ....
sky for the whole of heaven it is produced ....

[p.187]

12. [glyphs]
a - na bi - nu - ut sami i -kab-bi
To the offspring of heaven it speaks.

13. [glyphs]
Napkharis cacab Ru - tur
Altogether the star of the Giver of Rest

14. [glyphs]
Napkharis cacab Sal ... kar - ga yu -se- pul
altogether the star Sal-karga causes to descend.

15. [glyphs]
Gut - An - na se - pi - id tarbats - sii atsu D.P. Ann kbarran Samsi cas - ut D.P. A-nu
The Bull of Heaven, the arbiter of its setting, rising in the time of Anu (in) the path of the Sun .... the period of Anu

16. [glyphs]
kharran D.P. Samsi ris Bit - tarbatsi - su tarn -ma -sa ut u rib - bu- ti
the path of the Sun, the chief of the House of its Setting during the day and rains.

[p.188]

17. [glyphs]
ina arakli Aim cacab Gir -tab u cacab i- kharrats
In the month Iyyar the star of the Double Sword and the star produces.

18. [glyphs]
ina irakh Sivaiiu D.P. Xi - bat - a uu i - kharrats
In the month Sivan Mars produces

19. [glyphs]
D.P. M -bat-a -nu
Six (times) Mars

20. [glyphs]
ina arakli Ululu cacab Bir cacab Nii-u icsud-va
In the month Elul the star Bir the star of the Yoke overtook, and

21. [glyphs]
ina arakh Duzu cacab Kak - si - di cacab Bar -tab- ba cacab Utu- al - tar icsudu-va
In the month Tammuz the star Kak-udi the Double Star (and) the star Utu-altar overtook, and

[p.189]

22. [glyphs]
cacab Gu- la cacab Al - liil cacab Id -khu cacab Utu- al - tar cacab Sak - vi - sa ina yumi-su ip -se-va
The star of Gula, the star Allah, the star of the Eagle, the star Utu-altar (and) Mercury at that time : ...... and

23. [glyphs]
cacab Al - lul a - na cacab ukh - biru -ka-bi-va a- iiir nia-su-u
The star Allul to the star of the Prolific Family speaks, and (is) leader of the week(?)

24. [glyphs]
cacab Mar - bu - da cal sanat iliac ir -ma- a i - lam -ma-a
The star of the Long-Road all the year goes approaches

25. [glyphs]
ina arakli Addaru cacab nuni cacab Lul- a cacab D.P. Man -ma icassidu-va cacab Maruduc a- na Gut-tav i -kab- bi
In the month Adar the star of the Fish, the star Lula, Mars overtake, and the star of Merodach to Jupiter speaks.

[p.190]

26. [glyphs]
za-man ma-a cacab Maruduc a- na cacab Utali (?) i - kab - bi
At the same time the star of Merodach to the star of Rest(?) speaks.

27. [glyphs]
cacab sa arci -sunazii- zu cacab Sib zi -an - ua D.P. Pap-sukul im - sak e -cu
The star which after it is fixed the star of the Shepherd of the Heavenly Flock, Pap-sukul portends a great wind.

28. [glyphs]
Sin tarbatsa ipakhkhir - va cacab Sib - zi- an - na ina lib - sii izaz ina mati clumki
The Moon sets, and the star Sih-zi-anna in its place is fixed. Crops (?) in the land (are) good.

29. [glyphs]
cacabu sa ina zi - ikh si - id cacab .... nazu-zu cacab Bir cacab Nii'u cacab Gu - la cacab cacab Sukli - beru
The star which in the neighbourhood of the star .... is fixed, the star Bir, the star of the Yoke, the star of Gula, the star (and) the star of the Prolific Family.

[p.191]

30. [glyphs]
cacab Eratu sa ina birit18 cacab Si - bi u cacab A - niiv izu - zu cacab A - nuv cacab Lu - lim
The star of the Pregnant Woman which in conjunction with the star Sibi and the star of Anu, is fixed, the star Anu the star Lidim.

31. [glyphs]
cacab Ma- a - sii sa ina pan D.P. A - nuv izu - zu D.P. A - nuv cacab Al - lul
The star of the Week which before Anu is fixed, Anu, the star Allul

32. [glyphs]
cacab Eratu sa ina pan Bil - (cit) si - id rukh sadi i - kid a - na cacab Su - gi i -kab-bi
The star of the Pregnant Woman, which before Bel on the east side declines, to the star Su-gi speaks

[p.192]

33. [glyphs]
cacab sa arci -su izu - zu cacab En-te- na -mas-luv cacab En - te - na -mas-luv cacab Al - lab
The star which behind it is fixed, the star Entena-masluv: the star Entena-masluv, the star Allab.

34. [glyphs]
cacab Erib - me - gali a - na cacab Bar -tab- ba - tiir-tur i -kab - bi
The star of the Descend of Great Waters to the star Doidily Small speaks.

Colophon.

The tablet begins in the place—

[glyphs]
"The star Mar-buda portends an eclipsed. It goes down to—

[glyphs]
"The star Icu in the month Nisan was seen"

(the first line of the next Tablet).

Another tablet of much the name kind as this is lithographed in W.A.I. III, 52, 1. It describes the phases of Jupiter, and is interesting as containing a notice of an [p.193] ancient Elamite astronomer, showing that the study was carried on in that country as well as in Babylonia. The tablet is unfortunately much broken. It runs as follows:—

1. [glyphs]
cacabu izarrikh-va tsi - ri - ir -su cima m-ru na - mir

The star (Jupiter) rises; and its body, like the day, is bright.

2. [glyphs]
ina tsa- ra - ri -su cima nam -mas- ti zanba isacc- in
In its body like the blade of a double sword a tail it forms.

3. [glyphs]
libit si - i dumkatu ul -khi bil Biti va sa mati ca - la - sa
This omen (is) favourable; rejoicing (of) the master of the house and of the land all of it.

4. [glyphs]
enu-va bilu la ina mati cali ibas - si
At the same time a master not in the whole of the country is

5. [glyphs]
rag - gu ippalaq cit - tu ibas - si dan - nu i - ar - ri
Wickedness (?) is divided. Justice is done. A strong one judges.

[p.194]

6. [glyphs]
...... bil biti -suati va sarri suati
....... the master of that house and that king

7. [glyphs]
ina cit - ti -su iz - az tas - mu u sallim-mu ina mati ibassi
by his righteousness fixes. Obedience and peace in the land is.

8. [glyphs]
............. an - ni - u sa is ............
............. This (is) what .............

9. [glyphs]
cacabu rabu ul - tn ti - ib
The Great Star from the orbit [northern]

10. [glyphs]
a - na ti - ib rukhi zululi
to the orbit southern

11. [glyphs]
mi - si - ikh -su cima nam -mas-(ti) ....
its measurement [i.e., size] like (the blade of a double sword) ....

12. [glyphs]
sa - ki ta - ri - tii
above, returning

13. [glyphs]
ina li - in - ni di
in the dwellings

[p.195]

14. [glyphs]
D.P. Bilu ma- li - lu ..................
Bel who fills. .............

15. [glyphs]
an - ni -u sa pi - i cluppi .........
This (is) according to the tablet (s) ........

16. [glyphs]
ci - i D.P. D.P. Nabu - cu - dur - yutsur mati Elami
According to Neho-chadrezzar the Elamite

_______________

17. [glyphs]
cacab Lu - bat ina arakh Duzu innamar pagri ibassu
The Planet [Jupiter] in the month Tammuz is seen, Corpses are.

18. [glyphs]
cacab En - te - na -mas - lum ina atsu - su cacaba itamm - ikli
The star TJntena-maslum at its rising the Planet holds.

19. [glyphs]
dumuk sibirri makhiru cinu
Richness of crops. The tariff (is) fixed.

[p.196]

Colophon.

an - nu - ti sa D.P. Gut - tav sa D.P. D.P. Nabu - mu - se - tsi
These (are the phases) of Jupiter, (reported) by Neho-musetsi.

The favourite object of observation among the planets, however, was not Jupiter, but Venus. A long table of its phases is translated in the Appendix, and numberless shorter tablets relating to this star are met with in the astronomical library. Here are one or two of them, beginning with one which records the various names under which the planet was known at various times and places.

24. "[In the month Chisleu] Venus ([glyphs]) is called the spark of Gula ([glyphs])
25. In the month Tebet, Venus is the spark of the Double Ship ([glyphs]).
26. In the month Sebat, Dilgan of Babylon."

The latter star, called Icu by the Assyrians, was Merodach or Mercury in Sivan, while, as we have before seen, it was also identified with Jupiter, and in W.A.I. II, 39, seems to appear as a synonyme of Mars. We can only reconcile these statements by supposing that it was the name of a fixed star which gave its title to whatever planet happened to be near it at a particular time. The tablet then proceeds:—

27. "A royal crown it gives (?) to Merodach.
28. In the month Adar the spark the Fish of Hea is Venus (and also Mercury).
29. In the month Adar on the third day (Venus) rises and in Nisan ....
30. Venus is a female at sunset.

[p.197]

31. Venus is a male19 at sunrise.
32. The spark Venus at sunrise (is) the Sun-god; thus a male (zi-car sacnu) and the offspring of ... .
33. The spark Venus at sunset (is) the god Adar; thus an androgyne and the offspring of ... .
34. The spark Venus at sunrise (is) Istar of Agane by name.
35. The spark Venus at sunset (is) Istar of Erech byname.
36. The spark Venus at sunrise (is) Istar among the stars (by name).
37. The spark Venus at sunset (is) Billat Hi (Queen of the gods) (by name).
38. The star Dirrutimne ([glyphs]) (is) Venus. A name of Mars also [glyphs]
39. (This line I cannot translate.)
40. Venus at appearance Saturn.
41. makes an eclipse."

The following three lines, which are much mutilated, give the names of the two astronomers who composed the tablet.

Other tablets relating to Venus are the following:—

W.A.I. III, 57, 4:—

1. "Venus drew forth a rising ([glyphs] zir-kha inisukh20). Misfortune.
2. In its orbit duly it grows in size (iltanakaa).
3. Venus a rising does not kindle. Prosperity.
4. Afterwards its station it makes to ascend (akhis cibirui-su ucsallai'), and proceeds; and
5. Venus rises, and the star Niru like a flag floated (cima - daqilu idgul);

[p.198]

6. the view is clear (amiru emuru); the country is smitten;
7. rebellion is hostile; cities by arms are oppressed;
8. Venus and Mercury are in conjunction ([glyphs]); and
9. Venus rises, and before the star Mar-buda goes, and
10. the view is clear ([glyphs]) third day it goes, and serrim.
11. Venus before the star Sugi goes" ....

Here the tablet is broken, and the Reverse proceeds as follows:—

1. "Venus faces the star of the Gate .... ;
2. Venus faces the star of the Fish: a destruction takes place.
3. Venus faces the star ([glyphs]) Sukh-biru, and Venus faces the star of the Foundation: a destruction takes place.
4. It faces Mars.
5. Extract (?) from 'the Illumination of Bel,' concerning a report according to a tablet no longer existing (supar pi sa pi duppi ydni),
6. beginning 'Venus drew forth a rising.' Palace of Assur-bani-pal,
7. great king, mighty king, king of multitudes, king of Assyria,
8. on whom Nebo and Tasmit have conferred favour, and like (his) father have amply extended."

W.A.I. III, 57, 7:—

1. "Venus in the month Tammuz; the gods Sin (the Moon), Sar-nerra,
2. (and) Gallamta-uddua are close to the horn of the planet.
3. The star of the Double Ship is seen with them; and on the third day they move.
4. Dearth of wheat and barley is in the land.
5. The god Sar-nerra and the god Gallamta-uddua (are)
6. the god Jupiter and the god Mars."

[p.199]

1. "Venus in the month Chisleu in the midst of the stars on the third day appears.
2. Their passage (etic-sunuti) [it makes].
3. The stars to the planets. ...."

1. "Venus in the month Tebet faces the Sun. Good to the king. The king ....
2. rolls. Venus faces Saturn.
3. Venus in the month Tebet rises (?). Rain at sunset.
4. The king establishes his hostile arms in the land. The troops (march).
5. Seven heads at sunset."

1. "Venus in the month Sebat (makes) a rising (nipkha) in sereti.
2. The crops of the land flourish. The son ....
3. Venus with tails at sunrise is seen; and
4. Venus in Sebat on the second and third days is in the ascendant; and (is) on the horn of (the Sun?)
5. when it rises. In the month Sebat, the first day, over the horn of the star Niru
6. it passes. Peace in the land is established.
7. The same. All the land is hostile.
8. The star of the Double Ship. The head of the star [glyphs] Sukh-biru.
9. In the month Sebat, in front of the star [glyphs] Sukh-biru (Venus) passes; and
10. Venus in the same month is seen; and on the left of it there is seen .... Pregnant women
11. some of their children perfect.
12. Paleness (sipa) or mistiness. Mars
13. on the left of it shows."

W.A.I. III, 59, 11:—

1. "Venus at sunset ....
2. Venus at ....
3. from the first day to the thirtieth day
4. at sunset disappeared. The crops of the land flourish.
5. Venus made a fixed station (?).

[p.200]

6. The days of the prince are long.
7. Justice is in the land.
8. Venus from the sixth to the eleventh days of the Moon's age (ina cassut D, P. Hea),
9. [This line is lost.]
10. ... to the land of Palestine ...
11. [This line is also mutilated.]
12. The Moon set, and the stars in its place were fixed.
13. During this year women bear male children.
14. The Moon set, and the star Sugi in its place is fixed.
15. During this year, troops of men
16. to (conquest march?).
17. (The report) of Istar-sum-esses."

Mars was nearly as favourite an object of observation as Venus. We have already seen that it bore no less than seven names; and one of the works contained in Sargon's Library was devoted to the record of its phases. Here are some of the tablets which relate to this planet:—

W.A.I. III, 59:—

1. "In the month Elul, Mars is seen; and
2. the crops of the land flourish.
3. The heart of the land (is) good ....
4. The planet Saturn ....
5. Prosperity of men ....
6. Mars at (its appearance)
7. has a lofty (position?).
8. (Report) of Nebo-ikbi."

W.A.I. III, 59, 4:—

1. "Mars approaches (ictarab) the star Allul.
2. In its place it sets (etarab). A watch I kept.
3. After the full interval of time again, as it down
4. had gone, it rose, and ....
5. when it had fully risen, an account of it to the king my lord (I sent).

1. The birds21 belonging to the lord my king fed (?).

[p.201]

2. Also the star Manma (Mars) faced the star Allul A prince in ... .
3. as he ruled, lives. His strength (?)....
4. A numbering of Accad takes place.

1. The birds belonging to the king my lord fed (?) ....
2. Also the star Venus (?) in the midst of the sky (?)....
3. The king of Subarti ....
4. This is the title of the information (?)....
5. The king my lord in his heart ....

1. This (is) the title: the Air-god (is) line: with ....
1. In the month Ab, the Air-god (is) fine: afterwards the god rains.
2. A malady oppresses. Storms in the heaven fall.
3. Death in consequence of the rain the Air-god sends.
4 Famine is in the land.

1. (The report) of Nebo-kullani."

The defective state of this tablet renders its translation peculiarly difficult. The following fragment, which speaks of the planet under its designation of Manma, follows a list of the events consequent upon the conjunction of "the star of Death" with other heavenly bodies.

W.A.I. III, 57, 2:—

1. [glyphs]
cacab Man -ma ana cacab Dil - gan dikhu tamtu D.P. Samas

Mars to Icu (is) opposite. The sea the Sun-god

2. [glyphs]
cacab Man-ma ana cacab Bar-tab- ba -gal -gal dikhu dhabi sarri . .
Mars to the star Doubly Great (is) opposite. Good to the king

[p.202]

3. [glyphs]
cacab Man - ma ana cacab Nuni dikhu mi - Idiir - tuv nuni mahduti ina mati nabu simmu

Mars to the star of the Fish (is) opposite. The presence of many fish in the land (is) reported. Plague

4. [glyphs]
cacab Man - ma ana cacab Bar... khi dikhu abu nm -ma yuballadh-va sarru
The star of Mars to the star Bar ... khi (is) opposite. The father ever lives, and the king

5. [glyphs]
cacab Man-ma ana cacabi dikhu pulug mati sapikh
Mars to the stars (is) opposite. Division of the land; smiting

6. [glyphs]
cacab Man-ma ana D.P. Bel -mi -khi- ra dikhu lib mati dh - ab
Mars to Bel the Confronter (is) opposite. The heart of the land (is) good ...

[p.203]

7. [glyphs]
cacab Man -ma ana cacab Al - lul dikhu ru -bat cacabi Man-va cacabi
Mars to the star Allul (is) opposite. Increase of the star Man-ma (Mars) (and) the star ....

8. [glyphs]
cacab Man-ma ana cacab Sak - vi - sa dikhu ina mati-su sarru yulabbar-va
Mars to Mercury (is) opposite. In his land the ling remains; and ....

9. [glyphs]
cacab Man-ma ana cacab En - te - na-mas-hiv dikhu casad sa immi isaccin
Mars to the star Entena-masluv (is) opposite. Attack of pestilence takes place . . . .

10. [glyphs]
cacab Man - ma ana cacab Dil - bat dikhu ina sanni - suati ana 6 arkhi arru - su yulabbar-va
Mars to Venus (is) opposite. During this year for six months the king aforesaid remains, and

[p.204]

11. [glyphs]
cacab Man-ma ana cacab Bibbu dikhu ab- ic mati
Mars to Jupiter (is) opposite. Overthrow of the land

Here the inscription is broken off. Bel the Confronter, which is named elsewhere immediately after the star of Martu (or the West) (III, 57, 69), is perhaps to be identified with the "Bel who goes before the star" in the planisphere to which I have referred before. In this case it would denote the Great Bear from the eleventh to the fifteenth days of the Moon's age. Very similar in character to the tablet I have just been quoting is another, recording the conjunctions of the stars of the Eagle and the Bird Urakhga with others. This again is shockingly mutilated; but the Reverse contains a colophon describing it as belonging to "the fifty-seventh tablet of Bel." What is left may be thus translated:—

W.A.I. III, 52, 2:—

1. "The star Urakhga faces Mercury ....
2. The star U. set (ittanapla). Desertion ([glyphs]) in the midst
3. The star U. on the south side set ....
4. The star U. had a halo around it; the tariff (is) fixed, the crops of Palestine
5. The star U.: this star (is) very misty (malitis adru); the crops
6. The star U.: this star (is) not misty; pestilences in (the country are).
7. The star U.: this star (is) greenish-yellow; floods in the channels
8. The star U.: in its place of setting (cibiru) the god its head lifts up; during that year the same.
9. The star U.: in its place of setting (the god) similarly lifts up its head. During this year floods descend.
10. The star U.: this star is like the god of Fire. Much rain falls.

[p.205]

11. The star U.: this star (is) like the god of Fire in the middle. Three times the star a stoppage (sippakh) [makes]
12. The star U. faces the star Prince of the Earth. Ganzi22 in all the land is.
13. The star of the Eagle faces the planet (Jupiter). Sowing of all plants (is) lucky.
14. The star of the Eagle faces the planet. The Air-god inundates.
15. The star of the Eagle over the star Ukhulaga-khu is paramount (ibil). Wheat (is) flourishing.
16. The star of the Eagle in the place of the Moon is fixed. A mighty king smites.
17. The star of the Eagle on the left horn of the Moon is fixed. The country (men cross).
18. The star of the Eagle on the right horn of the Moon is fixed. The country is
19. The star of the Eagle (is) misty. The cattle are diminished; the inhabitants
20. The star of the Eagle measured a measure (i.e., rose, meshha imsukh). The planet
21. The stars named after birds; when the star of the Eagle is seen, inundations."

Another tablet, also somewhat broken, deals with Sakvisa or Mercury.

W.A.I. 59, 3:—

1. "Mercury approaches, and
2. the place of the god (Gallamta-uddua?) occupies.
3. He is supreme (hahil). There is mist.
4. The land is high.
5. The gods give peace to Accad.
6. Frequent rains are present.
7. In Accad wheat and barley flourish; and
8. The tariff is (lowered); the god a measure again gives.
9. The gods in heaven in their courses (nizzalti) go.
10. Their altars are resplendent (?).
11. Mercury diminished in serti;

[p.206]

12. hostile kings contend.
13. Mercury in serti (ictur).
14. The king is prosperous: the heart of the country (is good. [This was lost in the original of the copy; hence we find khibi "wanting."])
15. Mercury is supreme.
16. The king goes to supremacy.
17. Merodach the throne establishes.
18. Mercury during the period of Anu is seen.
19. There is fog, and the crops of the land (are) prosperous.
20. (The report) of Bulludhu."

Next to the Planets in importance was the Pole-star, called Tir-anna or Dayan-same or "Judge of heaven," to which a special treatise was devoted in Sargon's Library. Dayan-same was also named "the god Caga-gilgati" ([glyphs]), and is associated with Dayan Sidi "the favourable Judge," also termed "the crown of heaven" ([glyphs]). Several of the divinities were called Dayan ([glyphs]) or "Judge"; thus "the divine Days or Lights of Assur" were Dayani (III, 66, 16, 22), and the following: Samila, Ismi-carabu, Xuscu, Ilpada, Tirru-casunu, and Sitammi-carabu, are said to be "the names of the divine Judges (ili dayani) of the Temple of Assur". In the second millennium B.C. the Pole-star would have been Alpha Draconis.

Before leaving the stars, a small tablet must be noticed, which deals with their conjunctions.

W.A.I. III, 57, 1:—

1. "The star Bir-va
2. Jupiter in the star of Gula lingers (yudannat).
3. The star Bu-va faces (ittekhi) the planet. Corn flourishes.
4. Jupiter in the star of Gula faces Saturn.
5. The star Bir-va over the star Urakh-gakhu is paramount (ibil). Corn flourishes. Abundance of rain.

1. The god Hea (the Moon from the fifth to the tenth day) (is) misty. Ganzi is not flourishing.

[p.207]

2. Jupiter in the star [glyphs] Sukh-buri lingers, and
3. the star Prince of the Earth measured a measure (rose). The crops ganzi of the kind are flourishing.
4. Jupiter like one disappearing duly is seen; and

1. the star Entenamaslum at its rising, the waves of the sea (michikh) at the beginning of the month Tammuz over the country raises (nasi);
2. the crops of the land flourish, the tariff is good (nahid).
3. Jupiter like one disappearing duly is seen; and
4. the star Entena-maslum at its rising is faint (ahil). The crops (are) not prosperous. (There is) overthrow.
5. Jupiter, like one disappearing, a storm that god (the planet) in heaven crosses."

We may now pass on to the Moon, the principal object of Babylonian worship and observation. As befitted a nation of astronomers, the Moon was considered prior to the Sun, and the originator of civilisation. The number of tablets relating to the appearances of the Moon, its eclipses and conjunction with the Sun, is very large. The great work, part of which I have translated in the Appendix, is wholly concerned with the eclipses of the Moon and Sun. The two luminaries, indeed, cannot be well separated from one another; and the method of Babylonian observation and the events supposed to be portended by the various phaenomena observed can best be learned from a selection of the tablets which deal with this part of the subject. The months were lunar and were divided into two lunations; and the days on which the quarters of the Moon began as well as the beginning of the second lunation were called days of sulum or "rest," on which certain works were forbidden. Each lunation was further subdivided into periods of five days each, called cassudi or times of "ascendancy," the first cassud being given to Anu, the second to Hea, and the third to Bel. During the third period, however, it was only the orbit which was called Bel, the body of the orb being still termed Hea. The tablet which tells us this is the following.

[p.208]

W.A.I. III, 55, 3:—

1. [glyphs]
Sin iua tamarti - su
The Moon at its appearance

2. [glyphs]
5 yu - mi tarn - khir
for five days was visible.

3. [glyphs]
istu yumi 6 adi yumi 10
From the sixth day to the tenth day.

4. [glyphs]
ca - li - tuv
it (is) full.

5. [glyphs]
istu yumi 11
From the eleventh day

6. [glyphs]
5 yu - mi agu yur - ri - im
for five days a crown surrounds (it).

7. [glyphs]
D.P. Sin D.P. A-iiu D.P. Bil
The Moon (is) Anu, Bel,

8. [glyphs]
D.P. Hur - ci D.P. Bil - zu
the Protector of the Earth, (and) the Lord of waxing (and waning). The same (is) the Moon

[p.209]

1. [glyphs]
istu yiimi 1 adi yumi 5

From the first day to the fifth day

2. [glyphs]
D.P. A - iiu - u
(the Moon is) Anu;

3. [glyphs]
5 yu - mi
for five days

4. [glyphs]
D.P. He - a
(it is) Hea;

5. [glyphs]
adi yumi 15
to the fifteenth day

6. [glyphs]
ti - ib tarn -ma D.P. Bil
the orbit during the day (is) Bel,

7. [glyphs]
11 D.P. He - a tarn - tsu - su
and Hea (is) its mass.

8. [glyphs]
D.P. Sin sa E - lam - (ti)
The Moon of Elam ...

[p.210]

The end of the tablet is broken off. The names of the several periods seem to have been derived from the quarter of the heaven in which the Moon was observed, and which was assigned to the dominion of some special deity. Thus, in W.A.I. III, 56, 52, we are told that "on the fifteenth day the Moon and Sun draw near to Anu" (sin u samsu ana il A-nuv i-car-ra-bu). I will now give some specimens of reports of the conjunction of the Moon and the Sun. and the predictions derived from such an occurrence.

W.A.I. III, 58, 1:—

1. [glyphs]
yumu 16 Sin u Samsu itti a - kha - i inammaru
The sixteenth day, the Moon and Sun with one another are seen:

2. [glyphs]
sarra ana sarra nucurti yum - ar
king to king hostility sends.

3. [glyphs]
savru ina hecali - su a ar - khi
The king in his palace of a month

4. [glyphs]
ya - ta - sar sepi nacri a- na mati-su
returns. The feet of the enemy to his country (go).

5. [glyphs]
nis -nacri ina mati-su sal- dha - nis itallacu
The enemy in his land despotically march.

[p.211]

6. [glyphs]
Sin ina arkhi Duzi lu - u yumu 14 lu - u yumu 15
The Moon in the month Tammuz, either the 14th day or the 15th day

7. [glyphs]
itti D.P. Samsi la inamm- ir
with the Sun is not seen.

8. [glyphs]
sarru ina hecali -su yu - ta -ar
The king in his palace returns.

9. [glyphs]
yumu 16 inammir-va clumku mat Subarti
The 16th day it is seen, and fortunate (is) the land of Subarti.

10. [glyphs]
limuttu mat Accacli u mat Akharri
Unlucky (is) the land of Accad and the land of Palestine.

11. [glyphs]
sa D.P. Nebo - kul - la - ni
(The report) of Nebo-kullani.

W.A.I. III, 58, 2:—

1. "The Moon in the month Tammuz either the fourteenth day or the fifteenth day
2. with the Sun is not seen.
3. The king in his palace turns.
4. The sixteenth day the Moon and the Sun with one another
5. are seen. King to king

[p.212]

6. hostility sends (disappear). The king in his palace
7. for the space of a month turns.
8. The feet of the enemy to his country go.
9. The enemy in his country tyrannically march.
10. The Moon the sixteenth day is seen, and evil to Accad, prosperity to Subarti. (The report) of Smnai."

W.A.I. III, 58, 4:—

1. "The Moon in the month Ni^an, either the fourteenth or the fifteenth day,
2. with the Sun is not seen.
3. There are (ihas-suv) soldiers. The enemy to (his country march).
4. They will plunder (ihhahhatuniv) and the country ....
5. A crown in the land is ...
6. The sixteenth day the Moon and the Sun with one another (are seen).
7. King to king hostility (sends).
8. The king in his palace (turns).
9. (The feet) of the enemy (to his land go).
10. The enemy in his country tyrannically (march).
11. The sixteenth day the Sun and the Moon (are seen .....)
12. The king of Subarti
13. (The report) of Istar-sum-esses."

W.A.I. III, 58, 5:—

1. " The Moon the Sun overtook, and with it had lingered. (It is) horned (karndta).
2. In the land is justice, and the son with his father justice determines upon.
3. Peace to multitudes.
4. The fourteenth day the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen.
5. The face is steadfast, the heart of the land good. The gods of Accad
6. for prosperity devise (ikhakdu). Joy of heart in the soldier is.

[p.213]

7. The heart of the king is good. The cattle of Accad
8. in safety in the desert He down ([glyphs] irabbits).

W.A.I. III, 58, 5:—

1. "The Moon and the Sun are balanced (sitculii). The country is established (ican). Food (atmu)
2. continuously in the mouth of the people continues.
3. The king of the land the throne perpetuates.
4. The Moon and the Sun are separated23 (sutatuu). The king of the land enlarges (his) ears (uznu yurappas).
5. (The report) of Sumai."

W.A.I. III, 58, 6:—

1. "The Moon and the Sun are balanced. The country is established.
2. Daily food (atmu cenu) is in the mouth of the people.
3. The king of the land the throne perpetuates.
4. The Moon and the Sun are separated (sutatuu). The king of the country the ear
5. enlarges.
6. The fourteenth day the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen.
7. The face (is) firm, the heart of the land good,
8. the gods of Accad
9. for prosperity
10. devise.
11. Joy is in the soldier's heart.
12. The heart of the king (is) good.
13. The cattle of Accad
14. in the desert safely lie down.
15 (The report) of Istar-sum-esses."

W.A.I. III, 58, 7:—

1. "The Moon and the Sun (ilu Sa-mas) are balanced (sitkulu).
2. Daily food is in the mouth of the people.

[p.214]

3. The king of multitudes the throne perpetuates.
4. The fourteenth day (the Moon) is seen.
5. A favourable wind (rikhti dhihhi). Prosperity
6. to the king ray lord. In the midst of a cloud
7. (the Moon) goes. We did not see (it).
8. The Moon at its appearance in clouds was hidden.
9. Rain comes down.
10. There is fog (?) and movement (ilpu u alacu).
11. The Moon at its appearance piles the sky (with clouds).
12. Rain falls.
13. In a thick (sapicti) cloud it is seen; and
14. (this is the report) of Nebo-akhi-erba."

W.A.I. III, 58, 9:—

1. "The (fifteenth) day the Moon and the Sun
2. with one another are seen.
3. A strong enemy
4. his arrows in the land lifts up.
5. The altar of the great gods he digs up.
6. The Moon and the Sun are not in conjunction (la yuci) and (the Moon) waxes (irbi).
7. Appearance of lions
8. and hyenas.
9. Report of Nebo-musetsi."

W.A.I. III, 58, 11:—

1. "The Moon the Sun overtook (icsudav), and with it had lingered (iddintu).
2. In the land is justice [glyphs] with his father
3. justice determines (cifti itamn).
4. The fourteenth day the sky is seen; and
5. the Moon and the Sun are separated (sutatiiu).
6. The king of the country makes broad the ears.
7. On the fourteenth day of the month (of the star) Ussu
8. the sky will be seen (in-nam-ma-ru).
9. The fourteenth day the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen.

[p.215]

10. The face of the kind (is) firm; the heart of the land (is) good;
11. the gods assign Accad to prosperity;
12. joy possesses the heart of the inhabitants;
13. the cattle of Accad in safety
14. in the desert lie down.
15. (The report) of Bel-sum-iscun, the chamberlain."

W.A.I. III, 58, 12:—

1. "The Moon out of its reckoned-time is seen.
2. The tariff is small.
3. The twelfth day with the Sun it is seen, and
4. contrary to their calculated time the Moon and the Sun
5. with one another are seen.
6. A strong enemy ravages the land.
7. The king of Accad under the enemy is placed.
8. The twelfth day with the Sun (the Moon) is seen; and
9. the twelfth day it is seen; and evil to Accad,
10. prosperity to Elam and Phoenicia.
11. Evil to Accad it (is).
12. (The report) of Balasi (Belesys)."

W.A.I. III, 58, 13:—

1. "The fifteenth day the Moon and the Sun with one another
2. are seen. A strong enemy
3. his weapons against the land lifts up (inassaa).
4. The great gate of the city the enemy digs up.
5. The star of Ann arose (meskha imsukli).
6. The enemy the streams of water poisons (name me ikhammits).

W.A.I. III, 51, 4:—

1. "The Moon the Sun does not face (layuci') and waxes.
2. Appearance of lions and hyenas.
3. The fourteenth day with the Sun it is seen, and
4. the Moon out of its reckoned time is seen.
5. Inundation (sapakli) of the city.

[p.216]

6. The fifteenth day with the Sun it is seen.
7. Behind it in the month Tisri
8. during the day it is full (yusallam).
9. (Report) of Balasi."

These extracts are taken from the great work on Moon-portents, part of which is translated in the Appendix, and in which the observations and records of so many generations have been summed up for the use of Sargon's Library at Agane. It will be noticed that the Babylonians were sufficiently advanced in their astronomical knowledge to be able to predict a conjunction of the Sun and Moon; though their materials were not perfect enough to allow such predictions to be always verified. It will be seen that the same was the case with eclipses of the Moon. They had discovered the nineteen years' period, and had begun to predict eclipses long before the days of Thales. But here, too, their expectations were sometimes disappointed. A large part of their astronomical literature consists of eclipse observations. Portions of the principal work on the subject are given in the Appendix. A few more detached inscriptions may be added in this place.

W.A.I. 58, 14:—

1. [glyphs]
Sin it - pal limut - tiv mati isac - an

The Moon disappears. Evil the country visits.

2. [glyphs]
Sin ina la mi - na - ti -su bi - ib - luv yu - bil
The Moon out of its reckoned-time midway comes.

3. [glyphs]
atala isac- an
An eclipse it makes.

[p.217]

4. [glyphs]
D.P. Samsu ina tammi utala zuniia tarbatsa ipakhkhir
The Sun during the day darkness, rain, (and) disappearance makes.

5. [glyphs]
atala Elamti isac- an
An eclipse (in) Elam it causes.

6. [glyphs]
ina arakli Cuzallu ma - tsar - ti sa
In the month Chisleu the observation of an eclipse

7. [glyphs]
atali tarbatsu sa Samsi il - mu - u
(and) the disappearance of the Sun came on

8. [glyphs]
u sin sa it - ba - lu
and the Moon which had disappeared

9. [glyphs]
a - na ma - tsar - ti atali
after the observation of the eclipse

10. [glyphs]
ana arakh Cuzalla in - nam - mar
during the month Chisleu is seen.

11. [glyphs]
sarru lu - nah - ud
May the king be glorious:

12. [glyphs]
lib - bi sa sarri bil ya
May the heart of the king, my lord,

[p.218]

13. [glyphs]
1lu - dlia - a - bi

be good.

14. [glyphs]
sa D.P. Khu - si - ilu ahdu sa sarri lini - u
(Report) of Khusil the servant of the king, the eponyme.

W.A.I. 59, 2:—

1. "The Moon set (tarbatsa ipakhkhir) and Mercury in its place is fixed.
2. Military invasion of Phoenicia.
3. Or there is corn and there is no work (ubbiisu).
4 Accad returns. The day is clear.
5. The Moon makes a river (iiahra ipakhkhir). Verdure of plants (?) (arcitu sesina)
6. in the country is.
7. Or rain falls.
8. The star of Merodach sets, and
9. the star of Merodach rose again (iniskha imukh).
11. The star of Merodach Jupiter
12. to its fixed position causes to return (ana inanzazi-su yusatar) and
13. increases, and
14. behind it (on) the fourteenth day ....
15. (Report) of Ba(lasi)."

W.A.I. 59, 5:—

1. "In the month Adar, the fourteenth day the Moon makes an eclipse.
2. In the month Adar, the fourteenth day, in the evening watch, an eclipse
3. the Moon makes; and his crown to the king of the land (is) propitious.
4. Ur and Phoenicia he is given.
5. During the eclipse of the Moon, Mercury and Venus (were not visible).

[p.219]

6. In the month Adar the Moon is eclipsed. The king of Elam ....
7. The month Adar the Moon is eclipsed in the evening-watch.
8. The month Adar from the first day (to the .... )
9. the life of the king hostility (suffers).
10. If to peace (sumna ana sallima) the king forms his city and people,
11. during the year a flood descends and great waters prevail.
12. When the Moon has made (lit. raised, issunu) an eclipse, the king dwells quietly and
13. for a long time (ana erikta) good the king to the princes in Accad
14. will decree, and hostility no one (?)
15. will bring about.
16. (Report) of Nergal-edir."

W.A.I. 59, 6:—

1. "The Moon sets, and the star of the King
2. in its place is fixed. During this year
3. women male children
4. beget.
5. (Report) of Nergal-edir."

W.A.I. 59, 7:—

1. "The Moon a dark setting makes.
2. For a month rain is prevented (yucala), and clouds
3. are kept away (yuctatsara).
4. The Moon sets and Mars
5. in its place is fixed. Scattering of cattle.
6. (Phoenicia) is reduced.
7. The Moon sets, and the star of the King
8. in its place is fixed. During this year no pregnant women
9. bear male children.
10. (Report of Nebo)-akhi-erba."

[p.220]

W.A.I. 59, 8:—

1. "When a misty (Vanin) cloud in the sky
2. is lifted up (ittanassi) during the day the wind blows.
3. (Report) of Nebo-akhi-erba."

W.A.I. 59, 12:—

1. "The Moon set, and
2. the star of Anu a halo in its place makes.
3. A .... in the country of the desert.
4. (The star Tir-) anna in the place where the Moon set
5. is fixed; and
6. for two days omens of prosperity (?)
7. in the place where the Moon set are observed.
8. (Report) of Nebo-akhi-erba."

W.A.I. 58, 8:—

1. "The Moon in the month Tammuz, the day ....
2. The fourteenth day in the place of the Sun it is seen.
3. An eclipse it causes to pass (yusetac), and makes."

W.A.I. 54, 1:—

The first lines of this tablet are destroyed.

6. "The Moon sets and the Sun in the place where the Moon sets is fixed.
7. In all the country justice they decree.
8. The son with his father justice decrees.
9. Peace among multitudes.
10. The Moon sets, and Mars in its place is fixed.
11. Division of cattle in the whole country.
12. Its corn (and) garden-stuff (are) not flourishing,
13. and the land of Phoenicia is reduced.
14. The Moon sets and two stars in the place
15. where the Moon set are fixed. A life of long days.
16. Mars and the planet (Jupiter) are visible and fixed.
17. A prosperous revenue from the land.
18. Mars .... is fixed.
20. (Report) of (Sum)ai."

[p.221]

W.A.I. 54, 5:—

1. "This (is) the darkness. The Moon sets (and)
2. Mercury and the star of the Double Sword (appear) in its place.
3. The Moon sets and Mercury in its place is fixed.
4. The king of Accad returns home (yutasar).
5. The Moon sets, and the god Nibiru in its place is fixed.
6. The troops divide the cattle in the desert.
7. The star of Merodach at its appearance Mercury
8. (for) .... casjyu (space of two hours) increases in size (isakka), and Mercury
9. in the midst of heaven is fixed, and Nibnu.
10. The Moon sets and the star of the Double Sword in its place is fixed.
11. The Queen of the Gods the men of the desert are scattered.
12. Men lions kill and crocodiles enter the land.
13. This (is) what is recorded (izzacar [glyphs]).
14. The Moon sets and Mercury in its place is fixed.
15. The king of Phoenicia falls and an overthrow of the country his enemy makes.
16. This (is) the report (akhi'a)
17. of Nebo-musetsi."

W.A.I. 54, 6:—

1. "The Moon out of its reckoned time is present (ikhkhira) and is not seen.
2. Campaigns against many cities (tibe al cissati).
3. The fifteenth day it grows in size (irahbi), and the sixteenth day with the Sun it is seen.
4. Mars (and) the planet (Jupiter) together (?) (issana) are present. Corn is dug up.
5. The star of the Bird Urakhga the path of the Sun attains. Ganzu is reduced.
6. For the second time (sanis) a ricniu is made.
7. This (is) the news (dibbi) for Accad.
8. Mars Saturn

[p.222]

10. The number that was wanting (minu khidhdhu) I made.
11. The Moon the sixteenth day is seen. The king of Subarti is strong; and
12. a rival has not (inakhira la irassi).
13. The Moon sets and the planet (Jupiter) in its place is fixed.
14 appear.
15. The Moon sets and Mars in its place is fixed.
16. Division of cattle. There is justice ([glyphs]). The desert again is reduced.
17. Its corn and garden-stuff do not flourish, and the land of Phoenicia is reduced.
18. The Moon sets, and the star Icu in its place is fixed.
19. No rising of corn.
20. The star Icu, the star of the Gate.
21. (Report) of Balasi.
22. Mars in this place
23 Saturn.
24. In the month Nisan, the day is complete (yusallam)."

Records of eclipses for every day in the year were kept, which shows how frequently the Calendar must have been out of order. Thus we have a table of the events resulting from eclipses upon each day of the month Tammuz up to the middle of the month.

W.A.I. III, 56, 1:—

1. "On the first day if there is an eclipse, and it begins in the south,24 and (there is) light (nurit), a great king (will die).
2. In the month Tammuz, the second day, an eclipse happens, and in the north it begins, and (there is) light, king with king (fights?).

[p.223]

3. In Tammuz, the third day an eclipse happens, and in the east it begins, and (there is) light, rains and floods (descend).
4. In Tammuz, the fourth day, an eclipse happens, and in the west it begins, and (there is) light, in Phoenicia the crops (flourish?).
5. In Tammuz, the fifth day, an eclipse happens, and the Great Star is ascendant, famine is in the land.
6. In Tammuz, the sixth day, an eclipse happens, and (it is) white, the Moon (receives) prayers (icribi).
7. In Tammuz, the seventh day, an eclipse happens, and (it is) black, the Moon (sends) food (zinuti) to Phoenicia.
8. In Tammuz, the eighth day, an eclipse happens, and (it is) dark-blue, a plot of ground and field (are sold?).
9. In Tammuz, the ninth day, an eclipse happens, and (it is) greenish-yellow, (there results) spoiling of the enemy's country.
10. In Tammuz, the tenth day, an eclipse happens, and (it is) pale-yellow ([glyphs]), Accad ([glyphs]) (is reduced?)
11. In Tammuz, the eleventh day, an eclipse happens, and (the Sun) the lord of light ([glyphs]) goes his way, the treasure of the country (is despoiled).
12. In Tammuz, the twelfth day an eclipse happens, and the watch ended ([glyphs]) (yustanikh) ....
13. In Tammuz, the thirteenth day, an eclipse happens, and southward moves
14. In Tammuz, the fourteenth day, an eclipse happens, and northward moves.
15. In Tammuz, the fifteenth day, an eclipse happens, and eastward moves ...."

Provision was even made for an unexpected eclipse. Thus (in III, 55, 16), it is said that "if in the month Tammuz an eclipse happens which has not been calculated, the heart is established ([glyphs])." Immediately before this a general prediction is hazarded as to what might be expected [p.224] from an eclipse in this month: "In Tammuz, from the first to the thirtieth day, (if) an eclipse happen, the altars are destroyed ([glyphs], the cities are reduced, and to peace the king (inclines) not."

The next two tablets which I shall quote refer exclusively to the Sun. Unfortunately the opening lines are lost, but what is left runs thus:—

W.A.I. III, 59, 14:—

1. "The Sun rose (ippukha) and before it was a .....
2. The king of multitudes lengthens his life.
3. In the month Adar, the Sun in serim goes to rest (tarhatsa ipakhkhir). During the same month
4. floods descend, and the sky rains.
5. In the midst with Mercury it (is).
6. (There is) a favourable breeze (rikhti dhibbi)
7. when (the Sun) (is) with it, and
8. it portends rains and flood."

W.A.I. 59, 15, Obverse:—

1. "The Sun in its size sets double ([glyphs])'
A threefold dark-blue (is) (its) light. The king of the land is divided.
2. The Sun in its size is enlarged ([glyphs]). Fourfold are its colours ([glyphs])'
3. A fourfold increase."

Reverse:—

1. "The Sun at setting among the stars goes down (isakhkhip). The king ....
2. The Sun in full size sets and Jupiter ....
3. The Sun sets ([glyphs]), and draws water.25
4. An eclipse of the Sun takes place and it draws water.
5. The Sun sets and in its place (inanzazi]) the Moon is fixed. The land ....

[p.225]

6. During the eclipse of the Sun (the Moon ....)
7. The Sun sets and in its place the star Mar-buda is fixed.
8. During the eclipse of the Sun (the Moon ....).
9. The Sun sets and in its place the planet Dapinu is fixed.
10. During the eclipse of the Sun (the Moon ....).
11. The Sun sets and in its place the star Khabatsi (Entena-maslum) is fixed.
12. In the month Tisri, the Sun is eclipsed.
13. The Sun sets and in its place the star of the Left-hand
14. The Sun sets and in its place the star of the Double Sword is fixed.
15. In the month Nisan the country of the king endures. (It is) fortunate.
16. According to the words of a tablet no longer existing, beginning (as above).
17. The palace of Assui-bani-pal king (of Assyria)."

The disappearance of the stars also was noticed. Thus we have a tablet relating to the star called "the Great Lion" ([glyphs]) lines of which are too much broken to admit of translation, but which then goes on as follows:—

W.A.I. III, 59, 13:—

3. "The star of the Great Lion (is) dark.
4. The heart of the land is not good.
5. The star of the King (is) dark.
6. Rule (muhirra) (in) the palace of the master.
7. (Report) of Nebo-musotsi.''

The appearance of the Moon's crescents, or of a halo round its body, were supposed to forebode many occurrences. It may be worth while to quote some of the descriptions which bear upon this subject.

W.A.I. III, 58, 3:—

1. "The Moon at its appearance put on a halo (lit. a crown) (agu ippir [glyphs])

[p.226]

2. The king to supremacy goes.
3. On high he sits (jid-hur-ris yus-sab).
4. (The Moon at) its appearance (namuri-su) put on a halo, and
5. the Moon at its appearance, its right horn ([glyphs]) the sky ....
6. The tariff (is) firm. In the land (is peace?)
7. Production (nacun) of corn in Phoenicia.
8. On its right horn the sky (is dark?).
9. (which) they had called,
10. in the sky covered (ikhallup), and was not visible (?).
11. A dark cloud covered the horn.
12. The Moon at its appearance, its right horn (was towards) Phoenicia.
13. The Moon the first day is seen, and Accad is prosperous.
14. (There is) a numbering of Elam and of the aforesaid Phoenicia.
15. The Moon, the fourteenth day in the place of the Sun
16. is seen.
17. (Report) of Nebo-akhi-erba."

W.A.I. III, 51, 5:—

1. "The Moon the first day is seen.
2. The face (is) steadfast, the heart of the country good.
3. The day according to calculation is long (eric).
4. A life of long days.
5. That night (musu anniu [glyphs])
6. rains descended (ribi ernhu).
7. In the month Tebet rain descended (eruh [glyphs]).
8. The king in the city of his enemy sits (yusab [glyphs]).
9. In the month Tebet down (saplu) it descended.
10. The palace of the prince is overwhelmed and the ruins go to destruction.
11. During the night down it descended.
12. During the day ....
13. (report) of the chief astronomer."

[p.227]

W.A.I. III, 51, 6:—

1. "The Moon the first day is seen. The face (is) steadfast.
2. The heart of the Land (is) good.
3. The Moon at its appearance wore a halo.
4. The king went to supremacy.
5. The Moon at its appearance has its right horn long and its left horn is clear (ikka).
6. The king of the land supremacy (?) his right hand obtains.
7. The Moon at its appearance is very large (marah iralhi).
8. An eclipse happens.
9. The Moon at its appearance is very large (?).
10. The crops of the land flourish.
11. The day according to calculation is long.
12. Lives of long days.
13. The thirtieth day is complete (yusallam), and
14. in the month Elul the Moon of Elam
15. makes an eclipse.
16. (Report) of Merodach."

W.A.I. III, 51, 7:—

1. The Moon departed (ezib) and in the evening (barari)26 suffered (ittaksi)
2. an eclipse. The king of Accad
3. (is) overshadowed.
4. Out of its calculated time (ina la (a)danni-su) the twelfth and thirteenth days it suffered eclipse, and
5. in the evening watch the eclipse took place, and
6. the eclipse crossed on its right ([glyphs]). Thereupon there failed the view of its centre (nin-nu ezib a-ma-ru libbi-sa [glyphs]).

[p.228]

7. Afterwards (ullanumimi) on its right the eclipse takes place, and
8. the whole of it (gah-bi-sa) obscures (ir-khap): and
9. the eclipse on its right settles (?). Thereupon (there fails)
10. the view of its centre.
11. On its right the eclipse (is completed).
12. The eclipse (on) its right cuts off (innacis [glyphs]) the view of its centre.
13. On its right the eclipse (is completed)."

Here the tablet is broken off.

W.A.I. III, 51, 3:—

1. "The Moon in the month Ve-adar at its appearance
2. in enclosures fixed. (The country is) under (supil)
3. a strong prince and the land is in want (ikharsikh).
4. (It is) extended (pasisu [glyphs]).
5. The Moon at its appearance wears a halo.
6. The king to supremacy goes.
7. The Moon the first day is seen. The face (is) firm.
8. The heart of the land (is) good.
9. The Moon its firm position (?) (cudut-su cinu) fixes.
10. Smiting (urcun) of rain.
11. In the month Ve-adar, the fourteenth day
12. the Moon with the Sun is seen.
13. (Report) of Nergal-edir.''

W.A.I. III, 51,2:—

1. "The Moon at its appearance as the first day (so) the twenty-eighth day is seen.
2. Evil to Phoenicia.
3. The Moon the twenty-eighth day is seen.
4. Prosperity to Accad, evil to Phoenicia.
5. (Report) of the chief astronomer."

[p.229]

The "chief astronomer''—the astronomer royal, as we should term him—is called [glyphs] "chief of the abir. The word aba is of Accadian extraction, and is formed from the Accadian ab "month" by postfixing the relative ending a, so that the name literally signifies "he that has to do with the month." It is clear that ab "the month" has the same source as ai ''the Moon," b being a common suffix in Accadian. Now the office was a very old one. In a list of court officials (W.A.I. II, 31, 65) the aba mat Armai or "the astronomer of the Accadians" follows the aba mat Assurai or "astronomer of the Assyrians." Accad was called Urn-ma or Ur-ma "Ur-land," from its ancient capital Uri or Ur. Every Babylonian temple had its ziggarrat or "tower," on the top of which was erected the altar of the deity, since the gods were supposed not to condescend to come down so low as the plains. In this plainly appear the religious notions of a mountainous people, such as the Accadians originally were; and it is noticeable that the peak on which the ark of Tamzi is said to have rested is called the ziggarrat of the mountain of Nizir. Here was built the first altar of the regenerated world, and from this cradle of population and civilisation the first astronomer could watch the rising and the setting of the heavenly bodies. Observatories were to be found in all the great cities of Chaldea, and though there might be but one "astronomer royal" in the empire, there were several official astronomers in a subordinate capacity, who were required to send in their monthly reports to the king. Such, at least, was the case in Assyria, where there were imperial observatories, not only at Nineveh, but also at Assur and Arbela. We still possess many of the reports, mostly belonging to the reign of Assur-bani-pal; and the following will serve as specimens of the rest.

W.A.I, III, 51, 1:—

1. "The sixth day of Nisan.
2. the day and the night
3. were balanced (i.e., equal sitkulu).
4. (There were) six kaspu of day
5. (and) six kaspu of night.

[p.230]

6. May Nebo and Merodach
7. to the king my lord
8. approach (licrubu)."

W.A.I. III, 51. 2:—

1. "The fifteenth day of Nisan
2. the day and the night
3. were balanced.
4. There were six kaspu of day
5. (and) six kaspu of night.
6. May Nebo and Merodach to the king
7. my lord
8. approach."

W.A.I. III, 51, 3:—

1. "A watch we observe (ma-tmr-tu ni-lt-ta-tsar).
2. The twenty-ninth day the Moon
3. we see (ni-ta-mar).
4. May Nebo and Merodach
5. to the king my lord
6. approach.
7. (Report) of Nabua
8. of the city of Assnr ([glyphs])."

W.A.I. III, 51, 4:—

1. "The twenty-ninth day
2. a watch we keep.
3. The Moon we did not see (la nimar).
4. May Nebo and Merodach
5. to the king my lord
6. approach.
7. (Report) of Nabua
8. of Assur."

W.A.I. III, 51, 5:—

1. "To the king my lord,
2. thy servant (ebed-ca [glyphs]) Istar-(iddin-pal),
3. one of the chiefs (rahute),
4. of Arbela.
5. May there be peace (la sallimmu)

[p.231]

6. to the king my lord.
7. May Nebo (and) Merodach
8. (and) Istar of Arbela
9. to the king my lord
10. approach.
11. On the twenty-ninth day
12. a watch
13. we keep.
14. The Moon we saw not.
15. In the month Tammuz, the second day
16. during the eponymy of Bil-suuu [B.C. 647]27
17. prefect of the city of Khindana."

W.A.I. III, 51, 6:—

1. "To the king my lord
2. thy servant Istar-iddin-pal
3. one of the chiefs
4. of the astronomers,
5. of Arbela.
6. May there be peace
7. to the king my lord.
8. May Nebo, Merodach
9. (and) Istar of Arbela,
10. to the king my lord
11. approach.
12. On the twenty-ninth day
13. a watch
14. we keep.
15. The observatory28
16. was covered with cloud ([glyphs])
17. The Moon we did not see.
18. The month Sebat, the first day,
19. the eponomy of Bel-kharran-sadiia."29

[p.232]

W.A.I. III. 51, 7:—

1. "To the chief governor30 my lord
2. thy servant Nebo-sum-iddin,
3. one of the chiefs,
4. of Nineveh.
5. May Nebo (and) Merodach
6. to the chief governor
7. my lord approach.
8. The fourteenth day a watch
9. for the Moon
10. we keep.
11. The Moon an eclipse
12. suffers.31

W.A.I. III, 53, 3:—

1. "To the king (my lord)
2. thy servant Rimmon ....
3. May there be peace to the king (my lord).
4. May Assur, the Moon-god, the Sun-god, (Nebo, and Merodach)
5. the great gods of heaven (and earth)
6. to the king my lord
7. for ever and ever be propitious (udannis adannis licruba).
8. The Moon the thirtieth day
9. I saw (atamar). Such (is) the report ([glyphs])
10. of the thirtieth day.
11. In accordance with (ina pi itti) what (is) the report
12. when (ci sa) the second day
13. it is fixed
14. so (tiumina) before the king my lord
15. it is visible (mtkhir).
16. Before the city of Assur

[p.233]

17. may the king trust (lid-gul [glyphs])
18. the omens (?) (kha-ra-mi), and
19. may the king my lord during the day
20. fix (lucin)
21. the issuri king my lord
22. the country (nulta) thou (at-ta)
23. didst not (la tapru)."

The rest of the inscription is too mutilated for translation. The first characters only of the last seven lines are left, the first beginning with anacu (bit-nuinarti) "'I the observatory." Another report, lithographed in W.A.I. III, 51, 9, is happily better preserved. M. Oppert has already given a translation of it in the Jour. Asiatique, 1871 (xviii, 67). A solar eclipse was expected, but did not take place, and the appearance of the new Moon marked the beginning of the month Tammuz. The report seems to have been handed in to Assur-bani-pal, and it is interesting to find that at that time astronomical science was sufficiently advanced to be able to venture on the prognostication of a solar eclipse, even though the calculations did not invariably turn out to have been accurate.

1. [glyphs]
na sarra bil - ya ebed - ca
To the king my lord thy servant

2. [glyphs]
D.P. Abil - D.P. Istar lu -u-sallim-mu
Abil-Istar. May there be peace

3. [glyphs]
a- na sarra bil -ya D.P. Nabiu li D.P. Maruduc
to the king, my lord. May Nebo and Merodarh

4. [glyphs]
a- na sarra bil-ya lie - ru - bu
to the king, my lord, be propitious.

[p.234]

5. [glyphs]
yii-mi ur - cu - te dhii - ub siri
Long day, soundness of flesh

6. [glyphs]
va kliu - lul lib - bi ili vabi
and joy of heart may the great gods

7. [glyphs]
H - na sarra bil -ya lis - ru - cu yumu 27
to the king my lord, grant. The 27th day

8. [glyphs]
D.P. Sin iz-za- az yumu 28
the Moon is fixed (i.e., disappears). The 28th day,

9. [glyphs]
yumu 29 yumu 30 raa-tsar-tav
the 2'dth day, (and) the 60th day, a watch

10. [glyphs]
sa atal D.P. Samsi ni - it - ta - tsar
for an eclipse of the Sun we keep.

11. [glyphs]
Sara - si ti - ic atala la is - cun
The Sun behind the eclipse did not pass.

12. [glyphs]
yumu 1 D.P. Sin na - mur yu-mu
(On) the 1st day the Moon is seen in the day-time.

13. [glyphs]
sa iyakli Duzu cu - n - nu
During the month Tammuz current

[p.235]

14. [glyphs]
ilia eli cacab Sak - vi - sa
above Mercury

15. [glyphs]
sa ina pa - ni - ti
of which already

16. [glyphs]
a - na sarra bil - ya as - pur an - ni
to the king my lord I have sent this32

17. [glyphs]
nu - uc' ina cas - su - ud D.P. A - nuv
account. During the period when the Moon is Anu,33

18. [glyphs]
ina gag- gar cacab Sib - zi - an - na
in the orbit of the star the Shepherd of the Heavenly Flock,

19. [glyphs]
it - ta - mar sa - pi - il
it is seen declining.

20. [glyphs]
ina ri - ib karnu la ikli - klii - rav
Owing to rain the horn was not visible

21. [glyphs]
ic - cli - bi - i u-ma-a
very clearly (?). Thus

22. [glyphs]
ina cas - su - ud D.P. A - nuv su - u
during the period when the Moon is Ami aforesaid.

[p.236]

23. [glyphs]
pi - khir -su a - na sarra bil - ya
as (regards) its conjunction to the king my lord

24. [glyphs]
a - sap - ra n -ma- a
I am sending. Thus

25. [glyphs]
id -dan - ta -kh'a it -takh- rav
it extended itself and was visible

26. [glyphs]
sap - la cacab Rucubu
below the star of the Chariot;

27. [glyphs]
ina cas-su -ud D.P. Bili iz - za - az
during the period when the Moon is Bel34 it is fixed;

28. [glyphs]
a- na cacab Rucnbi ki -n- ic - ri - ini
round the star of the Chariot it circled.

29. [glyphs]
pi - khir - ,sn nc - ta - ta - la - va
its conjunction was prevented; but

30. [glyphs]
va pi - khir -su sa cacab Sak -vi- sa
nevertheless its conjunction with Mercury

31. [glyphs]
sa ina caw-su-na D.P. A- nuv
which (took place) during the period when the Moon is Anu,

[p.237]

32. [glyphs]
sa ina pa - ni - ti a - na sarra bil-ya
of which already to the king my lord

33. [glyphs]
as - pur an - ni
I sent this (account),

34. [glyphs]
la nc - ta - ta - la
was not prevented.

35. [glyphs]
sarru bil- i lu - u-sallim
May the king my lord have peace.

The reports quoted above which refer to the vernal equinox, establish the fact that that period of the year corresponded with Aries. The Accadian Calendar was arranged so as to suit the order of the Zodiacal signs; and Nisan, the first month, answered to the first Zodiacal sign. Now the Sun still entered the first point of Aries at the vernal equinox in the time of Hipparkhus, and it would have done so since 2540 B.C. From that epoch backwards to 4698 B.C. Taurus, the second sign of the Accadian Zodiac and the second month of the Accadian year, would have introduced the spring. The precession of the equinoxes thus enables us to find the extreme limit of the antiquity of the ancient Babylonian Calendar, and of the origin of the Zodiacal signs in that country.

It is difficult to say when the Assyrians borrowed the Calendar of their Accadian neighbours. Like the Jews, who possessed a native Calendar before the Babylonian Captivity, with months called Bul, Ziv. and Ethanim. the Assyrians certainly had originally one of their own. The native names of some of the months have been preserved. Thus Sargon terms Sivan the "royal month" (arakh sarri), and Rimmon-nirari the son of Pudil (in B.C. 1320) dates the [p.238] monolith which Mr. Smith brought from Assyria in the month mukhur-ili "the gift of the gods." The borrowed Calendar must have come to them through the medium of the Aramaeans, just as it came to the Jews, since the names of the months Nisan, Iyyar, &c., are not Accadian on the one hand, nor are they Assyrian on the other. The uncertainty of the spelling of many of them, Cuzallu, or Cisilicu, Sivanu or Tsivan, for instance, proves the latter point as much as the peculiar name of the eighth month proves the former. The Arameao-Accadian Calendar, however, was in use among the Assyrians at least as early as the reign of Tiglath-Pileser I: and so a new light is thrown upon the culture and relations of the Aramaean tribes in the opening days of the Assyrian Monarchy.

Along with the establishment of a Calendar came the settled division of the day and night. The old rough division of the night into three watches, which we find also in the Old Testament, remained long in use; but although the astrological works of Sargon's Library do not know of any other reckoning of time, it was gradually superseded by a more accurate system. This was by hashu or hashumu ([glyphs]) in Accadian, ashi in Assyrian.35 M. Oppert connects ashi with the Aram. [glyphs], "cord," Aram. אשל "a measure of Bassora of 60 cubits"; and the word was certainly transferred from ground-measure to time-measure. The cashu was equal to two of our hours, and was divided into 60 degrees.

And so we break off where we began, with the division of time. Babylonian astronomy may have been rude and superstitious; it may have had little that we hold to be scientific in it; but so also was the alchemy of the middle ages. And just as out of the alchemy of our forefathers has arisen chemistry, so out of the astrology of Chaldea came not only the observations which rendered possible the astronomy of Greece and modern Europe, but also the formation of a Calendar; and this one practical discovery—for discovery it was—is sufficient to secure to the star-gazers of Accad the respect and gratitude of succeeding generations.

[p.239]

APPENDIX.

Table of Portents (W.A.I. Ill, 60)—Obverse.

Col. 1. First five lines lost. Of the six following lines only the ends remain:—(6) "service," (7) "hand and face," (8) "of king of Elam," (9) "to his men," (10) "his years," (11) ''the cattle divided."

Then the tablet proceeds:—

12. [glyphs]
yumu 16 ataln issacan sarrn iniat-va [ap] - pa - ru na - mi - e ikhagilu
On the 10th day an eclipse takes place. The king dies, and the marches the streams irrigate.

13. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan sarru ina cusa-sn iddut-va man -ma ina cussu itstsa-bat
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. The king on his throne is slain, and, a nobody on the throne seizes.

14. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan .... marrati ippalagat- va marratu ap - pa - ru khigalla ircits itti nu - khu - us
On the 21st day an eclipse happens. The waves (?) of the sea are divided, and the sea the marshes (and) canals inundates with fertility.

[p.240]

15. [glyphs]
ina arkhi Sivanii yimm 14 atahi issacan-va in riikbi sadu izaiikli-va ina rukhi akharni igadh

In the month Sivan, on the 14th day, an eclipse happens, and in the east it begins, and in the west it ends.

16. [glyphs]
ina matsarti gabliti izarikh-va ina matsarti satturi36 - igadli rukhi sadu ina idi pi erib
In the night watch it begins and in the morning watch it ends. Eastward (at the time of appearance (and) cessation)

17. [glyphs]
tsalmu -.su imanur-va ana sar Ni-tuc- ci uzzi innadan sar Ni -tuc - ci ina khi - sa ilabbar
its shadow is seen: and to the king of Dilmun the crown is given. The king of Dilmun with the crown37 grows old.

[p.241]

18. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan sar Ni -tuc- ci ina khi- sa idacu- su-va man- ma ina cussu itsab-bat
On the 15th day an eclipse takes place. The king of Dilmun with the crown they slay him, and some one on the throne seizes.

19. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan sar na - du -su idacu- su-va la -klia- as - u ina cussa itsab-bat

On the l8th day an eclipse takes place. The king his eunuchs38 slay him and his nephew39 on the throne seizes.

20. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan zunni ina sami meli ina nakbi illacuni
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. Rains in heaven; floods in the channels flow,

21. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan ta - zi - im - tuv meli ina nakbi illacuni .... ta - zu - ukh - tuv
On the 21st day, an eclipse takes place. Devastation or rapine

22. [glyphs]
ina mati ibassi pagri ina mati ibassu

in the country is. Corpses in the country are.

[p.242]

23. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Duzu yumu 14 ataki issacan-va ina rukhi akliarri izarrikli-va ina ruldu suti itti rukhi iltani
In the month Tammuz on the 14th day an eclipse happens, and in the west it begins and in the south and north

24. [glyphs]
igadh ina matsarti barariti izarrikh-va ina matsarti gabliti igadh rukh akliarri ina idi pi erib
it ends; in the evening watch it begins and in the night watch it ends. Westward at the time of appearance [and] disappearance

25. [glyphs]
tsabnu - su innamar-va ana sar gn - ti - i uzzu innadan
its shadow is seen; and to the king of Gutium a crown is given.

26. [glyphs]
ru - tim Gu - ti - i ina tuculti ibassu mi - ic - nil - us sa id - di
The forces of Gutium in service are; submission of the troops.

[p.243]

27. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacaii zunni ina sami meli ina mati evubu khusuklikhu ina mati ibassi

On the 15th day an eclipse takes place. Rains in heaven floods in the land descend. Famine in the land is.

28. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan nesti libbi - si - na la isallima

On the 16th day an eclipse takes place. Women their offspring do not perfect.

29. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan ina arkhi Abu D.P. Ramanu pi - su ida - va ilu iccal
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. In the month Ab Rimmon (the weather) his mouth sets; and the god eats.

30. [glyphs]
arcu sanati D.P. Ramanu pulu irakhkhits
For a year Rimmon the cattle inundates.

31. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan Sarru 2 mati -su ipalcatu -su-va ana kat nacri -su isaccinu-su
On the 21st day an eclipse happens. The king twice his lands revolt from him, and to the hand of his foes deliver him.

[p.244]

32. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Abu yumii 14 atalu issacan-va ina ruklii suti izarrikh-va ina rukhi sadi igadh
In the month Ah, the 14th day, an eclipse happens; and in the south it begins, and in the east it ends.

33. [glyphs]
ina matsarti barariti va ina matsarti mat - nrri izarrikh-va Sam - su - ti -ma igadh
In the evening watch and in the morning watch it begins, and at Sun-rise it ends.

34. [glyphs]
rukli suti ina idi pi erib tsalam -su innamar-va ana sar Ab - nun - na - ci uzzu innadan
Southward at the time of appearance (and) disappearance its shadow is seen; and to the king of Mullias a crown is given.

35. [glyphs]
napis-tu tsabi va tsabi sanat tuculti
The life of the soldier .... and the soldiers for a year (in) battle

[p.245]

[glyphs]
in - nan - cUia - ru -va nisi ina tuculti idacu

are seen; and men by arrows are slain.

36. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan sarru imat-va zunni ina sami meli ina nakbi erubi iba - si
On the 15th day an eclipse happens. The king dies; and rains in heaven, floods in the channels descending are.

37. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan sar Accadi imat D.P. Nergal ina mati ical
On the 10th day an eclipse takes place. The king of Accad dies. Nergal (i.e., war) in the country feeds.

38. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan sar D.P. Kha-at - ti .... sar D.P. Kha-a- ti iballidh-va ina cussi itsab-bat
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. The king of the Hittites or the king of the Khati lives and on the throne seizes.

[p.246]

39. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan ilu sarra va li - all - bu mata va sarra i - li - li - bu -u
On the 21st day an eclipse happens. The God the king persecutes (?) and a name the land and the king will devour.

40. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Ululu yumu 14 atalu issacan-va ina rukhi iltani izarrikh-va ina rukhi suti
In the month Elul, the 16th day, an eclipse takes place and in the north it begins, and in the south

41. [glyphs]
va rukhi sadi igaclli ina matsarti baraiiti izarrikh-va ina matsarti gabliti igadh
and the east it ends; in the evening watch it begins, and in the night watch it ends.

42. [glyphs]
rukh iltani ina idi pi erib tsalam -su innamar-va ana sar Ab - nun - na - ci uzzu innadan
Northward at the time of appearance (and) disappearance its shadow is seen; and to the king of Mullias a crown is given.

[p.247]

43. [glyphs]
ana sar khi - sa libitii - va sarra atalu i - te - ti - ik - su zunu ina sami

To the king the throne (is) an omen; and the king darkness passes over him. Rains in heaven,

44. [glyphs]
meli ina nakbi erubu kh.ustikh khu ina mati ibasi nisi abli - si - na40 ana caspa imacaru
floods in the channels flow. A famine in the country is. Men their sons for silver sell.

45. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan abil sarri aba-su idac-va ina cussi itsab-bat va nacru issaldi-va mata ical
On the 15th day an eclipse takes place. The son of the king his father kills, and on the throne seizes. And the enemy plunders and the land devours.

46. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan sar mati a -khi- ti
On the I6th day an eclipse happens. The king of another country

[p.248]

[glyphs]
sar D.P. Kha - a - ti is^akh - va ina cussi itsab-bat

or the king of the Hittites plunders, and on the throne seizes.

47.[glyphs]
Zunnu ina sami meli ina nakbi erubu
Rain in heaven; floods in the channels descend.

48. [glyphs]
ynmu 20 atalu issacan. Zuuni ina sami meli ina nakbi erubu matu ana matu i -kha- ag -va sallim-mu issacanu
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. Rains in heaven; floods in the channels flow. Country with country keeps festival, and peace they make.

49. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan cussu nacru ul yu -lab -bar sar ramanu- cinu ina mati ibass'u
On the 21st day an eclipse happens. The throne of the foe lasts not. A king self-appointed in the land shall he.

50. [glyphs]
arcu sanna D.P. Raman irakhkhits .... sar ina cussa ul yu - lab - bar mat - su izakhkhir
After a year Rimmon inundates; {i.e. after a year} the king on the throne does not last. His country is made small.

[p.249]

51. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Tasritu yurau 14 atalu issacan-va ina rukhi suti izarrikli - va ina riikh sadu igadh

In the month Tisrl the 14th day, an eclipse happens; and in the south it begins, and in the west it ends;

52. [glyphs]
ina matsarti barariti izzarikh-va ina matsarti gabliti igachi rukh suti ina idi pi erib
in the evening watch it begins, and in the night watch it ends. Southward at the time of appearance (and) disappearance

53. [glyphs]
tsalam - su innamar-va ana sar Elami uzzu innadan ru - tim Elami
its shadow is seen; and to the king of Elam a crown is given. The forces of Elam

54. [glyphs]
ina tuculti ibassi la - ta - ar - ri sallim- i ana nisi - su
in service are. No return of peace to his men.

[p.250]

55. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan nacrii issakli-va sibirri mati yacal va yakhaz va mata yu - si - padh
On the 15th day an eclipse happens. The foe ptlunders, and the corn of the land devours and seizes, and the country tyrannizes over.

56. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan pal -kha-a sarru imat pulug sarrut - su
On the I6th day an eclipse takes place. Suddenly the king dies. Division of his kingdom.

57. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan ii - ab - bu mata i - la - all - ib erat libbi - si - na la isallima
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. The flame the land consumes. Pregnant women their offspring do not perfect.

58. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan tib -ut itstsuri-maliduti ana mata .... ana matuti ibas - si
On the 1st day an eclipse takes place. A flight of many birds to a country, or to countries, happens.

[p.251]

Lines 59 and 60, at the beginning of Column II, are lost.

61. [glyphs]
...........
[na] - du -su i - due - cu-sn-va man -ma ina cussa itsbat
........... his eunuchs slew him, and some one on the throne seized,

62. [glyphs]
.... atalu issacan bi - ib - lu mati yub- ba - lu nin ina zal- te
. ... an eclipse happens. The heart of the land is cast down. Nothing in the granaries.

63. [glyphs]
.... atalu issacan ina mati nacratu .... nalidu D.P. Samsu ibassi
.... an eclipse happens. In the land (is) hostility, or bright the Sun-god is.

64. [glyphs]
........ aiyai in - na - dha - ru - va milca mat) icabbidu
....... lions appear, and the king of the country overpower.

65. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Dhabitu yumu 14 atalu issacan- va
In the month Tebet the 10th day, an eclipse takes place; and

[p.252]

[glyphs]
ina rukli sadi izarrikli -va ina rukli akliarri igadh
in the east it begins, and in the west it ends.

66. [glyphs]
ina matsarti barariti izarrikli -va ina matsarti gabliti igadh rukh sadi ina idi pi erib
In the evening watch it begins, and in the night watch it ends. Eastward at the time of appearance (and) disappearance

67. [glyphs]
tsalam - su innamar-va ana sar An - du - an - ci va Su - zin - ci uzzu innadan

its shadow is seen; and to the king of Assan and Subarti a crown is given;

68. [glyphs]
calli sar An - du - an - ci va Su - zir - ci yus - si - padli
(his) servants the king of Assan and Subarti causes to rule.

[p.253]

69. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan sarru imat la -klia- as - sn ina cussi itsab-bat
On the 15th day an eclipse takes place. The king dies: his nephew41 on the throne seizes.

70. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan nacratu ina mati tabassi bi - ib - lu mati yub - ba - lu sa -pa- ac sibri ina zal - te
On the 16th day an eclipse happens. Hostility in the land is. The heart of the land is cast down. Pouting out of corn in granaries.

71. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan sa-kha- lam -ma ina mati ibas - si sibir mati D.P. Ramanu irakhkh-its
On the 20th day an eclipse takes place. Distress in the country is. The corn of the land the Rain-god inundates.

72. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan ta - as - su- ukh - tuv ina mati tabas- si
On the 21st day an eclipse happens. Plundering in the country takes place.

[p.254]

73. [glyphs]
nascunu sakalu iiia sadad- us: pal sarri ilabbir sar ramanu cinii iiia mati ibas - si

The tanff is fixed at its highest, or the life of the king is long. A king self-appointed in the land is.

74. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi yumu 14 atalu issacan-va ina rukli iltani izarrikh-va ina rukli akharii igadli
In the month Sehat, the 14th day, an eclipse takes place; and in the north it begins, and in the west it ends.

75. [glyphs]
ina niatsarti gabliti izarrikli-va ina mataarti sadurri igadh rukh iltani ina idi pi
In the night-watch it begins, and in the morning watch it ends. Northward at the time of appearance

76. [glyphs]
erib tsalam - su innamar - va ana sar Mar - tu uzzu iddanan ru - tiv sar Mar - tu ina tnculti ibass - u
(and) disappearance its shadow is seen; and to the king of Phoenicia a crown is given. The forces of the king of Phoenicia in service are....

[p.255]

77. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan sarra na -dii-sil iducu -sii-va mau-ma iiia cussi itsab-bat
On the 15th day an eclipse takes place. The king his eunuchs kill him, and a nobody on the throne seizes.

78. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan gur-ruv khusuklikhu itatsa.b- at dura ina- kar ^arru mata icabbid
On the 16th day an eclipse happens. Again famine seizes; the fort one undermines; the king the land oppresses.

79. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan bi - ib - lu mati yub - ba - lu sa - pac sibri ina zal - to
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. The heart of the country is broken down. Pouring out of wheat in the granaries.

80. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalu issacan tib - ut itstsuri mahduti ana matati sar ramanu oinu ina mati ibassi
On the 21st day an eclipse takes place. Flight of many birds to the lands. A king self-appointed in the land is.

[p.256]

81. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Adaru yiirau 14 atalu issacan-va ina rukli saiti izarrikh-va ina rukh iltani igadli

In the month Adar, the 14th day, an eclipse happens; and in the south it begins and in the north it ends.

82. [glyphs]
ina matsarti barariti izarrikh-va ina matsarti sadurri igadh rukb suti ina idi pi
In the evening watch it begins, and in the morning watch it ends. Southward at the time of appearance

83. .[glyphs]
orib tsalam - su innamar -va ana sar ci -sar- ra uzzu iddan - in sa-kha- lam -ma Ur - lab - ci
(and) disappearance its shadow is seen; and to the king of Cisurra a crown was given. Disaster (to) Ur

[p.257]

84. [glyphs]
Su - ug - gur duri - su ibassi sibri ina sapic kha - rab - ba u na - si - e - su

plugging up of its forts is; corn, (is) in the outpouring of devastation and carrying away of it.

85. [glyphs]
yumu 15 atalu issacan ana ^arra khi- sa ru - tim zabbi - su ina tuculti ibassi

On the 15th day, an eclipse happens. To the king (is) a crown; the forces of his soldiery in service are.

86. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan ta - as - tu - ukh - tuv ina mati ibas - si sarru bi -lat - i -su ippalcatu - su
On the 17th day an eclipse happens. Plundering in the country is. The king his subjects revolt from him.

87. [glyphs]
yumu 20 atalu issacan sar Accadi - ci imat matu la - khul - tuv yus - si -padh
On the 20th day an eclipse happens. The king of Accad dies. The wind uninjured one rules over.

[p.258]

88. [glyphs]
yumu 21 atalii issacan sa-kba- lam -ma Ur - lab - ci ina pa .... D.P. Sin

On the 21st day an eclipse happens. Disaster (to) Ur according to the prediction (?) of the Moon-god.

89. [glyphs]
Uuppu 22 D.P. namar D.P. Bill 1 sus 12 sum minuti suat - im
The 22nd tablet of "the divination of Bel,'' seventy-second title of this collection.

90. [glyphs]
Istu ris sanat istu arkhi Nisannu  an - ta - lu D.P. Sin issacan 'u - ru - ba - a - tiiv ina mati nacri ibassu - va ma.tu izzakbar sarru unat
From the beginning of the year; from the month Nisan, day, an eclipse of the Moon takes place. Deserts in the hostile land are, and the land is made small; the king dies.

91. [glyphs]
Istu yumu 15 atalii issacan khu sukli -khu nisi abli - si - na ana caspa imacciru
From the 15th day an eclipse takes place. Famine. Men their sons for silver sell.

[p.259]

92. [glyphs]
yumu 16 atalu issacan rukliu limiiu etik mata va [cacabii] ni -bat-a-iiu icassid-va pulu ikhkhalak

[On] the 16th day an eclipse happens. A destructive wind crosses the land, and [the planet] Mars is in the ascendant, and the cattle are scattered.

93. [glyphs]
yumu 20 sarru ana sarra nu -cur-tav yum- ar
[On] the 20th day [an eclipse happens]. King to king hostility sends.

94. [glyphs]
yumu 21 gur-ruv icbu-ud
[On] the 21st day [an eclipse happens]. Again there is oppression.

95. [glyphs]
Istu 2 arkhi istu yumu 14 cit -mas- tuv ibassi - va ub - bu - tu giri va sarru imat
In the 2nd month [lyyar] on the 14th day, an insurrection takes place, and a destruction of enemies, and the king dies.

96. [glyphs]
yumu 15 sarru ana sarra nucurta yumar-va sar cis - sa - ti imat
lOn] the 15th day king to king hostility sends: and the king of multitudes dies.

[p.260]

97. [glyphs]
yumu 16 sar Martu ina tuculti icabbid-va mat- su ikhkhalak

[On] the 16th day the king of Phoenicia in battle is defeated, and his country is divided.

98. [glyphs]
yumu 20 istu cussi mat - su
[On] the 20th day; on the throne of his country [Phoenicia].

99. [glyphs]
yumu 21 tihamtu ippalcat - va sa ikhkhalak
[On] the 21st day, the sea is crossed and its leaves are divided.

100. [glyphs]
Ina 3 arkhi yumu 14 zunnu ina same melu ina nak-bi illacuni D.P. Raman irakhkhits tsab Accad- ci mat- tuv ikhalliku
In the 3rd month (Sivan), the 14th day, rain in heaven, flood in the channels will go. The Rain-god, inundates. The men of Accad the country divide.

[p.261]

101. [glyphs]
yiimu 15 sarru ana sana mu-cur-tav yumar-va sarru cis - sa - ti imat
[On] the 15th day, king to king hostility sends, and the king of multitudes dies.

102. [glyphs]42
yumu 16 (khi - bi) - va sarru man - ma cussa itsabb-at
[On] the 16th day, (wanting), and as king a nobody the throne seizes.

103. [glyphs]
ymiiu 20 sarru an abil -su (khi - bi) - su ana sima
[On] the 20th day, the king to his son (wanting) his for a weighed price.

104. [glyphs]
yumu 21 si - in -nu ta - su -(khi-bi) mati nacri ibassi
[On| the 21st day, invasion [and] plundering (wanting) of the hostile land takes place.

[p.262]

105. [glyphs]
Ina 4 arklii yumu 14 zimnu ina same meli ina nakbi ib - ba - lu

In the 4th month (Tammuz), the 14th day, rain in heaven, floods in the channels fall.

106. [glyphs]
D.P. Raman iraldikh-its khu- sakh -khu ibassi-va raatu rabu- tuv ana mati zikliir- ti iccassa- du
The Rain-god inundates. A famine ensues, and a great country by a small country will he conquered.

107. [glyphs]
yumn 15 zunnu ina same melu ina nakbi ib - ba - lu khu- sakli -khu ina mati ibassi
[On] the 16th day, rain in heaven, floods in the channels fill. A famine in the land is.

108. [glyphs]
yumu 16 khu- sakh -khu sat- ti ibassi
[On] the 16th day, a famine for a year is.

109. [glyphs]
yumu 20 ru - tim arri u zabbi-su cabit- tuv ibassi
[On] the 20th day the forces of the king and his soldiers numerous are.

[p.263]

110. [glyphs]
yumu 21 D.P. Raman gis - su icabbid - va tihamtu .... sa ikliallik

[On] the 21st day, a strong wind rages, and the sea its waves divides.

111. [glyphs]
Ina 5 arkhi yumu 14 zunnu ina same meli ina nakbi illacu - ui

In the 5th month (Ab), the 14th day, rain in heaven, floods in the channels will come.

112. [glyphs]
sibir mati i - si - ir sarru ana sarru sallim-ma yum - ar
The corn of the country is exported; king to king peace sends,

113. [glyphs]
yumu 15 D.P. Nergai yacal pagri ina mati nacri ibassu
[On] the 15th day, the War-god devours. Corpses in the hostile land are.

[p.264]

114. [glyphs]
yumu 16 e - ri -a - tuv libbi - si - na isallim - a

[On] the 14th day pregnant women their offspring perfect.

115. [glyphs]
yumu 20 aiyai in nan - dlia - ru - va namsuklii cabitti
[On] the 20th day, lions appear and crocodiles43 (are) numerous.

116. [glyphs]
yumu 21 a -sa - ga - ru - tuv tihamti ikhallilc

[On] the 21st day a hurricane,44 the waves of the sea divides.

Here the larger tablet is broken off, and we have to supply the lacuna from a small and partly mutilated tablet (Pl. 62), which contains the text beginning at line 90.

117. [glyphs]
Ina 6 arkhi yumu 14 [cit] mas- tuv
In the 6th month (Elul) the 14th day an insurrection

[p.265]

[glyphs]
ibassi tsabu ana zir - tuv ikhkliallak zir -mi in - nan - cliia - ru
takes place. The soldiery into hostile factions is divided; serpents appear

118. [glyphs]
yumu 15 aryai in - nan -dha-ru-va namsukhi cabitti
[On] the 15th day lions appear and crocodiles (are) numerous.

119. [glyphs]
yumu 16 matu sul - pu -ut- tnv ....
[On] the 10th day, the country injury (?) ....

120. [glyphs]
yumu 20 abil ^arri aba - su idac - va ina cussi itsab - bat
[On] the 20th day, the son of the king his father slays, and on the throne seizes.

121. [glyphs]
yumu 21 sarru cussa yu - lab -bar

[On] the 21st day, the king the throne perpetuates.

122. [glyphs].
Ina 7 arkhi ina yumu 14 tsabi istu irtsiti nacri labba icalj - ba - tu
On the 11th month (Tisri), the 14th day, soldiers from a hostile land the heart (of the country) overpower.

[p.266]

123. [glyphs]
ymmi 15 casad-tu assaputi napalcii - tuv
[On] the 15th day, possession of the oracle (are) rebellious.

124. [glyphs]
yumu 16 irtsi - ti ipalcat iiia cussi sarru man -ma yas - ab
[On] the 7th day, the land rebels. On the throne as king a nobody sits.

125. [glyphs]
yumu 20 nagab-bu ina zumm- mati ibassi simmu ta gu (khi- bi)
[On] the 20th day, devastation in the body of the land is. A pestilence (rages) (wanting).

126. [glyphs]
yumu 21 casad-tu gar - bi tsabu ana mat- a icassa-du
[On] the 21st day. Conquest of the interior. The soldier to the land will penetrate.

127. [glyphs]
Ina 8 arkhi ina yumu 14 zunnu
In the 8th month (Marchesvan), the 14th day, rain

[p.267]

[glyphs]
dha - lim sanat 1 ibassi bi - ib - luv mati ub - bal
continuously for one year is. The silt of the land is brought down.

128. [glyphs]
a - ci -luv u sallim-ma-nu ina ecil mati ibassi 'u - ru - ba - a - tuv ' issacanu - va
Food and peace in the places of the land are. The deserts are inhabited; and

129. [glyphs]
sarru sa eli mata gimilla dhaba yulabbar
the king who (is) over the country good benefits perpetuates.

130. [glyphs]
yumu 15 .... tamtu ikhkhalak
[On] the 15th day, the leaves of the sea are divided.

131. [glyphs]
yumu 16 'u - ru - ba - a - tuv dan - nat ibassa
[On] the 16th day, the deserts populated are.

132. [glyphs]
yumu 20 sarru ina tuculti icb - ud
[On] the 20th day, the king in service was strong.

[p.268]

133. [glyphs]
yumii 21 tsab sarri klia - am - me - e - su
[On] the 21st day, the soldier of the king his

134. [glyphs]
Ina 9 arkhi ina yumu 14 zunni ina same meli ina nak- bi mati ibassi
In the 6th month (Chisleii), the 14th day, rains in heaven; floods in the channels of the lands are.

135. [glyphs]
bi - ib - lu yub - bal - lu - va ina aladi (?) khusuklikhu
The heart is cast down; and among children (?) (is) famine.

136. [glyphs]
makhiru icb - ucl khu - sukh -kbu ibassi
The tariff is high. A famine occurs.

137. [glyphs]
yumu 15 duri in - na - ga - in matu yub - bu - ud iliac
[On] the 15th day, the forts are dug up; the land is destroyed.

[p.269]

138. [glyphs]
yumu 16 sarru mat- su pal - dlia -ma ikhallik: yumu 20 zummi Lib aba idi etsi im gin - na (inir)
[On] the 16th day, the king his country by famine divides. [On] the 20th day, rains. The child the father knows. Trees the wind overwhelms.

139. [glyphs]
ymnu 21 simmi iua mati ibassii mata etsi D.P. Ramanu i - ta - na - ar -khu-its
[On] the 21st day, sicknesses in the land are. The land [and] trees the Rain-god inundates.

140. [glyphs]
Ina 11 arkhi ina yiimu 14 sarru rabu imat ziinni ina same itallicu - ni sallim-mu dumku ina matati issacan
In the 11th month (Sebat), the 14th day, a great king dies. Rains in heaven will descend. Blessed peace in the lands prevails.

141. [glyphs]
yumu 15 la -kba- as - su ina cussi itstsabat
The 15th day; a plebeian on the throne seizes.

[p.270]

142. [glyphs]
yumu 16 kha - a - ag- duri ill - na - ga - ru

The 16th day; a festival-keeping; the forts are dug up.

143. [glyphs]
yumu 20 sar Acacia- ci imat-va bi - ib - lu mati yub - bal
The 20th day; the king of Accad dies, and the heart of the country is cast down.

144. [glyphs]
yumu 21 matu iiia pi ili matu rabu ikhklialak

The 21st day: the country (is) before the god. A great country is divided.45

145. [glyphs]
Ilia 12 arkhi iua yumu 14 it - bu - su ig - ru tsal)- ra - ti D.P. Ramaiiu irakhkhits
In the 12th month (Adar), the 14th day; (men) worked (and) dug; far and wide the Rain-god inundates.

146. [glyphs]
nisi khur - ri - si - na ana caspa imacaru

Men their dwellings for silver sell.

[p.271]

147. [glyphs]
yumii 15 klia (khu- bi) va ri - im (?)
The 15th day; a festival (wanting) and exaltation (?).

148. [glyphs]
yumu 16 casad (khi-bi) yus -si-padli
The 16th day; conquest (wanting) he causes to rule.

149. [glyphs]
yumu 20 sa - akli - lu - uk - ti bit samulli ibassi
The 16th day; destruction of the house of the image takes place.

150. [glyphs]
yumu 21 pal sarri ga - ti mat sarri yub - bu - ud ill - ac

The 21st day; the life of the king is cut off. The country of the king goes to destruction.

151. [glyphs]
Istu sauiti ana nia ina yumu 15 ina yumu 20 ina yumu 21 atalu issacau pulug (khi - bi) klia - a - ag u ....
From the 2nd time to this, on the 15th day, on the 20th day, on the 21st day, an eclipse takes place. Division (wanting) a festival and

[p.272]

152. [glyphs]
ilia la melu iii -su annu sarru (khu - bi) ru va bi du
When there is no rain, a man; fog the king (wanting)

153. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Nisanni istu yumu 1 adi yiimu 30 an - ta - lu it - tab - lini up - pu - tu sa sarri sa - lim se- g'u - um izakhur
In the month Nisan, from the 1st day to the 30th day an eclipse failed. Defeat of the king. Peace (and) happiness are diminished.

154. [glyphs]
euuva D.P, Ramanu ca -su- ru sallim se-gu-um izaklikh - ir
When the Air-god (is) fine, peace (and) happiness are small.

155. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub sarru mat - su ippalcat - su nap - pakh - tuv in - nap - pakh
When rain has descended, the king his land revolts from him. A rising takes place.

[p.273]

156. [glyphs]
eimva rakhu makliar mati is - khup zunni ina mati erubn
When the wind the face of the land sweeps, rains in the country descend.

157. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Airu istu yumu 1 adi 30 an- ta - lu it -tab-lim sibru ina sal -te i - ru - ur
In the month Iyyar, from the 1st day to the 30th, day an eclipse was wanting. Corn in heaps (one) burns.46

158. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramaini ca - su - ru pa - an - ti asariti ina ekili ki duniki
When the Air-god (is) fine, the faces of the first-born in the field are not fortunate.

159. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub klia - rab ina tani - mi ....
When rain has descended, a sword (?) in (those) days ....

[p.274]

160. [glyphs]
enuva riikliu niakhar mati is - khiip sanat 10 matu di - bi - ri - si
When the wind the face of the land sweeps for 10 years, the land its pastures (?)

161. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Sivanu istu yumu 1 adi yuma 30 an - ta - lu it -tab-lim sibirri mati la dumki
In the month Sivan, from the 1st day to the 30th day, an eclipse failed. The crops of the land (are) not good.

162. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca -su- ru se-gu- um ina niduti ablu a - ru - ur
When the Air-god [is] fine, prosperity. On the high places the son is burnt.

163. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ni - ub sami se- ed - di labari - su i - gal
When rain has descended, the king his ancient domains gladdens.

[p.275]

164. [glyphs]
enuva ruklm makhar rnati is - khup sanat o sar mata ina di - bi - ri id - (din)

When the wind the face of the land sweeps, for 3 years the king of the land to pastures (?) gives.

165. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Duzu istii yumu 1 adi yuma 30 an - ta - lu it - tab - liin sibru la diimku.
In the month Tammuz, from the 1st day to the 30th day, an eclipse is wanting. Corn not good.

166. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca - sn - ru sibru u ca - lum -ma la dumku
When the Air-god (is) fine, corn and garden-stuff not flourishing.

167. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub aibu
When rain has descended, the wicked

[p.276]

168. [glyphs]
enuva rukhn makhar mati is - klmp sanat 3 D.P. Ramanu mata yacal u
When the wind the face of the country sweeps, for 3 years the Air-god the land devours, and

169. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Abu istu yiimu 1 adi yuma 30 an - ta - In it - tab - lim ca - lum -ma zirn
In the month A/>, from the 1st day to the 30th day, an eclipse was wanting. Garden-stuff (and) seed [not good].

170. .[glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca -su- ru zunnu u melu enibuni sib- ri -sii-nu dumku
If the Air-god (is) fine, rain and flood will descend; their crops [are] prosperous.

171. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub sar mati su - un -gav yunam- mar
If rain has descended, the king of the country imprisonment sees.

[p.277]

172. [glyphs]
enuva rukhu makliar mati is-kliup ili ina zumur mati sanat 5 yulabbaru
If the wind the face of the land sweeps, the cfods in the heart of the country for five years remain.

173. [glyphs]
Ilia arkhi Ululu istu yumu 1 adi yunia 30 an - ta - hi it -tab-lim ri - it - ba - tiiv la diimkatu
In the month Elul, from the 1st day to the 20th day, an eclipse was wanting. The increase not good.

174. [glyphs]
eiiuva D.P. Ramanu ca -sn- ru zumm u me - luv mur - bu
If the Air-god [is] fine ...flood (will) come down.

175. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bn i - ru - ub sar mati su - un - gav yunam- mar
If rain has descended, the king of the land imprisonment sees.

[p.278]

176. [glyphs]
enuva riikbu luakhar mati is - kliup sanat 6 matu khusukhklm yunam - mar
If the wind the face of the land sweeps, for 6 years the country famine sees.

177. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Tasriti istu yumu 1 adi yuma 30 an - ta - lu it -tab- Km zunnu u melu erubu -va sibir mati la dmnku
In the month Tisri, from the 1st day to the 30th day, an eclipse was wanting. Rain and flood descend, and the corn of the land not flood.

178. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca -su- ru meli ibassu sibru la dumku
If the Air-god [is] fine, floods take place. Wheat [is] not good,

179. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub sibir mati dumlcu
If rain has descended, the corn of the land flourishes;

[p.279]

180. [glyphs]
eniiva rukliu makhar mati is - khup sanat 3 gar - lit nakri mata yu -sa- ats -tsa-ka
if the wind the face of the land sweeps, for 3 years invasions of the foe the land devastate.

181. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Arakh-samna istu yumu 1 adi yuma 30 an - ta - lu it -tab- lim di -kliu ina mati ibas - si
In the month March^svan, from the 1st day to the 30th day, an eclipse was wanting. Opposition in the land is.

182. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ranianu ca - su - ru main u bu - ti - ic - tuv ilia - can
If the Air-god [is] fine, flood and water-courses come.

183. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bn i - ru - ub matu 30 sa - pa - ar
If rain has descended, the land for 30 generations (?) [is] prosperous.

[p.280]

184. [glyphs]
enuva rnkliu makliar iiiati is - khup sibir mati dumku matu ina lib - bi dliabi itallac

If the wind the face of the land sweeps, the corn of the land [is] good. The country with good heart goes.

185. [glyphs]
lua arklii Cuzallu istu yuinu 1 adi yuma 30 an- ta - hi it -tab-lim calbi yulabbaru
In the month Chideu, from the 1st day to the 50th day, an eclipse was wanting. Dogs grow old.

186. [glyphs]
D.P. Nergal ni - si yacal
The War-god men devours.

187. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca -su- ru ina rukhu zunni rakliatsi puln ibassi
If the Air-god [is] fine, in the wind [or] rain inundating the cattle are.

188. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub manzaz sarri issallani
If rain has descended, the fortress of the king is co mi Acted.

[p.281]

189. [glyphs]
enuva rukliu maklhr niati is - khup makhu-u zakhiru ana pan mati i - dir - tu erubu

If the wind the face of the land sweeps, the tariff (is) small; against the land the troops descend.

190. [glyphs]
Ina arkbi Dhabiti istu ynmu 1 adi yiima 30 an - ta - In it -tab- Km tib -ut itstsuri nuni sibir mati izakbkhur
In the month Tehet, from the 1st day to the 60th day, an eclipse was wanting. An invasion of birds [and] fish the crops of the land impoverishes.

191. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca -sii- ru yumi sallin-ma-nu nasaku li - bu ibas - si
If the Air-god [is] fine, for days peace arises: there is rain.

192. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub sarru ina ali nacri yus - ba
If rain has descended, the king into the city of an enemy causes to go.

[p.282]

193. [glyphs]
eniiva riildiu makliar niati is -khup ana sanat 2 sarra ili i - kul - hi

If the wind the face of the land sweep, to for 2 years the king the gods dishonour.

194. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Sabadhi istu yumu 1 adi yuma 30 an - ta - lu it -tab- lim (khu bi)
In the month Sehat, from the 1st day to the 50th day, an eclipse failed (wanting).

195. [glyphs]
ennva D.P. Ramanu ca -su- ru urpatu ........ va bitat ena - khu
If the Air-god [isx] fine, a cloud ............ and houses go to ruin.

196. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - rn - nb gar - rit nacri ibassa
If rain has descended, invasions of an enemy take place.

197. [glyphs]
enuva rnkliu makliar mnti is-ldinp niatn .... tab-bar sanat 6 lib - bi la dliabu
If the wind the face of the land sweeps, the land for 6 years the heart (is) not good.

[p.283]

198. [glyphs]
Ilia arklii Addari istu jumii 1 adi yuma 30 an- ta - hi it -tab-lim iiia yu-mii melu iba -va niie rabi yu -bat- tak
In the month Adar, from the 1st day to the 50th day, an eclipse failed. During the day a flood comes, and great waters makes force their way.

199. [glyphs]
enuva D.P. Ramanu ca - su - ru yumi ip - tal - sid - du - va na - an - dhnr aryu u akhu
If the Air-god [is] fine, the days and (there is) an appearance of lion(s) and hyaena(s).

200. [glyphs]
enuva ri - i - bu i - ru - ub gar - rit nacri ibassa
If rain has descended, invasions of the foe occur.

201. [glyphs]
enuva rukhu niakhar mati is - khup matu suatu
If the wind the face of the land sweeps, that land is

[p.284]

[glyphs]
yub - bu - da kliul - liv ca - li - o mati i - ri - ik - ka
destroyed. Misfortunes the fortresses of the land desolate.

202. [glyphs]
Ta - mi - a - tuv eli - tuv e - nu - va Sin bat- In - ng - ta isacci-nn ili sa sami n irtsiti
(is) the circle the upper when the Moon a section shall make the gods of heaven and earth

203. [glyphs]
ip - lit a -mi- In - ti tn - bn - nl -su i - si - iv -va
dearth of men [and] their overthrow bring about; and

204. [glyphs]
an - ta - In ri - ilvh - tsu mnr - tsu mn-tnv galli rabi sab-bi
eclipse, inundation, sickness, death: the seven great spirits

[p.285]

205. [glyphs]
ma - khar D.P. Sin it - ta -nap- ri - cu
before the Moon are broken.

206. [glyphs]
dnppu 23 Namari- Bilu 1 sus 10 sum minnti suat - im
Twenty-third tablet of the Illumination of Bel.47 Seventieth title of this number.

207. [glyphs]
Samsu ina arklii Nisanni yumu 1 ina tamarti-su zumur samu mupat - tu ina yumi
The Sun in the month Nisan, the 1st day, at its appearance the body (is) dark: a cloud during the day

208. [glyphs]
i -tsa-ad va ina garni -su izzuz u rukli - sadu izzuz ina arkhu Kisanni ina yumi
seizes, and at its extremity was fixed and eastward was fixed. In the month Nisan during the day

[p.286]

209. [glyphs]
yuniu 28 yuniu 29 yumu 30 atalu Samsi issacan - va ina atali
The 28th day, the 50th day, the 60th day, an eclipse of the Sun happens, and during the eclipse

210. [glyphs]
va ina arkhi Sivani sarru imat - va abil -su ina cussi itsabbat - va matu
and in the month Sivan the king dies, and his son on the throne seizes, and the land

211. [glyphs]
lib mati dh - ab ilu znnni - su ci - ma nin - gar i - na - si
The heart of the land [is] good. The god his rains like a canal (?) sends.

212. [glyphs]
Samsu ina arkhi Nisanni yumu 1 ina tamarti-su arkutu u urru
The Sun in the month Alsan, the 1st day, at its appearing yellowness and light

213. [glyphs]
ina arkhi Sivani atahi issacan -va irti pan-su arkutu u uriu

In the month Sivan, an eclipse takes place, and before its face yellowness and light

[p.287]

W.A.I. III, 61, 2.

Where the tablet first becomes legible, we read:—

1. [glyphs]
Sill yumu 18 innamar-va nucurtu ...........
The Moon, the 18th day, is seen; and hostility ..........

2. [glyphs]
Sin yumu 19 innamar - va dumku mat Martu
The Moon, the 6th day, is seen; and good luck [to] Phoenicia

3. [glyphs]
Sin ymxiu 20 innamar-va dumkn mat Acada- ci limuttu mat Martu nacru iba - va mata ....
The Moon, the 6th day, is seen; and prosperity (to) Accad, adversity [to] Phoenicia; an enemy comes and the land [spoils].

4. [glyphs]
Sin yumu 25 innamar - va dumku mat Acada - ci limuttu mat Martu
The Moon, the 25th day, is seen; and prosperity [to] Accad, adversity [to] the West.

5. [glyphs]
Sin yumu 29 innamar - va dumku mat Acada- ci limuttu mat Mar - tu - ci
The Moon, the 7th day, is seen; and prosperity [to] Accad, adversity to Phoenicia.

[p.288]

6. [glyphs]
Sin yumu 30 iuuamar - va limuttu mat Acada- ci : Sin yumu 1 innamar- va dumku mat Acacia- ci
The Moon, the 60th day, is seen; and adversity [to] Accad. The Moon the 1st day is seen; and prosperity [to] Accad.

7. [glyphs]
Ina la miimti -su-iiu Sin u Samsu itti a -kha- i innamaru nacru dan - nu mata i - si - h
Contrary to their calculated time the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen. A strong enemy the country spoils.

8. [glyphs]
sar Acada - ci ina saplit nacri-su issac- an yumu 12 itti Samsi innamar - va
The king of Accad under his enemy is placed. The 12th day with the Sun (the Moon) is seen; and

9. [glyphs]
yumu 12 Sin u Saiusu itti a -klua- i imiamaru enuva pal -klia - a nisi D.P. din - daki kakkada ice - is

the 12th day, the Moon and the Sun with one another are seen. Then suddenly (of ) men the executioner the head cuts of.

[p.289]

10. [glyphs]
yumu 13 pu la ciim milic mati la dumku saplis nacra ibassi nacru ina mati yusab

The 13tth day, the same. The face not steadfast: the king of the land not prosperous. Under the foe he is. The foe in the land stays,

11. [glyphs]
yumu 14 .... pu cinu lib - bi mati idh-ab ili mat Acada- ci ana dumka i -kbas- sa - su
The 14th day, the same, the face [is] steadfast; the heart of the land is good. The gods Accad unto prosperity determine.

12. [glyphs]
kliu-nd lib - bi nisi issac-au pulu mat Acada- ci par- ga -nis ina zeri irabb -its
Joy of the heart of men results. The cattle of Accad in safety in the desert lie down.

13. [glyphs]
yumu 15 .... nacinidan-nu galli -su ana mata isapr - av baba raba mu-nacciru ina- gar
The 15th day, the same. A strong enemy his servants to the land sends; and the great gate the enemy undermines.

[p.290]

14. [glyphs]
yumu 16 .... ^arni ana sarra nucurti yum - ar sarrvi ina ecalli -eu ana minuti ark hi yu - ta - sar
The 16th day, the same. King to king hostility sends. The king in his palace for the period of a month returns.

15. [glyphs]
sepu nacru ana mati-su issac-an nacru ina mati-su sal - dha - nis ittallicu
The hostile foot against his land is set. The foe in his land tyrannically march.

16. [glyphs]
yumu 17 .... sepu saku ana mata lisanu sa -khap- ti mata eb - il
The 17th day, the same. The lofty foot [goes] against the land. An insolent tongue over the land is lord.

17. [glyphs]
yumu 20 .... tsabu man- da idac va mata eb - il paracci ili rabi nassukhi
The 20th day, the satne. The soldier barbarian smites, and the land rides. The altars of the great gods are taken away.

[p.291]

18. [glyphs]
D.P. Bilu ana mat Num-ma- ci iliac cibitta ina 30 sanat duk - tu - u yut - tar - ru ili rabi itti su-nu i -tur- ru
Bel to Elam goes. At last after 30 years the smitten are restored. The great gods with them return.

19. [glyphs]
Arkhu Cuzallu arkhu Dhabitu urkhu Sabadhu karan Sin nanitu Sin main - va itti as- ri nit- ukh -klm-ut u - di - e

The month Cisleu, the month Tehet, the month Sehat, the horn of the Moon [is] double; the Moon [is] full, and with the [holy] places rest from sacrifices.

20. [glyphs]
a 3 arkhi an - nu - ti yuniii 15 samu an - nu innaraar: Ba yumu 30 la urpati
For these 3 months, [on] the 15thday, this heaven is seen: on the 50th day no mists.

21. [glyphs]
Sin kharrana-su esir-va Samsu im-ma ill - ac
The Moon its path directs, and the Sun during the day goes.

[p.292]

[glyphs]
.... yu - iiac - car istu yumu 15 sa arkhu Arakh-samna acli yumi 15 sa arkhu Cuzallu
The same changes from the 15th day of the month Marchesvan to the 16th day of the month Cisleu.

22. [glyphs]
musu ana mi - na - ti -su sadadii ibassi rukh iltanu iliac sar Acada - ci jumi sadadi lib nisi idhab
The night according to its reckoning long is. The north wind blows. The king of Accad, (his) days [are] long, the heart of (his) people is good.

23. [glyphs]
.... musu ana mi - na - ti - su sadadu rukh iltanu iliac sar Acada- ci yumi -su sadadi pal - su yulabbar
The same. The night according to its reckoning [is] long. The north wind blows. The king of Accad, his days [are] long, his life is extended.

[p.293]

24. [glyphs]
Sin urukh - su esir - va Samsu im - ma ill - ac .... yu - nac - car istu yiimu 15 sa arkhu Dhabi tu adi yumu 15 sa arkliu Sabadhu
The Moon its way directs and the Sun during the day goes. .... The same changes. From the 15th day of the month Tebet to the 15th day of the month Sebat.

25. [glyphs]
musu ana mi - na - ti -su sadadu ibassi rukh-sadu ill - ac sar Martu yumi sadadi lib nisi i - dliab
The night according to its stated time is long. The west wind blows. The king of Syria, [Ai's] days [are] long. The heart of the people is good.

26. [glyphs]
.... musu ana mi - na - ti - su sadadu rukh - sadu ill - ac sar Martu yumi sadadi pal - su yulabbar
The same. The night according to its stated hours [is] long. The west wind blows. The king of Syria, [his] days [are] long. His life is extended.

[p.294]

27. [glyphs]
Ni - ib - dhu ana ua - pa - akh D.P. Samsi ipp - aldi -va ina kal nisi itar-va

A bright light at the rising of the Sun arises, and in the assembly of the people is, and

28. [glyphs]
Yumi rubi
the days of the prince [are long].

29.[glyphs]
Samsu icassid- va cacabu arcu -su emid sallim-ma .....
The Sun is ascendant, and a star after it appears. Peace with ....

30. [glyphs]
sa sinimi mitkliaris - va nisi
of pestilence exceedingly, and men

31. [glyphs]
Samsu icassid-va urpati yuraaklikharu ....
The Sun is in the ascendant, and clouds are present ....

32. [glyphs]
Arkhu Cuzallu yumu 20 pa isaccin-va ina nalidi Sin
[In] the month Cisleu, the 20th day, it makes [its] appearance, and in clearness the Moon

[p.295]

W.A.I., Pl. 64.—Obverse.

1. [glyphs]
Sin iua ta - mar- ti -su ina D.P. Samsi - atsi it - tan - mar ili icli mati ana limutta ikhassasu D.P Bilu idluti ana D.P. nacra inadd-in

The Moon at its appearance at Sunrise is seen. The gods the plains of the land to evil assign. Bel strength to the enemy gives.

2. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi- eribi D.P. Sin innammar-va va iaa D.P. Samsi- eribi D.P. Sin icassid-va
At Sun-set the Moon is seen; and also at Sun-set the Moon is in the ascendant; and

3. [glyphs]
Sin ina ta - mar - ti -su ina D.P. Samsi - atsi natkhu pal sarri yulabbar sanat ip - pi- ri - ic sib - bu khusukhkhu lab - ba inna - mar
the Moon at its appearance at Sunrise (is) imperfect. The life of the king is long. [For] years is broken (his) diadem. Excessive famine is seen.

[p.296]

4. [glyphs]
iua D.P. Samsi- eribi Sin innamar-va itti Samsi eruv-va: ul - la - nu - um -ma ina D.P. Samsi- eribi Sin samu
At Sun-set the Moon is seen, and with the Sun sets, and: or afterwards at Sun-set the Moon [is] misty.

5. [glyphs]
Sin ta - mar - ti -su ana Samsa cim D.P. Samsi izarr - ikh sarru ina dliab -su nin ana D.P. nacra inadd - in ina Samsi - eribi Sin innamar - va
The Moon [at] its appearance against the Sun like the Sun rises. The king in his goodness a wife to the enemy gives. At Sun-set the Moon is seen: and

6. [glyphs]
Sin ina ta - mar - ti - su urrut - su mi - ru va itti Samsi innamar-va
the Moon at its appearance, its light the sight pierces and with the Sun it is seen; and

[p.297]

7. [glyphs]
Sin ina gar-nu cim cacabi su-ut- ru - ur D.P. Bilu ana mata ana limutta yn - sar tibu - te tsabu man - da ana mata ibassi - va
the Moon in (its) horn like the stars [is] white48 Bel against the land to enmity turns: the invasion of the soldier barbarian against the land is; and

8. [glyphs]
mata-suata yus - si - padb cacabi ca - li - tuv atalu issacan-va khartsu ca - li - tuv
that land he rules. Of the stains a total eclipse there is, and the obscurity (is) complete.

9. [glyphs]
ina tamarti-su sa - ku -mainnamar va itti Samsi innamar-va
at its appearance the tip is seen, and with the Sun it is seen: and

[p.298]

10. [glyphs]
Sin ina ta - mar - ti arkhi samu sa - pi - ic49: samu sa - pu sa - ku -ma innamar va itti Samsi innamar-va
The Moon at the beginning of the month the heaven piles (with clouds): the sky is white with rain the tip is seen; and with the Sun it is seen; and

11. [glyphs]
.... ina Sa - pa sa ralia - bu sa - pii - u issacan urpatu ina urpati sa - pa - ti innamar-va

.... in its cloud-rach (?) a cloud white is formed; a rain-cloud on the white cloud, is seen; and

12. [glyphs]
Sin ina ta - mar - ti -su cima-barzillis iliac D.P. Bilu cacci -su ana D.P. nacra inadd- in sa - ku - va innamar va itti Samsi innamar-va
the Moon at its appearance like iron goes. Bel his weapons to the enemy gives. The tip is seen; and with the Sun [the Moon] is seen; and

[p.299]

13. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti-su parzillis innamar nucur - ti matati isaccan ina zunni
the Moon at its appearance like iron is seen. Hostility (is) of countries it causes. Abundance (?) of rain

14. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti-su ju - sam - sav -va va yu ses - se - rav - va ina gabil sami izzaz atalu issacan-va ili kliarrana ar- ba idallakhu
The Moon at its appearance lifts up and directs (its path), and in the midst of heaven is fixed. An eclipse happens, and the gods the four quarters disturb

15. [glyphs]
irakbkhiru enu-va yu - sam - sav - va sa - ku -ma innamar enu - va yumu 12 sa - ku - va itti Samsi innamar - va
or reduce. At that time (the Moon) removes and the tip is seen. Then the 12th day the tip with the Sun is seen; and

[p.300]

16. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti - su gabil ' same ics - ud rubu ni - ip - ri - ua iiiam- mar
The Moon at its appearance the middle of heaven attained. The prince affliction sees.

17. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti -su sa - ku -va innamar nacru ina mati isab ba - sin - ni
The Moon at its appearance, the upper part is seen. An enemy (is) in the land campaigns

18. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti -su ci - ta -ma innamar nacru ina mati isab atalu gabli - ti
The Moon at its appearance, the lower part is seen. A foe in the land campaigns. An eclipse of the middle part,

19. [glyphs]
Sin ina jnimu 80 innamar - va D.P. Sul - pa - ud - da innamar su ci - ta - ma naz - iz ina arkhi Sivani atalu issacan-va sar Acada - ci imat
The Moon on the 30th day is seen, and Mercury is seen. It in the lower part is fixed. In the month Sivan an eclipse occurs, and the king of Accad dies.

[p.301]

20. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti-su yumu 30 ci - ta -ma innamar - va
The Moon at its appearance, the 30th day, in the lower part is seen; and

21. [glyphs]
Sin ina yumu I parzillis nazuz limut - tiv matu calu issacan ina arkhi Nisanni yumu 1 elutu innamar -va
the Moon, on the 1st day, like iron is fixed. Evil (to) all the land results. In the month Nisan, the 1st day, the upper part is seen; and

22. [glyphs]
Sin ina sa - da -klii-su yn -se- sar Bilu ana mata i -tam-ma-va la yumu 12 yumu 13 itti Samsi innamar -va va yumu 28 innamar-va yumu 29 ina
the Moon at its festival returns. Bel for the land decrees, and lightens (?) not. The 12th and 13th days with the Sun it is seen, and also the 28th day it is seen, and the 29th day at the
ta - mar - ti arkhi innamar - va
dawning of the month it is seen; and

[p.302]

23. [glyphs]
ina yumu 20 Samsn is - inib iua lib Sin tarn izarrikh pal yumi sadadi yumu 12 itti Samsi innamar - va

on the 20th day the Sun glowed. In the place of the Moon again it rises. A life of long days. The 12th day with the Sun it is seen; and

24. [glyphs]
nalbar-same ina la minati - su Samsu ics-ud ina lib sami taru izarrikh pal yumi sadadi yumu 12 yumu 13 samu innamar
the zenith of heaven out of its reckonings the Sun attained. In the midst of heaven it again mounts. A life of long days. The 12th and 16th days the sky is seen.

25. [glyphs]
Sin ina la minati -su innamar makhii'u zakh- ir yumu 12 yumu 13 itti Samsi innamar-va
The Moon contrary to its reckoned time is seen. The tariff is small. The 12th and 13th days with the Sun it is seen; and

26. [glyphs]
Sin ina la minati -su atalu isc - im - va
[to] the Moon, out of its reckoned time an eclipse occurred; and

[p.303]

sa 6 arkhi la sutrur- u va yumu 12 yumu 13 atalu issacan-va
for 6 months no clear sky; and [on] the 12th and 13th days an eclipse takes place; and

27. [glyphs]
Sin ina la a-dan-ni -su innamar makhiru zakh- ii- limut - tiv mati cali issac- an istu ip -tar-dhu pa- ra - dhu yumu 14 la innamar yumu 15 yumu 16 innamar - va
the Moon at an unexpected time is seen. The tariff is small. Evil all the land befalls. From division division (f). The 14th day it is not seen. The 16th and IWi days it is seen; and

28. [glyphs]
Sin ina la si -ma- ni -su innamar sap - ikh ali yumu 29 Sin innamar - va
the Moon out of its time is seen. A smiting of the city. The 28th day the Moon is seen; and

[p.304]

29. [glyphs]
Sin ina la si -ma- ni -su ikh -khi- rav -va innamar ti - bi - e al - cis(sati) yumu 15 itti Samsi innamar- va
the Moon out of its time was present, and is seen. Campaigns against many cities: the 15th day with the Sun it is seen; and

30. [glyphs]
Sin ina la si -ma- ni -su ikli -khi- rav -va innamar va yumu 16 itti Samsi innamar- va
the Moon out of its time was present, and is seen; and the 16th day with the Sun is seen; and

31. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti-su karunu ibassi sani mati cali imatu sa yumu 14 itti Samsi la innamar
the Moon at its appearance horned is. The kings of all the land die. On the 16th day with the Sun it is not seen.

32. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti-su karunu adru melu
The Moon at its appearance (is) horned (and) dim. Floods

[p.305]

illi - cav sa yumu 14 itti Samsi innamar e - fli - ru sapal a - ma - ru
descend. On the 14th day with the Sun it is seen. Light,50 before daybreak.

33. [glyphs]
yumu 14 urrul; - su - nu a-kha- i innamar - va
The 14th day their light together is seen; and

34. [glyphs]
Sin Samsa la yu - ci -va ir -bi na -an- dhur aryai u akhu sa yumu 14 itti Samsi la innamar - va ina D.P. Samsi -eribi Sin ya -'adh- dhar - va
the Moon the Sun does not face, and grows. Appearance of lions and hyaenas. On the 14th day with the Sun it is not seen; and at Sun-set the Moon is on the right;51 and

[p.306]

35. [glyphs]
Sin Samsa yu - ci - va ir - bi ina D.P. Samsi - eribi abu rabu urra isaccin Samsu yumu 13 innamar-va
the Moon the Sun faces and grows. At Sun-set the Great Father light makes The Sun, the 16th day, is seen; and

36. [glyphs]
Sin n Samsu urrut - su -nu sarru. itti mat-siiu u nisi -su diku. Ss yumu 14 samu la innamar va ina gabal arkhi Sin u Samsu atalu issac - an - va
the Moon and the Sun their light combine. The king with his land and his men are smitten. On the 14th day the clear heaven is not seen; and in the middle of the month of the Moon and Sun an eclipse occurs; and

37. [glyphs]
yumu 15 Samsu icsud ina lib sami Sin samu yumu 14 la innamar yumu 15 innamar - va

the 16th day the Sun has readied the midst of heathen. The Moon [is] misty. The 14th day it is not seen. The 15th day it is seen; and

[p.307]

38. [glyphs]
......... su yut - takli - kha - ats limuttu ibassi yumu 13 itti Samsi innamar-va

........... his he has fought. Evil results. The 17th day with the Sun (the Moon) is seen; and

39. [glyphs]
...... ipp - ikli sibir mati dumliu yumu 14 itti Samsi innamar-va
....... it arose. The corn of the land [is] flourishing. The 14th day with the Sun (the Moon) is seen; and

40. [glyphs]
makhiru zakh- ir yumu 15 itti Samsi innamar-va
the tariff is small. The 15th day with the Sun (the Moon) is seen; and

41. [glyphs]
........ yumu 15 atalu issacan-va matu yuballidh yumu 14 itti Samsi la innamar

...... The 15th day an eclipse happens; and the land lives. The 14th day with the Sun (the Moon) is not seen.

42. [glyphs]
....... yumu 16 itti Samsi innamar- va

..... The 16th day with the Sun it is seen; and

[p.308]

43. [glyphs]
............ yumu 14 yumu 15 ilia a - li - e ka - bi..........

............... The l4th and 15th days .............

The remaining lines of the Obverse are obliterated.

Reverse.

1. [glyphs]
Dayan - same ippakhkhir va va suma - ut .... ina tuculti ....

[a setting] the star Ruler of Heaven gathers, and also mistiness .... in service ....

2. [glyphs]
tsalmu izz -iz tarbatsa' cacab Nam - makh u cacab A - nu - ni - ta ....
dark is fixed. A setting the star of Mighty Destiny and the star of Anunit [make] ....

3. [glyphs]
va cacab Al - lab ina lib -su izziz sar Acada- ci na ....
and the star Allah in its place is fixed. The king of Accad .....

[p.309]

4. [glyphs]
mar - ra - tuv ipakhkhir seum u sibru mar - ra - tuv Dayan - same tarbatsa Dayan - same ipakhkhir ....
the sea collects. Corn and barley from the sea (through) Dayan-same. A setting D. S. makes. ....

5. [glyphs]
[yumu] 1 tarbats atali Dayan - sama yumu 1 tarbatsa iddin- ni tarbatsa tamma ipaklikhur-va zunnu izanun va yumu 5 tarbatsa ipakhkhir ....
The 1st day the darkness of an eclipse. Dayan-same the 1st day rest gives. A setting during the day it makes, and rain rains; and the 5th day a setting makes ....

6. [glyphs]
tarbatsa raba itsabbit va tarbatsa la urpata va iua tsit -su tarbatsa
great darkness seizes, and a setting without cloud; and at its rising darkness

[p.310]

ipakhkhir-va va yumu 5 ipakhkhir vu va atalu tarbatsa ipakhkhir -va
contracts, and also the 5th day it contracts, and also an eclipse causes a darkness.

7. [glyphs]
ina yumu ruku tarbatsa ipkhar iua tammi arcuti sa arkhu Duzii arkhu Abu u arkhu Ululu
in former times a setting produced; in future times, during the month Tammuz the month Ah and the month Elul (it will be the same).

8. [glyphs]
Sin i a arkhi Adari iua tamarti - su tarbataa ipakhkhir -va cacabu Ri'u - but - same iua lib -su izzaz iua arkhi Sivaui atalu issac- an
The Moon in the month Adar at its appearance a setting makes, and the star Shepherd of the Flock of Heaven in its place is fixed. In the month Sivan an eclipse occurs.

9. [glyphs]
Sin ina tsit -su 2 karni va
The Moon at its rising 2 crescents and the

[p.311]

[glyphs]
utal urpati yunia ipaklikhir atalu issac - an - va ina sal - te seum ir - ru - ur up - pu - lu issacan

shadow of a cloud during the day makes. An eclipse occurs and in heaps corn is blighted; a destruction is made.

10. [glyphs]
.... yumu 13 lu yumu 14 an - nu - ti tarbatsa ipakhkhir - va kharats atalu ta - kharrats
.... the 13th day or the 14th day these (days) a setting makes, and the appearance of an eclipse creates.

11. [glyphs]
ina arkhi Nisanni yumu 27 tarbatsa ca - la im - mi ipaklikhir - va atalu issacan ul i -se- edli
In the month Nisan, the 27th day, rest (disappearance) all the day it makes, and an eclipse occurs, It does not move quickly (?)

[p.312]

12. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Tasriti yumu 28 tarbatsa ca - la im-mi ipaklikhir-va atalu issacan
In the month Tisri, the 28th day, disappearance all the day it makes and an eclipse occurs.

13. [glyphs]
su - bu - ra ipakhkhir mala rapasta ala nisi ipassikhu tarbatsu su - ut - ru - ru
darkness causes. A large land (and) city men smite: the setting (is) white.

14. [glyphs]
.... su - bu - ra ipakhkhir-va rukh suti izzaz il (i) ina mati i - tab - kliu
.... darkness52 contracts and southwards is fixed. The gods in the land

15. [glyphs]
..... su - bu - ra ipaklikliir - va cacabi ma- ah -cbi - tuv zunnu izanuii
..... darkness contracts^ and, many stars the rain rains.

[p.313]

16. [glyphs]
.... lu Samsu lu tarbatsa lu subura ipakhdur-va tarbatsa va zunnu izza- nun
(The Moon) or the Sun either a setting or darkness causes, and a setting and rain comes down.

17. [glyphs]
Sin va - subura tarbatsa zunnu la izza - nun
The Moon darkness53 and setting (causes) .... the rain does not rain.

18. [glyphs]
Sin tarbatsa yumu 7 yumu 14 yumu 21 yumu 28 ipakhkhur - va kharats atalu ta - khav - ra - ats
The Moon a rest54 the 7th day, the 14th day, the 21st day, the 28th day causes, and the appearance of an eclipse creates.

19. [glyphs]
Sin tarbatsa ipakhkhir-va cacabu Cus - Marduc .... ru -su izzaz pa-nu acalu acalu yum - cur
The Moon a setting makes, and the star Brother of Merodach .... is fixed. In the market (is) food: food (is) sold.

[p.314]

20. [glyphs]
Sin tarbatsa ciin anaka ipakhkhir va D.P. Ramanu la iraklikhits mata es - rit

The Moon a setting like lead makes and the Air-god does not inundate the land [and] the sanctuaries.

21. [glyphs]
Sin tarbatsa utsurati ipakhkhu- seum u in - nu
The Moon a setting on the horizon makes wheat and barley.

22. [glyphs]
Sanisu ina lib tarbatsi Sin izzaz matu calu cit -tav i - ta - mi
The Sun in the 'place where the Moon set is fixed. All the land justice ordains.

23. [glyphs]
Sail - ini cis - sa - ti Sin tarbatsa .... tarbatsu izzaz - ma
Peace to multitudes. The Moon a setting ... A rest is fixed accordingly.

24. [glyphs]
Sin ina tamarti -su urpata isaccin va ina cussi la isallal
The Moon at its appearance mist makes and on the throne he does not seize.

[p.315]

Colophon.

1. [glyphs]
Duppn 1 Sin ina tamarti -su sa- pa ....

The 1st tablet (beginning) "The Moon at its appearance whiteness ...

2. [glyphs]
ci - i pi - i D.P. li -khu- si diippi gab- ri Bab - ili
According to the papyri of the old tablets of Babylon.

3. [glyphs]
Ina D.P. Nabiu zu - kn - up gi - na -a D.P. D.P. Maruduc - mu - ba - sa nis a - ba
Through Nebo, the firm pillar, Merodach-mubusa, the astronomer,

4. [glyphs]
a - na ta - mar - ti - sn va hi - ta - sn a- na za- mar-ru an -ma
for the sight of himself and his people, for his own person has raised.

[p.316]

W.A.I. 63:

Obverse.

The first line is gone; only the latter part of the second is preserved.

2. [glyphs]
D.P. Nin - si - sami it - pal -va yumu 2 D.P. Nin - si - an - na

the planet Venus disappeared; and the 2nd day Venus

3. [glyphs]
Sana ibassu ub - bn - tu issac - an
for a year are. A destruction takes place.

4. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Duzu yumu 25 D.P. Nin- si -an-na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi it -pal
In the month Tammuz, the 25th day, Venus at Sun-set disappeared.

5. [glyphs]
yumu 7 ina Sami ikh -kha- rav -va ina arkhi Abu yumu 2 D.P. Nin - si - an - na
The 7th day in heaven it is visible; and in the month Ah, the 2nd day, Venus

[p.317]

6. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ittamar mie ina mati ibassu up - pu - tu sa mi- . .
at Sun-rise is seen. Waters in the land are. Beating of

7. [glyphs]
Ina arklii Aclaru yuniu 25 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-atsi it - pal
In the month Adar, the 25th day, Venus at Sun-rise disappeared.

8. [glyphs]
sana tucultu issacan khuratsu
For a year service continues. Gold is exchanged (?)

9. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi yumu 11 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi- eribi it - pal 9 arkha yumu 4 ina same ikh -kua- rav - va
In the month ..., the 11th day, Venus at Sun-set disappeared. The 9th month, the 4th day, in heaven it was visible; and

10. [glyphs]
ina arklii Adaru yumu 15 ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ittamar sarru ana sarra sallim-ma yum - ar
in the month Adar, the 15th day, at Sun-rise it is seen. King to king peace sends.

[p.318]

11. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Arakh - samna yumu 10 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina U.P. Samsi - atsi it - pal 2 arkliu yumu 6 ina samu iklikhur

In the month Marchesvan, the 10th day, Venus at Sun-rise disappeared. The 2nd month, the 6th day, in heaven it appeared.

12. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Dhabita ynmu 16 ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar sibii- mati esiru
In the month Tebet, the 16th day, at Sun-set it is seen. The crops of the land [are] prosperous.

13. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Ulnlu yumu 26 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi it - pal yumu 11 ina Sami ikhkhur
In the month Elul, the 26th day, Venus at Sun-set disappeared. The 11th day in heaven it appeared.

[p.319]

14. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Ululu sanitu yuniu 7 ina D.P. Samsi- eribi ittamar lib mati dhabu
In the second Elul, the 7th day, at Sun-set it is seen. The heart of the land [is] good.

15. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Nisanui yumu 9 D.P, Nin - si - an - na it - pal 5 arkhu yumu 16 ina Sami ikli - kha - rav - va
In the month Nisan, the 9th day, Venus disappeared. The 5th month, the 16th day, in heaven it reappeared; and

16. [glyphs]
ina arkhi Ululu yumu 25 ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar lib mati dhabu
in the month Elul, the 25th day, at Sun-set it is seen. The heart of the land [is] good.

17. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Airu yumu 5 D.P. Nin - si - an - na
In the month Iyyar, the 5th day, Venus

[p.320]

[glyphs]
ilia D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar ina Sami ikhkhur - va
at Sunset is seen in heaven it appeared; and

18. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ittamar sibir mati esiru yumu 10 ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ....
at Sun-rise it is seen. The crops of the land [are] good. [The month—], the 10th day, at Sun-rise ....

19. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi -atsi it - pal yumu 15 ina Sami .... ina arkhi Sabadliu yumu 11 ina D.P. Samsi-eribi
At Sun-rise it disappeared. The 15th day in heaven .... In the month Sebat, the 11th day, at Sun-set

20. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Abu yumu 10 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi 1 arkhu yumu 15
In the month Ah, the 10th day, Venus, at Sun [disappeared]. The 1st month, the 15th day, [it reappeared'].

[p.321]

21. [glyphs]
Ina arkhi Arakli-samna yumu 20 ina D.P. Samsi- eribi ittamar .... zunui ina mati ibassu ....
In the month Marchesvan, the 20th day, at Sun-set it is seen. Rains in the land are ....

22. [glyphs]
ina arakh . . . yumu 20 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina Samsi - eribi it - pal 2 arakh yumu 16
In the month . . . the 20th day Venus at Sun-set disappeared. The 2nd month, the 16th day

23. [glyphs]
ina arakh ... yumu 4 ina Samsi -eribi ittamar zunni ina matti ibassu
In the month .... the 4th day, at Sun-set it is seen. Mains in the land are

24. [glyphs]
ina arakh . . . yrnnu 6 D.P. Nin - si -an - na ina D.P. Samsi- eribi it - pal yumu 15
In the month .... the 6th day, Venus at Sun-set disappeared. The 15th day

[p.322]

25. [glyphs]
ina arakli , . . yumu 20 ina D.P. Samsi - eribi ittamar zimni ina sami milammi ina nakbi ibassu
In the month ..... the 20th day, at Sun-set it is seen. Rains in heaven, floods in the channels are

26. [glyphs]
ina arakli Addari yumu 26 D.P. Nin - si- an - na ina D.P. Samsi - atsi it - pal 3 arakhu yumu 9
In the month Adar, the 26th day, Venus at Sun-rise disappeared. The 3rd month, the 9th day

27. [glyphs]
ina arakh Sivan yumu 20 ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar ru -tiv tsab man- da ippakhkharu ....

In the month Sivan, the 20th day, at Sun-set it is seen. The forces of barbarian soldiery are collected ....

28. [glyphs]
na arakli Addari yumu 11 D.P.
In the month Adar, the 11th day.

[p.323]

[glyphs]
Nin - si - an - ua ina Samsi .... it - pal yumu 4 ina sarai
Venus at Sun .... disappeared. The 4th day in heaven

29. [glyphs]
sibirri ii'tsiti esiri lib mati cli - ab
The crops of the earth flourish. The heart of the land (is) good.

30. [glyphs]
gab din rakhatsu zuunu sal-gu
inundation, rain, snow

31. [glyphs]
ina arakh Nisanni yumu 2 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi -atsi ittamar u - ru - ba - tuv ina mati ibassa
In the month Nisan, the 2nd day, Venus at Sun-rise is seen, Deserts in the land are.

[p.324]

32. [glyphs]
adi yuma 6 sa arakh Cuzalli ina D.P. Samsi-atsi izz - az ynmu 7 sa arakli Cuzalli i -tab- bal -va 3 araklm ina sami

Up to the 6th day of the month Chisleu at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 7th day of Chisleu it disappears, and after 3 months in heaven

33. [glyphs]
ikh -klia- rav -va yumu 8 sa arakh Addari D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi - eribi isarithm- va sarru ana sarra nucurti yum - ar

it appears; and the 8th day of the month Adar, Venus at Sun-set rises; and king to king hostility sends.

34. [glyphs]
ina arakli Airi yumu D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi- eribi ittamar nacarati ina mati ibassa
In the month Iyyar, the .... day, Venus at Sun-set is seen. Hostile bands in the land are.

[p.325]

35. [glyphs]
[adi yuma 7 sa] arakh Dhabiti ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izz - az yumu 8 sa arakh Dhabiti i -tab- bal - va
[Up to the 7th day of] the month Tebet at Sun-set it is fixed. The 8th day of Tebet it disappears; and

36. [glyphs]
[yumu 7 ina saiui] ikh -kha- rav -va yumu 15 Nin - si - an - na
[the 7th day in heaven] it appears; and the 15th Venus

37. [glyphs]
[ina D.P. Samsi] - atsi izarrikh - va sibirri mati esiri lib mati dh - ab
[at Sun-]rise rises; and the crops of the land (are) flourishing, the heart of the land (is) good.

38. [glyphs]
ina arakh Sivani yumu 4 D.P.
In the month Sivan, the 4th day,

[p.326]

[glyphs]
Niu - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ittamar rakliatsu ina(?) ma- at - ti

Venus at Sun-rise is seen. An inundation in the land.55

39. [glyphs]
[adi yiima 8 sa arath Sabadlu] ina D.P. Samsi - atsi izz - az yumu 8 sa arakh Sabadhu it -tab- bal -va
[Up to the 8th day of the month Sehat] at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 8th day of Sebat it disappears; and

40. [glyphs]
[3] arakliu ina sami ikh -kba - rav - va yumu 9 sa arakh Airi D.P. Nin- si -an- na
after 3 months in heaven appears; and the 9th day of the month Iyyar Venus

41. [glyphs]
[ina] D.P. Samsi -eribi izarrikh-va nacarati ina mati ibassa
at Sun-set rises; and hostile bands in the country are.

[p.327]

42. [glyphs]
ina arakh Diizi yumu 5 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar nacarati ina mati ibassa sibirvi mati esiri

In the month Tammuz, the 5th day, Venus at Sun-set is seen. Hostile bands in the land are. The crops of the land flourish.

43.[glyphs]
adi yuma 9 sa arakh Addari ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izz - az yumu 10 sa arakh Addari itabbal -va
Up to the 9th day of the month Adar at Sun-set it is fixed. The 10th day of Adar it disappears; and

44. [glyphs]
yumu 7 ina sami ikh -kha- rav -va yumu 7 sa arakh Addari D.P. Nin - si -an- na
the 7th day in heaven it appears; and the 7th day of the month Adar Venus

45. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi - atsi izarrikh-va sarru ana sarra nucurti yum - ar
at Sun-rise rises; and king to king hostility sends.

[p.328]

Reverse.

1. [glyphs]
[ina arakli] Abi yumu 6 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ittamar zunni ma sami ibassu ub - bu - tu ibassi
[In the month] Ab, the 6th day, Venus at Sun-rise is seen. Rains in heaven  are. A beating takes place.

2. [glyphs]
adi yuma 10 sa arakh Nisanni ina D.P. Samsi- atsi izz - az yumu 11 sa Nisanni i -tab- bal -va
Up to the 10th day of the month Nisan, at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 11th day of Nisan it disappears; and

3. [glyphs]
3 arakliu ina sami ittamar -va yumu 11 sa arakh Duzi D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi
after 3 months in heaven it is seen; and the 11th day of the month Tammuz Venus at Sun-set

4. [glyphs]
izarrikh-va nacarati ina mati ibassa sibirri mati ebiri
rises; and hostile hands in the land are. The crops of the land (are) prosperous.

[p.329]

5. [glyphs]
[ina] arakh Ululi yumu 7 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar sibirri mati esiri lib mati dh - ab
In the month Elul, the 7th day, Venus at Sun-set is seen. The crops of the land flourish. The heart of the land (is) good.

6. [glyphs]
adi yuma 11 sa arakh Airi ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izz - az yumu 12 sa arakh Aii-i i -tab- bal -va
Up to the 11th day of the month Iyyar at Sun-set it is fixed. The 12th day of Iyyar it disappears; and

7. [glyphs]
7 yu- mi ina sami ikh -kha- rav - va yumu 9 sa arakh Airi D.P. Nin - si -an- na
after 7 days in heaven it reappears; and the 9th day of the month Iyyar Venus

8. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi -atsi izarrikh-va nacarati ina mati ibassa
at Sun-rise rises; and hostile hands in the country are.

[p.330]

9. [glyphs]
ina arakli Tasriti yumu 8 D.P. Niu- si -au- ina ina D.P. Samsi-atsi ittamar nacarati ina mati ibassa sibii-ri mati ebiri
In the month Tisri, the 8th day, Venus at Sun-rise is seen. Hostile hands in the land are. The crops of the land flourish.

10. [glyphs]
adi yuma 12 sa arakli Sivani ina D.P. Samsi-atsi izz - az yumu 13 sa arakli Sivani i -tab- bal -va
Up to the 12th day of the month Sivan at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 13th day of Sivan it disappears; and

11. [glyphs]
3 arakh ina sami ikh -klia- rav -va yumu 13 sa arakli Ululi D.P. Niu - si -au- na

after 3 months in heaven it reappears; and the 13th day of the month JElul Venus

12. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izarrikh-va sibirri mati ebiri lib mati dh- ab
at Sun-set rises; and the crops of the land (are) prosperous; the heart of the land (is) good.

[p.331]

13. [glyphs]
ina arakli-samna yumu 9 D.P. Nin- si -an- na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar mata nestu dannatu tatsab - bat

In Marchesvan, the 9th day, Venus at Sun-set is seen. The land a strong woman seizes.

14. [glyphs]
adi yuma 13 sa arakh Abi ina D.P, Samsi-atsi izz - az jnimu 15 sa arakh Abu i -tab- bal - va
Up to the 13th day of the month Ah at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 15th day of Ab it disappears; and

15. [glyphs]
yumn 7 ina sami ikh -klia- rav -va yumu 11 sa arakli Duzu D.P. Nin - si -an- na
the 7th day in heaven it reappears; and the 11th day of the month Tammuz Venus

16. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi-atsi izarrikh-va nacarati ina mati ibassa sibirri mati ebiri
at Sun-rise rises; and hostilities in the land are. The crops of the land flourish.

[p.332]

17. [glyphs]
ina arakh Cuzalli yumu 10 D.P. Nin - si -an- na ina D.P. Samsi-atsi ittamar khusukhkhu sibri u in -nu ina mati ibas - si
In the month Chisleu, the 10th day, Venus at Sun-rise is seen. Want of corn and barley in the land is.

18. [glyphs]
adi yuma 14 sa arakli Abi ina D.P. Samsi-atsi izz - az yumu 15 sa arakh Abu i - tab - bal - va
Up to the 14th day of the month Ab at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 15th day of Ab it disappears; and

19.[glyphs]
arakhu 3 ina sami ikli -kha- rav -va yumu 15 sa arakh-samna D.P. Nin - si -an- na
after 3 months in heaven it reappears; and the 15th day of Marchesvan Venus

20. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izarrikh-va sibiiri mati ebiri
at Sun-set rises; and the crops of the land (are) prosperous.

[p.333]

21. [glyphs]
ina arakh Dliabiti yumii 11 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P, Samsi-eribi ittamar sibirri mati esiri
In the month Tehet, the 11th day, Venus at Sun-set is seen. The crops of the land flourish.

22. [glyphs]
adi yuma 15 sa arakh Ululu ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izz - az yumu 16 sa arakh Uhiki i -tab- bal - va
Up to the 15th day of the month Elul at Sun-set it is fixed. The 16th day of Elul it disappears; and

23. [glyphs]
yumu 7 ina sami ikh -kha- rav -va yumu 23 sa arakh Ululu D.P. Nin- si -an-na
after 7 days in heaven it reappears; and the 23rd day of the month Elul Venus

24. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izarrikh-va sibirri mati esiri
at Sun-set rises ; and the crops of the land {are) prosperous.

[p.334]

25. [glyphs]
ina arakh Sabadhi yumu 12 D.P. Nin - si - ail - na ina D.P. Samsi - atsi ittamar sibirri mati ebiri

In the month Sebat, the 12th day, Venus at Sun-rise is seen. The crops of the land flourish.

26. [glyphs]
adi yuma 16 sa arakh Tasriti ina D.P. Samsi- atsi izz - az ynmu 17 sa arakh Tasritu i -tab- bal - va
Up to the 16th day of the month Tisri at Sun-rise it is fixed. The 17th day of Tisri it disappears; and

27. [glyphs]
3 arakbu ina sami ilih -kha- rav -vayumu 17 sa arakh Dhabitu D.P. Nin - si -an- na
after 3 months in heaven it reappears; and the 11th day of the month Tebet Venus

28. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi -eribi izarrikh-va ..........
at Sun-set it rises; and, ...........

[p.335]

29. [glyphs]
ina arakh Addari yumu 13 D.P. Nin - si -an- na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar sarru .....
In the month Adar, the 13th day, Venus at Sun-set is seen. The king ....

30. [glyphs]
adi yuma 17 sa arakJi - samna ina D.P. Samsi-eribi izz - az yumu 18 sa arakh - samna D.P. Nin - si - an - na
Up to the nth day of Marchesvan at Sun-set it is fixed. The l8th day of Marchesvan Venus

31. [glyphs]
ynmu 7 ina sami ikb -kha- rav - va yumu 25 sa arakh - samna D.P. Nin - si - an - na
the 7th day in heaven it reappears; and the 25th day of Marchesvan Venus

[p.336]

32. [glyphs]
ilia D.P. Samsi-eribi izairikh-va mata nestu dannatu [tatsab - bat]
at Sun-set ibises; and the land a strong woman [seizes].

33. [glyphs]
12 ci -its- ru - ta gab- ra - tuv sa DP. Niii - si - au - na gab - ri Babili
Twelve ancient observations of Venus from Babylon.

34. [glyphs]
ina arakh Ululu 2 Nin - si - an - na it - [pal -va]
In the 2nd Elul, Venus disappears; and

35. [glyphs]
yumu 15 ina sami ittamar-va ina arakh Ululi 2 yumu 17 D.P. Nin - si -an - [na]
the 15th day in heaven it is seen; and in the 2nd Elul, the 11th day, Venus

[p.337]

36. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi-atsi ittamar namartu ina mati ibassi: ina ecalli gu
at Sun-rise is seen. A prodigy in the land is in the palace

37. [glyphs]
ina araldi Sivani yumu 25 D.P Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi - atsi it - pal
In the month Sivan, the 25th day, Venus at Sun-rise disappears

38. [glyphs]
2 arakliu ymnu 6 ina sami ittamar -va ina arakh Elnli yumu 24
after 2 months, the 6th day, in heaven it is seen; and in the month Elul, the 24th day,

39. [glyphs]
D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi ittamar lib mati dli - ab
Venus at Sun-set is seen. The heart of the country (is) good.

[p.338]

40. [glyphs]
ina arakli Nisanni yumu 26 D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-eribi it - pal - [va]
In the month Nisan, the 26th day, Venus at Sun-set disappears; [and]

41. [glyphs]
yumu 7 ina sarai ikh -kha- rav -va ina arakli Airi yumu 3 D.P. Nin - si -an- na
after 7 days in heaven it reappears; and the month Iyyar, the 3rd day, Venus

42. [glyphs]
ina D.P. Samsi-atsi ittamar nacarati ina mati ibassa sibirri mati esiri
at Sun-rise is seen. Hostile bands in the land are. The crops of the land (are) prosperous.

43. [glyphs]
D.P. Nin - si - an - na ina D.P. Samsi-atsi it - pal -
[va]
Venus at Sun-rise disappears; and

[p.339]

44. [glyphs]
.......
[ina] araklh Addari yumu 28 D.P. Nin - si - an - na
.... [in] the month Adar, the 28th day, Venus

45. [glyphs]
..... sarru ana sarra nis - carara yusapp- ar

..... king to king an ambassador sends.

The two following lines, which complete the tablet, are broken off.

Addenda.—Tasukhtu is a synonyme of talidtu "offspring" or "produce," in W.A.I. II, 47 10.


FOOTNOTES

1 We find from the inscriptions that the deities to whom the months were dedicated were the following:—(1) Nisan to Anu and Bel; (2) Iyyar to Hea "lord of mankind"; (3) Siran, to Sin, the Moon-god, "the eldest son of Bel"; (4) Tammuz to Adar, "the warrior"; (5) Ab to Allat, "the mistresis of the spear"; (6) Elul to Istar; (7) Tisri to the Sun-god, "the warrior of the universe"; (8) Mvrfhesvan to Merodach, "ruler of the gods"; (9) Chisleu to Nergal, "the great hero"; (10) Tebet to Pap-sukul, "the messenger of Anu and Istar"; (11) Sebat to Riniraon, "the chief of heaven and earth"; and (12) Adar to the seven great gods. Ve-Adar was assigned by the Assyrians to their national god Assur in order to complete the scheme. Apparently it was without a patron divinity in the Accadian Calendar.

2 In W.A.I. II, 47, 48, [glyphs] (zig-garra) is rendered by [glyphs] "the god Bel," and [glyphs] summa, "a sentence," "thus," "if." The latter word is not very explicable, unless it refers to the term in the next line namcuru "merchandise." Zig-gur would literally signify in Accadian "right-making," and the name of the first month would therefore be that of "the sacrifice of Bel," or "of righteousness." The month was dedicated to Anu and Bel, and Phoenician mythology told of the sacrifice by El of his only son. In II, 35, 55, [glyphs] explained by the Assyrian asih paracci asirhtv, "the frequenter of the altars" or "sacrifices of uprightness." Asirltiv is from ישר and must be distinguished from asrilrilu "blessed."

3 Tutu is said to "speak" or "prophesy before the king" (sa ina pan sarri nabu [glyphs]).

4 W.A.I. Ill, 66, Kev. 13, 17.

5 He is also called one of the nine servants of Hea (W.A.I. Ill, 68, 13).

6  In one place, however, Pap-sukul is called Uguf, the usual name of Nergal. But the two deities are distinguished from each other; thus Chisleu was sacred to Nergal, and Tebet to Pap-sakul.

7 For the signification of f/an as "light" (Assyrian nahodhu), see W.A.I. TI, 48, 36.

8 The word is written [glyphs] W.A.I. Ill, 57, 55, where it is stated to be one of the seven Itimaai. Oppert identifies it with Aldebavan, though he wrongly renders it "the star of tempest.'' [glyphs] synonyme of the "tail" in II, 44,17. Khalatsi-rann is elsewhere written khahatii simply, and is probably the same word as khaiatsillu "the lily" which grows up like a tail.

9 See Chwolsohn "Die Ssabier," II, p. 226, where quotations from the Talmud are given.

10 W.A.I, III, 57, 62-4.

11 W.A.I. II, 49, 8. Nisan was the month of Accad, Iyyar of Elam, and Elul of Guti.

12 Issi, however, could not have been the Moon. Its Assyrian name was Ussi, a slight modification of Issi, and one of the Observatory Reports that we possess (W.A.I. III, 51, No. 8), the beginning of which is unfortunately mutilated states that "the star , the star Ussi, (and) the star Bilat-balada (Lady of Life), these (were) in full view, which had already been seen. Jupiter at the same time we do not see."

13 So Dr. Oppert translates it: and he is no doubt right, since [glyphs] is translated "the front part of a chariot."

14 Gida, "lady of the house of death," was the wife of Hea, the Earth, and so originally the same as Niu'cigal, "lady of the great earth," the queen of Hades. Nin-cigal was a form of Allat or Istar; and the name Bahu is merely the בהו of Genesis, the primaeval "wasteness" or chaos of night and the under world, which appears in Sanchoniathon as Baav, and probably also Mot, the primitive substance that was the mother of all the gods.

15 Nin-sar is a name of Istar in W.A.I, II, 51, 19. it signifies "Lady of rising."

16 Bar-tabha is explained ilu cilallan "the god of all things" in III, 68, 68 where it is apparently a title of Sarrabu or Nergal.

17 This star belongs to Tebet (December) in III, 53, 25, where it appears along with Venus, just as in Chisleu, the star of Gula or Bahu, in Sebat Dilgan of Babylon ([glyphs]) and in Adar "the Fish of Hea" are associated with Venus.

18 Ribanna, which the Syllabaries render by the Assyrian biritu, is not of unfrequent occurrence in the astrological tablets. Thus W.A.I. Ill, 57, 40, 41, we read: "The star of the Double Ship, the star Ner-zak-Zamama and the star of the Eagle, three stars (wanting); two conjunctions the star of the Eagle makes (?)."

19 The Assyrian word here is very remarkable, zi-ca-rat, as if we could coin a term like "male-ess." It translates the Accadian [glyphs] "male-female."

20 Imsukh "he measured" or "drew forth" is connected on the one hand with [Heb.] "measure" and on the other with [Heb.] "draw forth" or "extend." The change of ך into ה meets us in other words.

21 This translation is extremely doubtful. The Assyrian is issuri, not itstsnri, "birds." See further on the inscription quoted from III, 53, 3, line 21.

22 Ganzi (passim) is connected with gunzi "cattle," which is found in W.A.I. I, 46, 23.

23 Literally, "caused to be gone," the passive Istaphel of אתה which in Job xvi, 22, is used of the "passing away" of years.

24 Literally, "in the first point of the compass" ([glyphs]). The order of the cardinal points was south, north, east, and west, according to W.A.I. II, 29, 1-4.

25 Literally, "the water of the Sun is collected," me Samsatuv ippakhkiaru.

26 This is borrowed from the Accadian bara ([glyphs]) which is interpreted sutruru "covered." It gave its name to the evening watch. In line 3 of this tablet, we are told that bara might be read lala (? = lalum, i.e. lacking) or bari; and adannu "a season," more especially "the season of evening," is given as its synonyme.

27 This is Mr. Smith's date. Bel-suuu was Eponyme in the latter part of Assur-bani-pal's reign.

28 Literally "house of observation" bit tamurti [glyphs].

29 Bel-kharran-sadria's Eponymy fell during the reign of Assur-bani-pal. Mr. Smith places it in B.C. 619.

30 Literally "the man of the foundation" or "of buildings" ([glyphs]). The words would be pronounced nis-ingar, and the officer is probably the same as the nis na-gi-ru of Sennacherib, who says that. Khuniba-undasa was the nis-nagiru of the king of Elam.

31 cacan for istacan. See my Assyrian Grammar, page 32.

32  i.e., a "special."

33 From the 1st to the 5th day.

34 From the 10th to the 15th day.

35 W.A.I. III, 29, E, 20.

36  The Accadian par zal-li or par zat-la is literally "day" or "light becoming." The Assyrian satturra (W.A.I. II, 39, 13.) may be for sad'urri "lord of light." Gablitu "middle" is a translation of the Accadian de-ba. The evening-watch was called bararita in Assyrian, au-la "upper" (i.e. "first") or an-dhur in Accadian.

37 Khi-i-su is given as a synonyme of agu "crown" in II. 25, 17.

38 Nadu is a synonyme of nacartuv, adu, and aru "an eunuch" in II, 25, 2.

39 I scarcely think this translation can be supported. I should prefer "an uneducated one," "a plebeian," from the negative la and khasasu "intelligent."

40 The feminine here instead of the masculine sunu is a mistake not unfrequently met with in these tablets. It shows that the compilers of them were but imperfectly acquainted with Assyrian.

41 I suppose the word to be lakhad. It may, however, be a synonyme of man-ma from the negative la and khas(a)su "intelligent," meaning "uneducated," "plebeian."

42 The text from which the variant edition was copied was not defective here, but reads [glyphs] sarru iddac "the king is slain."

43 The Syllabaries render u-du by milcu "prince," and ara ("eunuch"). Here it must signify some kind of noxious animal; and since the characters are literally "water-going-through," it would seem to be an aquatic creature. See line 61.

44 This, according to the Syllabary (W.A.I. II, 130) is the Assyrian form of the Accadian asagara, represented by the compound ideograph [glyphs] (?"prince of fish"). Ana-gam may signify literally "place-making."

45 If, however, also represents nabu, inabbi, and the sentence may therefore be translated "the country by the mouth of the god a great country is proclaimed."

46 This is probably connected with nararu and arur, by which [glyphs] "heut" or "light" is translated. The root is common enough in the Semitic languages. In Hebrew we have נר "light," תנור "furnace," ירה "to burn," possibly אור "light," and in Arabic nara, nahara "to shine," arra "fire."

47 The upright wedge cannot signify a man's name in this passage, since the book is elsewhere called simply Bel (W.A.I. III, 52, 27).

48  Sutruru has the same root as saruru "the bright firmament," which is given as a synonyme of niplchu "the dawn," sibulu "the bright sky," namri-aru, milammu, birbirru, and icidisu. [glyphs] which is usually translated by samu "blue," and sometimes by khalahu "white" or "covered," has also the rendering sutruru attached to it. But see p. 227, note.

49 The ideograph used for this is [glyphs], which also means "to stick" and "a tablet," from the clay being kneaded by the hands.

50 This is a conjecture. In W.A.I. II, 25, 60, adurmu is given as a synonyme of namarnu, and aduru may belong to the same root as ediru in this passage. Ediru, however, usually signifies "arranger" or "government."

51 I take this from Syllab. 724., where nadhru ("the protecting") is given as a synonyme of "the right hand."

52 Literally "a failing" or "eclipse." Subura seems to be of Accadian origin [glyphs] and is identical with sabura, one of the values of [glyphs], which is rendered by the Assyrian ezibu "to leave" or "fail."

53 The Accadian usage is here adopted of prefixing the conjunction. The Accadian value of the ideograph is amas.

54  The "rest" would here seem to mean "a holiday."

55 Or, eriv-va abu yuballadh, "collects and the father lives"; or more simply, rakhatsut matti "inundations of the land."